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Coordinate Transformation (Rotation) Matrices

Relationships Between Unit Vectors in Different Reference Frames

**The unit vectors of two different mutually perpendicular unit vector sets
**

(e1, e2 , e3 ) and (n1, n2 , n3 ) can be related using transformation matrices. To do this,

we note that we can write

3

ei (ei n j )n j for i 1,2,3 .

j 1

Or, in matrix form,

** e1 (e1 n1 ) (e1 n2 ) (e1 n3 ) n1 C11 C12 C13 n1
**

{e} e2 (e2 n1 ) (e2 n2 ) (e2 n3 ) n2 C21 C22 C23 n2 [C ]{n}

e (e n ) (e n ) (e n ) n C n3

3 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 31 C32 C33

**where Cij ei n j cos(ei , n j ) represents the cosine of the angle between the unit
**

vectors ei and n j . The matrix [C ] is called the direction cosine matrix. It can be

shown that the matrix [C ] is orthogonal, so its inverse is equal to its transpose.

Using this last result, we can write {e} [C ]{n} and {n} [C ]T {e} .

Relationships Between Vector Components in Different Reference Frames

Given the representations of a vector a in two different reference frames

3 3

a ai ei aini ,

i 1 i 1

**the components ai (i 1,2,3) can be related to the ai (i 1,2,3) using
**

transformation matrices as follows. Writing the above equation in matrix form, we

have

{a}T {e} {a}T {n} {a}T [C ]T {e}

1/2

Comparing both sides of the equation. a2 a1 0 2/2 . we conclude also that {a} [C ]T {a} . we conclude {a}T {a}T [C ]T or {a} [C ]{a} Finally. Dot and Cross Products Revisited We can also use transformation matrices to take the dot or cross products of two vectors expressed in two different reference frames as follows a b {a}T {b} {a}T [C ]{b} a b [a]{b} [a][C ]{b} 0 a3 a2 Recall that [a] a3 0 a1 . using the fact that [C ] is orthogonal.

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