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Designation: D2244 – 11

Standard Practice for
Calculation of Color Tolerances and Color Differences from
Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D2244; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

INTRODUCTION

This practice originally resulted from the consolidation of a number of separately published
methods for the instrumental evaluation of color differences. As revised in 1979, it included four color
spaces in which color-scale values could be measured by instruments, many of which were obsolete,
and the color differences calculated by ten equations for different color scales. The sections on
apparatus, calibration standards and methods, and measurement procedures served little purpose in the
light of modern color-measurement technology. The revision published in 1993 omitted these sections,
and limited the color spaces and color-difference equations considered, to the three most widely used
in the paint and related coatings industry. A previous revision added two new color tolerance equations
and put two of the color difference equations from the 1993 version in an informative appendix for
historical purposes.

1. Scope* the correlation between the magnitude of a measured color
1.1 This practice covers the calculation, from instrumentally difference and its commercial acceptability.
measured color coordinates based on daylight illumination, of 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the
color tolerances and small color differences between opaque safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
specimens such as painted panels, plastic plaques, or textile responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-
swatches. Where it is suspected that the specimens may be priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-
metameric, that is, possess different spectral curves though bility of regulatory requirements prior to use.
visually alike in color, Practice D4086 should be used to verify 2. Referenced Documents
instrumental results. The tolerances and differences determined
by these procedures are expressed in terms of approximately 2.1 ASTM Standards:3
uniform visual color perception in CIE 1976 CIELAB D1729 Practice for Visual Appraisal of Colors and Color
opponent-color space (1),2 CMC tolerance units (2), CIE94 Differences of Diffusely-Illuminated Opaque Materials
tolerance units (3), the DIN99 color difference formula given D4086 Practice for Visual Evaluation of Metamerism
in DIN 6176 (4), or the new CIEDE2000 color difference units E284 Terminology of Appearance
(5). E308 Practice for Computing the Colors of Objects by
1.2 For product specification, the purchaser and the seller Using the CIE System
shall agree upon the permissible color tolerance between test E805 Practice for Identification of Instrumental Methods of
specimen and reference and the procedure for calculating the Color or Color-Difference Measurement of Materials
color tolerance. Each material and condition of use may require E1164 Practice for Obtaining Spectrometric Data for
specific color tolerances because other appearance factors, (for Object-Color Evaluation
example, specimen proximity, gloss, and texture), may affect 2.2 Other Standards:
DIN 6176 Farbmetrische, Bestimmung von Farbabständen
bei Körperfarben nach der DIN99-Formel 4
1
This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E12 on Color and
Appearance and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E12.04 on Color and
3
Appearance Analysis. For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
Current edition approved June 1, 2011. Published June 2011. Originally contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
approved in 1964. Last previous edition approved in 2009 as D2244 – 09b. DOI: Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
10.1520/D2244-11. the ASTM website.
2 4
The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to the list of references at the end of Available from Beuth Verlag GmbH, 10772, Berlin, Germany, http://
this standard. www.beuth.de/.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.
Copyright. © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box C700 West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428-2959, United States
Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Tue Jul 12 04:05:29 EDT 2011 1
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GAMESA INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized.

