CURRICULUM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
Submitted by | John Lumabiang and Mary Jane Micahelle Roa-Cortez
LEARNING y process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in one's knowledge, skills, values, and world views \
LEARNING THEORIES y an attempt to describe how people and animals learn, thereby helping us understand the inherently complex process of learning. y provides us with vocabulary and a conceptual framework for interpreting the examples of learning that we observe y suggests where to look for solutions to practical problems. The theories do not give us solutions, but they do direct our attention to those variables that are crucial in finding solutions.
Behaviorism y Based on B.F. Skinner¶s operant conditioning theory y worldview that assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. y The learner starts off as a clean slate and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement. y Positive indicates the application of a stimulus y Negative indicates the withholding of a stimulus y You reward or punish in order to reinforce behavior y learning is therefore defined as a change in behavior in the learner y The teacher will need to foster repetitive knowledge y Objectives should be clear and steps are essential y Consequences must be given to guide the students toward the desired behavior y learning is the acquisition of new behavior through conditioning.
Example y Fear of a hot stove is learned when a child¶s curiosity leads him to touch a stove ( a stimulus followed by a response) and he feels pain (another stimulus and response. Because of an innate fear of pain, the child is now conditioned to avoid touching the stove even when it is cold
There are two types of possible conditioning
1) Classical conditioning where the behaviour becomes a reflex response to stimulus as in the case of Pavlov's Dogs. Pavlov was interested in studying reflexes, when he saw that the dogs drooled without the proper stimulus.
y Although no food was in sight, their saliva still dribbled. It turned out that the dogs were reacting to lab coats. Every time the dogs were served food, the person who served the food was wearing a lab coat. Therefore, the dogs reacted as if food was on its way whenever they saw a lab coat. In a series of experiments, Pavlov then tried to figure out how these phenomena were linked. For example, he struck a bell when the dogs were fed. If the bell was sounded in close association with their meal, the dogs learned to associate the sound of the bell with food. After a while, at the mere sound of the bell, they responded by drooling.
2) Operant conditioning where there is reinforcement of the behavior by a reward or a punishment. The theory of operant conditioning was developed by B.F. Skinner and is known as Radical Behaviorism. The word µoperant¶ refers to the way in which behavior µoperates on the environment¶. Briefly, a behavior may result either in reinforcement, which increases the likelihood of the behavior recurring, or punishment, which decreases the likelihood of the behavior recurring.
y It is important to note that, a punishment is not considered to be applicable if it does not result in the reduction of the behavior, and so the terms punishment and reinforcement are determined as a result of the actions. Within this framework, behaviorists are particularly interested in measurable changes in behavior.
Cognitivism y Information processing model y Learning happens when, as a result of brain processes y Knowledge transfers from short to long term memory y focuses on the inner mental activities of the human mind is valuable and necessary for understanding how people learn y focuses on the inner mental activities of the human mind is valuable and necessary for understanding how people learn y Mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving need to be explored y New information must be linked prior too knowledge y people are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn, and whose actions are a consequence of thinking y Changes in behavior are observed, but only as an indication of what is occurring in the learner¶s head.
Constructivism y states that learning is an active, contextualized process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it y Knowledge is constructed based on personal experiences and hypotheses of the environment y Learners continuously test these hypotheses through social negotiation. y Each person has a different interpretation and construction of knowledge process.
y The learner is not a blank slate but brings past experiences and cultural factors to a situation. y NOTE: A common misunderstanding regarding constructivism is that instructors should never tell students anything directly but, instead, should always allow them to construct knowledge for themselves. y assumes that all knowledge is constructed from the learner¶s previous knowledge, regardless of how one is taught y the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts based upon current and past knowledge or experience. In other words, "learning involves constructing one's own knowledge from one's own experiences." Constructivist learning, therefore, is a very personal endeavor, whereby internalized concepts, rules, and general principles may consequently be applied in a practical real-world context.
Humanism y Focuses on the human freedom, dignity, and potential. y Believes that people act with intentionality and values y it is necessary to study the person as a whole, especially as an individual grows and develops over the lifespan
Connectivism y a recent theory of Networked learning which focuses on learning as making connections.
Multimedia learning theory y focuses on principles for the effective use of multimedia in learning.
y Also known as Bloom¶s taxonomies y It is a classification of learning objectives within education y Bloom's Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three "domains:" Affective, Psychomotor, and Cognitive
Affective Domain y It describes the way people react emotionally and their ability to feel another living thing's pain or joy. Affective objectives typically target the awareness and growth in attitudes, emotion, and feelings y Five levels in the affective domain
I. RECIEVING y The lowest level; the student passively pays attention. Without this level no learning can occur.
II. RESPONDING y The student actively participates in the learning process, not only attends to a stimulus; the student also reacts in some way.
III. VALUING y The student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon, or piece of information.
IV. ORGANIZING y The student can put together different values, information, and ideas and accommodate them within his/her own schema; comparing, relating and elaborating on what has been learned.
