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THISSAVROS HYDROPOWER PLANT

MANAGING GEOTECHNICAL PROBLEMS IN THE CONSTRUCTION

K. Anastassopoulos E. Hoek V. Milligan W. Riemer
Public Power Corporation Consultant Consultant Consultant
Athens, Greece North Vancouver, Canada Oakville, Canada Ehner, Luxemburg

ABSTRACT

The Thissavros hydropower and pumped storage project on the Nestos river in northern Greece involved construction of a 172 m high
rockfill dam and an underground power house with 300 MW installed capacity. Bedrock at the site consists of gneiss with complex
geological structure and complicated hydrogeological conditions. On the right abutment, the dam partially rests on a large landslide and the
toe of another large landslide extends into the plunge pool from the left bank. Initial excavations activated the dormant slides. Unloading,
buttressing and drainage successfully stabilized the landslides. Core material for the dam is a silty sand and required special precautions in
design and construction. Starting with an extremely rapid reservoir filling the dam has performed highly satisfactorily. The power house had
to be excavated in a relatively unfavorable geological orientation but application of structural discontinuity analysis avoided wedge failures.
.

INTRODUCTION Krapp and Pantzartzís (1989) had reported on the geological
aspects of the project study and the early stages of construction.
The Thissavros dam is located on the Nestos river in the
northeast of Greece, not far from the border to Bulgaria. The The current paper summarizes the measures adopted to cope with
rugged mountain ranges were difficult for access and were geotechnical problems of the site, the experience gained during
sparsely populated. The latter condition favored the development completion and the recorded performance of the operating of the
of large hydroprojects. The Public Power Corporation of Greece project.
initiated studies of the Nestos development some 40 years ago
and has meanwhile completed also the second stage of the
hydropower cascade, the 95 m high Platanovryssi RCC dam. THE PROJECT

Construction of the Thissavros dam started in 1986 and reservoir The main purpose of the Thissavros project is the production of
filling commenced in September 1996. hydropower. The option to run the plant also as pumped storage
enhances its value for the Greek power system. Moreover,
During the implementation of the project, the following major downstream users benefit from better regulated run-off. The
problems confronted the designers and contractors: main components of the Thissavros scheme are:

• Design of a very high embankment dam with locally • Rockfill dam with central clay core. Height above core
available material, coping with steep valley walls and foundation 172 m (crest elevation 390 m.a.s..l.), crest
partially poor and potentially unstable foundation length 480 m, volume 13 million m³
• Stabilization of two large landslides. The treatment of • Gated spillway for a 7500 m³/s design flood. A
the landslides demanded adjustments in the project tailwater dam creates a plunge pool to avoid scour from
design and became time consuming. the spillway jet
• Construction of a large power cavern in rock with • Underground Powerhouse, dimensions 22 m (width) x
relatively adversely oriented discontinuities. 42 m (height) x 100 m (length), with 3 X 100 MW
installed capacity (Francis reversible pump - turbines).
The Public Power Corporation had assigned a large team of
geotechnical specialists and geologists to the project that
developed solutions which continue to give very satisfactory
performance.

Paper No. 2-63 1

seismic activity.. Gneiss. granitic gneiss and layers of mica schist are the main components of the bedrock at the dam site. (Dercourt et al. The age is not definitely established 7. partially schistose. Coordinate grid on 200 m spacing GEOLOGICAL SETTING directed normal faults crossing the massif. 2-63 2 . The Seismotectonic Map of Greece shows a series of east-west There are local intercalations of pegmatite veins and amphibolite. the tectonic features along the west flank of the massif are Dam and reservoir are located in metamorphic rocks of the pre. One epicenter of a shock exceeding magnitude schists and marbles.5 is marked inside the Greek part of the massif. On the Bulgarian side.Figure 1. The sequence consists of gneisses.. 1982). particularly prominent (Shanov et al. Paper No. 1992) and are a source of alpidic Rila-Rhodope Massif. Heavy lines mark faults. 1980) but is considered to be pre-mesozoic (Jacobshagen. Dam site and landslides.

