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Unlocking

a world of
potential

Core skills for learning,
work and society

01

Contents

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ 03
Core skills for learning, work and society..................................................................... 04
Introduction
Critical thinking and problem solving................................................................................ 07
Luxury or necessity? Critical thinking and problem
solving should be at the core of learning for all
Case study: Developing great questioning techniques
Communication and collaboration......................................................................................... 11
Communication and collaboration: a new significance
Communication and collaboration: the place of languages
Case study: The importance of effective communication
Core skills for learning, work and society......................................................................17
What is education for citizenship?
Dealing with current affairs in schools: risk or opportunity?
Why citizenship education can, and should, play a role in every classroom
Case study: Developing responsible citizens
Creativity and imagination............................................................................................................. 23
Preparing children for the future: the essential role of
creativity and imagination in learning
Interview with a teacher from Zimbabwe about the
Creativity and Imagination programme
Digital literacy.............................................................................................................................................. 27
Why schools and teachers need to take action
Case study: Enhancing learning through digital literacy
Student leadership and personal development...................................................... 31
Student leadership: actively engaging students as partners
Case study: Creating opportunities for students to lead
Teacher as researcher........................................................................................................................ 35
Innovation from within: the power of appreciation in comparative studies
Inclusive pedagogies............................................................................................................................ 37
Access and engagement: core skills for all
Case study: Becoming a more inclusive school
Curriculum mapping...............................................................................................................................41
Bridging tradition and innovation in curriculum design
Case study: Supporting curriculum reform in Kenya
Contributors ................................................................................................................................................. 45

02

Our world is
moving quickly

Dr Jo Beall
Jo Beall joined the British Council and the development, and cities, conflict and
Executive Board in July 2011 as Director, state fragility. She has worked in Africa,
Education and Society, reporting to the Asia and Latin America, undertaking
Chief Executive. Jo was formerly Deputy significant research projects and advisory
Vice-Chancellor, University of Cape Town, work in Afghanistan, India, Pakistan
with responsibility for academic matters, and South Africa. Her move to the
social responsiveness and external British Council signals her commitment
relations, and the university’s international to education as a force for global good.
strategy. A graduate of the London School Jo is a Fellow of the Academy of Social
of Economics, Jo was formerly Professor Sciences, a Member of the British
of Development Studies in the LSE’s Academy’s South Asia Area Panel,
International Development Department, and Honorary Professor of the School
which she directed between 2004 of Architecture and Planning at University
and 2007. During her academic career of Witwatersrand, South Africa, and will
Jo has published numerous books and be taking up the position of Chair of the
academic articles in the areas of gender Board of Trustees at INASP later this year.
and social policy, urban governance and

Foreword 03

We are living in a time of unequalled global collaboration.
New technologies make it possible for individuals to work
together and share ideas and insights in ways which were
unimaginable a decade ago.

The potential to solve problems, to create the social, emotional and leadership skills international thinking and practice in
innovative new solutions, and to facilitate to contribute to the world’s challenges. core skills, competencies and teacher
constructive relationships between diverse This is what a relevant education in 2016 development. We believe this is the
groups of people is endless. However, needs to offer.1 most productive way to invest in our
to realise this potential our education shared future.
systems have to support young people And finally, as the UN’s Sustainable
to develop the knowledge, skills and values Development Goals stress, ‘high quality We are aiming to increase the number
they need to live and work in a globalised and equitable quality education’ needs to of young people globally with access
economy and to contribute responsibly be achieved across the world. The Global to these intrinsic and integrating skills.
both locally and globally. Monitoring Report in 2014 shows that Through our work with teachers and
although many more children are in school, school leaders, we aim to empower
Our education systems, and the young many are not learning the basics and, in individual educators to make informed
people within them, are facing some addition, many others are intellectually decisions about how they can best
significant challenges. Firstly, education disengaged from that schooling because provide for their pupils.
to employability reports over the last the education that they are receiving does
few years, from across the political not appear to be relevant to the context in We know there is not one answer –
spectrum, have highlighted the paradox which they operating, or provide the skills no single template for success – but we
of large scale youth unemployment and they need to thrive. believe that developing young people’s
employers struggling to fill entry level core skills will enable them to engage
vacancies. The most often cited reason As educators, our responsibility is to critically with the world around them
is that whilst employers still require and prepare every young person for their and this is worthy of our investment.
value subject knowledge, they are placing future in the best possible way. Whilst And the British Council is uniquely placed
a much greater premium on the need for qualifications and knowledge remain to deliver on that investment: we have
soft skills to sit alongside that subject important, they are no longer enough to centres in over 100 countries worldwide
knowledge than they have in the past. It is secure a successful future. Rather, young and a proven track record in international
these soft skills that students are struggling people need and deserve the opportunity educational transformation.
to demonstrate because very few education to grow into well-rounded, creative and
systems are focused on giving students critical citizens, ready to engage with In this, our second publication about core
the opportunity to develop them. labour markets and shape the future for skills, I am pleased to present stories from
themselves and future generations. practitioners and policymakers who we
Secondly, whilst we have much to gain have been working with over the last year.
from our increased connectivity, we are Our work with schools directly addresses We are at the beginning of our journey
also faced with the reality of increasing these issues through contribution to with them but with mutual respect and
inequalities. Our young people need not education discourse, system development commitment, I am certain we can enable
only to be globally competitive but also and provision of support services for more young people to play their part
globally competent – able to analyse and teachers and leaders. Within these in a successful and prosperous future
understand intercultural issues and with work areas, we have brought together global community.

1. Brookings. (2016). What will the Sustainable Development Goals really mean for education? (Part I) | Brookings Institution. (online)
Available at: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/education-plus-development/2015/06/18/what-will-the-sustainable-development-goals-really-mean-for-education-part-i/

work and society Introduction Susan Douglas and Björn Hassler Education is the only solution. In the age of the diverse international teams. and globally. assuming shared including cultural awareness and relevant education must surely provide responsibility.3 In other cases. and to the prosperity and security of However. Promoting self-directed thinking that high levels – an issue faced by countries These are often known as 21st century produces new and innovative ideas across the globe. but also to • Critical thinking and problem solving: ability to acquire knowledge and perform at the future world in which they will live. skills and values lower order cognitive skills. as or Glasgow. Malala Yousafzai Every country in the world needs a Employers are demanding higher order Whether you are a young person in Lagos high-quality. and solutions. actively listening metacognition inequalities and young people need the to others in diverse and multi-lingual appropriate skills and competencies to • tools for working: information literacy. If economies of academic mastery alongside the to live and work in a globalised economy are to be successful in the long term. leading. Fostering effective communication innovation. skills or deep learning skills7 and include: and solves problems. face some • u se digital tools to enable knowledge daunting challenges. including • ways of living in the world: global shared challenges that the Sustainable learning from and contributing to the citizenship and civic responsibility. Development Goals look to address. competence. the lack of the British Council is championing the quality provision and infrastructure mean In order to do so. and in writing).6 range of stakeholders across our network. learning to learn and The world remains fragile. although students are in school. 8 these skills alongside traditional delegating and compromising to foundational proficiency in literacy produce new and innovative ideas and numeracy. and solutions and products our global society as a whole. there is growing development of these core skills and that they are leaving without learning the consensus that school systems need to be competencies by supporting teachers basics. a generation ago. to the future and well-being of others • g enerate and implement new ideas. . addition to the skills and commitment to technology (ICT) literacy developing the ability to work in want to overcome them. creativity and connect also creates new challenges. real-world problems. our education systems.4 while further evidence suggests clear about the purposes of education and to develop their pedagogy in the that other students are simply intellectually develop young people with core skills and following areas: disengaged from their schooling. Jakarta or Bogotá. a learning of others. accessing system2 that supports young people to opposed to the traditional manual and education that supports the development develop the knowledge. Education first. inclusive and equitable school cognitive skills from their workforces. environments and understanding confront and talk about these issues in information and communication verbal and non-verbal communication. our acquisition of core skills such as these and to contribute responsibly both locally young people need to be enabled to: will be crucial to your future success. The great increase in • ways of thinking: critical thinking. reflecting critically on learning experiences The capacity for human interaction is also • ways of working: communication and processes and making changing in ways that were unimaginable and collaboration effective decisions. While there have been discovery.5 reporting competencies that relate not only to the being dissatisfied with provision and their world in which they are living. the young people within them. with growing (orally.04 Core skills for learning. creation of resources and The British Council’s focus significant gains in improving access to communication Building therefore on the deep pedagogies education. co-operating. universal primary education framework9 and UNESCO’s transversal will not be achieved in some countries for • a pply their knowledge to solve skills10 and in consultation with a wide another two generations. opportunities and ways to interact and • Collaboration and communication: problem solving.

cannot come at the judging value.nl/images/towards_a_new_end.GOV. using technology manipulation of these facts and how to reinforce. UNESCO (2013) Integrating Transversal Competencies in Education Policy and Practice. skill progression depends upon understanding of what it means given to the economic. M (2013) Towards a New End: New Pedagogies for Deep Learning..unesco. Herman.global/ 8. UNESCO (2014) Teaching and Learning – Achieving Quality for All.pdf 10. 9. 4.pdf. M (2012) ‘Defining Twenty-First Century Skills’ inGriffin. social. extend and deepen students use them to develop their skills.org/sdgs. (online) Available at: https://www. Available online at: http://unesdoc.org/Library/Documents/gmr-2013-14-teaching-and-learning-education-for-all- 2014-en. career learn more efficiently. Erstad. and and indeed mastery. recalled and recontextualised in UNESCO’s crucial – students need surface knowledge • Digital literacy: Developing the skills Rethinking Education. P. B and Care.. as recently introduction of core skills is therefore and their own country’s values.Publications . Gov.org/images/0023/002319/231907E. 11. (2012) Education for life and work: Developing transferable knowledge and skills in the 21st century. Available online at: http://en. globally self-regulation and responsibility. McGaw. 7. S and Milton. 05 • Creativity and imagination: Promoting • Student leadership and personal Skills and knowledge economic and social entrepreneurialism. teachers can phase in deep learning knowledge and information in a skills that test the application and globalised economy. Knowledge and skills self-confidence. Fullan. Friesen. knowledge and motivation to address and life skills. developing innovation recognising others’ needs and safety. As Joe Kirby explains: ‘knowledge and sustainability and work towards a skills are like a double helix. O. Drive and Self-Beliefs (Volume III). cultural and knowledge acquisition.unesco. Available online at: www. 3. Seattle. personal health and well-being. learning through international collaboration. National Research Council. (online) Available online at: http://npdl. . Washington. S.pdf 12. UNESCO (2015) UNESCO and Sustainable Development Goals. 11 first (facts) and once they have mastered to discover. J. Raizen. E (ed) Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills.pdf.org/gem-report/. M and Langworthy. Reports from 2012.newpedagogies. USA.uk/government/publications/education-improving- learning-expanding-opportunities 5.uk (2016) Education: improving learning. Sustainable Development Goal 4. developing an the argument that equal importance be learning.org/images/0023/002325/232555e. academic and intellectual engagement. expanding opportunities .UK. core skills.org (2016) Global Education Monitoring Report. first edition. are interwoven and when students are • Citizenship: Developing active.unesco. Ripley. M. the British Council supports tandem from surface learning to deep and open dialogue. Available online at: http://en. Available online at: www. Cited in Christodoulou. P (2009) What did you do in school today? Transforming classrooms through social. they aware citizens who have the skills.gov.uis. Dordecht: Springer Netherlands. OECD (2013) PISA 2012 Results: Ready to Learn: Students’ Engagement. Binkley. (First National Report) Toronto: Canadian Education Association. 6. learning to learn and issues of human and environmental lifelong learning. development: Recognising the Developing pedagogy in relation to these imagining and pursuing novel ideas.unesco. exploring leadership.’12 The timing of the to be a citizen of their own country civic dimensions of learning. Seven Myths About Education London: Routledge. Available online at http://unesdoc. importance of honesty and empathy. fostering perseverance. PISA: OECD Publishing. M and Miller-Ricci. however. Washington: National Academies Press. D (2014). progressing in fairer world in a spirit of mutual respect In so doing. JD.unesco. En. UNESCO (2015) Rethinking Education: Towards a Global Common Good. 2. expense of the development of knowledge and curiosity. acquire and communicate these.unesco. New Pedagogies for Deep Learning (2016) Homepage – New Pedagogies for Deep Learning. Willms. 2013 and 2014. resilience. developing both simultaneously.

Hord. Nag. B and Hofmann. M. and Snowling. Darling-Hammond.06 Effective classroom practice The British Council is approaching the Sharing is a critical component of learning The way teachers implement the teaching development of these skills by advocating communities20 and this structured of such skills therefore needs to focus a school-based professional development professional collaboration between diverse on highly effective techniques and model15 based on teachers working together groups. A. Scientific and Cultural Organization.ac. Barber. Morrissey. dialogue. Hennessy. Available online at: https://learningforward. offering a more detailed • offer opportunities for modelling. teachers who are offered a positive attitude towards students being job-embedded17 whilst also opportunities to share and collaborate • increasing metacognition.gov. circumstances. EPPI-Centre reference number 2110). B (1999) Student Achievement through Staff Development: Fundamentals of School Renewal 2nd Edition.unesco. Institute of Education. B. Westbrook. Bell. Austin: Texas: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. R (2013) Improving Education: A triumph of hope over experience (online) Available online at: http://www. Haßler.org/attachments/publications/ImprovingEducation2013. and which seeks to of practice – John Hattie’s collective create supportive and reflective efficacy. Available online at: https://www. further • responsive feedback to students – aligns with a growing body of research18 informing effective practice. Orr. drawing on a variety of values. 22. and which seeks to create • encourage and support teachers that has a strong relationship with supportive and reflective communities in obtaining resources. Durrani. Hattie. Boddy. Effective important role. Cited in Coe. Foundation Learning and Assessment in Developing Countries. across subjects and year groups16 and which in core areas ultimately benefits both centred pedagogy will therefore play an lets teachers design the assessment and teachers and young people. (No. L. London: Pearson. heeding and/or code switching for teachers to work together.pdf Joyce. R (forthcoming). R (Forthcoming) Challenges and opportunities for teacher professional development in interactive use of technology in African schools. particularly in learning and the use of local languages • encourage and create opportunities an equitable and inclusive way.pdf?sfvrsn=0 18. S. MJ (2014) Literacy. language raising student attainment. SM (1997) Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. J. Thus the programmes ideally support student techniques and approaches outlined acquisition of the intended core skills. teach these skills through carefully planned its importance. that focuses on improved teaching teaching approaches. for example. Isham C. Hennessy. be with diverse backgrounds and perspectives based on teachers’ existing knowledge • lesson planning that incorporates together around a shared mission and set and offer opportunities for practice in variety – that is. D. Unesco. MS (2000). teachers’ practice. RC. Educational Leadership. suggesting that learning should be internationally are able to learn from each regulation and self-directed learning collaborative.cem. Chiat. Richardson. J. pair and group work • focus on classroom implementation.uk/uploads/toolkit/EEF_Toolkit_-21st_November_2014.org. S.org (2016) Education for All | Education | United Nations Educational. Interactive learner. the British Council has sought to high-quality feedback has a strong relationship with teachers’ apply an evidence-based methodology practice.22 intensive training has been concluded digital and non-digital.org/new/en/education/themes/ leading-the-international-agenda/education-for-all/ . Evans D. S and Hofmann. 15. Hofmann. teaching practices and teacher education in developing countries: final report. Available online at: www. 13. M and colleagues (2013) Oceans of Innovation London: Institute for Public Policy Research. Wiliam. 14. Haßler. In: Research Evidence in Education Library. T and Cowan. and the most effective measurement for student progress based programmes can impact on student approaches include: 13 on what works best in their context. R. R (forthcoming) Experiences of developing and trialling the OER4Schools professional development programme: Implications for sustaining pedagogic innovation in sub-Saharan Africa. Cordingley P. D (2000) Launching professional learning communities: Beginning actions. Professional Learning Communities: An Ongoing Exploration. J. 21. B and Showers. Social Science Research Unit.aspx?tabid=3433. Haßler. 17.pdf. Leo. Research conducted in Sub-Saharan innovation will only occur if certain key Africa. we will examine Professional development the six core skills. S (2009) Dallas: National Staff Development Council. above underpin each chapter. Available online at: http:// educationendowmentfoundation. Pryor. Torgerson. S.14 Such professional development communities of practice.’ different contexts of teaching approaches • be long term and structured involving The focus on professional development • oral language interventions – interactive should always be to support teachers in several spaced interactions questioning style. as well as local resources. • drawing on students’ backgrounds and experiences in teaching – with Hammond and colleagues who stress the importance of professional development In addition. Wei. B.org/docs/pdf/nsdcstudytechnicalreport2009. Working with experts in the being observed and receiving teacher professional development which field. Pedagogic change by Zambian primary school teachers participating in the OER4Schools professional development programme for one year.pdf 19. J (2011) Visible Learning for Teachers London: Routledge. J (2011) Visible Learning for Teachers. C. Barber including teacher feedback which upon which our training packages are and colleagues21 argue that successful is sustained and inclusive based.uk/government/ uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/305150/Literacy-foundation-learning-assessment. 16.uk/cms/Default. S. This other across cultural contexts. Brown. N. self. Firth A (2007) What do specialists do in CPD programmes for which there is evidence of positive outcomes for pupils and teachers? Technical Report. and Orphanos. curriculum. identifies that effective conditions are in place including ensuring • collaborative learning – with mastery professional development should:19 people have the opportunity to work in learning and peer-support.ioe. Hennessy. Austin: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. • develop teacher agency and The chapters to follow leadership In the following chapters. Issues About Change. Austin: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. peer diverse teams: ‘top teams bring individuals tutoring. Available online at: https://eppi. attainment. N. 20. London: Routledge. Technology Pedagogy and Education: Special Issue ‘Capacity Building for 21st Century Learning in Africa: A Focus on ICT Integration in Education’. active and sustained. F (2013) Pedagogy. and Salvi. D (2007/2008 December/January) Changing classroom practice. to international commitment towards improve and sustain their learning after • the use of learning materials – education for all. Andree. Hattie. even in the most challenging This approach is supported by Darling. Teachers acquire the practical ability to definition of each one plus a rationale as to reflecting on teachers’ own practice. London: EPPI-Centre. University of London.

