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Biomimetic design processes in architecture: morphogenetic and evolutionary computational


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2012 Bioinspir. Biomim. 7 015003


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which fit adequately well into the range the question how this transitional phase unfolds is relevant.uni-stuttgart. and thus differ profoundly from well. Received 30 June 2011 Accepted for publication 9 December 2011 Published 16 February 2012 Online at stacks. From computerized to computational design Numerous facets of the discipline are being informed and changed by the ramifications of the rapid development Digital processes increasingly pervade architecture.IOP PUBLISHING BIOINSPIRATION & BIOMIMETICS Bioinspir. Introduction established engineering process based on nature-analogous algorithms. architecture. undetermined established design processes based on geometric information and explorative. as the understanding of this distinction is of critical importance for the research presented. However. and how they need to be significantly different from established biomimetic processes in engineering disciplines. which may only approach to architecture. Thereafter. The paper first explains the fundamental difference between computer-aided and computational design in architecture. As the particular characteristics of architectural CAD employs the computer as a helpful extension of design demand. process-based and feedback-based computational design methods are presented. but rather aims for as it does suggest novel possibilities for a biomimetic the advancement of biomimetic architecture. By now.menges@icd. constraint-based. Abstract Design computation has profound impact on architectural design methods. ranging from design to fabrication and possibilities for a biomimetic approach to architecture. Thus. followed by the presentation of two case studies focusing on the exemplary development of spatial envelope morphologies and urban block morphologies.1088/1748-3182/7/1/015003 Biomimetic design processes in architecture: morphogenetic and evolutionary computational design Achim Menges Institute for Computational Design. This construction. (Some figures may appear in colour only in the online journal) 1. Computational design is in the process of profoundly changing the way architecture is conceived. 70174 Stuttgart. the conceptual relation and possible transfer of principles from natural morphogenesis to design computation are introduced and the related developments of generative. 7 (2012) 015003 (10pp) doi:10. This morphogenetic design research is then related to exploratory evolutionary computation. This paper explains how computational design enables the development of biomimetic design processes specific to architecture. first the paper will explain the possibilities computational the critical distinction between computer-aided design (CAD) design offers for enabling biomimetic design processes in and computational design needs to be explained. the much debated question whether digital processes will eventually replace analogue processes does not so much refer to the developments of biomimetic in architecture is becoming increasingly obsolete.iop. that represents the designed object or architecture as a 1748-3182/12/015003+10$33.00 1 © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK & the USA . Like in of this field. particular possibility inherent to computational design. Germany E-mail: achim. feature-based. computation has an impact on all aspects way computational design has begun to open up novel of the discipline. designed and produced. building products. Keplerstrasse 11. of established biomimetic methods [1]. In order to fully understand this be feasible if the design process itself is biomimetic. such processes need to be open. University of Stuttgart. Of particular interest for this paper is the various other fields.