along the east sound rock normally met with favorable conditions. found to continue extensively gouge with a conspicuous green color. major stability problems developed during the core trench on the right abutment 50 m below the crest near the early construction phase of the project. These were low angle fault. eventually wedged between Faults V and VI. illustrates the orientation of the towards the valley. but the significance of these slides for the project and even their mere existence was debated by specialist advisors. some faults and shears traverse the rock. 340 m. detailed investigations as well as notable slope movements. displacements of up to 7 mm/day were measured on this fault. Principal faults and el. Segment B. Stereo diagram of faults at the dam site THE LANDSLIDES AT THE DAM SITE Based on morphological criteria. Within the segments. The rock is partially weathered established the scale of the hazard. The fault crosses groundwater loads.Foliation at the dam site trends almost perpendicularly to the Right Bank Slide valley and dips downstream at 40° to 60°. various fault systems in the rock mass. combined with the that shows striation directed west (275-282°). 2. therefore. Additionally. and perpendicular to the valley walls. The volume of the slide amounts to about 7 million m³. a monitoring system combining borehole inclinometers. However. to the west and partially resting on the Segment A rock. the rock mass of very poor quality is initiated in the course of the construction activities. also over the site and the slopes. At the Thissavros site. Movement concentrates in a 5 cm thick clay seam to low shear strength on these faults. Therefore. The front of the slide mass follows a thrust performance of the slopes at the dam site. contains chaotic debris of blocks and decomposed rock. and dips flatly southeast into the slope (dip azimuth/dip = 120- locally resulting in adverse hydraulic thrusts in the slopes. Towards the end of 1988 the displacements totaled 50 cm in Segment A and 150 cm in the more actively displacing Segment B. directed roughly parallel The slide is about 500 m wide and affects the slope below el. 1. surface excavation in divided into two activated segments. It is. dipping 15° to 35°. Owing 160/20-30°). piezometers and survey monuments was installed with the multiple purpose of ensuring safety of construction work. Stripping of the foundation and cuts for access roads in 1986 triggered local slips in the unstable mass. Thus. Figure 2. (downstream flank) contains highly fractured and locally excavations also revealed elements of critical significance for the decomposed gneiss. these are discussed further below. Paper No. Fig. and only about 25% of the pieces retain their original strength. Thick clay gouge developed along referred to as the "Green Fault". At the base of Segment A. providing geotechnical information and assessing the efficiency of remedial measures. In conjunction with other faults with dip components shears are traced in Fig. there are two principal sets of subvertical joints. project geologists initially assumed the possible existence of several large. There are several case histories of similar Figure 3. Although 520m. there were also internal deformations of the slide masses. Segment A. it generates a wedge-shaped mobile mass. deformation of the sliding rock is indicated by irregular 1). dormant landslides at the dam site. 2-63 3 . partially decomposed. It strikes southwest-northeast these faults acted as hydrogeological barriers in the rock mass. most active displacements concentrated in the upstream part of A and the upper reach of B. Internal Two significant areas of instability developed at the site (see Fig. respectively. Collapse of grouting gallery in Segment A of controversies with regard to old landslides and these case landslide histories demonstrate the difficulties in the identification and the risk assessment of such geotechnical hazards. to the point of becoming friable. designated as F VI which is characterized by 4 m clay thrust faults. When fault F VI was exposed in the core trench and the shell foundation on the right abutment.

