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Crusading Warfare

Exploring the Military History of the Crusades
William James Hamblin

May 1097 .Alexios and the Crusaders at Constantinople (part 1) July 1096 .

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9-11 Fulcher 1.1-4 0 10 20 30 km Gesta 1/3-2/5 Black Sea Ralph 2-7 Raymond 2 William 2.8-21 0 10 20 m Anna 10.Primary Sources: Alexios and the Crusaders at Constantinople 1096-1097 Albert 2.5-23 Asbridge 107-113 Frankopan 118-138 Harris 60-72 Rubenstein 89-99 Runciman 1:142-171 Salabria Pera Chrysopolis Constantinople Rodosto Chalcedon Pelekanon Nicomedia Sea of Civitot Marmara Ascanian Nicaea Cyzicus .9.

Walter arrives at Constantinople 1096/07/20 0 10 20 m 0 10 20 30 km Black Sea 1 us or ph s Bo Salabria Pera Wa Chrysopolis Al Constantinople Rodosto 1.{c. 20 July}Walter’s army Chalcedon arrives at Constantinople. [Albert 1.6d] Pelekanon Nicomedia Sea of Civitot Marmara Ascanian Nicaea Cyzicus .

15a].{1 Aug} Peter’s army arrives at Constantinople.Camped in Environs of Constantinople Peter the Hermit arrives at Constantinople 1096/08/01 ✝ Wa 0 10 20 m 0 10 20 30 km Black Sea us Pe or ph s Bo 2 ✝ Salabria Pera Chrysopolis Al Constantinople Rodosto Chalcedon 2. Pelekanon Nicomedia Sea of Civitot Marmara Ascanian Nicaea Cyzicus . [Albert 1.

Hagia 3 🔥 Sophia Hippodrome Bucoleon 3.6] Alexios said: “If you do otherwise [than stay near the Peter and Walter are graciously received at the Blachernae Palace by the emperor Alexios.Peter and Walter’s men camp Palace outside the walls of Constantinople [Albert 1. Peter Palace rus h o and Walter insist on sailing to Anatolia. Alexios advises them to stay in Blachernae Constantinople and await the rest of the crusaders. Sea of Marmara .0 500 1000 m Peter meets Alexios 1096/08/03-05 5b. the savage gentiles [Turks] will fall upon you and crush your ineffectual legions.{mid Aug} Crusaders Plunder [Gesta 1/2=3] But those Christians [of Peter’s crusade] behaved 🔥 abominably.9] 5a.15a].Alexios’s Warning [Baldric 1.15. and is given Al 5 shore]. and stealing the lead from the roofs of the churches and Forum of selling it to the Greeks. Anna 10. sp Bo G ol s de all Pera n )W H or ian n os 🔥 e od Th Holy t( Ch Apostles ea ain 4 Gr 4.” financial support. sacking and burning the palaces of the city. Constantine Pe ✝ and ordered them to cross the Hellespont.Peter Meets the Emperor [Albert 1. so that the emperor was angry.

15b] Ascanian Nicaea Cyzicus .{6 Aug} Arrival at Civitot. and the indiscipline and Marmara plundering by the crusaders. [Albert 1. Peter and Walter sail to Civitot 1096/08/06 0 10 20 m 0 10 20 30 km Black Sea us or ph s Bo Salabria Pera Chrysopolis Al Constantinople Rodosto Chalcedon 6. Alexios Pe orders the Byzantine fleet to transport the crusaders to Civitot. 6 Pelekanon Nicomedia Sea of Both because of the demands of Peter Civitot and Walter.

21 Oct} Pe Marmara Civitot Campaign. Qi Ascanian Nicaea Cyzicus . The Disastrous Civitot Campaign 1096/08/06-08 0 10 20 m 0 10 20 30 km Black Sea us or ph s Bo Salabria Pera Chrysopolis Al Constantinople Rodosto Chalcedon Pelekanon Nicomedia Sea of Civitot 7.{7 Aug . 7 (See Civitot Atlas).

{22-23 Oct} Alexios sends the 8 Pelekanon Nicomedia Byzantine fleet to rescue the survivors Sea of of the battle of Civitot [Albert 1. Civitot Anna 10.2d=5] Pe Marmara Qi Ascanian Nicaea Cyzicus .122c. Alexios rescues the Crusaders from Civitot 1096/08/22-23 0 10 20 m 0 10 20 30 km Black Sea us or sph Bo Salabria Pera Chrysopolis Al Constantinople Rodosto Chalcedon 8.6c-d. Gesta 1.

No other crusader activity in the region.Camped in Environs of Constantinople Peter and Survivors wait for five weeks 1096/08-11 ✝ Pe 0 10 20 m 0 10 20 30 km Black Sea us or ph s Bo ✝ Salabria Pera Chrysopolis 9 Al Constantinople Rodosto Chalcedon 9. Pelekanon Nicomedia Sea of Civitot Marmara Ascanian Nicaea Cyzicus . awaiting the arrival of the other crusaders.late Nov} Peter and perhaps a few thousand survivors of the Civitot campaign camp for five weeks at Constantinople.{late Oct.

probably accurately.9b.3b. says this Marmara 10b.{late Nov-Dec} Hugh of Vermandois arrives in Constantinople where he is held under quasi- house arrest as the “guest” of Alexios.Camped in Environs of Constantinople Arrival of Hugh of Vermandois. which will cause such trouble with “A false rumour reached [Godfrey] and Godfrey and other crusaders. Albert 1. Guibert 2. perhaps as a informal hostage for the good behavior of the crusaders.6.[Anna 10. [Anna 10. the others that the Counts had been thrown into prison by the Emperor.Note: Civitot Anna here.” Ascanian Nicaea Cyzicus .7. Robert 2. Fulcher 1. first of the princes 1096/12/early ✝ Pe 0 10 20 m 0 10 20 30 km Black Sea Hu us or ph s Bo ✝ Salabria Pera Chrysopolis 10 Al Constantinople Rodosto Chalcedon 10a.19c.5-6] Pelekanon Nicomedia Sea of 10c. is false.9c] rumor.7.