Whelan. critical thinking and problem solving can and should be taught. ‘I don’t want solutions which the author gave you. 25. Deeper learning is happening.com/watch?v=sylcrljN1T0&feature=youtu. [online]. literacy and science. F (2014) The learning challenge: How to ensure that by 2020 every child learns. India. However. but classrooms like this one suggest that all children are capable of it. they are currently not mastering these skills. You can see an inspiring video of this classroom when you search for ‘Learning to be a Superhero Teach For India’ 23 on YouTube. Acasus (2014) Almost all children are in school – but how many are learning? [online. In a low-income community in South Delhi.’ What happens next? It is visible that students are thinking hard. Only four out of ten primary school students reach a basic level of competence in numeracy. 24 Given this reality. students are reading Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Acasus-The-Learning-Challenge-Report.pdf. Today’s discussion is about the potions master.acasus. Available online at: www. writing and arithmetic 25 children are still learning Each country is represented by a circle sized in proportion to its population basic skills. YouTube (2015) Student voice: Learning to be a superhero (Teach For India). Learning to think critically and solve problems is not easy.com/who-learns/circle-map . 6.acasus.youtube. what is the role of critical thinking and problem solving? Can these skills be taught at all? 23. Available online at: www.] Available online at www. they are trying to come up with different answers. p. I want you to be thinking. the reality in most schools around the world is quite different. The teacher encourages students to think independently.be 24. Even if children were capable of critical thinking and problem solving. 07 Critical thinking and problem solving Luxury or necessity? Critical thinking and problem solving should be at the core of learning for all Artur Taevere Even in a world where most Percentage of children who reach a basic learning level in reading. to imagine a better solution.

the three types of thinking: reasoning. and problem that the disease HIV spreads by sharing and many other industries. 2020. 78 per cent of people living does not meet expectations. reasoning from an open mind and being open to new Creative problem solving passion rather than logic. That’s why the attitude of having previously held views. One of the main reasons is an economic vacancies. 27 communities. In some is also about enabling learners to fulfil their different perspectives. and failing evidence needs to be practised at school. 28 In fact. to the world. better decisions and improve their valued among employers – but where they can think critically by considering livelihood. discounting new one’s mind. For example. wages in poverty are in rural areas and are farmers.and guide you. prejudices. This is vital for everyone. none of people working together to solve may be uncritical or critical.08 The meaning of critical thinking Effective thinking also involves an open The economic argument has far-reaching and problem solving mind: being open to new evidence even implications. 32 members. 29 . in many communities. towels or cutlery. In a recent international survey. the competence of new employees multiple perspectives: the opinion of family For example. 30 However. some people think nature of work is changing in agriculture judgments and decisions. The purpose of education necessary knowledge about all of these and increase income. A recent Being able to think critically about different Critical thinking and problem solving are also international survey suggests that fewer approaches to water and grassland important for another reason. Because of technological Cognitive scientists suggest there are if it is in conflict with one’s previously held change and productivity growth. and the same of this is true. not just remembering solutions Is it important? people around the world are unemployed. among 15 year olds to support statements with evidence. But discrimination continues unique problems. as opposed to routine applies for the other two types of thinking. adopting different breeds potential and make a positive contribution has grown milk yields by 65 per cent. which goes than half of young people have the management may boost productivity far beyond jobs. four out of ten employers said a skills thinking independently. making views. so that it becomes a habit. in a way that shortage is a leading reason for entry-level is not overly controlled by anyone else. A growing solving. 31 evidence when it conflicts with your emotional. Critical thinking is a specific way baths. sound like terms that a young philosophy middle-skilled workers is expected by student would talk about at university. has doubled the income of herders. possible job openings. fewer than one Effective – critical thinking avoids they are presented with evidence on how in ten (15 year old) students are able to common mistakes such as only seeing HIV really spreads? It is not easy to change solve fairly complex problems creatively. How will people react when In most countries. and graduation placement rates. and teamwork skills. Self-directed – critical thinking involves but these are important skills for everyone. especially if the issue is very according to the PISA tests in 2012. According to management consultants Novel – critical thinking involves thinking McKinsey & Company. This means that reasoning toilets or swimming pools. Alongside general work ethic such as a teacher. 75 million young in new ways. because people’s problems. 26 one: it is about jobs and livelihoods. one side of an issue. Better critical thinking and and better grassland management problem solving would enable both. problem solving Critical thinking enables people to make is among the skills that are highly When young people choose what to study. relatively few It is critical if it has three features: views are based on misinformation and students learn these skills at school. or situations that are similar enough to Critical thinking and problem solving may and a shortfall of 85 million high. or using the same proportion of jobs now require teams of thinking.

8–19. you always think about 35. Summer 2007. 8–19. Available online at: http://mckinseyonsociety.8% about historical events does not mean that Malaysia the same person is able to think critically 50.org//sites/default/files/periodicals/Crit_Thinking.31.7% 29. Levy and Murnane (2001) cited in Cisco Systems. can these skills be taught? Canada 14.aft. Curriculum This is not a question of luxury. it would make a big by the teacher. Autor.aft. 11–44.2% 68% 12. and solve problems. and practised extensively Teachers need new skills and better tools difference to their livelihood and happiness.pdf.3% 14.5% 63. 2010. such as looking at an issue from multiple and how to provide feedback that enables If students learned how to think critically perspectives – need to be made explicit students to solve non-routine problems.4% 69.2% 11. but research suggests that this approach usually brings about a Spain 28. 32. OECD Publishing. Based on Willingham.6% 0. D.uk/facts-myths/faqs-myths. Farrell.pdf p. Both critical 0 20 40 60 80 100 thinking strategies and content knowledge are needed.9% 65.com/downloads/reports/Education/Education-to-Employment_FINAL.8% These have often focused on learning United States 18.8% 17.com/web/about/citizenship/socio-economic/docs/LearningSociety_WhitePaper. Summer 2007. 15. Inc. 34. M.3% General critical thinking programmes have been relatively popular in the past. D (2012) Education to Employment: Designing a System that Works.pdf p. The World Bank (2014) Brief: Raise Agricultural Productivity. 33.2% 70.2% something.3% 50. Mourshed. D (2007) Critical thinking: why is it so hard to teach? American Educator. Available online at: www.] Available online at: www. by students. McKinsey Center for Government. D (2007) Critical thinking: why is it so hard to teach? American Educator.7% 7.org//sites/default/files/periodicals/Crit_Thinking. pp. how to ask open questions. Farrell.6% Share of mid- thinking and problem solving are performers important.worldbank.8% modest benefit. D (2012) Education to Employment: Designing a System that Works.6% ‘how to think’. to meet these expectations. The Learning Society. pp.pdf 31.pdf p. Mourshed. Available online at: www. Barton. Available online at: www. . M. 12–13. 11.cisco.aft.pdf pp. Critical thinking strategies – critical thinking.com/downloads/reports/Education/Education-to-Employment_FINAL. Germany 19. Available online at: www. And finally. Willingham. D (2007) Critical thinking: why is it so hard to teach? American Educator.org/en/topic/agriculture/brief/raise-agricultural-productivity 30. subjects. 8. Available online at: http://mckinseyonsociety.7% 67. pp. National AIDS Trust: What everyone should know about HIV: facts and myths.9% 1. Summer 2007. 33 Why? Critical thinking is Turkey not a general skill.org/pisa/keyfindings/PISA-2012-results-volume-V. 09 Can it be taught? Singapore 8% 62.org. resources have to be redesigned with 26.9% about the nuances of farming. Being able to think critically Brazil 47. [online.php 29. McKinsey Center for Government. p.5% 27. pp.5% 48. OECD (2014) PISA 2012 Results: Creative Problem Solving: Students’ Skills in Tackling Real-Life Problems (Volume V). the focus of exams needs involves integrating critical thinking into programmes for teachers – how to model to shift to evaluate these skills as well.org//sites/default/files/periodicals/Crit_Thinking. Available online at: www. Willingham. 28. 27.pdf .3% Share of low achievers This brings us to the question: if critical Korea 6. a more promising approach invest in high-quality professional learning mind. PISA. 34 All of the above can only be achieved if we critical thinking and problem solving in Therefore. D and Barton. Available online at: www.8% 62% 2.hivaware.5% Share of top performers England 16. 8–19.oecd.

• run a workshop for parents on critical to think. We are process of critical thinking in either 2. United Kingdom St Joseph’s is a Roman Catholic primary school for 240 boys and girls in the London borough of Wandsworth. imagery children’s question types against Bloom’s was to embed critical thinking and stimulation and mind-mapping. ‘I like the lollipop • have a ‘questioner of the week’ award names on to structure who was asked sticks because it makes me listen • set homework linked to the question questions. Teachers were asked to strengthen the the achievement of our learners. learners What we did questioning frequency and types of were showing a higher level of thinking. at a staff meeting. across all curriculum areas and adopt powerful in helping the children it as a whole-school approach to raise develop their higher order questions. share thinking and questioning skills. pouncing on one individual for Teachers said that it improved the thinking skills an answer. bounce questioning is saying. The outcomes of the project were asking higher order questions by the end. The pose. We wanted to move the critical thinking. pause. Pupils are enjoying the • set up ‘good questions’ boards in improved questioning techniques. because by teachers and pupils from 50:50 to 30:70. each class and link vocabulary walls We introduced a ‘no hands up’ policy One seven year old said. practice. monitored carefully. The strategy of ‘no hands up’ and considering our next steps and it is likely geography or history through the the use of lollipop sticks has been that they will be to: development of questioning techniques. St Joseph’s RC Primary School.10 Case study Developing great questioning techniques by Stephen Ellis. pounce. ‘Questions – to good questions in classes. and then bouncing that answer children’s listening skills and that it on to another pupil for an opinion. London. successful. approach. on that thinking. The critical thinking and problem solving question asked. and instead teachers picked we solve them as mysteries’ and a small wooden lollipop sticks with pupils’ nine year old said. Why we wanted to improve core skills thinking skills through activities such The teachers and their LSAs matched the One of the school’s priorities for 2015–16 as hot-seating. ‘Using respective proportions of questions asked and shared as a PowerPoint presentation questions all the time is exciting. Outcomes were analysed the questions. Geographical and historical and then had a whole school staff training extend our practice of critical thinking photographs and images were very day on critical thinking. pounce and bounce a question. findings suggest that the children were in order to raise standards. Teachers introduced the pose. It has been decided that we will 1. pausing to give pupils time strategy (PPPB) has worked well. we learn more about the world around us.’ I attended the core skills training and What we have achieved so far What we plan to do in the future disseminated my learning in a planned The project achieved its aims by using Critical thinking strategies have become way: teachers were introduced to three critical thinking strategies: part of our teachers’ daily planning and techniques for asking better questions. The LSAs monitored In five out of six classes surveyed. and concentrate on what the teacher of the week pause. They • target underachieving pupils with more encourages children to consider also developed pupils’ use of thinking opportunities to develop their critical alternative thinking and to build time through the think. roleplay. pair. As one child said. Teachers observed each project involved all of the eight teachers other and collected samples of pupils’ In six out of seven classrooms we found and 12 learning support assistants (LSAs) work to show the progress and impact of that pupils were asking the majority of across the school.’ technique (PPPB) which involves posing • develop debates as classroom practice 3. Taxonomy before and after the project. Pupils also developed their . questioning at the heart of the curriculum.