With poor quality rock near the center and base of the sliding wedge such dense slurry. toe more favorable impression of the success of the work. Grout pressures produced by alteration of the gneiss was estimated to range from ranged from 1 bar at the top to 15 bar at the lower fringe of the 10-4 to 10-3 m/s but presumably core drilling did not recover curtain. laboratory tests made at a later stage on samples taken from the "Green Fault" found an angle of residual friction of 12 to 13°. 390 m. but lower than for the adjacent in-situ rock. the primary series in in- According to grain size distribution. Therefore. the possibilities were studied to use permitting independent deformations. The were used in the event that high takes were experienced. this result is satisfactory. Two parallel galleries at the upper level slope and. The deteriorated material in Segment B is practically Figure 4. The final design seepage percolating through the grout curtain and to prevent provides a combination of grout curtain and drainage system to build-up of undesirable groundwater loads against the steep slope draw down the groundwater levels under the head of the along the right bank downstream of the dam.orientation of the foliation planes. When the lower right-bank decomposed material. This time. Paper No. Because of the poor centers. carried out in the early stages of the project.. the uncontrolled reach and. located 40 m bentonite were applied. at the same time. The holes is captured by slotted PVC screens. Considering that compaction grouting had been done at quite low pressures. In comparison. 280 and 420 m definitely stopped the displacements of the slide mass. particular attention was given to the To achieve efficient drainage of the slide mass. In consequence of this collapse. Back analysis. buttressing and drainage. the initial treatment of the collapse absorbed did not permit systematic Lugeon testing but the limited number 20 tonnes of cement. cement slurries. According to Lugeon tests at the end of the construction representative samples from the soils. stopped the initial movements in 1988. final series (see Fig. but the faults and shears intricately compartmentalize the Segment A and the in-situ rock beneath it. the permeability of the soils situ rock absorbed less than 70 kg/m on average. Development of grout takes on the right bank homogeneous in hydrogeological aspects. Standard spacing of drain holes is at 6 m below Fault F VI the curtain has three rows. Unloading the head of the landslide in Segment A by excavation of 1. About 15. 5). there were doubts that a conventional grout curtain would suffice to reduce the permeability and prevent To avoid complications possibly resulting from cuts into the erosion induced by seepage into the drainage galleries.65 million m³.6 million m³. one gallery serves the combined galleries are arranged at three levels in the right abutment. Fines appear to have been works the permeability in Segment A had reduced to 10-6 m/s. on the primary series and dropped progressively to only 13 kg/m in the order of 10-5 m/s. Grout take averaged about 250 kg/m in the of tests gave a notable permeability for the slide mass. Alteration unstable slope. From the surface down to sound rock for maintenance. Nevertheless. The final volume of excavation for unloading arrived at 2. However. therefore. chemical grout or jet grouting on the central row of the curtain. Grouting and drainage Fault F VI. to create a hydraulic thrust against partially traverse the slide mass of Segment A above Fault F VI. Seepage water in the drain approximately at Elevations 250 m. ultra-fine cement.6 material in the center of the wedge deteriorated even more. extensive tests demonstrated At the completion of the construction works. combined with subhorizontal drain holes that dropped the groundwater levels by 10m. Initially. buttresses the toe of the right bank landslide. slurries with a ratio of only 0. lost. Therefore.000 m² of the grout curtain pass through One drainage gallery at the intermediate level also intersects Segments A and B of the landslide. the large takes indicated an higher in the slope (Fig. However. preparatory excavation for the power intake caused the slide to accelerate again to a rate of 17 mm/day in early 1989. the slope. and a toe buttress placed between El. Space is left a high silt content that would not be penetrated by conventional between the lining of the shaft excavation and the intake tower. purpose of grouting and drainage. the power intake was constructed as shaft sunk of the gneiss in the slide mass had produced a sandy residue with through the fill and the underlying slide debris. the dam in that conventional grouting with cement slurries achieved conjunction with an adjacent fill extending upstream in the area satisfactory results. to increase the effective shear resistance within the is provided (see Fig. quality of the rock. 3). a major collapse occurred that water/cement ratios of 2 and 1by weight and addition of 1 to 2% also affected the intermediate grouting tunnel. The screens can be pulled the surface at El. essentially by cracking and compacting the of the power intake. At the lower level. estimated a friction angle of 22° (Krapp et al. The ample quantity of Remedial measures for the right bank included major excavation grout found in the cores of the check holes conveyed an even and stripping to unload the head of the unstable mass. to intercept hydrogeological treatment of Segment A. However. traditional slurries with grouting tunnel entered this zone. a system of galleries landslide. wrapped with highest reach of the curtain was drilled directly from a bench at geotextile to prevent erosion of fines. 0. 1989). 4). 300 m and 350 m. 2-63 4 .9 million m³ were removed at the head of Segment B.