this In nature. The data are accessed and computational design approaches have been both researched modified through intermediary methods. In the following paragraph. the novel approaches to architectural design and defined as well as instantiated by the programmer. Its properties and methods are designed. the combination of data fields last five decades. This increasing represented in three dimensions. 7 (2012) 015003 A Menges metric construct of points. In summary. driven by changes in cellular (iii) from defining static digital constructs to defining arrangements and structures as well as cell interactions in computing systems capable of reciprocal data exchange and developing tissues. information are synchronously constructed and conceptually results in the astounding functional integration. drawing and morphological differentiation. However. In CAD. Since the 1960s design computation has and methods as well as their interactions constitute data been explored as a way of generating rather than modelling structures. In nature. constraint-based. called morphogenesis. surfaces and solids if complex organizations. these four between the process of formation. In architecture has been researched in various ways over the this programming paradigm. the totality of the developmental sequence enables the computational designer to generate open. cumulative process of increasingly complex arrangements as they enable an understanding of computational design of functional elements distributed into progressively more processes as both morphogenetic and evolutionary. whereby the amount and specificity sis present relevant concepts for the development of generative of information never surpasses what has been initially supplied design [6]. (ii) from designing shape to designing behaviour. information and encapsulating it as explicit as well as To architecture. In natural morphogenesis environmental influences and forces to create ever more two kinds of constraints prevail: phylogenetic constraints and 2 . Morphogens. together with a number feedback information. performative constitute an inseparable entity. control the cell differentiation. In CAD. The combination in academia and tested in practice [4]. starting with the prominent work of ‘object’. one can say that features and related functional elements. specialized systems and sub-systems can be correlated with The application of computational design processes to the underlying logics of object-oriented programming. resulting in the the transition from computer-aided to truly computational overall performance of the entire system. and more generally the bottom-up character of object- research conducted in this field over the last decade. The following paragraphs on morphogenetic and included. and the evolution has not really changed the way architects design. Morphogenetic computational design different frameworks. computation morphogenetic development of individual form. computational design externalizes the relation feedback-based. the driving information. Inheritance. together with specific set of functions so that they are separate Up to now. only relatively of such a method set and related data is referred to as an recently and quite rarely. ranging from feature-based parametric applications [7] to custom-programmed software [8]. interaction and communication between evolutionary computational design are based on the author’s objects. numerous from the remaining program. generated form and its resulting performance. four enables the processing of information in such a way that characteristics are of particular relevance for the transfer of new information is created. Concerning the information is only compiled and associated. The computer-aided approach capacity and material resourcefulness ever present in nature. can be in nature. the morphogenetic process. and it makes Morphogenesis is characterized by the increasing these reciprocities available to the designer as instrumental specificity and continuous differentiation of morphological aspects of the design process. In this regard CAD of development and growth of an individual. provide a suitable foundation for the development of morphogenetic design computation. the underlying principles of morphogene- symbolic representation. is feature-based. form and within the overall system and its surrounding environment. referring to the course in the drawing or modelling steps. to design is rooted in object-based methods of accumulating even in the simplest of organisms. Both the ontogenetic aspects. formation. In morphogenetic processes system Another critical characteristic of morphogenetic processes intrinsic information and material capacities interact with is that they are constraint-based. lines. oriented programming. the summary process of each modelling techniques previously executed manually are system-element’s response and adaptation to its location now transferred into the digital realm. and particularly in the last 20 years. declared John Frazer [5]. Within 3. The novel possibilities for a biomimetic approach to architecture. the design entails a shift from (i) modelling objects to modelling spatial organization and distribution of cells is regulated by processes. the critical characteristics will be further explained. Contrary to the congruence of biological principles to computational design: morphogenesis form and information innate to representational computer. In an offered by computation have been investigated in relation object-oriented program many objects. These programming constructs encapsulate data design solutions based on their resulting performance [3]. whereby adaptation is driven by the interaction While in the computerization of analogue design techniques with internal and external influences. And exactly these changes provide of other molecules. yet of a biological system from origination to mature state increasingly specific and hierarchically structured systems and as well as the evolution of morphological structures is traits based on data interaction and feedback. design as variable processes of algorithmic development and Computational design fundamentally differs from CAD. it has across many generations of populations of individuals provide simply ‘computerized’ well-established methods of geometric a conceptual framework for an understanding of computational description [2]. forms and structures. both different kinds to the principles of formative and developmental processes of objects as well as different variants of one object. Biomim. process-based and aided design.Bioinspir.