Camped in Environs of Constantinople Godfrey’s arrival 1096/12/12 ✝ Pe Hu 0 10 20 m 0 10 20 30 km Black Sea Go us 11 or ph s Bo 11. [Albert 2.8b] Chalcedon Pelekanon Nicomedia Sea of Civitot Marmara Ascanian Nicaea Cyzicus . Godfrey’s army Pera Chrysopolis marches to Salabria.{12 Dec} Without imperial ✝ Salabria permission. where they Al Constantinople Rodosto encamp.

which will cause such trouble with Godfrey. says this rumor.[Anna 10.{13 Dec} instructed that all the land was to be handed over Godfrey demands the for the pilgrims and foreign soldiers to plunder. delayed there for eight days and devastated all this Alexios refuses. probably accurately. they “release” of Hugh.” Anna here. is false.8b] Pelekanon Nicomedia 12b. [Albert 2.9c] Sea of “A false rumour reached [Godfrey] and the others that Civitot the Counts had been thrown into prison by the Marmara Emperor. region.Camped in Environs of Constantinople Godfrey Plunders the Countryside 1096/12/12-20 ✝ Pe Hu 0 10 20 m 0 10 20 30 km Black Sea 🔥 🔥 13 13 us or ph s 🔥 Bo Go 13 🔥 Salabria ✝ Pera Chrysopolis 12 Al Constantinople 13. And at once the duke [Godfrey] 12a.{12-20 Dec} Rodosto Chalcedon [Godfrey] refused to give the emperor trust and friendship any longer. Ascanian Nicaea Cyzicus .

[Albert 2.{23 Dec} [Albert 2. marches to Constantinople 1096/12/12-20 ✝ Pe Hu 0 10 20 m 0 10 20 30 km 16. armed Although not formally prisoners.{late Dec} Robert of Flanders’ Black Sea crusaders arrive at Constantinople. lodging in a strong and irresistible band.9b] 14a.Note: behavior from the other crusaders. 15b.9] and his comrades had probably kept under elegant house arrest as quasi- hostages in an attempt to insure good 15c.Note: Marmara tents. Cyzicus . of ten thousand horsemen and seventy thousand foot. withdrawing to the city Sea of of Constantinople itself with Civitot the whole company of pilgrims: there they pitched 14b. and releases Hugh and his comrades from quasi-hostage status. but.Camped in Environs of Constantinople Godfrey’s reconciles. Hugh with hauberks and every weapon of war. 16 us or RF ph s Bo 15 Go ✝ Salabria Pera Chrysopolis Al Constantinople Rodosto Chalcedon 15a. but the Ascanian Nicaea proportion of cavalry to infantry is probably accurate.9a] Pelekanon Nicomedia [Godfrey] forbade looting and moved camp.{23 Dec} Godfrey moves his camp to the outskirts of Constantinople.9a] says that Godfrey had “army the plan backfired.” The number is undoubtedly exaggerated. Alexios released them. 14 still distrustful of Alexios.{22 Dec} Alexios agrees to Godfrey’s demand. [Albert 2. Since Anna [10. keeps his camp under arms.

Cyprus. 2012. Frequent voyages bring to the citizens at all time necessities in abundance. Constantinople: Blachernae Istanbul's Historical Heritage. Arabs and people of all nations come to this great city. Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium. constructed with wonderful Holy t( Ch skill! How many remarkable things may be seen in Apostles ea ain the principal avenues and even in the lesser streets! Gr It would be very tedious to enumerate the wealth t~at is there of every kind. and also the cities of Africa never cease sending donatives to Constantinople .” [translation by Ryan in Fulcher p 79] . Bulgaria and all SeaofofGreece likewise serve the city and send to it all their choicest products. or ian n Oh what a noble and beautiful city is os od Constantinople! How many monasteries and e Th palaces it contains. and a wall of immense size and strength with towers in its circuit.0 500 1000 m The Wonders of Constantinople 1097/04/ Harris.1]. Dacians. how delightful and how filled with churches and palaces built with wonderful skill. Bulgars. Cumans. [history and culture] Yerasimos. [photos of art and architecture. Venetians. Jews and proselytes. Romans. Greeks. Italians. I judge. of gold. Rhodes and Mytilene. Achaia. 2017. S. 2nd ed. Pechenegs. of silver.1. Amalfitans and even Turks and many Marmara gentiles. Cretans. J. on the other a valley and a double ditch. Moreover the cities of Romania in Asia and in Europe. About twenty thousand Constantine eunuchs. Alans. and Corinth and innumerable islands minister unto this city.] Palace rus h o o sp B G ol s de all Pera n )W H Fulcher on Constantinople [Fulcher 9. what spectacles and what marvels of engraving in brass and marble are contained within the city! On one side the sea and an impregnable wall bound the city. or robes of many kinds. and of holy relics. are always living there. Hagia Sophia Hippodrome Bucoleon Palace Bartolf on Constantinople [Bartolf 5] Oh how great a City. English. how noble. Merchants constantly bring to the city by frequent voyages all Forum of the necessities of man.

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