The detection of this fault in 1991 and the tailwater dam height and.23 1. other alternatives for the protection of the toe of the Figure 5. retaining river channel fill in front of the stabilized soils then proceeded wall and buttress fill without problem. To obtain the space required for the plunge pool for this flood. In view of the height of the dam and on the basis of more complete hydrologic information the design flood increased from an original 3200 m³/s (corresponding to 1000 years recurrence) to 7500 m³/s. Boreholes found separate galleries at about el. The hydro- geologically complex and compartmentalized nature required an The slide mass consists of variably deteriorated. Friction angles were estimated to be as low as 10° on fault gouge and 20° on the failure plane in debris. this had to be revised when the criteria for the spillway design flood were modified. 260 m and 240 m. Terrace deposits accumulated in the valley floor had naturally Option 4 would have required a substantial increase of the stabilized the slide. intensive weathering up to 160 m depth in the central part of the slide mass but good rock lies directly below the failure plane.29 1. the plunge pool would have to be taken down to El.37 side by a retaining wall. RCC to the flank of the slide mass serves as drainage gallery (at about buttress and wall elevations 350. was aspired.22 1.92 0. characteristics similar to the "Green Fault" on the right bank. retaining wall 6 Excavation to El. This excavation would have to be done in a hit-and-miss pattern. With the intention to save time and excavation in the valley floor. A fault with operation. was placed above the stabilized soil buttress fill to El deposit. 215 m.21 1. with immediate back filling of excavated strips. During the construction of the toe buttress. 1. It is noted that efficient drainage already intermediate dip to the north forms a well defined south boundary offered nearly 10% improvement.97 2. 5).00 1.91 0. however. A toe load berm. Options for Slide Treatment at Plunge Pool of the slide. The head scarp is located at el.08 1. 0. 1. 220 m. 6). and is 180 m wide. Initial concepts for stabilization of the left bank slide involved the placing of extensive fill masses to form a buttress/load fill at its toe in the valley floor. The volume of the slide is estimated to be of the order of 3 million m³. with the plunge pool in toe reaches into the valley floor at el. spaced on a grid of 2 to 2 Excavation to El. a branch parallel 215 m. Although jet grouting did not show much 200 m effect on the ground surface.31 At each of the three levels of grouting galleries. 1 Natural Condition 1. Paper No. a tied-back diaphragm wall had been proposed as an Safety Factor alternative but was rejected because of concerns in respect of the Scheme Description Undrained 50% 100% long term permanence of the anchors. 290 and 240 m. The toe of the slide mass in the valley floor requirements and the hydraulic implications of remedial partially follows a fault zone with 20° dip to the east that has measures at the toe of the slide mass. the slide still moved buttress fill with 15 mm.29 1.13 1.14 1.26 drawing groundwater from the confined aquifer beneath the slide. in order to avoid excessive unloading of the toe Table 1. protected on the plunge pool 4 Toe load and 1.5m (see Fig.18 stabilizing it with jet-grouted columns. Schematic view of arrangement of grouting and landslide had to be developed. therefore.32 exposed solid columns of about 1 m diameter. The natural valley floor was at El. see Fig. fragmented and additional branch at the intermediate level and two further disturbed bedrock. it was helpful that the 242 m contractor operated two tube wells for site supply that were 5 Excavation to El. RCC toe. beneath the failure plane.23 1. 1. Safety factors for the different alternatives were calculated on the The slide extends in west-east direction over a length of 700 m assumption that the natural condition was close to equilibrium. 215m or 200 m. was eliminated. Eventually the solution drained drained adopted was to leave the old river channel fill in place. During this stage of construction. 600 m and the An improvement of at least 15%. 2-63 5 . tailwater opposite boundary. an hydraulic model test evaluated scour. partially converted to debris. The three realization of its effect on the stability for the left bank slope remaining options envisaged excavation through the toe of the decisively influenced the design of the plunge pool and the landslide to place the buttress fill or the RCC on in-situ rock location of the power house. an excavation to shallow depth 3 Excavation to El. Parallel to the geotechnical of the slide mass and a steeply south dipping fault forms the studies. as described in Table 1. Five alternatives comprising rockfill buttresses with or Left Bank (Downstream) Slide without retaining walls were studied. drainage galleries 230 m. Removal of the 215 m.