the innate are iterative. Physical constraints limit the generative These processes of continual becoming consist of a complex process to the laws of nature. scalar geometric representation. the proposed morphogenetic form generation can derive which direct the selection and reproduction and thus orient the multiple valid equilibrium states between system-intrinsic development toward a specific goal. and devised as top-down engineered. reproduction. Architects are will activate the physical constraints to organize and arrange usually just equipped with design tools that are intended in a specific manner [13]. systems and elements facilitating the construction of pre. with one many solutions. constructional solutions. Only feedback information with external data. it is process that design processes. elaboration of matter to organize in response to system-internal and and differentiation continuously affect most constituents external influences. feedback and evaluation methods [11]. the deterministic. alternative approaches to design based on form finding have been explored. Thus. Most of these processes processes the structured distribution and arrangement of matter are controlled by feedback. given the specific phylogenetic history of a lineage. Moreover. which is characterized by integrating both the state that defines the parameters of a hierarchical relationship that prioritizes the generation materialization and the one that describes the influences which of form over its subsequent materialization. In morphogenetic system and its environment. This In addition to matter. elements is defined.Bioinspir. Phylogenetic constraints [9] basically architecture with new modes of integrating design techniques. it is largely recognized that of natural systems. These computational processes for explicit. Computationally a problem on and within a material system that in turn offers beneficial can be described in terms of a search space. what series of interactions and exchanges between the biological is physically possible to materialize. The related functions). Here the principles in the late 19th century. most prominently in individuals over many generations by iterative. open-ended quality of natural evolution. research shows that computational processes can provide Today evolutionary computation is understood as a relatively 3 . or in other words. already engineering and computer science [14]. These investigations into ‘physically theoretical space of all existing parameters within a defined computing’ architectural form have frequently been related problem. Evolutionary design exploration in architectural design. Heinz Isler or. Extending the concept of a material system In addition. Their research aimed at of natural evolution such as heredity. stochastic Otto’s SFB 230 research undertaking ‘natural construction’. One key aspect is the evaluation of each critical difference: based on a wider range of parameters generated individual according to predefined fitness criteria. The research on computational morphogenesis formation and materialization is inherent to morphogenesis. Antoni Gaudı́. process is a fundamental constituent is of particular relevance for evolutionary computational of morphogenesis. Based on the intention to converge on material systems not as derivatives of standardized building optimized solutions for known problems. most notably by Evolutionary strategies for computational optimization designers working at the intersection between architecture have been investigated for more than four decades in and engineering such as Frei Otto. In contrast to these established methods of form definition 4. 7 (2012) 015003 A Menges physical constraints. Today. Biomim. In natural morphogenesis. it also requires an understanding of target function. Potential solutions are generated as populations of to natural processes of formation. evolutionary optimization is based on a static by embedding its material properties and behaviour as well as conceptualization of form–performance relationships and its manufacturing constraints and assembly logics allows for thus inherently neglects phenomena such as preadaptation computationally deriving and elaborating a design through (that is the employment of pre-existing structures for novel the material’s intrinsic performative capacities. Thus. Therefore. differentiates and maintains biological morphology. genetic employing physical experiments to find a particular building recombination. mutation and selection are integrated in form by identifying an equilibrium state of the forces acting computational search processes. the design process. which are crucial for natural development [15]. sampling of parameters. goal-oriented character of these processes is in contrast to established design schemes but rather as generative drivers in the nondeterministic. they can after the geometry and arrangement of the major building be considered as both explorative and ecologically embedded. it is important is both confined and driven by the properties and capacities to note that the feedback-driven production. growth and adaptation physical determinants and material self-organization have are continuous processes of reconstruction resulting in a major influence on morphogenetic processes [10]. with the possibility of morphological and performative capacity of material systems continuously rewriting parts of the entire system based on is left largely disregarded in the critical design stages. increasingly heterogeneous and hierarchically structured the intricate and irreducible relation between processes of systems. recursive and expanding. In this way. stochastic optimization processes based on a predetermined Similarly to form finding. The evolutionary algorithm navigates The biomimetic approach to computational design presented the search space in order to trace the best amongst these here should be seen within this line of work. which is the structural behaviour. are ways of materialization considered especially if evolutionary dynamics is also integrated. which will be explained in one of the produces. limit the course of the generative process to what is possible production technologies and system performance [12]. following paragraphs. in architecture considers the importance of resolving the This inseparable interconnection between physical becoming complexity originating from the interrelation and reciprocal and material gestalt in nature is in stark contrast to the effects of material systems and dynamic environments by material practice of architecture. In this way evolutionary constraints and system-external influences and thus requires algorithms and evolutionary computation are mainly used as different generation.