V. CHARACTERIZING y The student holds a particular value or belief that now exerts influence on his/her behaviour so that it becomes a characteristic.
Psychomotor Domain y It describe the ability to physically manipulate a tool or instrument like a hand or a hammer. y Psychomotor objectives usually focus on change and/or development in behavior and/or skills. y You can observe what learners are actually doing when they perform a skill. Learners can demonstrate what they have learned and you can rate their performance y Objective: ³correctly mix 2 types of insulin in 1 syringe´
Cognitive Domain y It revolves around knowledge, comprehension, and critical thinking of a particular topic. y Traditional education tends to emphasize the skills in this domain, particularly the lower-order objectives
Level of cognitive domain 1. KNOWLEDGE y Exhibit memory of previously-learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers
2. COMPREHENSION y Demonstrative understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas
3. APPLICATION y The use of previously learned information in new and concrete situations to solve problems that have single or best answers
4. ANALYZE y Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations
5. SYNTHESIS y divergently applying prior knowledge and skills to produce a new or original whole. y Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions
6. EVALUATE y Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria
CRITICAL THINKING y Is defined as a composite of attitudes , knowlede and skills y is based on self-corrective concepts and principles y It involves determining the meaning and significance of what is observed or expressed, or, concerning a given inference or argument, determining whether there is adequate justification to accept the conclusion as true. y Involves determining the meaning and significance of what is observed or expressed, or, concerning a given inference or argument, determining whether there is adequate justification to accept the conclusion as true. y Employs not only logic but broad intellectual criteria such as clarity, credibility, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance and fairness. y raises important questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely; y gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively y comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards; y thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences; and y communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems; without being unduly influenced by others' thinking on the topic.
COMMUNICATION Process of transferring information from one entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules. Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs
Nonverbal communication y the process of communicating through sending and receiving wordless messages. Such messages can be communicated through gesture, body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture, or symbols and infographics, as well as through an aggregate of the above, such as behavioral communication. Nonverbal communication plays a key role in every person's day to day life, from employment to romantic engagements.
Visual communication y communication through visual aid. It is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked upon. Primarily associated with two dimensional images, it includes: signs, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, colour and electronic resources. It solely relies on vision. It is form of communication with visual effect. It explores the idea that a visual message with text has a greater power to inform, educate or persuade a person. It is communication by presenting information through visual form.
Communication Process y Message whats in your brain that you want to get to somebody else y Encode y something that you use to transmit the message
y Send/channel y transmit them to something that they can recieive it
y Decode y dicide what it means and they can understand y Feedback y the way to verify and clarify
y a systematic exploration of the way things are and the way they should be. These "things" are usually associated with organizational and/or individual performance y Curriculum revision is not something which can be achieved in a few weeks or months; it is more likely to require years of continuous work bycommittees of education officials, classroom teachers, parents, business and industrial leaders, labour groups, and other influential bodies. Nor can it ever be said to be completed; it is, in fact, a continuous activity which has to keep pace with all other changes and developments in the country if not in the world at large. y An international survey of curriculum development cannot go too deeply into the scope and content of the school curriculum, which is determined by local values and needs and by local action. y It can, however, describe procedures which have been found helpful in various countries. There is considerable common ground in the types of problems met and the methods employed to solve them.
y It is a field of education that focuses on the pedagogy, technology, and instructional system designs that aim to deliver education to students who are not physically "on site" in a traditional classroom or campus. y It is a process to create and provide access to learning when the source of information and the learners are separated by time and distance, or both
Technology used in distance learning 1. Synchronous technology y is a mode of online delivery where all participants are "present" at the same time requiring a timetable to be organized
Examples: y Telephone y Videoconferencing y Web conferencing y Direct-broadcast satellite y Internet radio y Live streaming
2. Asynchronous technology y is a mode of online delivery where participants access course materials on their own schedule. y Students are not required to be together at the same time
Examples: y Audio cassette y E-mail y Message board/ forums y Print materials y Voice Mail/fax y Videocassette/DVD
Major benefits of use y Expanding access: Distance education can reach underserved populations of students who cannot attend a school that offers the educational services they desire, perhaps because they live too far away. y Cost reduction: Distance education can turn production of content into a repeatable and durable learning tool that does not require as much infrastructure. As most material can be packaged in an easy to deliver "just-in-time" format, the expanding payroll of educational institutions becomes unnecessary. y Emerging market opportunities: Distance education fuels the public's need for lifelong learning in education by providing access to learners not in the traditional k-12 age group. y Adapting to new technology and environments: Educational institutions may adopt distance education as a means to adapt to the rapid changes in technology being used in education today. y New fund-raising opportunities: Distance education creates new graduates who might be willing to donate money to the school who would have never have been associated with the school under the traditional system.