in the major Rockfill for the shells of the dam was obtained from sound gneiss from required excavation at the dam site that supplied the bulk volume for the shells of the dam. Zones 2 and 3. However. The core material mainly derives from decomposed gneiss. 2-63 6 . 6 linear strain gauges on the steep abutments. section). the fault zone DAM was plugged by 7 m wide dental concrete and intensively grouted with holes arranged in up to 6 parallel lines. Paper No. to the spillway on the left abutment. Therefore. but had arranged on the downstream side and in the upper reach on the an average of 5 to 6% passing No. this contact zone in the core was widened to 10 m and the water content was raised 1% above Proctor Optimum. The slide mass Preliminary concepts had envisaged extensive removal of the above the fault in the core trench was covered with fiber slide material. Fig. the filters. requirements for the evacuation of the large design flood under the constraints imposed by the stability problems on the valley Material for the two–layer filters (fine – coarse) came from flanks (see Fig. combined use of sheepfoot and tamping rollers was made on the core.5H between the road berms (1V in 2H as a mean. Instrumentation of the Dam The Thissavros dam is the highest dam in Greece and one of the highest in Europe. where the Green Fault gneiss. 200 sieve. Tender design. 8 shows the typical cross section and Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of the different zones of the dam. Samples taken from boreholes in the lower core displayed a water content of 8 to 10% and a high degree of overconsolidation. Section through toe buttress at left bank 0. 800 mm. Processed material was free from clay particles. The material was upstream side. were extended spillway on the right bank. 340 m. with apparent friction angles between 44 and 50°. Also in earth dam and creating at the same time space to place the the slide mass. it is located in a seismic zone. The rock in this vicinity consists of fairly massive granitic above Proctor Optimum. Placement water content was kept at or slightly below Standard Proctor Optimum. 8 borehole inclinometers Figure 7. 39 surface monuments and 8 accelerographs. 340 m. For tender design the type and layout downstream in the shell foundation to a distance of 5 m from the of the dam were adjusted to take into account the hydraulic toe. FEM analysis indicated a low modulus ratio of 3:1 between shell and core. Therefore. from a deposit 3 km downstream from central. especially on the lift surfaces the permeability was poor.09 for the zones with low water content and reached up to 0. Better quality rockfill was quarried from marble upstream of the dam site. with a coefficient of about 10-6 m/s. It is classified as SC with on average 17% fines passing #200 sieve. Moreover. triaxial tests indicated the compacted material had excellent shearing resistance. using it for the construction of a gently sloping shotcrete and blanket grouting reached up to 18 m depth. because of a high proportion of fines. Along the contact to the To provide the space for the plunge pool. A two-layer filter is the dam. As an additional precaution. Near El. 14 vibrating wire preliminary design earthfill dam settlement gauges. Large scale. Dotted line marks toe of combined with Idel settlement gauges. 7). a rockfill dam was adopted with a processing of river alluvia. upstream inclined clay core. The upstream shell has an overall mean placed damp. inclination of 1V in 2. the downstream shell slopes 1V in 1. The ru values measured before reservoir filling were of the order of Figure 6.25 H. Potentially mobile wedges in this cut are stabilized by F VI crosses the core trench on the right abutment and adjacent prestressed monobar anchors. This material was gap graded but compacted reasonably well. In agreement with this finding.4 in zones with 10-16% water content. For these reasons a comprehensive instrumentation of the dam was provided with 42 piezometers in the core and filters and 25 in the foundation rock. 15 earth pressure cells. To obtain good compaction and contact between lifts. the slope opposite the abutment rock. a more plastic material with about 40% fines and landslide was trimmed back by a 180 m high and steep cut in a PI between 18 an 22% was placed with a water content slightly rock. better draining material was introduced above el.