However. 11 Communication and collaboration Communication and collaboration: a new significance Lynne Parmenter All humans communicate. to do everything from farming to surgery collaborative competence are more than to driving safely through a city. One of the clearest definitions of other focus areas such as citizenship. then approaches. These definitions indicate what is collaboration aligns with both purposes. 37 amount of their time building and sharing by purposes. in the collaboration as core skills now? This need to go beyond employability-focused neighbourhood. communication and collaboration as pillars was ‘learning to live together’. national hunger. People collaborate and co-operate century. Paris: UNESCO. and communication and and collaboration. to communicate in different models especially in previous decades. Report to UNESCO of the international commission on education for the twenty-first century. paper examines communicative and skills. Partnership for 21st Century Learning (2015) P21 Framework Definitions. which opinions. as well as the ability to be flexible and these skills are not mutually exclusive. followed lack of resources. communicative and and global levels. as Fullan noted. humans. Whether it is in the classroom. of communicating clearly states that it development of skills through education. communication are collaboration and communication known as the Delors Report. An alternative young people because. productivity. Communication and make compromises when necessary. Education professionals who want to make requires effective listening and an ability Policies of the World Bank and OECD. involves the ability to work responsibly emphasis is on development of core skills ‘the ability to collaborate on both a small and willingly in diverse teams to achieve that enrich each individual and contribute and large scale is becoming one of the 35. Available online at: www. So why this. to ‘address the… moral issues that or through television and the internet. Delors. and it is important to note that collaboration are basic the development of communication and human survival skills. sharing. C (2014) Principles for learning and competencies in the 21st century curriculum. Prospects 44: 503–525. An important report from UNESCO. C and Hughes. poverty and citizenship’. common goals. improvements in their classrooms. alongside core skills. children and young people spend a huge discussion of definitions. Communication and collaboration are knowledge and experiences through these at the heart of such education.pdf 36. necessary to cope in and contribute to they are important for economic. communication and collaboration as core leadership and critical thinking. At another level. demonstrating respect for to improvements and greater equity in the contributions of each group member. 37. Their development and the improvement of develop these competencies among definition of collaborating with others socioeconomic indicators.non-verbal) for a variety of have focused on skills for economic through the effective use of these skills purposes. at local. values and ways of thinking survival skills dating back to the earliest is fundamentally about communication and seeing. . Acedo. J and colleagues (1996) Learning: the treasure within.p21. schools. 35 Their definition There is tension in debates over the with change and coping in society. in the home. with priorities such and to do so with all the people they work environments including multilingual contexts as employability. communication and skills is provided by the Partnership for collaboration are also essential for dealing 21st Century Learning. In more concrete terms. The two purposes for developing All humans collaborate. of course. written. communities or systems can only do so (oral. and one of its four disseminating information. humanistic A newborn baby cries to communicate the economy and workplace of the 21st and social justice reasons. society. in a place of worship.org/storage/documents/docs/P21_Framework_Definitions_New_Logo_2015. knowledge. The goals of education in the playground. inequality. 36 laid out and collaboration are vital for the purposes the subject of so much attention now? a foundation for education beyond the of obtaining. working confidently in diverse competitiveness. economic with. collaborative competence through face the planet such as conflict. skills. creating and What is the difference between economic rationale. They also have a responsibility to and using technologies effectively.

each other. the ability to discover. The role of the teacher here (often through another language). core requisites of society’. 39 Additionally. These approaches knowledge of self and others and of humans themselves. of every child as an individual. and as a citizen base for understanding how and why the Byram’s framework for conceptualising of their community. Children (and adults) in today’s point here is to emphasise that more interdependent. as a learner.12 Children (and adults) in today’s globalised world not only need to be able to communicate and collaborate. including openness to otherness. and in classroom practice. . knowledge. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. skills and experiences through and the possession of attitudes conducive social interaction with others.org/pisa/pisaproducts/Draft%20PISA%202015%20Collaborative%20Problem%20Solving%20Framework%20. M (1997) Teaching and Assessing International Communicative Competence. Educational leadership 50: 1–13. the ability to interact and children’s learning as they build their mediate between cultures and languages. Byram. the key concept schools and classrooms. to other cultures as well as providing tools In conclusion. they also need to be prepared to do so interculturally. One important societies and economies become ever is diversity. relativising self. and critical cultural awareness.pdf 40. provide a solid as a member of school. abilities such as working together to share and create knowledge also become paramount.oecd. but as competencies show that children learn through social interaction. collaboration and communication. they also need to be embedded in the curriculum important for effective communication. psychologist Lev Vygotsky. OECD (2013) PISA 2015 Draft Collaborative Problem Solving Framework. and intercultural dependency is to scaffold children’s learning through to use that information and knowledge and co-existence. it becomes attached to this competence is reflected introduction about how these core skills possible to examine and understand ways in the PISA 2015 Collaborative Problem differ from communication and collaboration in which core skills can be practised in Solving Framework. as optional extras or discrete skills to be Having discussed definitions and purposes The role of languages and language squeezed into an already full timetable. 38. Available online at: www. need to be prepared to do so interculturally. to intercultural competence. interpret for today’s world. 38 The importance Going back to the question in the Using theories such as these. the ability diversity. communication and Approaches based on theories of social to enhance understanding of your own collaboration are core to the development constructivism. deriving from the work of language and culture. 39. the next issue is to consider approaches learning is central to this as it opens doors to the development of these core skills. MG (1993) Why teachers must become change agents. as as human survival skills. development of communicative and and developing intercultural communicative Communicative and collaborative skills collaborative competence should be competence 40 suggests that this involves: are universal and have a history as long as a focus in schools. nation and world. facilitating effectively. Extending this model to intercultural collaborative competence. the ability to learn globalised world not only need to be able communication and collaboration skills and work in other languages is increasingly to communicate and collaborate. they have a new engagement with the teacher and with and relate information from another culture significance in the context of globalisation. in diverse and often multilingual settings. Fullan. not treated in diverse and often multilingual settings.

Russell Street School. UK . Sandra Lewis. 13 The training made us revisit and revitalise our school’s approaches to collaboration and communication.

and identity. It is so much learning a language as one way to help If you talk to a man in a easier for someone to actively engage combat stress and depression. does it really matter that has never been more important. brain power contexts in which they are spoken enables and mental health. not just much more. contrast and critically analyse International research44 shows that diverse visions of the world. English these days anyway? And then. research. own language that goes languages are in the privileged position of for example.43 language he understands. security which language (or languages) should and defence. they are learning the foundation of learning itself. be functional. even a few words can make languages? Doesn’t everyone speak languages have an impact on prosperity. Michael Halliday41 Living and working in today’s society Language learning is about so much more Language learning poses particular requires young people to be able to than just learning new words. which means people from other countries that underpins becoming the international common that the ability to speak different any kind of meaningful global relationship. engineering and mathematics) Nelson Mandela and society from the perspective of in the school system. other other countries where English is the first across a wide range of diverse and cultures. you friends and influence people. they are not simply engaging in one kind of learning among many. and by doing so can more easily amount of resources and curriculum time consider what it means to be a citizen of allocated to it. . and understanding. As well heads. linguistic and cultural contexts if they have therefore a vital skill for the future – and If you talk to him in his a functional knowledge of the language.14 Communication and collaboration: the place of languages Vicky Gough When children learn language. Students become able to compare. with people from other societies and to navigate effectively across a range of The ability to speak another language is that goes to his head. The value which is deemed to the OECD average. law and languages and understand other cultures we need to be talking to hearts. The British Council come from such abilities can be clearly provides English teaching across the world seen by the fact that in many countries and our experience tells us that. In order to build the trust with language. it is about challenges not only for the UK. or international language. with the appropriate another. with the UK’s National students to understand the similarities and Health Service even recommending differences between cultures. So students who can speak two or multiple the teaching and learning of languages should be held in the same high regard as. rather.46 With English increasingly multilingual environments. STEM subjects (science. Evidence has suggested that languages can boost Exposure to different languages and the employment opportunities. being able to reflect on their own identity technology. but also for communicate and collaborate effectively being open to. to his heart. that country. in order to it is considered the norm to learn a make substantial progress in a language. through international relations.42 on an individual level too.45. language for business. promoting different countries provide vastly differing intercultural understanding and bringing amounts of teaching time to languages benefits both to their own society and to with England providing half the amount of others. And you don’t have to be fluent to young people in the UK learn other as being central to education and training. a home language and another national significant time investment must be made. through Learning a language has many benefits English speakers learn?47 well-being and social cohesion.

understanding another culture – and an processors. English is the most widely taught quarters of the planet with whom most foreign language in over 100 countries Therefore. Looney. In globalised economies.edu.org/continuing-professional-development/cpd-researchers/english-next . Crystal. a knowledge of other languages world stage.uk/born-global#BornGlobalSymposium 49.org/content/download/31180/1452509/EMB_enrllmnts_nonEngl_2013. Available online at: www.britishcouncil. their motives for learning it and population speaks English. which is seen as an essential skill about profound changes in who is learning be noted that only a quarter of the world’s providing access to education.au/aer/8 46. 52. N (2015) Available online at: https://www.org/10. Lo Bianco. Available online at: http://research.britac. British Academy (2016) British Academy Briefing: On Languages.britac. Gov.ac.ac. the reality is that place in the curriculum is no longer that issue applies to other predominantly learning languages means learning of ‘foreign language’ and this is bringing Anglophone countries too. Quite simply. English.org/organisation/policy-insight-research/research/languages-future 48. order to boost their own job prospects and 41. the UK needs far more in the national language and. anxiety and depression – NHS Choices. British Council (2016) Languages for the Future. its function and as speaking no English at all. and while that’s the internet.Publications. 15 While speaking English is of course a huge to help the UK stay competitive on the remains a basic skill. 42. D. asset. UK: Cambridge University Press.50 in the future: learning how to learn. NHS (2016) Learning for mental wellbeing – Stress.pdf 51. acquire new knowledge and specialist skills increasingly demanding language skills.uk/sites/default/files/pages/160/State_of_the_Nation_REPORT_WEB.ucml. perhaps the of its young people to learn languages in mother tongue where that is different.acer. university.britishcouncil.48 and this For many in the world. J (2016) ‘Second Languages and Australian Schooling’ by Joseph Lo Bianco. MAK (1993) Towards a Language-based Theory of Learning.pdf 47. Graddol. Available online at www. English seems to have joined this list of be considered as much of a disadvantage basic skills. Halliday. Cambridge. D and Lusin.uk (2016) The costs to the UK of language deficiencies as a barrier to UK engagement in exporting . It should also English. Available online at: http://dx. Available online at: www. often displacing others. understanding But information technology – how to use is absolutely vital for the UK’s future another language is the basis for computers and applications such as word prosperity. In fact when it comes to the UK.uk/conditions/stress-anxiety-depression/pages/learn-for-mental-wellbeing. Available online at: https://www.51 English speakers learning different languages. Goldberg. OECD (2014) ‘Indicator D1: How much time do students spend in the classroom?’ in Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators.uk/government/publications/the-costs-to-the-uk-of-language-deficiencies-as-a-barrier-to-uk-engagement-in-exporting 50. may find that speaking only English might young people anywhere in the world. Tinsley.ac.aspx?_sm_au_=iHVWTHFKZrMWFLPn 44.nhs. More than that. Available online at: https://www.uk/british-academy-briefing-languages 43.52 clearly a lot of people. UK: British Council. spreadsheets and internet young people hoping to compete in an open mind and an international outlook browsers – has become just as important in increasingly global employment market have never been more important for basic education.1787/888933119530 45. Available online at: www. British Academy (2016) Born Global: A British Academy Project on Languages and Employability. as does numeracy.gov. D (2011) English Next. D (2003) English as a global language. Demand and supply of language Skills in the UK. the business world and their needs as learners. language. T (2013) State of the Nation. Linguistics and Education 5/2: 93–116. Literacy With this in mind. London. OECD Publishing. Available online at: https://englishagenda. experiences of language The current lack of language skills is said As David Graddol notes: learning and exposure to other cultures to be holding back the UK’s international are key to enabling intercultural collaboration The role of education in school is now seen trade performance at a cost of almost and effective communication in diverse as to provide the generic skills needed to £50 billion a year49 and employers are environments. it still leaves three science.mla.doi. whether it is about adding people in the UK are – quite literally – and in most of those it is the chief foreign English to a home language or native lost for words.

and test took part in core skills training. so we needed fingers to portray the characters. however. in an Our awareness programmes and in English was the habit of reading for age-appropriate format. We have organised a language camp We formed an English book library as the for children. helped by teaching and learning processes while also children could not read or express audiovisual aids. that our which the teachers presented. to the school development society. The school leader and two other teachers engagement. first to build their confidence and skills. sound effects and using raising the profile of language learning and themselves well in English. ‘Now my hobby is reading through an awareness-raising workshop. activities. First. Kandy. This was Pupils would then be challenged to consider scores in English language improved. the children demonstration lessons helped other pleasure.16 Case study The importance of effective communication by Mrs Subashini Samarakoon. as central to the development of our visual aids. and to reflect on books’. Sri Lanka Berrewaerts is a semi-urban primary school in Kandy. disseminated to all of our English teachers and act out what they would choose to do One pupil said. specifically English language learning – supported the teachers by providing and worksheets based on the stories. and progress. their critical thinking abilities. Parents also created various games. create their own endings to the stories and consider multiple perspectives. Why we wanted to improve core skills and made story presentations to increase walls using their new vocabulary. and using their creations we foundation for a suite of activities involving The English language component of the prepared an exhibition involving nearby 40 nine year old pupils over 12 weeks. teacher then asked the children to use their understanding of the story to develop Both parents and teachers noted the What we did predictions about what would happen next. We found. Pupils come from a range of backgrounds. children’s increased confidence. in the fictional situations. Our approach followed a pathway from We realised that one of the foundations enhanced interest. They We view language competencies – and the children’s interest in reading. The effective communication across the school. to increased What we have achieved so far for achieving a good level of proficiency understanding. both inside and outside the were motivated to memorise the stories teachers to build critical thinking into their classroom. . ultimately. and their own picture stories incorporating pupils’ general communication skills and. which promoted interest in our English teachers took the role of librarians their own picture dictionaries and word work from their teachers. speech bubbles. to critical reflection. This enabled them to from our library. The project also enabled our children to make schools. Berrewaerts College. The whole school community took there was also a programme for other the differing views and experiences of the an interest and wanted to borrow books teachers and some of the parents belonging various characters.

Rob Unwin and Helen Griffin Education must fully assume Feeling: Even when someone has legal Citizenship education status as a citizen. In return. for example As a contested concept. lifestyle or consumer choices provide some collective benefits such related to citizenship can be explored and and active campaigning.globaleducationfirst. 55. faith. fundraising.htm.org/new/en/global-citizenship-education 54. H (2005) Changing citizenship: democracy and inclusion in education. societies. 53 reconceived as both a ‘community of methods of learning by doing citizens’ and a ‘community of communities’ Unpacking citizenship • through citizenship in an atmosphere where individuals may be. Available online at: www. It must give people as a barrier to citizenship. Lister.unesco. citizens are generally required to contribute to such benefits through paying taxes and possibly through Citizenship as a status Citizenship as a feeling jury or military service. citizens through laws and policing and Values and a range of key concepts voting. gender. in Steiner. Foster Global Citizenship (Priority 3). (making a difference) (participation skills) 56 rather than having rights and freedoms. to achieve a more inclusive Status: Whatever the political regime in a of learners who together pose problems. or sexuality. 53. 56. Maidenhead: Open University Press. language. states generally seek to protect enquire and seek solutions for change.org/220. they may not feel fully These features of citizenship. R (1996) The Terrestrial Teacher. The Runnymede Trust suggests that a multicultural country can be • for citizenship – which requires active challenges of the 21st century. 57. 57 model. The status of a (rights and duties) (identity and belonging) national as ‘citizen’ will have changed over time and can be contrasted with that of ‘subject’ to an absolute power. 58. London: Routledge. where there Citizenship as a practice Citizenship as a competence may be a greater emphasis on obedience. This can act and developed in school. associated competencies people to forge more just. Based on Richardson. M (ed) Developing the Global Teacher: Theory and Practice in initial teacher education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. the boundaries of the and understanding in resolving the interconnected state. developed by Osler and Starkey 54 Practice: Active citizens know their rights sees it as a status. This might include country. 17 Core skills for learning. Many members of a nation may also feel an allegiance to Teaching and learning needs to take place: the understanding. Osler. Runnymede Trust (2000) The Future of Multi-ethnic Britain: the Parekh Report. their its central role in helping included in a society because of disability.’ 58 raising public awareness. A and Starkey. there are many which reflects a concern for the ideals both British and Asian. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham. UN Secretary General’s Office (2014) Global Education First Initiative on Education. London: Profile Books. and sustainable society. as education. UNESCO (2014) Global Citizenship Education. I (1984) Teaching and Learning about Human Rights. tolerant and inclusive class or caste. interrelationships. ‘dialogic encounters within a community or collectively. Kumar (2008) cited in Bourn. healthcare and a justice audits used to evaluate citizenship across system.55 ways of defining citizenship. a feeling and a practice: Learning may be seen as a process of and freedoms and may act individually. One helpful and practice of citizenship. skills and their communities that exist within. and values they need to co-operate • about citizenship – knowledge often also beyond. Available online at: www. social and underpinning values can be explored peaceful. ethnicity. . work and society What is education for citizenship? Clive Belgeonne. D (2015) The Theory and Practice of Development Education: a pedagogy for global social justice.