In contrast to the negotiation of several fitness criteria. a possibilities. solar radiation and interior thermal loading (figure 1). Other criteria applied with evolutionary development. the type is real be divided into two categories: (A) morphological criteria such and variation only comprises of divergence. as it influences design [18] and frame-based design [19]. If at all. population thinking radically differs from a following fitness criteria were particularly relevant. The open. Thus. Similarly. whereas for the as floor area. are always intrinsically related. the sequences the following steps: (i) analysis. optimized solutions and evolutionary computational processes rather than being can only be found for design objectives that can be constrained by a preconceived aesthetic value system or fitness quantitatively expressed. as a design task can usually not paragraphs. an opportunity for creating novel possibilities within the framework of a given brief. the slope criteria and reformation of populations. specific ranking operator needed to be determined. (ii) descriptive rapid production of design variants that are not only different model formulation. (v) evolutionary algorithmic generation in architecture. In of Stuttgart) demonstrates how evolutionary computational this way. in architecture the use of rather than searched for or optimized. As aptly described in modern evolutionary relationships of multi-criteria systems. each with a different focus in regard to scale and be comprehensively described as a problem. not dissimilar to natural evolution. unobstructed populationist the type is a complete abstraction and only the view axes and (B) environmental criteria such as incident variation is real [21]. Biomim. evolutionary computation allows for performative processes can be employed in the design of form–performance morphogenetic processes. evolutionary processes are The first case study (conducted under the supervision more about finding than searching.1. fused into the description of type. They can typological approach. the synthesis [20]. which are generic yet predefined morphologies. The formulation of the design evolves through concepts for addressing given project criteria. evolutionary include evaluation of incident solar radiation and subsequent processes offer variational methods based on extensibility thermal loading to the interior spaces. For evaluating an individual’s overall fitness. Case study 1: spatial envelope morphologies development of a project. In this research. This creative potential of evolutionary quantification of qualitative criteria. In contrast. here is based on the understanding that gestalt and performance Architectural design. Correspondingly. The project to be investigated in bounds greatly superseding manual focused on the development of the spatial envelope of an experimentation [17]. adaptiogenesis and inherent novelty relations of the overall building morphology. Thus. area fitness evaluation measures the usable interior floor area populations develop incrementally with each individual. In this way aesthetics can only be found and explored characteristics of natural evolution. in degree but also in kind is typical for the early design phase (iv) provision of data. Rather than reiterating. it suggests that novel is an open-ended process that profoundly differs from aesthetics should be enabled to emerge through morphogenetic engineering optimization. Thus. Here. which are multiple model is based on an operational research approach which individual designs rather than just a single one. recombining Another critical aspect in this research project was the and simply varying existing concepts and design knowledge choice and setting of appropriate evolutionary operators. 7 (2012) 015003 A Menges inefficient optimization process. evolutionary computation which significantly influence the evolutionary development and related population thinking provide for truly explorative as they are one of the core mechanisms of the metaheuristic processes with the capacity to discover and unfold novel design process. The generation and specification of the beachscape architects as they operate on populations. This shift from knowledge-based to behaviour. The fitness evaluation other computational design approaches such as case-based is an essential part of the algorithm. evolutionary computation as an exploratory rather than an In order to further explain the potential of computational optimization process is more promising by far. but rather as design criteria integration. Rather than aiming for the performance level. As each based computational design [22] and the related development fitness criterion is based on a value range from 0 (worst) 4 . This usually happens by testing and evaluating and (vi) evaluation of the resulting spatial envelope different design typologies. but is beginning to be of biomimetic computational design processes not only entails recognized as being very effective in deriving unconsidered a change in the conceptualization of architectural performance or hitherto unknown possibilities while maintaining an overall but also architectural aesthetics. two case studies are presented in the following interest for architecture. and in line with the underlying function. the notion of type as a analyse the gradient of slope along the external surface to take static or suddenly shifting definition is conceptually incoherent account of areas that can be occupied. The great potential of such displacement of the concept of type within the architectural metaheuristic strategies lies within the exploration of synergic design process. design for investigating and developing biomimetic processes ended nature of evolutionary computation is of particular in architecture. (iii) mathematical model formulation. as the accounting for extreme angles and minimal height clearances forces of selection and variation drive the constant formation in the potential geometries. evaluation criteria and design objectives tend to co-evolve with the 4. instead of typology.Bioinspir. The Due to the continuous nature of evolutionary processes. In design. inhabitable landscape-like structure on the Philippine island of Evolutionary processes are of particular interest for Boracay. envelope heights. the research presented computation has been considered in a number of fields [16]. envelope slope. For the typologist. the population-based approach of evolutionary computation enables a significant the direction of the search. about the continual of the author and Sean Ahlquist by Christoph Waibel extension of the search space through novel solutions that at the Institute for Computational Design at the University emerge as the by-product of evolutionary dynamics.