Total settlements of were taken.2 to 1.550.Origin of Gradation Water content Volume Dam Zone Grain before Compaction No material Requirements during placement [m3] size [cm] compaction [cm] -2% to +2% of 12 passes of Silty sand from # 4 > 60% 1 Core 15. settlement readings were of about 30 cm were estimated from one inclinometer.00 Standard Proctor 20 sheepfoot 1.000 Passing # 200 weight excavations or quarry vibratory roller < 5% Fresh to sl.230. Vibrating wire settlement gauges did not work satisfactorily.000 weight excavations or quarry # 200 < 5% vibratory roller Total Volume : 12. many casings buckled during construction so the the fill recorded until end of construction have been extremely inclinometer probe would not pass any more. weathered 4 passes of < 30% 10% by 5a Rockfill gneiss from required 90. While measurement small. Processed river alluvia 7. It is believed that the settlements have cut the mercury tubes Figure 8.000 river alluvia < 10% vibratory roller Coarse 2 passes of 3 Filter . Horizontal displacements of lateral deformations was inhibited.Table 2. Typical sextion of rockfill dam. Description of connecting the cells with the transducers. although these tubes zones see Table 2 had been placed with a generous slack.891.000 Although precautions with the backfill of the inclinometer casing The embankment was completed in 1994. ranging from about 1..5%.00 100 10 tonnes 6. In some instances aluminium casings of-construction analysis. linear-elastic and non-linear-elastic corroded close to the water table and had to be replaced by PVC FEM modeling gave the best agreement with the recorded tubes.60 2%<#4<44% Not specified 30 10 tonnes 350. 2-63 7 . introducing a mean modulus of 60 to 80 MPa for the shells. worked well and revealed a pronounced Paper No. In the end- nevertheless still possible.00 < 30% Passing 200 10 tonnes 4. embankment strains.000 Drain vibratory roller Passing 1'' Fresh to sl. Characteristics of Fill Materials and Zones Max Lift thickness Zone Description .51 Passing # 200 Not specified 30 10 tonnes 294.000 borrow areas # 200 > 13% Optimum roller 45%<#4<80% 2 passes of Processed 2 Fine Filter 2.467. The earth pressure cells. weathered Passing 1'' 4 passes of 10% by 5b Rockfill gneiss from required 150. on the other hand.