Dunfermline High School. Greg Duncan. UK . which I will in turn pass on to learners in my classes.18 I was inspired and convinced of the importance of learning for sustainability.

it/Allegati/convegno 7-8-10-05/Schwartzpaper. Available online at: http://valuesandframes. SH (2006) Basic human values: an overview. It should Values also help to determine whether also be recognised. 59. ten basic values recognised in cultures countries and to explore those perceived rapid technological change… and the around the world.unict. The values ‘circumplex’ to be needed for active citizenship. that there one sees oneself as a citizen in a may be considerable challenges to globalised world. Crompton. to take in relation to such issues. Societies and Education 9/3–4: 307–310.org/pisa/35070367. values are at the core of environment. 62 key issues for skills help support young people in taking determine our behaviour and actions. it is also about behaviour and actions. It is useful to give behaviours ‘Rapid globalisation and modernisation are both teachers and students an opportunity posing new and demanding challenges to to identify some of their own values. however. Increasingly The Schwartz Values Survey 61 identified consider how these relate to those of their diverse and interconnected populations.’ 59 continua: self-enhancement versus with school students can support their People are being increasingly bound self-transcendence and openness understanding of what it means to be an together by common interests. Citizenship is usually defined as the status of a person recognised under custom or law as Attitudes An exploration of values and concepts is being a member of a state. 19 As citizenship is as much about feeling and practice as it is about status. the curriculum and school life. citizenship education. OECD (2005) Pisa And The Definition Of Key Competencies. Individual active citizen. sustainability and Citizenship in a globalised world our relationship with the biosphere.fmag. WWF-UK. and a to change versus conservation. Available online at: www. it is also values – universalism and benevolence – use a range of techniques to generate about behaviour and actions. These what determine our attitudes which in turn and global poverty. Values instantaneous availability of vast amounts explains the dynamic relations between underlie what people are motivated to of information are just a few of the factors values and shows two motivational take action on and exploring them critically contributing to these new demands.org/ 63. inequality and social justice always give voice or agency to students or as a ‘planetary creature’ 63 where – or even teachers. Schwartz.pdf 62. human rights. Spivak in Andreotti. T (2010) Common Cause: the Case for Working with Cultural Values and Frames. citizenship in a globalised world.pdf 60. . As the and people’s attitudes towards the and select potential courses of action diagram shows. However. informed and effective action as citizens. but the same structure key concepts in relation to issues of of opposition and compatibility between human and environmental sustainability Importance of values values seems to apply universally. There is important.oecd. 61. where some of the the teaching of citizenship within school key challenges may be human rights.’ 60 particular values. systems and structures that may not democracy. V (2011) The political economy of global citizenship education. the challenges may also include Values interdependence. individuals and societies alike. Review of International Studies 29: 3–17. as is an understanding of As citizenship is as much about feeling is evidence of the link between two of the how power operates and the ability to and practice as it is about status. so is often seen central to understanding and implementing Actions and as synonymous with nationality. shared fate and ‘As a result humankind people and even countries may differ is acquiring some of the broad features in the importance that they attribute to An ability to unpack and problematise of a political community. Globalisation. B (2003) Cosmopolitanism and Global Citizenship. Parekh. Available online at: http://segr-did2. difference.

and then move on. The teacher reassures perpetrators’ backgrounds. When they linked to various psychological. and the world. on plan to one side and facilitates a discussion when we can ourselves relate to the the other hand. worried and confused. What if the teacher tries to mediate but considers the ways of thinking and being I will argue here. terrorist attacks above all. understanding and up with their parents if they must. Children are innocent and should random attack. instead an alternative way of seeing things is introduced. And in their questioning. they follow social media. to young people. it’s very social science suggests that extremist complex. policy be reprimanded if they bring it up again. take place in countries we may never visit and practice in the first view assume that It’s too risky to do anything else. is it right that teachers conclusions or it affects their perceptions should be required to respond to these about other nationalities or ethnicities? This kind of dialogic approach to practice complex global issues? The answer. The former deals with certainties and reiterate the safety provided by institutions And herein lies our collective responsibility needs: what facts children need to learn there to protect people. or loss of life. . let’s This is what could be referred to as a safe ever present in today’s world. educational paradigms is to think of One way to react is via the safe option. the teacher tells the cultural factors. The are curious. rejects conformity. Children should be advised to follow focus is on thinking. manage the future. self- question is. political unhappy. which reflects the and that everyone else is too. Research. the teacher puts the lesson take place close-by. and will More often than not. they can relate some of the words and be reassured. questioning. under the guidance of a responsible adult. isn’t it? and affect people we will never meet. country or community neighbouring country. Ask yourself. social and world we live in today? ask why it happened. and values they are scared of their own prejudices? how they interpret the world. But what’s the connection and what skills they need to acquire to get After all. threat. extremism and acts of terror are But without getting too abstract. They explored. populations are they are even more terrifying when they homogenous and that we can plan and Alternatively. exam preparation. But contexts are largely stable. administration. and injustice is common. and above all else. The latter takes a different view: its lesson. the teacher is there to teach a to contributing to our global security? a job. people are communities they have heard of. education as either technical or intellectual. or at least. How decisions may be deconstructed.65 It is open One of the many ways to distinguish and fair and arguments can be made. and banal law- of teaching. assumes about the incident. Pupils have seen feelings while they try to make sense of recovering from the after effects of a the news. and up in class? What if pupils draw naïve breaking revealed for what it is. but their reactions should Such events serve as continual reminders images they see to people they know or not be suppressed. is ‘yes’. The second view. seem logical? And if a pupil prejudges. It seems consider a morning at school following space. play a role in every classroom Stephen Hull Sadly. What do they think? Why might views can develop when individuals’ people be driven to violent actions? What experiences of society do not meet could have happened in their family and the expectations provided through cultural life for such extreme actions to educational or other institutions. inadvertently offends someone? What if which learners bring to class. rather they should be that the world is in conflict. The path to diversity and positively embraces the the children that it’s natural to be scared extremism is always complex but has been anarchic. in which pupils can show and talk hardly a day can go by without reports another appalling terrorist incident in a about powerful emotions and confusing of another city. and should. it isn’t condemned. discussed. that on top of all the pressure should teachers react when it comes interest uncovered. One line of thought from truth: we don’t know.20 Dealing with current affairs in schools: risk or opportunity? Why citizenship education can.64 Teachers carefully condemn the attack. retracted or strengthened.

Think Global (2016) Think Global schools survey: ‘Prevent’ needs to include proactive approach . Skinner. structure of society and its institutions develop the personal resilience needed recognising links to promoting tolerance. Authority figures cannot answer by the London-based educational charity society’s broader response to difficult all questions or reassure everybody that Think Global.69 Therefore now is the time to promote and facilitate genuine dialogue engagement and is more likely to result for us to act. could also lead to a safer. C (1998) Identity and Agency in Cultural Worlds. In particular. and responsibility for. however.ac. Department for Education (2013) National curriculum in England: citizenship programmes of study. Available online at: http://think-global. 65. and more cohesive national and global And such approaches are not just idealistic This isn’t about ticking boxes or providing society. 71. to prioritise a thoughtful. F (2015) Extremism disenchanted: what role can education play? Available online at: www. Or to quote Hannah with political and social issues67 as vitally Arendt. and make specific a cause but you are told it is wrong. both pupils’ entitlement to critical engagement locally and globally.71 This paves the way for an what might be perceived as the ‘normal’ should be afforded the opportunity to emphasis on a values-based approach. discuss and understand human rights. the UN launched the historic is frightening and you are told you are safe. will enrich pupils’ learning experiences and in active citizens than isolated outsiders. leaves the dispossessed in search to approach. failing can therefore meet both mandated and peace. which if you experience injustice but are told to controversial issues and the negative have since been adopted by governments society is fair. United Nations (2015) Sustainable Development Goals. W. Teachers around the world the world is really fair and just. pupils to come to informed and balanced approaches they refer to as ‘proactive the world around them. H (1961) ‘The crisis in education’ in Arendt.uk/think-global-schools-survey-prevent-needs-include-proactive-approach/ 69. and if you empathise with effects of globalisation. Holland. global citizenship and countering to connect with the grand narrative of ideological aims.66 extremist arguments and thereby keep themselves and each other safe.uk/think-global-schools-survey-prevent-needs-include-proactive-approach/ 70.ucl. The provision across the globe. encourages teachers to pay attention Sustainable Development Goals. Available online at: http://think-global. Harvard University Press. that is an or hypothetical: countless curricula for training for compliance. it’s about the very opportunity we cannot afford to ignore. more democratic and support teachers to take the lead. 21 Simply put. D and Cain.gov. The opportunity views. S (1995) Intellectuals or Technicians? The Urgent Role of Theory in Educational Studies. D. Think Global (2016) Think Global schools survey: ‘Prevent’ needs to include proactive approach. reacting to current And the remedy? The same research affairs as a thoughtful and questioning implores education to be founded on Worryingly. And without doubt.70 educational organisations including the 64. H (ed) Between Past and Future. there is increased risk. For these reasons. social justice and respect. 67. educational response to current affairs. which In 2015. More young people extremism.un. then of safe spaces and dialogic approaches reference to the promotion of tolerance. Lachicotte Jr. Panjwani. Ball.org. Available online at: https://sustainabledevelopment. But they lack confidence or training in how to need support and development in working can explore complex and contradictory embed critical approaches which build with their pupils to develop a critical positions with learners. This approach increases genuine safeguarding’. it’s deciding you love the world important. if your experience of the world Australian-based Global Education. British Journal of Educational Studies 43/3: 255–271. Arendt.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-citizenship-programmes-of-study 68. and facilitate resilience to radical viewpoints – understanding of. Available online at: https://www. citizenship across the world reference essence of membership of society. This is backed up by numerous enough to take responsibility for it. of an alternative.org.uk/european-institute/highlights/2014-15/extremism-disenchanted (Accessed 14 August 2016). 66.org/sdgs . shows that many teachers global issues. recent research68 education community can contribute to criticality. New York: Viking Press.

Kids’ Kingdom Public School. This process provided opportunities to explore cross-curricular approaches and to work collaboratively. their encourage pupils to think critically own learning. and a sense of responsibility for. presenting to their peers. This has been achieved by • an enactment of the Stanley about some of the challenges that replacing the traditional lecture method Houghton’s drama. looking at statistical and factual information about the situation . we We wanted to deepen pupils’ UK – this enabled students to analyse have greatly encouraged pupil engagement understanding of citizenship and differences in context and approach in. responding in particular with more interactive teaching. Why we wanted to improve core skills of older people in India and also in the In terms of changes to our practice. The pupils a new generation of critical thinkers.22 Case study Developing responsible citizens by Bhuvana Barshikar. It accommodates boys and girls aged 2½ to 18. with pupils to the acknowledged national need for • completing a life skills audit. The visit to the old-age home and the We involved 44 16 year old pupils in an integrated cross-curricular project that PowerPoint presentations by our friends looked at the topic of senior citizens in our society. and improved their connection with their our thinking in terms of organising and own parents and grandparents. They delivering lessons in new ways so that What we did have a greater understanding that they we are more effectively learner-centred. making a difference and informed students about the issues • citizenship as a competence – and challenges facing older people. interdependencies and co-operation. developed action plans with the support and guidance of our Principal. practices in order to improve learning and that older people receive appropriate increase impact on the learners. with responsibility as citizens. The action planning process has guided participation skills. The activities included: helped us to understand our social • a visit to a home for older people. each student writing a report on the visit in Hindi Pupil. We then support and care. The Principal and three of our leading belong to communities which rely on The process of integrating core skills teachers attended the core skills training. particularly enjoyed this aspect of the work We particularly wanted to develop our What we have achieved so far and the shift in responsibility from teacher pupils’ understanding of: Our awareness programmes and to pupils transformed the students into witnessing the challenges facing older more active listeners and enabled greater • citizenship as a practice – people during their visit has sensitised peer learning. aged 16 • a PowerPoint presentation by the students. India Kids’ Kingdom Public School is located on the outskirts of Nanded. Maharashtra. The Dear Departed society faces. in India’s Maharashtra state. with subject areas has strengthened our This enabled us to visualise the changes They have also developed strong views relationships with colleagues involved that we wanted to make in our teaching about their own responsibilities to ensure in those subject areas.

and creative fast-changing world.htm 77. engineering and maths (STEM) as knowledge.co. The of achievement. supported by the Innovation Unit.bbc. and poverty. nurturing the creativity and imagination However. Claxton. Available online at: www. 23 Creativity and imagination Preparing children for the future: the essential role of creativity and imagination in learning Pat Cochrane Creativity and imagination are creative solutions is surely one of the most Repetitive and uninspired teaching can important capacities we need to nurture reduce children’s capacity to be imaginative essential human capacities. They underpin scientific and technological The ability to imagine. connect. and work ability to imagine new ways of approaching imagination can be nurtured by schools. capacities of our future citizens. (2013) Art for Art’s Sake? The Impact of Arts Education. Hannon. more independent’ than students to explore and experiment. 76 challenges. innovation and explore and investigate. Bloomsbury Academic. seem insurmountable.oecd. E. 74. and creative. Global Education Leaders’ Partnership. such as global on the acquisition of knowledge and the with difficulty. more nuanced. daring to be different and warming.oecd. 72 For young people to thrive in so. Both creativity and collaborative and disciplined. And they face. we challenge between countries.youtube. G. the capacities to find ways ‘to live together in a world which capacities are often nurtured through of creativity and imagination are more is more dynamic. The arts support our ability of preparing young people for the growing Creativity and imagination enable us each to introspect and find personal meaning. 73 Our children are inheriting subjects. Mastery in the arts can free crucial to our lives than ever before. When we are being creative we a world characterised by increasing It is possible to promote an environment are inquisitive. through challenges to create outcomes. but across all areas of learning including science. It is hard to imagine any aspect of life 72. development and growth.ibm. creativity has a vital role to play the future the curriculum needs to nurture of future generations is not a choice. OECD. connected. Video available online at: https://www. Spencer. Adobe Education (2012) Why is Creativity Important in Education? Sir Ken Robinson Video Series. Available online at: www. feelings and aspirations. imagination and experimentation increasingly recognising the importance There is also a personal imperative. skills.uk/news/education-30136921 75. migration promotion of excellence and high levels tolerating uncertainty.org/edu/ceri/50153675. create development. We need associated with the arts. capacities and habits of mind as well a necessity. more arts learning. Burns.com/watch?v=ywIhJ2goiGE 76. Available online at: http://gelponline. uncertainties and complexities to lead fulfilled and satisfying lives. They drive forward our and innovate is crucial to success. Vincent-Lancrin. whilst also focusing assumptions. S. In this imagination is equally compelling. IBM (2010) Capitalising on Complexity: Insights from the 2010 IBM Global CEO Study. a growing population. Available online at: www. TR. They recognise that creativity making remarkable changes to practice changing culture. we wonder and question. there are schools and education help us to fashion our ever has been made by business leaders across systems that are rising to the challenge and the globe.pdf . and The economic imperative for creativity However. We are imaginative.org 73. are encouraged. inequality and competition within and that favours creativity. Winner. J (2014) ‘Embrace engineering’s creative side’ to fix skills crisis. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation. 77 these challenges and to seek and craft but they can also be suppressed. we are persistent. E (2012) Progression in Creativity: Developing new forms of assessment. over emphasis on testing and examinations. They in our children and young people. and enable The cultural imperative for creativity and The term creativity is often strongly us to contribute fully as citizens. and imagination are essential ingredients that unlock the creative and imaginative for enterprise.org/edu/ceri/arts. V. Goldstein. S.com. sticking of the challenges we face. Available online at: www. a world in which some calculated risk-taking. 74 What do we mean by creativity in economies and social development learning? And why does it matter? through entrepreneurship. 75 context where there are no right or wrong Education systems across the world are answers. Shanks. L (2013) Learning a Living: Radical Innovation in Education for Work. Lucas. technology. Gillinson. B. particularly when there is an enable us to express thoughts. In a ever before.

