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Organisation in the Living Things–II

KEY POINTS
z In animals, there are four basic types of tissues — epithelial, muscular, connective and nervous
tissues.
z Epithelial tissue possess different shapes depending on their location and function. Epithelial cells
may be flattened (squamous epithelium), cubical (cuboidal epithelium) or columnar (columnar
epithelium).
z Epithelial tissue forms a lining of various organs all over the body and protects them.
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cardiac and smooth muscles.

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Muscular tissue is responsible for movement of body parts, and is of three types — skeletal,

Nervous tissues consist of nerve cells called neurons. A neuron consists of a cell body, dendrites

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and a long axon. This tissue conducts messages from one part of the body to the other.
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Connective tissue connects or binds different tissues of the body and provides support to the body.

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Bones, cartilage, tendons and ligaments are all solid connective tissues. Blood and lymph are
liquid connective tissues.

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z Depending upon their structure and function, connective tissues are of three kinds : Connective
tissue proper (consisting of tendons and ligaments), skeletal tissue (consisting of cartilage and
bones) and fluid connective tissue (consisting of blood and lymph).
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In plants, broadly, there are two types of tissues — meristematic and permanent tissues.

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z Meristematic tissues are capable of division and contribute towards growth in length and width of
the plant. They are present at the tips of the roots and stems.
z Permanent tissues are of three types — dermal, vascular and ground tissues.
z Based on the kinds of cells present in a permanent tissue, there are two types of permanent tissues

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— simple (of one type of cells) and complex (having more than one type of cells).

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z Dermal tissue is a protective tissue forming a protective covering on the outer surface of plant
organs.
z Vascular tissue is responsible for conduction of water, minerals and food to different parts of the
plant body. Xylem and phloem constitute vascular tissues.
z Xylem transports water and minerals from the roots upwards to different parts whereas phloem
transports food manufactured by the leaves to other parts of the plant body.
z Xylem and phloem are complex tissues.
z Ground tissue, basically a supporting tissue, consists of parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.
All these three tissues are simple tissues.

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