These crane beams were later incorporated into the main crane support. Way monobar. Measured horizontal strains were of the order of 5x10-3. Generator and transformer caverns. 2-63 8 .0 1.5 x 2.0 spot or taken to start impounding at the onset of the wet season. traversed by pegmatite and aplite veins. The foliation. With an exceptional shotcrete storm. 290 m and thereafter 7 cm fiber continued slowly to el.0 RESERVOIR FILLING bolts prestressed 400 – 500 15. Most of concurrent with the excavation achieved safe support with little the strain meters on the abutments came to the limit of their overbreak. monobar. after a comprehensive analysis of possible corrosion hydrological scenarios it was expected that the lake once it protection reached the intake at El. faults and shears created a hazard of wedge failures in the crown and the sidewalls of the caverns (see Fig. 320 m could be adequately controlled Upper hollow stem bolts. 120 6. double 2 rows reservoir filling should have started in early June. double considered necessary to capture the winter and spring run-off if corrosion the efficient power production was to be guaranteed over the protection subsequent dry months. the lake level 10 cm fiber should rise slowly and in a well controlled manner to permit shotcrete action in the event that problems with the foundation of the dam Haunches prestressed 400 – 500 15. As the monitoring systems supplied Side Wall fully grouted reassuring data for the dam and the landslides. on the other hand. double line corrosion The diversion tunnel was closed on 16 September 1996.0 x 3. But. 312 in November.0 3. the decision was prestressed 400 – 500 15. double 1 row Therefore. before the main benching work started. it was monobar. The beams supported a construction gantry used for less than those of the pneumatic piezometers.0 2. the axis of the cavern lies parallel to the foliation of the gneiss but fortunately the foliation planes were undulated. But. A delay in the commissioning of the power plant eventually resulted in minor Paper No. Works on the corrosion buttress for the left bank landslide along the plunge pool were protection delayed beyond the appropriate date but. irrespective of the adverse rock mass fabric.0 4. To the protection end of September the lake level rose to El. beams which.2 1. joints. 120 6.0 3.0 drastically to rise at an average of 1 m/day and temporarily Side Wall bolts peaking at 6.0 x 3. 9). on the other hand. Crane prestressed 400 – 500 15.0 spot In view of the hydrological regime of the Nestos river. installation of rockbolts and shotcrete for roof and wall support and for concrete works.0 m in one day (see Fig. In consequence of the modification. the filling rate at the end of November increased Lower expansion shell 100 6. Table 3 describes the UNDERGROUND POWER HOUSE support installed in the power cavern.0 fully grouted expansion shell 100 3. GSI rating ranged between 65 and 80.0 from the power plant. The toe buttressing of the left bank landslide changed the situation in the plunge pool and required modifying the layout of the power house (see Figures 1 and 7).0 or with the abutment slopes should materialize. The main cavern and its ancillary structures were excavated in an alternation of granitic gneiss and biotite para-gneiss.5 x 3. were The vibrating wire piezometers were in good operating anchored to the walls and connected to the cavern roof concrete conditions at the end of construction and their readings scattered liner. with the orientation of the poles scattering by about 40°. Support of Power Cavern Location Type Working Length Spacing Load Figure 9.arching effect in the core between the more rigid shells. monobar. pattern of [kN] [m] [m] rock mass discontinuities Crown hollow stem bolts.0 electro-mechanical work in the powerhouse was well advanced. 10). wedge analysis Table 3. An innovative design provided for cast in place crane range. For this reason.

acted the adverse impact of the rapid reservoir filling.s. Intensive rainfall triggered a slide in soil and weathered rock on the right bank that reached the reservoir as a debris flow and built a small Seepage across the grout curtain in the right abutment slide was landslide dam near the tail of the lake.] 340 reservoir head but this effect suffices to permit controlling the uplift at the left bank slide with modest drainage flows. meaning that problems with carbonate incrustation are unlikely to occur. Reservoir 320 filling increased the discharge of the drainage system from 1 l/s 300 to 6 l/s. 360 The grout curtain in the left abutment only absorbs 25% of the Reservoir Level [m. Section across grout curtain and drainage system with piezometers. The Emergency plans to regulate the water level in the plunge pool drainage galleries collected about 25 l/s. No consequences were slow to raise the downstream piezometric levels and in this way suffered and no remedial action required. 2-63 9 . One road on the reservoir slopes had to be replaced because uplift by the rising lake had caused notable toppling type Figure 10. tunnel. Reservoir filling deformations of the in-situ rock on the left bank.a. fast rate of reservoir filling. a few drains developed slime attributed to iron 240 and manganese bacteria.releases before the work at the plunge pool was completed. 260 On the left bank. Despite the unprecedented.l. a stabilizing hydraulic thrust was generated. This effect counter- Figure 11. up from about 3 l/s for such scenario were in place and adverse effects on the left before reservoir filling had started. 280 Water released from the drain holes was slightly acid. bank slope stability were prevented. They were monitored but did not show critical reactions. the well compacted embankment The only action was prompted by seepage from the bottom outlet performed fully satisfactorily. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Days since Diversion Closure Old landslides along the reservoir had been assessed as insignificant risks. Heavy dashed lines mark groundwater tables Paper No. This was remedied by extending the steel liner upstream of the gates by 30m and adding another 30 m liner with Carpi 380 membranes.