Arts Council of Wales. the development of creativity.org. Available online at: www. pp. However. to make learning requires effort.org.uk/c_engagement-and-participation/action-plan-creative-learning-through-the-arts 81. 78 an important the characteristics of creativity themselves. the challenge of a powerful drive for and see these through. Burnard. If we are happen if?’ Imagination can be encouraged Leaders do more than promote creativity. we need to think carefully about all with thoughts and options. in ways that enable children leadership in schools? to learners themselves to develop their creative School leaders have a key role in • enable teachers. When leaders and creativity in schools is compelling.289–312. teaching process more interesting. T. Craft. a big question or a series of questions is one of the most important contributions is more likely to generate creative thinking they can make to promoting creativity and behaviours than a curriculum which in their school. pupils and others capacities. R Beautiful work. They use imaginative and innovative approaches Such a transformation of the teacher’s role • review and reflect on their to deliver the curriculum.24 where we do not draw on this repertoire A teacher who is focused on developing Wider research consistently highlights of capacities or habits of behaviour. teachers need to change encouraging and enabling their staff to to engage in calculated risk-taking their stance. 80 to success in relation to real-world such as ‘what if?’. 81 raising standards. B and Woods. D (2013) An independent report for the Welsh Government into Arts in Education in the Schools of Wales. Available online at: http://ebooks. they: co-construct the approaches used during • collaborate and explore which What are the implications the lesson. Shaping learning around a provocation. and ‘what would challenges. Available online at: http://gov. P (2009) Creative Learning in the Primary School.uk/resourcesandcpd . They will work with students to staff feel creative. spanning work since the early 1990s. learners’ creativity will encourage their a number of common leadership strategies Therefore the imperative to nurture students to work towards an outcome or in generating creativity.org.org 79. Meeting • envisage possibilities and differences. Thinking Skills and Creativity 1/2: 108–119. Smith. They are critical that encourage dialogue and exploration and do. also their professional development. in order to teach for creativity. and Craft.org/object/document/beautiful_work 80. practice and careful planning.pdf Education Scotland. may at times Conclusion the generation of ideas and the use of appear to be in tension. of their practice Even so. and model aspects of our education systems including model possibility thinking. Abingdon: Routledge. there Creativity and imagination are central imagination by asking enabling questions is increasing evidence that schools can. ‘why?’. whatever the context. assessment of learning. Arts Council of Wales and Welsh Government (2015) Creative learning through the arts: an action plan for Wales 2015–2020. Teachers can license innovative practice. JC (eds) 2012 Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom. curriculum design. Available online at: www. exciting and effective It has implications for teacher training and • control and take ownership and provide memorable lessons. Ofsted (2010) Learning: creative approaches that raise standards. School leaders’ ability to imagine and the way in which teachers work. A (2008) Possibility Thinking and Wise Creativity: Educational Futures in England? In Beghetto. to the human condition. achieve both. Welsh Government.cambridge. P. serious about nurturing the creative and by extended role play. What is the role of • are innovative and ensure relevance in other words. Cambridge University Press. Drawn from a range of sources. approaches really work in the context for teachers’ practice? while ensuring challenge and rigour. Main sources: Jeffrey. as well as promoting Teachers can encourage a spirit of enquiry. 78. to enable solutions and embrace creativity in both teaching and ideas to emerge through questioning in how they facilitate learning.creativitycultureeducation. product. and share that with others. Welsh Government. Research summary – fostering creativity. G (2015) Successful Futures: Independent Review of Curriculum and Assessment Arrangements in Wales.artswales. Available online at: www. element of creativity. and exploration.wales/topics/educationandskills/schoolshome/curriculuminwales/curriculum-for-wales/?lang=en. Cremin. and will support risk taking. Available online at: http://gov. focuses solely on the transfer of knowledge. A and Kaufman. Berger. 79 of their school and community Many teachers teach creatively. Donaldson. A (2006) Pedagogy and possibility thinking in the early years. what might be.wales/docs/dcells/publications/130920-arts-in-education-en. One of these characteristics is using the culture of classrooms and schools imagination.journeytoexcellence. exploring issues from They sustain and nurture it in the way imaginative capabilities of our students. Available online at: http://bie. a particular perspective and experimenting that they provide opportunities for others.

It has allowed me to reach out to I now plan more easily and I collaborate British Council programme. My use of IT programme. plans for the future in relation to the become more creative in all spheres of the without fear. I think it’s a more The use of music. the slower children in my class as I can with other teachers. boring. into his involvement with the process. example. and through this I’ve visited a I have managed to brighten up my the curriculum. which is a private Christian school in I’m not hammering learning. four suit different learners because I’m better and evaluating lessons. and they have more ‘Aha!’ moments as using tests. music and art. Donald had some the learners. The engaging! This has allowed me to share I think the two important aspects of the children are enjoying learning more. and the children are loving it. I’m taking time Harare. especially the other I undertook the Creativity and Imagination now creatively adapt learning materials to Grade 4 teacher. because we provide the best methods. Creativity and Imagination programme. course are its ability to change the way we teachers look at teaching and learning and I’m better at reflection: analysing critically Finally. with other teachers. without planning and reflection. subjects. it has made. He told us first about himself. and lesson planning are more holistic involved with Connecting Classrooms for and integrated as I look for links across some while. not just the academic schools and 13 years in private schools. like agriculture. We have been at spotting areas of misunderstanding. classroom with colourful displays and made teaching and learning materials Other staff members have benefited from When asked for his views about more interactive. implementing. course in December of 2015. well. in planning. after good The learners now brace up for learning practical subjects. In fact. a 42 year old primary school teacher from The Grange School in Harare to find out more about his experience of the British Council Creativity and Imagination programme. I teach Grade 4 and I have a class to listen to the students. which can tend to be boring and realising it! The stories they are writing are education for our pupils. My teaching used to be the way I have designed display materials the Creativity and Imagination one-sided. 25 Interview Interview with a teacher from Zimbabwe about the creativity and imagination programme by Dr Sara Bubb We spoke to Donald Jaravaza. to make it to learn that creativity and imagination can possible for students to shine all of the time. easier for me as now I collaborate with other people in his school. now they’re more fun. My subject schemes of us from the school did it. school in England. I have taught for 18 years in primary The value of the programme can I’m now helping the children to learn more schools in Zimbabwe: five years in public be judged by what differences creative life skills. and learning. We are keen on continuing innovation so approach to teaching. Now I’m inviting feedback from as well as learning corners. they learn. Donald agrees. The course has made me a better teacher. We will come up meant to make learners retain as much much more imaginative. sports. They achieve more when I try I liked the programme for being a new to make learning as effortless as possible. and the assessment of teachers to do more with less. Donald learners and I am able to make them makes clear that it is not just the Donald then gave us an insight partners in the teaching and learning pupils who have felt the effects. be taught – that was news to me! . curriculum. dance and movement that The Grange School is the school of effective approach than traditional teaching allows children to learn without even choice here. especially the with exciting programmes in academic content as they can cram in! I was pleased ones about ‘My Perfect Day’. This course enables programme has made to the pupils. It has made life When asked about any impact on of 29 girls and boys. curriculum. We are teaching agronomy for Currently I teach at The Grange School. Zimbabwean pupils need their The areas we are focusing on at the horizons widened and schools generally Donald went on to explain more moment as a school are making more lack teaching and learning resources specifically what differences the creative usage of computers in teaching across the board. My lessons used to be a bit to make PowerPoint presentations is quite interesting reflections. Donald told us about his secondly the outcome in making learners the teaching and learning processes.

to locate oneself in digital space. Beach Prep Girls School. to manage knowledge and experience in the Age of Information.26 Teaching digital literacy is about more than just integrating technology into lesson plans. it’s about using technology to understand and enhance modern communication. Nadia Dahman. Palestinian Territory .

development of digital literacy among lives are increasingly influenced students. plans or digital literacy. as well also includes the ability to understand how for the development of other skills and as being vital in enabling us to function digital tools can be used meaningfully. Increasingly. However. essential aspects of digital literacy. their digital literacy skills. aware of the potential and pitfalls that participate in democratic. Educators Technology can be and is used poorly. while e-safety and security are appropriate guidance. economic and we should now consider digital literacy new technologies can bring becomes social processes in informed. adequate strategies. safe and as a core entitlement for young people. colleges. However. meaningful ways. harnessed to support and enhance society educational institutions still do not have are also recognising the need to develop and the environment. world. They highlight that the need to key area of concern and development for There are currently many misunderstandings develop digitally literate citizens is necessary schools. Perhaps. this Digital literacy skills. and can be used to detrimental and and programmes. Many countries. analyse. governments and and a growing number of governments. It means that they can critically assess the nature of information. more and more important. employers will expect staff dangerous assumption at worst. 27 Digital literacy Why schools and teachers need to take action Dr Tim Rudd Digital technologies are rapidly and collaborate using various tools and to think critically about digital technologies media. with claims that such skills practices in place that are capable of will become ever more important in assuring So what does this mean for schools? adequately developing digital literacy economic competitiveness in a globalised Developing digital literacy should be a skills among young people or educators. and communicate practices. are becoming does not represent the whole picture or Many argue that digital literacy is now so increasingly important and essential skills the breadth of the concept. how they might provide students with new developments. Being can participate fully in all aspects of society. becoming embedded in more develop the capabilities that will enable Educational institutions have a responsibility and more aspects of our daily them to search. which are crucial to an effectively in an increasingly complex and how they can be harnessed to solve individual’s life chances and necessary and digitised world. teachers about what digital literacy is. Young people will also need to and the opportunities and risks they present. and also that individuals already digitally literate and that teachers However. software . and also how they can support Some commentators have also interpreted the professional development of teachers by them. create. As more and more problems and create opportunities that for engaging successfully in a whole range services and transactions occur online. and in encouraging students of different technologies. therefore. Many mistakenly so that future workforces have the skills and students themselves. to be able to use a range of digital tools have a crucial role to play in guiding. capabilities. Digital literacy important that it has become a pre-requisite for both learning and employment. This is clearly able to use a tool tells us nothing about an over-generalisation at best and a the quality or the purpose of its use. were not previously possible. Our personal and social remix digital resources. as the availability materials and information. Moreover. hardware. Being digitally of activities we could not have foreseen the need to ensure young people are literate also means individuals can fully even a decade ago. new resources. there is still a very long way Many major international organisations. policies. and our culture is digital literacy as the ability to operate digital so that they are better informed as to constantly being shaped by technologies in a safe and secure manner. therefore. such narrow interpretations miss become effective problem solvers who can do little to help them enhance the point and must be addressed. edit and to consider how they might support the lives. and consider how technology might be to go. However. make sense of complex supporting and modelling acceptable harmful effect. it is believe that digital literacy is merely the required to handle information and create often assumed that young people are practical ability to use digital technologies. universities.

the emphasis is on changing The active. and which support teachers to become leaders and deliver change literacy can be viewed as a means of to conduct their own interventions and in their own schools. There is a need. it has to be and which help develop a greater awareness co-created and implemented. to use various tools. enquiries in their own specific and unique therefore. creative and constructive of what digital literacy is. artefacts and outcomes from their a process of understanding. As digital literacy has no single help practitioners gain an understanding in some cases. In many cases. through merely on the basic competencies required skills. and skills areas. may soon become obsolete or outdated. regularly to best utilise new technological communicating and refining and developments. This helps of how digital literacy is related to wider convey the nature of its meaning through skills for life and learning in the ‘One size fits all’ approaches would not be appropriate. and staff. and which can be applied in various specifically to help practitioners and different national and local contexts.28 and applications increases. reviewing and reflecting. we can better understand life in the 21st century. This is why better training developing new practices. digital literacy should be viewed training programmes and projects that how it can best be harnessed to support as an evolving social practice whereby also seek to challenge practitioners’ learning and development. seek to develop new current thinking and practice. school leaders gain a better understanding Instead. for training and resources that leading to more innovative. rather than learners. for the concept to of digital literacy from theory to practice. we need to tangible changes in actions and practice. highlight how teaching and professional development nature of learning and teaching are central it might be developed among students practices by empowering teachers to digital literacy. planning. ‘One size fits all’ approaches In considering digital literacy in its of core. interrelated skills for learning and would not be appropriate. knowledge and the key skills teachers need to help students training programmes are those designed approaches between schools and across develop. given the wide variations in technology. The most effective variations in technology. and. knowledge. and where practices change implementing. Similarly. subject. there is a need for shift our emphasis to the quality of use and Moreover. contexts. transformational learning. knowledge and approaches between schools and across different national and local contexts. creative. or precise definition. challenging existing thinking and practice. digital and staff alike. 21st century. have power and meaning. which themselves learning. so that they The need to take action programmes emphasise the development become active and powerful change The need to take action is why an increasing of individual interventions or enquiries agents in their own contexts. number of international organisations now suited to the specific context of the teacher consider digital literacy as one of a number and school. given the wide broadest sense. .

’ were encouraged to look for information . in mathematics. they made the most of eager and interested to learn and it • enhance our pupils’ learning new opportunities to work together on seemed that concepts were grasped experiences PowerPoint presentations. 14 year old educational resources online and learning What we did pupils who had already used paper folding. seminars and using PowerPoint. in the Kathmandu Valley. We wanted to embed digital literacy into sources and to critically analyse. to analyse how these worked curriculum has brought about a new and and then to present the different solutions energetic atmosphere here at Gyanodaya. from others. 180 pupils aged 11 to 16 were skills in communication. time and facilities to work leadership. They accessed digital literacy into our curriculum. Lalitpur. as well as through text and talk. communicating more easily and enjoyably. presentations to share up-to-date information and practical know-how.’ • enable pupils to use the most up-to. are growing in confidence as a result of using new technology and are developing In total. evaluate presentations with growing confidence. There is a new excitement and positivity and create information. digital literacy I found my students more In particular. Nepal Gyanodaya Residential School provides high-quality education to boys and girls aged six to 16 in the Lalitpur district of Nepal. They environment studies.’ We organised workshops. Theorem were challenged to use the The Founder Principal stated that ‘The trained eight more teachers to integrate internet to find different methods of introduction of digital literacy into the digital literacy into the curriculum. in school. our materials online and began to learn visually classes have become more interactive. development training and. back in school. Pupils progressive and enjoyable. meaning they are spending Two teachers attended core skills cutting and pasting to verify Pythagoras’ less time preparing lesson plans. verification. and collaborating in groups and giving date digital tools to locate. social studies and are more enthusiastic about learning. One pupil said ‘We are individually and in groups using ICT for extremely grateful for the introduction of research-based learning. collaboration and given the space. Teachers are accessing For example. 29 Case study Enhancing learning through digital literacy by Bhanu Ahamed. compare A mathematics teacher noted that ‘Using the curriculum in order to: and contrast the information they found. Why we wanted to improve core skills about the same topic from multiple They understand concepts more easily. Gyanodaya Residential School. What we have achieved so far focusing in particular on digital literacy in Pupils are enjoying school more and they mathematics.