2 For uniformity of practice.1 The original CIE color scales based on tristimulus Equations values X. Good correlation with the visual judg- automatically make the computations.3 Users of color tolerance equations have found that. The three tolerance equa- space. for textiles and plastics and have been shown to agree with the visual evaluations to within the experimental uncertainty of the 4.1 CIE 1931 and 1964 Color Spaces—The daylight colors visually. Additionally.1 Terms and definitions in Terminology E284 are appli. of a reference color. level of metamerism in accordance with Practice D4086. tude of the departure from standard but also the direction of 3. its associated color-difference equation. To ponent of which is a dispersive element (such as a prism. There is no simple producing as output colorimetric data (such as tristimulus factor that can be used to convert accurately color differences values and derived color coordinates or indices of appearance or color tolerances in one system to difference or tolerance attributes). The CIELAB position and very narrow bandpass and moderate baseline color-difference equation is also not recommended in this stability. 1976 the use of two color metrics. and approximate with other illuminants. color differences among specimens or the grating or interference filter or wedge or tunable or discrete associated tolerances should be compared only when they are series of monochromatic sources). for the purpose of single number production.5 While color difference equations and color tolerance from spectral instruments are converted by computations to equations are routinely applied to a wide range of illuminants. for use under color-scale values may be read directly from instruments that daylight illumination. Tue Jul 12 04:05:29 EDT 2011 2 Downloaded/printed by GAMESA INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY pursuant to License Agreement. On the other hand.1 Discussion—The color tolerance equation computes this departure. Z and chromaticity coordinates x. reference and test specimens will result in a change in the 5. A color difference equation the acceptability of differences in hue. Inter-changing the reference and test specimens does not tions given here have been tested extensively against such data change either the perceived or predicted color differences. Y. spectral based or filter based colorimeter. aH.4 Selection of color tolerances based on instrumental predicted level of acceptance between the specimens while the values should be carefully correlated with a visual appraisal of perceived difference is unchanged. UV-VIS analytical spec.2. are highly recommended for use with color-differences in allows more tolerance on the spectral scale and spectral the range of 0. It is possible to include information on the a pass/fail value based on which of the pair of specimens is direction of a small color difference by listing the three assigned the designation “standard. while instruments intended for use in color measurements While the CIELAB equation has not completely replaced the share many common components. To.0 to 5. Significance and Use 6. Description of Color-Difference and Color-Tolerance 5. space will be more nearly comparable. D2244 – 11 3. which distorts the determining whether a specimen color is within a specified metric of color space based on the coordinates in that color tolerance from a standard. it may be necessary to know not only the magni- shade passing. and saturation quantifies distance in a color space using the metric of that obtained by using Practice D1729. lightness. Summary of Practice visual judgments. bH. components into a single scalar value is very useful for sion. summation of three. textiles and related industries.1 Discussion—At one time. that is normally capable of obtained for the same color-scale system. this older scale is no longer photometers are designed to optimize their use in chemometric recommended for other than legacy users. Digital colorimetry here. one com. day.” Thus. y are not uniform 6. also be able to report the underlying spectral data from which 5. . and is therefore quantitative analysis. avoid confusion. uniformity so that color differences in various regions of color cable to this practice. Reflectance readings 5. The CIELAB metric.0 D E*ab the source of spectral and colorimetric information for units). n—a mathematical expres.1. 5. inter-changing the instrumentally determined components of the color difference. Colorimetric spectrometers are designed to optimize practice for use in describing small and moderate color their use as digital simulations of the visual colorimeter or as differences (differences with magnitude less than 5.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: differences obtained for the same specimens evaluated in 3. tance in the coatings. Each subsequent color scale based on CIE values has of opaque specimens are represented by points in a space Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). That implies that the equations themselves 4.2.2. the colorimetric spectrometer may units in another system for all colors of specimens.2. bandwidth but demand much more stability in the radiometric 5. or these they have been derived or optimized. Color-difference units ments may not be obtained when the calculations are made are computed. plastics. vector color-difference 3. has found wide accep- trophotometers were used for colorimetric measurements.0 DE*ab units. from these color-scale values. use of Hunter LH. derived from acceptability judgments. which requires very precise spectral included in an Appendix for historical purposes. Use of a tolerance equation for other the perceived color differences between the reference and the than daylight conditions will require visual confirmation of the test specimen. each system. or both. Terminology had weighting factors applied to provide some degree of 3. documented computer-assisted color matching systems. for control of color in space. the CIE recommended in the colorimetric data were derived. UV-VIS analytical spectro. different color-scale systems are not likely to be identical. The four more recently defined equations. in scale. color 3.1 The differences in color between a reference and a test misclassify a color difference with a frequency no greater than specimen are determined from measurements made by use of a that of the most experienced visual color matcher. No further reproductions authorized. with 3.2 color tolerance equation. However. color-scale values in accordance with Practice E308. n—spectrometer.2.1 colorimetric spectrometer.