Ing. project investigations Talsperrenbau in N-Griechenland. a progressive installation of the monitoring instruments in the dam and evolution of preferential downstream seepage paths causes the although the deformations of the fill were very small. 160 p a complicated system of discontinuities developed in the geological history can lead to the formation of very large Galanopoulos. Geol. in parts of the Thissavros dam site slides to soil-like characteristic. discharge of 40 l/s. Tectonophysics. Shanov. Geol. the grout curtain in the slide Although much care was exercised in the selection and mass did not suffer from deterioration. The situation is further compounded by Krapp. Subsurface Research of Greece quality to deteriorate. Evidence of the existence of a paleo-subduction zone beneath the Rhodopean Stabilization of the right bank landslide required large volumes massif (Central Balkans).u. functioning drainage system.. Mitt. S. On the left bank. with the drainage system. are not likely to detect in advance all potentially significant RWTH Aachen.. it performs adequately in conjunction performs very satisfactorily. Pantzartzís. [1982]. employed by Public Power Corporation of Greece. 77-107 geological details. To a major extent the space requirement for the plunge pool governed the End of 1998. Delibasis. a modest rise of the piezometric levels results from the filling of the plunge pool. conscientious geotechnical monitoring and expedient evaluation of the findings. were elaborated by a multidisciplinary team of professionals. The drainage system produces about 6 l/s. the rate still recorded when lake filling started in 1996. indicate a reduction of the permeability across the grout curtain in Segment A of the slide mass by a factor of 10 which means Thanks to suitable details in the design and to rigorous that the curtain is not quite as effective as the Lugeon tests had compaction during construction the high embankment dam suggested.. the right abutment drainage system collected a need for excavation and buttressing at the left bank slide. 2-63 10 . There are no The analyses and adopted solutions. The rate of settlement of the rockfill in the downstream shell The authors appreciate to have had the opportunity of working currently ranges between 1 and 2 cm/year (2002). E. T. N. V. Although metamorphic massifs typically consist of strong rocks. As implied by a stable relation between reservoir level and drainage flow. Congress. project. With the lake at maximum operating level the seepage flow in the wedge at the base of landslide Segment A. N. Grèce.. described in this significant movements in the slide mass. 11) curtain. [1992]. N. Nevertheless. A multi-disciplinary team that accompanied the construction assured the success of the Thissavros project by Jacobshagen. REFERENCES CONCLUSIONS Dercourt. A. Nevertheless. pp. 26th Int. This appears to be a typical problem Continued monitoring will show if maintenance work will be in very high dams. Slide movements then cause the rock mass Greece. Grout curtain and drainage ACKNOWLEDGEMENT system have prevented adverse effects from reservoir seepage. about half of with this team. Spassow. the instruments supplied required in the future. [1980]. 206. P.Hydrogeol. The long term stability of both slides depends on a correctly formed between Faults V and VI. many discharge to concentrate in a limited number of drain holes.. Besondere the hydrogeological compartmentalization due to faults and ingenieurgeologische und hydrogeologische Aufgaben beim shears acting as barriers. Georgiev. However. Geologie von Griechenland. Introduction à la géologie générale. In such setting. [1989]. 307-314 Paper No. in conjunction with the grout Groundwater gradients in the right abutment (see Fig. meticulous geological surveys. instruments were damaged. contribution. L. reached a modest 9 l/s. Makris.POST-COMMISSIONING MONITORING of excavation for unloading and of fill for buttressing. Inst. Borehole inclinometers and geodetic valuable information and decisively supported the decision to surveys do not detect any significant movements in the landslide start impounding at a critical point in the time schedule of the or the downstream cut slope. 32.. [1971] Seismotectonic map of unstable masses.. Livret-guide. J. pp. Melidonis.