Parbhani. Zilla Parishad High School Kausadi. Pandit Patil. India .30 This training taught me that every student has hidden leadership skills and we should provide them with a supportive atmosphere that will create confidence in them.

cultures during or after the rise of digital The future of a global society is dependent and faiths also brings with it a mixing pot technologies.html . if not more. leading to an and blurred to the point that many schools awareness of different viewpoints of the ever has. 31 Student leadership and personal development Student leadership: actively engaging students as partners Nicholas Garrick The new. adults being left behind either through cultural values. what we can say for integration both physically and digitally.pdf 84. Available online at: www. and teachers. A (2011) Shout Out: What is Student Voice About? Available online at: www.com/pdf/allourfutures. Fletcher. immigrants. Robinson. Gerver. Continuum: London.huffingtonpost.e. increased isolation as new communities them.83 Whichever future information and skills passed down their engagement with education or their prevails. and the content that defines certain is that the world is continuing to or. social teachers and communicate in multiple it is the only thing that and political boundaries have expanded ways simultaneously. K (1999) All Our Futures: Creativity. This has conduits of information is slowly becoming resulted in a divide between those that redundant. Technological changes global society demands educators actively have obviously had a visible influence engage students as partners and therefore Never doubt that a small and enable the world to communicate the need for teachers to be deliverers or group of thoughtful. DeGraff. for the first time in history. and whilst it might of expectations and attitudes to previously immigrants – people born before the sound dramatic. The digital change at an exponential rate. in previously unimagined ways. are so different. i. which can affect the future. in the world have as many non-native same world. G (2014) Learning {Re}imagained. Digital Immigrants. Bloomsbury: London. J (2015) Digital Natives vs.org 85. than change the world. the balance has shifted and this brings opportunities as well as challenges. whilst digital natives access to technologies. argues Brown-Martin82 not the imperative of teaching in a democratic other way round. advent of digital technology. with many are formed with new ideals and traditional immigrants value legacy content. Bloomsbury: London. Culture and Education NACCE: London. G (2014) Learning {Re}imagained.soundout. R (2010) Creating Tomorrow’s Schools Today. According The future world. our through generations.com/jeff-degraff/digital-natives-vs-digita_b_5499606. connected world is transforming Fletcher believes that the ethical education. Indeed. according to some. children will have a greater awareness and value future content. The grouping of students. or digital on those who lead it. This blend of ethnicities. than just the use of technology. legacy content knowledge of the word than their parents. to DeGraff. Brown-Martin. that cannot. 83. Brown-Martin. In addition to this. the students of today are isolated micro communities. 82.84 Students have as much committed citizens can can access new technologies and those access to information.85 the real issue is that the two Although we cannot predict the future with may therefore go one of two ways: total world views of digital natives and digital any great accuracy. refers to more the leaders of that unknown future world. Available online at: http://sirkenrobinson. Attributed to Margaret Mead language speakers as home-grown or digital natives – the generation born students.

how can schools develop them? instead awaken leadership and enhance the self-awareness of all students. But who important in creating more confident and with others. but some of this unknown. appreciation.32 As Prensky points out: Leaders in the next decade will not just Self-awareness. affiliation. etc. robotics. the ‘so what?’ It cannot be assumed tomorrow’s leaders need to demonstrate that just providing students with conduits So. hardware.87 and embrace the educators have to resist the temptation to specific competencies that enable them to process of leading future as opposed to identify individual and articulate future be adventurous and achieve extraordinary delivering legacy. self-awareness. nanotechnology. and things. and have Reed and colleagues. schools can achieve become less so… whereby they balance absorption of their core purpose. in viewpoints. genomics. to enable leadership skills to flourish in what is needed. to express thoughts will organically imperative to the development of a animation and altruism according to develop future leaders. skills and attitudes arithmetic. could teach it? 86 democratic school communities. The Campaign’s Some of it (such as logical thinking) will becoming adventurous leaders themselves belief is that by using learning to learn continue to be important. investing heavily in just them. Therefore democratic global society. languages and other things that go with students. global life. integrated. Responsibility – taking ownership is very doable from the point of view Whilst student voice activities are of learning and mistakes. student Reflectiveness – asking questions. continue learning effectively throughout But while it includes software. legacy content through experiences of young people so that they can and will not surprisingly. But how teamwork in leadership. approaches to develop the Rs in all their (perhaps like Euclidean geometry) will Educators need to provide situations pupils or students. . able to respond to change. It’s a brilliant idea that student voice and student leadership. leadership as well as use it as a vehicle Readiness – being prepared. and be able to to draw on when required. and practicing In order to mitigate the potential friction happens to the voice and how this is taken techniques. namely preparing ‘Future’ content is to a large extent. This ‘Future’ content is extremely importance of purposeful. It is of course from educators both in terms of how they Campaign has developed five Rs for a still important. teach and also how they lead students in lifelong learning model. Educators need to both model adventurous their lives. sociology. but it is from a different era. leaders. politics. Students need to discover the them. real and moral Resourcefulness – knowing who and what interesting to today’s students. Resilience – keeping going in the face me that kids should only be allowed to of apparent adversity or negativity. and working of the students’ capabilities. writing. leading life. teach it? Someone once suggested to a role model. logical thinking. it is what reviewing learning.88 as ‘what knowledge. could be framed ‘Legacy’ content includes reading. use computers in school that they have It is also important to distinguish between built themselves. understanding should a learning to learn approach the writings and ideas of the past. aware of it also includes the ethics. if self-aware student leaders are so authenticity. as suggested by the The be leading organisations they will be Campaign for Learning. – all This requires adventurous leadership develop?’ In answer to this question the of our ‘traditional’ curriculum. today’s educators of further. altruism and adventure. digital and technological. etc. leadership is more than that. and how to do many digital immigrants are prepared to differentiate between being a hero and this in an appropriate manner.

(Vol. and nature. society. be embedded from early years build and enhance their understanding of creative possibilities of the present and even pre-school stages. as well as organically to actively reflect upon leadership whilst grown. as well as their planning. but also extracurricular activities for those that reflected on how the leaders at the time choose to engage in them. October 2001) Available online: www. B (2010) Leaders Make The Future. M (2003) Exploring the potential for student leadership to contribute to school transformation. problem solving and as ‘People that live in places. Therefore. and ultimately.uk/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=Exchanges:+the+Warwick+Research+Journal+Volume+1. communities. leads to innovation. G (2014) Learning {Re}imagained.%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1. Institute of Education: London 88. equality. Garrick.pdf 90. Imagine what a student might because we don’t know the future. Available online at: https://www. we need to consider students responsibility. From Exchanges: the Warwick Research Journal 1/1: October 2013.+Issue+1. but many believe that the for example resourceful or resilient in the future. It does not necessarily more interesting. Johansen. Berrett-Koehler: San Francisco 89.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives.co.+October+2013&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&gfe_ rd=cr&ei=VnVgVa_RBvLt8wfy14DQDg . student be capable of. Prensky. J and colleagues (2012) The Adventurous School. 33 Much research focuses on developing normal activities teachers can help It [needs to] start from the premise that the student leaders within higher and further students ‘tag’ leadership acts as being. Reed. As Facer puts it: require additional time or materials. 9 No. Facer. skills and attitudes can. whilst considering how extracurricular time to develop leaders can this might be possible in the present day. which management and decision making skills. that form teamwork. challenge isn’t to figure out how to predict education. The challenge is to figure out foundations. Digital Immigrants From MCB University Press. if they not only learned leadership is about more than simply about a specific event in history. This will in turn help them to identify. In addition leadership. S (2015) The Tree: Learning and Life at Wallscourt Farm Academy. and that is what makes it all the – during lesson time. how to uncover the should. M (2001) Digital Natives.’89 In their most basic forms educational This has to be intelligently planned for settings could help young leaders foster and carefully mapped into and across the five Rs by providing time and space school curricula. 5. Groves. negotiation skills. Bloomsbury: London. in order to develop future educators need to consider how they can global leaders who will be part of an teach legacy content whilst also enhancing interconnected and blended global students’ confidence.google. Using only enacted the five Rs. N and Weaver. exclude hidden or secret leaders who may choose not to be identified. how to live well.pdf 87. No one said it was going to be engaged in leadership acts – metacognition easy.org. Available online at: http://wallscourtfarmacademy.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/CurriculumTreeOfLearningForLifeWFA. K cited in Brown-Martin.90 to the age of leadership exposure.marcprensky. that seek change. that calls for sustainability. but by using the apposite terminology during 86. Therefore.

how and what. Teachers are also more • developing trust within their teams development of core skills. was founded in 2015 to cater for boys and girls from nursery through to the age of 13. college and life. • seeking information from multiple addressing and their proposed solutions. a range of about collaboration and teamwork approaches were used to support the together. they produced to identify what qualities we possess and effective leaders. for example learning of solutions Throughout the project. collaborate effectively and build before brainstorming and clustering in active and reflective. • are able to identify problems and ‘If I were to become a leader of my school What we have achieved so far challenges and seek creative solutions I would like to change…’. West Bengal. talking and writing about pictures.’ • critically analysing issues messages. Pupils watched knowledgeable about tools and strategies • communicating effectively. They look • are able to communicate and to identify problems faced by the school forward to these classes and are engaged. India The Newtown School in the city of Kolkata. They have taken the first steps towards What we did They created a ‘wonder wall’ of questions. They need and explored how they could use the skills that will prepare us for success in to do this by: medium of street play to communicate school. Kolkata. identified leaders in their own SWOT and roleplay. minus. lives. of preparing pupils for their future life. Pupils used the Pupils are more enthusiastic.34 Case study Creating opportunities for students to lead by Bipasha Biswas. becoming leaders. They used graffiti leadership and personal development together to design an action plan using the board techniques to develop their thinking. reflected on their qualities and carried out a SWOT analysis of their own leadership skills. They went on to create a play to raise awareness and educate the Teachers are delivering learning in a more • adopting an open mind whole school about the issue they were holistic way. At the Forty pupils from Grade 4 (age nine) took end of the project. opinions. take charge of their learning This work reinforces our ethos and vision shared them with the rest of the class and go outside their comfort zone. and displayed them in the classroom. Newtown School. groups to agree on issues to resolve. because we want to develop students who: golden circle model – why. solving. They took part in inside/ . responsibilities The activities focused on the statement. including two who had outside circle discussions to share We focused on the core skill of student attended core skills training. videos of leaders working towards problem that can be used in class. One pupil said ‘As The central concept for our project was issues and comments to help find solutions. students need to be able slogans and posters in different languages. such as PMI. integrating different subjects. thinking hats’ process to reflect on who are able and willing to take on their solutions. confidence and are happier to voice their They set ground rules for their team. Why we wanted to improve core skills Six teachers. how we can build on these. it gave us the opportunity based on the idea that in order to be To develop this work. They have grown in successful teams. student leaders. They have enjoyed sharing a learning sources and considering a number journey with pupils. developing to identify and solve problems. worked problems and solutions. creative and PMI – plus. interesting – technique collaborative in their learning. they used the ‘six • are confident in their ability to lead and part in the project.

teacher motivation. emergent realities exist fresh to an unfamiliar situation. powerfully. within their unique context over time. if we are to understand us not only to understand ‘how teachers differences and similarities between them? Because other teachers’ and students’ and students give meaning to their lived contexts in order to accurately determine realities differ from our own. 91 dynamic multiple realities of other cultures facilitates. interpretive dialogue into our culture’. Only through first understanding context with which to interrogate another It would be naïve to assume that educational them can we begin to consider the educational context would not necessarily ideas and practices. however successful implications and possibilities for our own produce useful findings. nationally. in-depth analysis of the host process by which education initiates us involve accessing and reflecting on the cultures that empathic. In order to gain optimal benefit from such the culturally nuanced understandings studies. or challenge individuals and institutions. So. if replicated. and the the continuous construction. J (2000) Analyzing interpretive practice. . this information empirical truths are sought by identifying insights and understanding of is deeply limited in value and policies are causes and effects. of a research learning community wishing at. they of lessons. In education. Introductory texts often contrast positivist will result in improved mathematics in and interpretive approaches: in the former. whether the behind behaviour in a given situation. if subjective. will necessarily practices. let’s say a particular country as individual researcher or as a member it is appropriate for what you are looking has excellent results in mathematics. in the latter. experience things. 2nd edition. in Denzin. 35 Teacher as researcher Innovation from within: the power of appreciation in comparative studies Barrie Joy and Stephen Hull Careful comparative studies that controllable variables. Gubrium. They see and hear and consequently prevent teacher training. Constructing in advance a set and of unique individuals operating in those list of questions relative to your own policy Learning to recognise complexity cultures. comparative studies in education the careful. interpretivism recognises When conducted rigorously. intentions and circumstances located internationally. A variety of theories and problematic because it imposes a way of thrive if simply transplanted elsewhere. we can worlds in light of the social and cultural the potential for successful exchange. the ethos Fundamentally. the appropriateness We need to understand from an insider’s interpretivist research can engage of our own particular educational perspective how practices have developed practitioners in critical discourse about provision and practices. practice and provision and shine new light Their success is critically dependent on on complex and ambiguous phenomena. As Gubrium We must be determined to understand – across cultures. what kind of observations and Holstein explain. the number of mathematics are informed by their particular ontology us from experiencing and therefore lessons pupils have and how much (what there is to be found out) and their appreciating how insiders perceive and homework pupils are given. such analysis enables as thoroughly as possible – the detailed do we need to make. it is important that we try to come and assumptions of those directly involved. You assume epistemology (how it can be found out). orientation in order to understand the What about the value placed on beliefs. students do additional practice. whether these are understanding of other associated factors.Y (eds. N and Lincoln. methods are now available to the teacher seeing things without considering whether For example. 91. can provide educators with rich another context. However. exploratory contexts. reimagining dynamics of student–teacher relationships? and appropriation of social norms by can help confirm. locally or within the same school. J and Holstein. the educational practices in other not transplantable without an in-depth researcher adopts an open. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Ltd.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. underlying patterns and principles through it also helps us understand the ‘ambiguous Rigorous. mathematics in society. best make judgements by discovering the forms they reflect and help produce’. Such pitfalls can easily distort what we so you attempt to mirror its methods of to undertake comparative studies. This approach is and attractive in one context.