except for very dark colors (8). Usually. where: character of the difference since it does not indicate the relative X quantity and direction of hue. it is useful to calculate hue angles hab and b* 5 200 [ f ~QY! – f ~QZ! ] (5) CIE 1976 metric chroma C*ab according to the following pseudocode: where if b* 5 0 then (16) QX 5 ~X/Xn!. It is produced by plotting 2Da* 5 greener ~less red! (13) in rectangular coordinates the quantities L*. Xn. These scales do not provide a perceptually Db* 5 b*B 2 b*S (9) uniform color space. and Y. and arctan is the inverse tangent function returning angles in The tristimulus values Xn. dom if ever computed directly from differences in x. Consequently. a*B. it is useful to calculate the CIE 1976 Metric Hue capitalized) is recommended. a*S. 6. color differences are sel. gives no indication of the scale Y and chromaticity scales x and y.2. and b*S refer to the reference or standard. and hue differences between color-difference formula. D65 or values of the agrument.2 CIE 1976 L* a* b* Uniform Color Space and Color. and Z are tristimulus values for either the 1931 DL* 5 L*B 2 L* S (7) CIE standard observer (2° observer) or the 1964 CIE standard Da* 5 a*B 2 a*S (8) observer (10° observer) and standard illuminant D65. and Db*: where X. . Tue Jul 12 04:05:29 EDT 2011 3 Downloaded/printed by GAMESA INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY pursuant to License Agreement. b* is calculated as follows: perceived hue. the white degrees counter-clockwise from the positve a* axis. QY 5 ~Y/Yn!. and lightness differ- x5X1Y1Z (1) ences.2 The magnitude. y. Da*. for example. Differences in hue angle hab between the test specimen and 6. NOTE 1—The color space defined above is called the CIE 1976 L* a * 6. Yn. and b*B refer to the test specimen or batch. Zn define the color of the units of radians. chroma. ~6/29!3 else hab 5 180 – ~180 / p! arctan~a*/b*! – 90 sign~b*! else f~Qi! 5 ~841/108!Qi 1 4/29 if Qj # ~6/29!3 end if. and L*B.2. redness. chroma differences. b*. Y. i varies as X.5 For judging the relative contributions of lightness b* space and the color-difference equation the CIE 1976 L* a* b* differences. Under these conditions. Y. The units of hab calculated by the above are nominally white object-color stimulus. No further reproductions authorized. Differences in chroma DC*ab = ([C*ab]batch − [C*ab]standard) can similarly be DE*ab 5 =~DL*! 2 1 ~Da*!2 1 ~Db*! 2 (6) correlated with differences in visually perceived chroma. reflected into the observer’s eye by a positive one for positive values of the argument. signs of the components DL*. a*. and Z.1 The total color-difference DE*ab between two colors reference can be correlated with differences in their visually each given in terms of L*. Here. the perfect reflecting diffuser. C. QZ 5 ~Z/Zn! and hab 5 90 sign~a*! [sign~a*! –1] f~Qi! 5 Qj1/3 if Qj . Zn are the tristimulus values of the standard illuminant with Yn C*ab 5 =~a*!2 1 ~b*!2 (17) equal to 100. D2244 – 11 formed by three rectangular axes representing the lightness 6. where L*S. a*. The abbreviation CIELAB (with all letters two colors.2. a zero when the argument is zero. DE*ab. D a*.4 For judging the direction of the color difference a* 5 500 [ f ~QX! – f ~QY! ] (4) between two colors. and another phase of daylight.3 The direction of the color difference is described by Y y5X1Y1Z (2) the magnitude and algebraic signs of the components DL*. Difference DH*ab between the colors as follows: Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved).2. calculated 1 Db* 5 yellow ~less blue! (14) as follows: 2D b* 5 bluer ~less yellow! (15) L* 5 116 f ~QY! 2 16 (3) 6.2. and Db* have the Difference Equation (1. Here sign is a function that returns the sign of the argument. 1 Da* 5 redder ~less green! (12) greenness and yellowness-blueness. or other phase of daylight. The object-color stimulus is given by the spectral radiant power of function sign is expected to return a minus one for negative one of the CIE standard illuminants. The 6. 6)—This is an approximately uniform following approximate meanings (7): color space based on nonlinear expansion of the tristimulus 1 DL* 5 lighter (10) values and taking differences to produce three opponent axes 2D L* 5 darker (11) that approximate the percepts of lightness-darkness. Yn.