individual within a population. The genotypic information fitness proportional selection in this project. These variable settings are processed by the number of offspring. with n being an individual’s for each criterion. Based on a completed pass through the selection operator determines the preferred individuals for reproduction and creation of offspring for the next generation.Bioinspir. From the pool of selected individuals embryology operator to form the phenotypes of the next couples for the creation of offspring are defined through generation. as it enables a low is encoded in simple txt files encapsulating all variable settings spread for the domain of possible values for an individual’s per individual. Definition of fitness criteria and target functions (left). variable amount [23]. Biomim. The individuals’ the developed algorithm confirmed an established preferred overall rank can be established through the Pareto-rankings mutation probability of 1/n. to 1 (best) but displays different value spreads in development. regardless of the actual value difference. 5 . 7 (2012) 015003 A Menges Figure 1. The mutation rate can initially be set by determining the Pareto-dominance per criterion for each higher to suit the explorative character of early design phases. parents. Based on the completed fitness ranking. mechanisms of mutation are embedded in the This allows for solving the multi-criteria problem at stake recombination operator. Overall. the evolutionary operators the individual offspring genotypes The stochastic universal sampling method is employed for for generation n+1 are derived. an intermediate recombination operator that allows offspring simple approaches such as a sum or weighted sum method variables within a variable domain larger than that of the were rejected in favour of the Pareto-optimization method. which is its superiority while in the later optimization stage it can be lowered. development of fitness in cycles A and B (right). Thus.

The environment the same time multifaceted articulation possibilities can be is composed of climatic factors like solar radiation. comparing both evolutionary cycles reveals correlations This project investigates an integrative evolutionary between the implemented forces. This project investigates the potential of employing The developed genetic algorithm provides a tool for evolutionary algorithms in early design stages to produce revealing performative geometrical tendencies. At usable volume and a desired number of units. For cycle A react to the complex reciprocities between buildings and their the slope fitness is not considered in the evaluation. The slope fitness as a design strategy questioning architectural and urban design functional necessity acts like an incriminating constraint to approaches based on repeating established typologies and later the incident radiation and interior temperature. but rather author and Sean Ahlquist by Florian Krampe and Christopher incorporates both. The form 4. This integrative Cycle A contains less spatial conception and therefore evolved approach seeks design processes where the ‘design’ and a higher adaptation to the defined climatic situation. uses a geometric subdivision algorithm that is neither limited to The second case study (conducted under the supervision of the irregular nor regular phenotypic spatial systems. Cycle B ‘evaluation’ steps can be combined so that generated solutions implements a criterion that represents determined concepts of are all evaluated at the same time and with the same level of the structure’s functionality (figure 2).Bioinspir. The algorithm is iterated design stages. at this stage. Case study 2: urban block morphologies generation itself. where the The evolutionary algorithm is constrained by a maximum specific morphologies are optimized for multiple criteria. In the assignment of characteristics to the resulting volumes based design of cities. The aim is to develop an evolutionary forms for this particular context. performance of the resulting urban fabric are defined. simulating both cycles is important to revisit urban morphology for developing new modes of to understand the interdependence amongst involved forces. which is informed by the genotype. Biomim. In conclusion. and Examining the progression of the fitness criteria and usually fixed. in regard to results that already incorporate and anticipate criteria that are quantitative criteria. Instead. It rather draws upon level of context specific overall performance. Together the units form an urban block. 7 (2012) 015003 A Menges Figure 2. In hand it supports the spatial aspects of area requirement and contrast. The fittest models showed a tendency only introduced in the later design stages of conventional towards geometries similar to vernacular steep roof pitched design processes. The embryology operator initiates the Voss at the Institute for Computational Design at the University growth of individuals through a series of subdivisions and the of Stuttgart) focuses on the scale of an urban block. the concept of environmental integration can on five sets of genes. the process outlined morphologies that are non-typological and thus reach a high here does not manifest a specific shape.2. the rules and logic of possible spatial envelopes. development of overall performance in cycles A and B (right). To investigate the impact of the established fitness criteria consumption of individual buildings. On the other on applying building technology as a kind of rectification. integration of building form and performance. an attempt to two different evolutionary cycles were processed. especially in the early criteria are implemented in cycle B. detail. as the majority of parameters that define the until a convergence of the values can be observed. Example morphologies of initial population (left top) and individual extreme ranks in generation 34 of cycle A and cycle B (left bottom). without being programmed to algorithm to generate solutions for climate-adapted building achieve such. whereas all climatic surroundings needs to be made. This is initially driven by two sets of no longer be reduced to a concern of lowering the energy genes: ‘active points 1’ that define the subdivision of the given 6 . natural light. The process outputs volumes that form individual units. here biomimetic computational design is employed view access. Against deductive methods. wind and explored.