their mires in a language and spiral of negativity. By encouraging them less of what is unwanted. 94. what is working positively. their successes and their future plans – we are more likely to elicit It follows that we should visit and act more numerous and richer accounts. national and international contexts the principles and drivers underpinning them. One such familiar strange’. DL and Whitney. classic edition) Teachers as Researchers: Qualitative Inquiry as a Path to Empowerment. mutual respect. appreciating and importantly. 93. which. making sure innovate. appreciative inquiry focuses non-invasive and non-judgemental kind on the positive successes already that invite.36 Fortunately. Kincheloe. . Bear subsequently reflect. in comparative study visits. where appropriate. but importantly. 92. Abingdon: Routledge. not tellers or judgers. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. Dylan. to tell us about the positive – their the very focus on problems frequently underpinning philosophies. in helping us to see things as they see local. critical research will teachers nurtured selectively in other areas. and truly approach is appreciative inquiry. what and how our hosts Unlocking the potential a variety of interpretivist approaches do what they do – in the words of Novalis Through this critical. D (2005) A Positive Revolution in Change: Appreciative Inquiry. candour Problem-based analyses seek to leave and collaboration. in our our primary aim should be to seek to own educational contexts. New York. how these inquiry explain. reflective process. ‘we are more effective As Kincheloe argues. where appropriate. the longer we can retain the spirit of in complex. We will learn most by reimagine accepted norms. inquiry of the everlasting beginner’. ‘seed’ these. 93 rediscover their professional status. trust. aspirations. focuses on the positive opportunity and of our hosts’ assistance processes of intellectual reasoning in their energy present in the education system. As the pioneers of appreciative of educational content and policies. Cooperrider. JL (2012. encourage and sustain positive achieved with a view to building on and energising relationships based on these with an energising virtuous spiral. as genuinely appreciative inquirers – upon the basis of which we can as learners. Educators themselves are in marked contrast to problem-based that we are seen to be appreciative of the empowered and responsible for democratic approaches. This is not to deny that human systems This will require us to become versed in empower their practice in the classroom have problems or that these problems the essential foundation of appreciative and improve the quality of education for have to be acknowledged and sometimes inquiry – the asking of genuinely their pupils’. B (1965) The Times They Are a-Changin’ (Lyric) Columbia Studios. openness. distil collaboratively in mind Bob Dylan’s warning: ‘don’t criticize the essences of successful practices and what you don’t understand!’ 92 Rather. that can be used to powerful effect ‘to make the strange familiar and the teachers can experience the transformative. the researcher now has understand why. 94 addressed as a matter of urgency. ‘only by engaging can be built upon and. unconditional positive questions of a Put simply.

experiences. in order to secure changes in people is to be successful and sustainable policy. ability or health needs. of new ways of thinking and finding new fundamental human right regardless of their solutions to some old challenges. ability. are easy ones to make and to understanding of the current context Empowerment is about giving of the particular school and education secure agreement on. In 2015. Without engagement. learning outcomes. gender. However. the expectations that therefore commit to addressing all forms empowering and beneficial. system. there is still a long leaving no one behind’. The commitment to developing practitioners not only the permission but also the encouragement and incentives to inclusive practice therefore requires a But whilst these fundamental beliefs are change. policies and structures. renewed education agenda Access therefore focuses mainly on gains in expanding access to education that is holistic. ambitious and aspirational. practice and culture. and both empowered and enabled to make the capacity to make progress’ based upon a thorough and sensitive those changes. health or medical condition. and inequalities in access. teachers can improve engagement. almost impossible. empowering. system. over the last 15 years. practice and culture at all levels our educational landscapes – policies. The declaration way to go. values and resources often mean that Access and engagement Enablement is about supporting our fully achieving such aspirations can be The basic starting principles to consider practitioners to develop the skills and at best challenging and in the worst in developing more inclusive education knowledge they need to teach children cases. teaching practices. are those of access and engagement. and we their school is relevant. the building blocks that create put in the time and effort if they feel there policy. societal and that they have the authority to act. gender. ethnicity. disparities is therefore focused on practice and and enabling environments. infrastructure. While there have been significant ‘A single. participation and pedagogy.’ is of no relevance. the people children have an entitlement to then it must be predicated on an approach that work within the system need to be education’ and ‘all children have that is achievable. The rest of this paper therefore access is simply about being there rather concentrates on how a consideration The British Council believes that the than about learning and achieving. meaningful. schools and teachers continues ‘Inclusion and equity in and Engagement is about ensuring that what can still positively effect change for through education is the cornerstone of a pupils experience when they do access students by altering and improving their transformative education agenda. No education target Without access. Simply put. 37 Inclusive pedagogies Access and engagement: core skills for all Susan Douglas The two statements ‘all If the inclusion of all children and young Of course. as people are far more likely to multi-tiered response that addresses common. is an agreed direction of travel to follow within the education system. and by creating supportive of exclusion and marginalisation. an engaging curriculum should be considered met unless met by all. the World Education Forum Access is related to pupils being able to adopted the Incheon Declaration freely attend school regardless of their Successful inclusive practice will only be committing to: age. socioeconomic secured by change at all levels within the background. Engagement surround them. with a wide range of needs and from a wide diversity of backgrounds effectively. . ethnicity. These of theoretical models can empower a inclusion of children and young people two things cannot be achieved without a practitioner to look at issues from a fresh into the regular education systems of their culture that supports and expects high perspective. socioeconomic background. allowing the development respective countries is an entitlement and a standards for all.

e. 96. a significant impact on our decisions. Inclusion in society and education is actions and behaviours without us • Resources – what is used and what is affected by many factors. • Activities – what is done and by whom? group to which the person belongs.38 Fresh perspectives the decision makers and who ultimately 2. physical our attitudes and beliefs. certain groups of people – usually those is treated according to their own needs. certain tasks often get To help teachers to acquire and hone assigned to certain social groups such Left unchallenged. disability. skills and awareness as a teacher of how is done. this can mean a practitioner such as labour or education. caste or ethnicity. to identify and respond to the diverse and who will benefit. These social relations are not fixed. Unconscious Inclusion is not about treating everyone • Rules – who makes them? They usually bias is defined as ‘an inflexible positive or the same. it is about demonstrating the prescribe how things get done – what negative prejudgement about the nature. London: Verso.95 We all tend to have unconscious biases equality – where everyone is treated the Social relations theory is interested in which we have developed over time about same. for instance some may be hidden or unrecognised. information or networks. N (1994) Reversed realities. based on a generalised idea about the needs of any group of pupils. their context. based on gender or other characteristics such as class. and equitability – where everyone looking at five aspects of institutions. The social relations framework originated • People – who is in and who is out? This with academics led by Naila Kabeer at the refers to the question of who is allowed Institute of Development Studies at the in and who is excluded from institutions University of Sussex and explores how. and elderly. in an educational produced? Including human resources from the environment and internally from setting. and poverty arise out of unequal social • Power – who decides and whose relations. which are influenced by three theoretical models is useful. that are different from us. or factors are explicit and easily seen whilst of one or more groups of pupils within intangible resources. cultural environment work are often much smaller than for and personal experience can have 1. consideration of the following as women caring for the young. goodwill. exclusion offices and positions. assets and capital. Some of these having significantly lower expectations material like food. Social relations and gender equality other types of work. Unconscious bias There is a fundamental difference between hold the resources and the power. Kabeer. as well as who is allowed into the higher in any organisation or society. Chicago: Dearborn. and can change through time shows that it is the people who make the and with commitment from the people and rules and distribute the rewards who are institutions in a society. Importantly. both externally realising. how it is done. Thiederman. The rewards for this type of background. The research however. S (2003) Making diversity work. these unconscious these skills. . sick biases. resources and opportunities if social relations change? Who gains it? among certain groups. who will do it character and abilities of an individual.’96 For example. i. an unequal distribution of interests are served? Who loses power power. 95.

It is the In creating an inclusive classroom. Social model of disability All three of these theoretical models are Equally there are many simple but effective useful to explore in terms of inclusion and techniques that can support a more What is posing the problem – can challenge our thinking. This need not be complicated curriculum offer. This is important with be considered met unless met by all. any child left behind. not the how they teach and what they teach but individual. and as practitioners actively challenging pounce. collaboration. ethos and relationships within the are too high or too low for the current classroom. Successful inclusion. helpfulness physically disabled child then a ramp must and empathy demonstrably underpin the be provided. 39 3. policies and practices? © iStockPhoto – Boguslaw Mazur As we develop our self-awareness and Fresh approaches reflect on our practice. human fulfilment and sustainable requires that the individual is ‘mended’ their peers. . not personal. above all else. There is no more important an ambition – seen as a personal inadequacy or Learning to behave in a pro-social and education is essential for peace. our techniques All learners flourish in well-managed and pedagogies will undoubtedly become classrooms. abnormality. Who makes inclusive pedagogy. This medical model of thinking inclusive way is of benefit to the learners. or our unconscious biases and prejudices? random draws would be a good example.’ where the differences of the individual are regard to the inclusion of all learners. the school community and the development. Using a variety of the wheelchair or the stairs? the policies and promotes best practice strategies for choosing which child should in relation to inclusion? Are we as a school answer a question. process of reflection. in class-generated rules or contracts for behaviour. pause. if a child’s intellectual abilities culture. relies on a continual understandings with their learners. communicate basic rules and without doubt. such as pose. Social models of disability and we cannot afford therefore to have turn the medical model around. Teachers have the on our educators having an unwavering opportunity to model and demonstrate commitment to and belief in the Incheon The social model of disability moves away pro-social behaviour daily in how they ambition that ‘No education target should from a deficit-focused approach to disability speak and act. tolerance. If steps are an issue for a co-operation. It is the key to achieving or ‘cured’ and then supported to enable wider society as a whole. full employment and poverty eradication them to fit in. it relies pro-social behaviour. bounce (PPPB). hot seating. To what extent are we currently adopting as would be learning more about other social or medical models of disability in our methods of differentiating effectively. adjustment and classrooms become places to learn planning but maybe. school or the organisation that carries teachers will need to consider not only the responsibility to change. then the curriculum but must be explicit and is often seen must be developed or extended. Barriers to inclusion are social also how inclusive values such as respect. When teachers discuss and more sophisticated.

communities. It is now psychologist. What we have achieved so far educational needs and disability (SEND) and secondly by finding ways to inspire The group therapy sessions equipped experiences and success stories. support from our staff and an educational During school celebrations and special health or medical condition. inclusive education regardless of their also allowed parents to access advice and gender. it is now an expectation that our described as one of the most inclusive pupils with special needs are integrated schools in a country which is still in the We also invited parents to a presentation into the performances – we have early stages of developing its inclusion by a young lady who was paralysed in a wheelchair dancers. background. The American Academy of Beirut. This policy and practices. helping to educate our SEND pupils. appreciation and acceptance to develop a strategy for working with the Lebanon society sometimes assumes that of children with special needs and broader school community and specifically these pupils are always limited and disabilities outside the school. . The sessions were therefore reinforcing this at home. Parents were introduced to each We want to involve the community in Faculty members in our AAB Learning other to extend their support networks. By sharing her experiences. help solve some of the challenges they face. Beirut. We plan to invite further this in two ways: firstly. and provided a abilities and celebrating inclusion What we did fascinating example of how a person can throughout the whole school. We felt that it was particularly important to What we plan to do in the future we decided that an important element of promote high aspirations for pupils with We aim to spread our principles of improving our inclusive practice would be special educational needs because in integration. Council’s Inclusive Pedagogies course. events. ability. discuss possible solutions. Building on our learning from the British overcome barriers and meet challenges. and contributes to our school community course on inclusive pedagogies. We successful. Many reported range of needs in the classroom. They gave parents the made adaptations to their home aim to train staff to enhance their skills in opportunity to meet other parents environments to provide more positive differentiation so that they can meet a who were facing similar challenges stimuli for their children. Why we wanted to improve core skills and provided a safe space in which to having a better understanding of the social The school believes that all young people share some of those challenges and model of inclusion applied at school and should have access to high-quality. they may face.40 Case study Becoming a more inclusive school by Reem Al-Hout. she inspired accepting differences. for example. and to Center held group therapy sessions for One positive example of the impact of expose them to vocational opportunities parents which proved to be very these discussions was that some parents and further community-wide inclusion. Lebanon The American Academy of Beirut (AAB) is a co-educational day school for students from Nursery to Grade 12 attracting pupils and teachers both locally and internationally. to extended with our pupils’ families. and our our parents to have high aspirations for parents with a better understanding of experts will give presentations providing their children whatever challenges their children’s needs and some skills to further advice to parents and teachers. appreciating parents and teachers. AAB has been closely car accident when she was 14 but who takes a great deal of preparation and involved with British Council programmes had gone on to gain a degree in Business planning but is breathtaking to watch since 2008 and recently participated in a Studies and establish a successful career. We decided to do constrained by their disability. through providing guest speakers to share their special outreach support from our therapists. ethnicity.

and the professional development of the government pursued a focused and teachers. collaboration and schools across India. the current practice curriculum framework supports the Singapore’s economy. DFC involves to support problem solving in addition communication can be taught without 97. according to the international Life Skills is by using Design for Change TIMSS study. Education Endowment Foundation defines This means that in addition to ensuring that collaborative learning as ‘learning tasks or Option two: more comprehensive students have a sound knowledge base. Available online at: https://www. development of skills such as self. Elsewhere.org. This which would enable the transformation of to prioritise. Problem solving has been Option one: minor changes (DFC). Supporting the development and globally. creative thinking. four-step design school systems around the this effectively teachers need support process – feel. are better preparing students and greater discussion among peers.org/countries/singapore/46581101.4. better meet the clearly assigned’. Education Endowment Foundation (2016) Collaborative learning | Toolkit Strand | Education Endowment Foundation. factors: firstly. be a very effective teaching strategy. In some countries. such as children and young people learn that they requirements to ensure they how to promote more high-quality dialogue can drive change in their community. Available online at: https://educationendowmentfoundation. To implement projects. imagine. OECD (2010) Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education.98 The DFC curriculum originated one of the most important skills within to the official curriculum. The requirements or textbooks. and top performers in the world in maths and system to implement the changes. Design for Change: www. do. empathy. How far-reaching should the Board of Secondary Education. core skills like critical thinking and student a group small enough for everyone to textbooks and exams leadership are taught to enable students participate in a collective task that has been There are numerous examples of to fulfil their potential. This is an effective way to support core Collaborative learning. the impact notable example.000 in Singapore.pdf . unskilled. as well as teaching materials use collaborative learning effectively. which core skills we choose created a Life Skills framework. have been comprehensively Looking at another example. secondly. activities where students work together in changes to the curriculum. most people were illiterate and standards. where core skills have been they can contribute to society both locally on learning outcomes – an effect size of 0. However. can skills without changing existing curriculum for a more complex world.oecd. the Central comprehensive education reform agenda.99 Over the next few decades.com/ 99. changes have been made to curriculum it is therefore clear that teachers need When Singapore became independent requirements. significantly altering curriculum students designing their own community requirements or textbooks. adapted.dfcworld. One way of teaching science. 41 Curriculum mapping Bridging tradition and innovation in curriculum design Artur Taevere From Australia to Uganda. Using a simple. from the Riverside School in Ahmedabad the mathematics and science curricula textbooks and exams and is now used in more than 4. which means an additional five months of of problem solving in Singapore is one learning for students. for example. has class mathematics and science curriculum. students of teaching these high-priority core skills. in Singapore were indeed among the and thirdly. curriculum high-quality professional development to in 1965. prioritised. coping with stress. the capacity of the school awareness. share – world have revised curriculum on how to teach these skills well. relatively minor depends on how exactly it is implemented.97 This strategy has been comprehensive curriculum reform around needs of the labour market and ensure found to have consistently positive effects the world. Textbooks are designed For example. By 1995. overseeing The aspiration was to develop a world- changes be? This depends on a number of the curriculum throughout India.uk/evidence/teaching-learning-toolkit/collaborative-learning/ 98.