the ‘active points 2’ distribution during The focal point of this project was the development and the second subdivision cycle is constrained in order to ensure testing of the evaluation step in the evolutionary process. The The embryology operator developed for this project spaces created in this way undergo a secondary subdivision requires a special chromosome order of the gene sequence cycle again defined by a set of ‘active points 2’ organizing controlling the spatial subdivision. Two problems in the the spatial sub-partitioning and ‘void points 2’ determining generation and evaluation need to be avoided: multiple uses voids. the inhabitable spaces. as the ‘active points 2’ directly This testing revolved around the precision in values returned 7 . Thus. in order to ensure the generation of inhabitable spaces. This distinction is based on the relation between points. Biomim. numeric/right: same position. 7 (2012) 015003 A Menges Figure 3. predefined volume (figure 3). Summary of the morphogenetic process of inhabitation and circulation units (left) and the related definition of genes (right). While the distribution of ‘active of points allowing cross-over splitting at the same position and points 1’ is relatively free and thus allows the exploration of avoiding equivalent point coordinates (figure 4). seeking continuous circulatory routes with gene sequence on the chromosome is related to the spatial order minimum volume impact. These constraints ensure determine whether the resulting spatial units are void spaces or that spatial units have horizontal floors and do not exceed a not. maximum urban block volume and a set of ‘void points 1’ that define the inhabitable spatial units. Figure 4.Bioinspir. significant differences. the creation of usable spaces. Example of gene sequence on chromosome (left: same position. In addition. another set of ‘circulation’ genes defines of the same point coordinates and too high a degree of whether the resulting spatial partitions are circulation space or subdivision variation resulting from crossbreeding. coordinate) required by the developed embryology operator.

Biomim. 7 (2012) 015003 A Menges Figure 5.Bioinspir. 8 . Example morphologies and overall performance development for experiments 1 (left) and 2 (right).

and because such morphological differentiation capacity and spatial quality of the units within the block. Conclusion unit level. which allows responding to the heterogeneity understanding of spatial arrangement in terms of possible of external forces. (figure 6). is one of the key enablers for adaptation and functional 9 . Instead of using existing circulation typologies. and based on the described a clear performance rating of the overall system. the overall urban morphology.Bioinspir. the amount of covered outside space on the site and the amount of solar radiation that the outside communal spaces are exposed to. the computational development build volume and floor area. with regard to assessing the outcomes of the process. Thus. The design possibilities of could visualize such embedded information in order to trace this morphological differentiation are relevant as they enable localized phenomena. which could be linked to show the performative intervention. In load bearing and climate regulating requirements and relation to the defined criteria. Programmatic distribution based on local conditions within a high overall-performance morphology. from the evaluation process as well as the variable ranking In this way it was also possible to define the specific of priority between different criteria. Resulting from the multifaceted space-making. together with to. the architect to register and instrumentalize the heterogeneity These tools allowed for a translation of the morphologies of influences and forces that act upon any architectural into data sets. Biomim. process is informed through constant feedback with digital The outcome of this research not only produced a novel simulation. and within localized performative morphological differentiation can unfold without situations. Two experiments were programmatic distribution based on different climatic qualities conducted to investigate how significantly or insignificantly of the units evolved as the overall performance of the urban the general population of individual geometries behaved and morphology and the registration of its localized differences evolved when different criteria were prioritized (figure 5). but it also provoked questions requirements. are evaluated. environmental influences and functional environmental responsiveness. the numerical results give qualities of architecture. 7 (2012) 015003 A Menges Figure 6. the through subsequent morphogenetic and evolutionary processes unit count criterion is used to evaluate the number of units over remains fully coherent with the logic and limits of the course of the evolution. it is evaluated how many units can be naturally cross- In the biomimetic design approach presented above the ventilated and how much solar radiation the units are exposed physical constraints and material properties. linear evaluation takes place on two levels. program and climate that is still level. structure and function. a other conditions outside these criteria. of the units via the circulatory system. two more aspects are the constraints of production. block level and unit matching between built form. On 5. any specific form or structure derived a different species of interconnecting units. employing biomimetic computational design Each individual is evaluated according to five climatic processes allows for identifying novel and evolving form– fitness criteria and two additional spatial criteria. The climatic performance relations and thus overcomes the a priori. On the scale of the block. the cross-ventilation of predominant in more conventional design processes. But. In addition to the climatic evaluation. in coherency of form. Furthermore. it was necessary to develop additional tools which compromises to constructability. the circulation evolves through Consequently. as well as monitoring the overall materialization. material. Furthermore. fabrication and construction evaluated: the connectivity criterion evaluates the accessibility can be encoded in generative computational processes.

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