All of these approach for integrating core skills? innovation. To what extent are these skills current practice around how well they are success of delivery’. to professional development focused a limited or a more comprehensive There is now a focus on creativity and on how to teach these skills. and resources. meaningful Having decided which core skills are most capacity to implement change change is unlikely to happen. According to the this. assessing and building leaders and the community. The premise for this they get taught in classrooms. In the 1970s and 1980s.102 Without clear already included in curriculum already taught. what should teachers and requirements? Are the skills explicitly the capacity to implement change. students with a disadvantaged the economy. clear priorities which are understood and supported by political leaders. education Step two. reviewing current practice Step three. Teachers complex needs of today’s labour market need to have the motivation but also Step one. but evidence from PISA test very few students in Singapore are low challenges that the country is currently results suggests that few students are able performers in problem solving and facing. It may be the case that whilst some market. exams have been When thinking through which core skills One important distinction to make is revised to assess this. Singapore made content that is assessed in exams.103 textbooks or other materials to support equivalent to two years of learning. they do not have the resources such as internationally – the gap is roughly intensive industries and services. there is little evidence that skills requires a greater investment of time be the top priority. Even school administrators focus on? With included in textbooks for various subjects? if we want to see significant changes in a long list of requirements to be met. in order to better meet the components are necessary. of society and the needs of the labour country. there is a focus identify the strengths and weaknesses that motivates people to accomplish of current practice. if done well. the priorities were to solve moderately complex problems 40 per cent are top performers. between what is stated in the curriculum supported with effective professional it is worth considering both the needs and what happens in classrooms across the development programmes. but with clear in exams? Questions like this can help to to change. In Punjab. this does not mean teachers and administrators are likely teach them? Are the core skills assessed that the school system has the capacity to feel overwhelmed. the There may be various reasons: perhaps socioeconomic background in Singapore shift was to skill-intensive manufacturing. teachers feel the need to focus on the perform far better in mathematical problem from the mid-1990s. the next step is to review how Having set the priorities concerning which Whelan writes. Pakistan. Notably. In Singapore. For example. . However. Without and science isn’t lost. what needs to be done. it is important to reflect on priorities. What does this depend on? priorities firmly in place. science has been of central importance maybe teachers have not had access So how do we decide whether to pursue in enabling this economic transformation. maybe solving than disadvantaged students another leap to research and innovation. ‘Prioritisation is the single these high-priority skills are currently core skills to focus on and considered most important factor determining the taught. As Fenton important. the decision was that if students could master mathematical problem solving is included results are significant. training programmes – to teach core skills.42 to other core skills. Do teachers have the time and skills to learning outcomes. and teachers are are most important in any given context.100 largely determined by the need to transform using their knowledge of mathematics.101 Problem solving in mathematics and the teaching and learning of core skills. basis of problem solving in mathematics resources – and the skills – through it is necessary to prioritise. of important social and economic countries. setting priorities and society whilst ensuring that the solid the tools – textbooks and other learning Although all core skills are important. it was felt that things are stated on paper in curriculum The comprehensive integration of core communication and collaboration should requirements. then it would help address a number in the curriculum requirements in many international PISA tests of 15 year olds.

Whelan. However. Available online at: https://www. Reading and Science.pdf .com/report/the-learning-challenge/ 103.org/attachments/publications/ImprovingEducation2013. Available online at: www. This is probably one of the curriculum is what matters the most.oecd. F (2014) The Learning Challenge. Available online at: www.106 main reasons why in many countries.oecd.cem. Paris. Another example We can zoom into the second aspect – might be where the true priority of the coaching and support – to explain why school system is to improve basic literacy building capacity is crucial. OECD Publishing. Revised edition.curee. CUREE (2012) Understanding What Enables High Quality Professional Learning. one also needs designed to support the teaching of tools and skills to improve their teaching.org/edu/Improving-Schools-in-Scotland-An-OECD-Perspective. and their effectiveness. have limited impact – teachers need to For example. if this is the case. OECD (2014) PISA 2012 Results: What Students Know and Can Do (Volume I. OECD Publishing. it is important to core skills? Building capacity for core skills can be build the capacity of the school system especially challenging if the true priorities to actually implement change. in some citizenship topics can be easily integrated systems few teachers have access to into the learning of literacy and numeracy. capacity to hold teachers to account in Imagine a learning environment where relation to their teaching of core skills. It needs to be approach might work. as they learn how to teach integration of core skills.co.org/education/pisa-2012-results-what-students-know-and-can-do-volume-i-revised-edition-february-2014_9789264208780-en 101. basic school facilities – including toilets for example by revising exams or using and drinking water – are still lacking. a light touch most effective for teachers.pdf 106. OECD (2010) Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education. • Accountability – do we have the of the school system are elsewhere.org/education/pisa-2012-results-excellence-through-equity-volume-ii_9789264201132-en 102.oecd-ilibrary. an Having established clear priorities and • Teaching materials – do we have the increase in funding for education has not assessed the current practice.oecd-ilibrary. Available online at: www. Whether we want to the capacity to coach and support learning outcomes.pdf 104. PISA. now have a fairly good understanding of then this needs to be the main focus. 100. Coe.acasus. PISA. Available online at: www. Available online at: www. what kind of professional development is Perhaps. 105 However. R (2013) Improving Education: A triumph of hope over experience. 43 Some of the key aspects of capacity are effective professional learning The quality of the implementation of the the following: opportunities. it is possible to sustained over time – meaning that one- teach one or two core skills in a way that or two-day standalone training initiatives directly improves literacy and numeracy. capacity of the school system to • Coaching and support – do we have but necessary if we want to improve implement changes. OECD (2015) Improving Schools in Scotland: An OECD Perspective. one can be capacity to revise textbooks and other automatically translated into better visionary and optimistic about the changes teaching materials so that they are learning outcomes. Researchers and numeracy outcomes. collaborative learning can actively try new practices and reflect on support better literacy and numeracy. February 2014): Student Performance in Mathematics.org/countries/singapore/46581101.104.uk/publication/understanding-what-enables-high-quality-professional-learning 105. OECD (2013) PISA 2012 Results: Excellence through Equity (Volume II): Giving Every Student the Chance to Succeed. pursue a limited or a more comprehensive teachers. to be realistic and pay attention to the core skills? and holding them accountable is difficult. Available online at: www. Giving teachers the that are needed. In external observers and reviewers? such a context. Paris. it would make sense to focus on the basics first. in this case.

44 Case study Supporting curriculum reform in Kenya by Louisa Kadzo. new Kenyan curriculum to: curriculum reforms ‘The meetings have enabled us at the KICD to have an open mind as we think of what • enable Kenya to achieve the goals and • develop templates for the curriculum kind of values. Nairobi. we have designed a competency-based • reflect on the entire curriculum reform curriculum where core skills are embedded process. with the British Council. enable them to be aligned with the new competencies across subject areas curriculum as they facilitate core skills In February 2016. British Council. the British Council and • look at competency-based assessment workshops with teachers. we hope to education roadmap and to determine how What we have achieved so far engage other private and international to embed core skills. This will • discuss embedding core skills and with digital literacy offered alongside each. digital literacy. when a British Council team curriculum design and teacher capacity the Curriculum Reform Technical introduced the newly launched development. which has built radicalisation. drugs and This framework identified seven core trust and understanding with the Kenyan substance abuse competencies that will form the backbone Ministry of Education and other education of Kenya’s new curriculum. The outcome of this was a draft curriculum labour markets framework. . are core skills – critical thinking and learning that supports both problem solving. the attributes we need to embed in the different levels of education and the • equip pupils with competencies and curriculum as we think of the future of learning areas and subjects. Kenya The government of Kenya is currently reviewing the curriculum with the aim of moving from a knowledge-based curriculum to one that is based on skills. terrorism. first major reform of the Kenyan curriculum wider intervention which will support the for 34 years. Committee met to discuss Kenya’s Through the British Council. creativity and imagination. Basic to the local. What we did support plan for curriculum reform with Our focus on core skills began in August the British Council. direction of the new curriculum. The Kenya Institute for Curriculum Development (KICD) is leading on this work. national and international Education KICD. What we plan to do in the future citizenship. the aim was to: With the support of the British Council. from conceptualisation to across all subjects and disciplines and implementation reinforced through assessment. competencies and We have made important progress on the stakeholders to work with us towards a values into the curriculum. knowledge. the Curriculum Reform Technical structures.’ Deputy Director. and We will develop a longer-term structured communication and collaboration. The Ministry • edit and align the framework to reflect We will hold workshops to help Connecting prioritised three core skills for Kenya: the skills and competencies we wish Classrooms 3 trainers understand our critical thinking and problem solving. whole reform process to a level which will This was then followed by a meeting where build teacher capacity. which was shared with the We have developed a valuable relationship • help to address issues such as Education Cabinet Secretary in April. attitudes and aspirations outlined in Vision 2030 framework for basic education. skills that will enable them to contribute our learners. Why we wanted to improve core skills • develop a draft vision for the pillars and Our curriculum developers have grown We wanted to embed core skills into the principles which would underpin the in knowledge. including support for We went on to hold further meetings with 2015. with the British Council playing an advisory role. our students to achieve vision for curriculum reform and the creativity and imagination and citizenship. Committee and the British Council to: Connecting Classrooms programme to the Ministry of Education. competency and values. skills and confidence. five of which • support a shift in teaching and bodies. knowledge and skill creation.

and has recently produced Guidance for Schools. a multi-academy trust number of educational programmes involving comprising five schools providing education ministries. Vicky Gough Vicky Gough is Modern Foreign Languages The British Council brings an intercultural Lead and Schools Adviser at the British Council dimension to foreign language learning in in London. Susan has Since 2012. of complex needs. She has a PhD in Education from the University of Durham (UK). He often wonders: main strands: supporting teachers with practical ‘what if all children fulfilled their potential and professional learning programmes. Dr Björn Haßler Dr Björn Haßler is a Senior Researcher at the teacher professional development.de Artur Taevere Artur Taevere is the Co-Founder and CEO of in London set up to prepare all its pupils for Beyond. and creating became positive contributors to the world?’ high-quality learning resources. citizenship education. and University of Cambridge. she has also held the role of worked as a Senior Adviser at the British Council Chief Executive Officer of the Eden Academy providing sector expertise and advice to a wide Trust in West London. the Open Resource a short film about 21st century learning in Bank on Interactive Teaching (ORBIT) for Zambia – see http://bjohas. This includes the funded by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. working on open applications of low-power computing for education. including work and mobile technology. Artur served on the leadership team problems collaboratively. She also leads on the creation of the UK by running initiatives such as the resources for British Council Schools Online language assistants’ programme and through and has led on the development of many encouraging schools to make partnerships highly regarded resources with partners with schools overseas. an innovative school Lynne Parmenter Lynne Parmenter began her career teaching and over the past 18 years has taught. This work usually involves two educational opportunity. OER4Schools teacher development programme He regularly consults for FTSE100 companies. school leaders. teachers and young for children aged three to 19 with a range people in around 60 countries worldwide. . Artur works with schools to foster success in the 21st century.Contributors 45 Susan Douglas Since leaving headship in 2006. in schools. University in the UK. University in Kazakhstan. across a range of countries in Sub-Saharan professional societies and non-governmental Africa. the Open Educational Resources organisations. and then moved to faculty posts at supervised graduate students and published Fukushima University and Waseda University on issues related to language education. Before starting students’ ability to think critically and solve Beyond. and education policy. Artur is a Governor of School 21. the Premier League and the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. and then Nazarbayev teacher education. in England and of Teach For All. teacher professional development education and development. the global network to improve internationally. such as the Royal Shakespeare Company. followed by Manchester Metropolitan intercultural education. in Japan.

Clive He has facilitated training with educators was previously Cross-Curricular Co-ordinator in the UK. a growing group of schools of the Connecting Classrooms programme in London catering for children with special in the UK. He is also seconded. one at the British Council in at the University of Manchester. and international level. Stephen Hull Stephen is based at the British Council in Stephen is also a trustee of Brent Specialist London. to the National Leaders with the Development Education Centre South Yorkshire. Pat is involved in Families (DCSF) between 2008 and 2010. Adviser and International Trainer for the part-time. Philosophy for Children and the British Council’s current global citizenship the Global Teachers Award and has delivered materials. Chile. Children and a validated trainer for Connecting Rob Unwin Former teacher Rob Unwin is a co-author of Classrooms. She specialises Chair of the Brigshaw Trust and a Trustee in professional development in relation to of Yorkshire Artspace.46 Contributors Clive Belgeonne Clive Belgeonne is an Education Adviser at the at a comprehensive (secondary) school in Development Education Centre South Yorkshire Oldham and also worked for the Development and one of the National Leaders of the Global Education Project in Manchester. reflective practice and leadership for creativity. pedagogy. Helen Griffin Former primary teacher. Before London he spent two years educational needs. Classrooms and the Global Teachers Award. government’s cultural education advisory an independent research and development group and was Creativity Advisor to the agency which specialises in supporting Department for Children. He read languages in Latin America. and recently Bogotá and one teaching at a vocational completed a Postgraduate Diploma in college in Santiago. Global Learning Programme (England). Pat is a member of the . He has He is a validated trainer for Connecting also worked as a mediator and founded REMEDI. both practice and policy at regional. training) at Sheffield Hallam University. MA Education) is an Education Adviser at the She has been training teachers and other Development Education Centre South Yorkshire. Europe and the Middle East. national Pat is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. Professional Studies in Education. Helen Griffin (PGCE. Pat Cochrane Pat Cochrane is the founding CEO of CapeUK. Schools and creativity and learning. He is also Advanced Diploma as a Global Trainer and is Post-Graduate Citizenship Leader (teacher an accredited Philosophy for Children trainer. His has an Learning Programme (England). He currently works as an Education training across the world. education professionals for the last 20 years She is an accredited trainer for Philosophy for in both open courses and whole-school training. where he is Senior Project Manager Academy Trust.

MA. executive principals. PGCE. policy makers of Education. his work involves coaching currently studying for an Educational Doctorate. training master coaches. Previously he was a Senior Researcher School ICT Development project in Brunei. radical digital literacy education and educational technology. an exploration of the potential of and Head of Evidence and Research at the computer games to support skills development. taught for 15 years. school leaders. Unbox 21. Barrie now works as an independent . she has been training at the University College London Institute teachers. an educational technology charity. – Coaching and Senior Consultant in Leadership staff and governors in a variety of educational at the University of London Institute of Education. critical perspectives on and development organisation focusing on educational technology. contexts. University of development programmes. and at Futurelab. particularly across of Lighting up Learning. Tim also works works on various educational research and at the Education Research Centre. with the British Council on the Connecting Dr Tim Rudd Dr Tim Rudd is founder of Livelab. an education. Author of 15 books and hundreds is an education consultant and senior lecturer of papers and articles. He has a special interest in helping He has also held senior academic posts at leaders of learning develop in situ the key the Universities of Manchester. Nicholas Garrick Nicholas Garrick is founder and Director of education overseas. Queensland. British Educational and Communications Other research interests include alternative Technology Agency (Becta). Tim and the sociology of education. and is a part-time primary Focusing his energies on empowering school Assistant Principal in the UK as well as teachers. She is an accredited UK and other education professionals for the last leadership consultant and has worked 20 years in the UK and internationally. them to excel in their work. 47 Sara Bubb Former primary teacher and local authority Classrooms programme in the UK and around adviser. South America and South-East Asia. competencies and behaviours that enable Munich and London. a research educational systems. He has curriculum and change consultancy. leading curriculum projects in the UK and consulting to ministries Barrie Joy Barrie Joy was formerly Director of Mentoring international consultant with senior leaders. Dr Sara Bubb (BA. Drawing on rigorous comparative educational studies. including the Whole Brighton. PhD) the world.

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.Photography © Mat Wright © British Council 2016 / G139 The British Council is the United Kingdom’s international organisation for cultural relations and educational opportunities.