D2244 – 11 D H*ab 5 s [2~C*ab. if 164° . 16 chroma and hue instead of the lightness.4 cos ~h 1 35°!? All angles are given in degrees but will generally need to be converted to radians for processing on a digital computer. The CMC components and single number tolerances are computed if a*S b*B . require very critical tolerances or have glossy surfaces. implying that lightness as in 6. or mildly textured. It was a combination of the dependent functions are defined as: CIELAB equation and local optimization based on the position 0. with 6. SL 5 0.4 CIE94 Color Tolerance Equation (3)—The develop- ment of this color tolerance equation was prompted by the success of the CMC tolerance equation.5 (20) just perceptible difference.5 . The figure clearly shows the change in area of the ellipses with increases in CIELAB metric chroma C*ab and where with respect to changes in CIELAB metric hue angle h*ab. randomly rough. It was SL 5 for L* $ 16 (22) ~1 1 0.3 CMC Color Tolerance Equation—The Colour Measure. For ness differences DL*ab. C*.0131 · C*! not be a need to break the equation down into perceptual SH 5 SC ~T · f 1 1 2f! components—the CIELAB components of the model do that where already.1 and DC*ab is calculated molded to simulate a woven material.511. Fig. The values (1:1). Its weighting functions are much simpler than those of the CMC equation. chroma differences DC*ab. It was derived primar- ily from visual observations of automotive paints on steel panels. The color company in the United Kingdom. a*B b*S then (19) as follows: s51 DECMC ~l : c! 5 ŒS D S D S D DL* l · SL 2 DC* 1 c·S c 2 1 DH* SH 2 (21) else The CMC equation is sometimes used with a commercial s 5 –1 factor.36 1 ?0. used to adjust the total volume undertook a task to improve upon the results of the JPC79 of the tolerance region so that accept/reject decisions can be tolerance equation (2) developed at J & P Coates thread made on the basis of a unit value of the tolerance. and h are taken to be those of the standard specimen. and hue specimens that are matte. The most end if. values intermediate between (1:1) and (2:1) can be used.638 used as a single-number shade-passing equation. common values are (2:1) for textiles and plastics that are When DE*ab is calculated as in 6. Like the CMC equation. then differences carry half the importance of chroma and hue differences (13). redness/greenness and yellowness/blueness of the older equation. 1 (12) shows the CIELAB chromaticness plane 1 (a*. h .2 cos ~h 1 168°!?. 345° else T 5 0. the values of L*. b*) with a large number of CMC ellipsoids plotted on that f5 H ~C*!4 ~C*!4 1 1900 J 2 T 5 0.56 1 ?0. Tue Jul 12 04:05:29 EDT 2011 4 Downloaded/printed by GAMESA INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY pursuant to License Agreement.0638 · C* SC 5 1 0. . The parameter ment Committee of the Society of Dyers and Colourists cf is a commercial factor (15).S – a*B a*S – b*B b*S!#0.5 (18) plane. differences DH*ab.01765 · L*! based on the more intuitive perceptual variables of lightness. often assumed to represent a DE*ab 5 [~DL*!2 1 ~DC*!2 1 ~DH*!2#0. the value (1. it is based on the CIELAB color metric and uses the position of the standard in CIELAB color space to derive a set of analytical functions that modify the spacing of the CIELAB space in the region around the standard.3:1) being reported most frequently.2. 1 CMC Ellipse Distribution in the CIELAB (a*. CIE94 tolerances are computed as follows: DE*94 5 FS D S D S D G DL* kLSL 2 DC* 1 k S C C 2 DH* 1 k S H H 2 0. It is intended to be 0.4.040975 · L* of the standard used to derive the FMC-2 equation. See Appendix X3 for more information on use of commercial factors in color tolerance equations. for L*. b*) Plane Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). 6.2. There should ~1 1 0. In Eq 22. should be applied to materials that contains terms showing the relative contributions of light.B C*ab. (23) FIG. No further reproductions authorized.

This is contrary to what is equivalent performance to CMC or CIE94.0158 L*!# kE SL 5 1 (24) SC 5 1 1 0. the value of C* is taken to be that of the standard or specimen. Tue Jul 12 04:05:29 EDT 2011 5 Downloaded/printed by GAMESA INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY pursuant to License Agreement.509 [loge ~1 1 0.S! Background Uniform neutral gray L* = 50 Viewing Mode Object Where subscripts S refers to the product standard and Sample Size >4° subtended visual angle subscript B refers to the current product batch or test sample. Therefore the CIE set documented in standard DIN 6176 provides an axes rotation up a new technical committee. The parameters kL. D2244 – 11 Unlike many previous color difference equations. The procedures for comput. SC. c = 1) difference. The param.5 to be significantly poorer. It also eliminates observed. it the identifications of the two specimens are reversed (calling seemed appropriate to scale the differences or distances in the original test specimen the reference and the original color space following the Weber-Fechner law of perception. use the parameters: 2 (1 : 0. SH are used to perform the local distortion of CIELAB color space. Sample Separation Minimum possible Size of Color Differences 0 to 5 CIELAB units Default parameters are: kE = kCH = 1. CMC or CIE94. These should not be used to introduce a Step 2 commercial factor into the equation. was the better the CIELAB coordinates rather than the linear and hyperbolic formula. For more information on the use of commercial factors in color tolerance equations.7~2sin ~16°! a* 1 cos ~16°! b*! set of conditions will cause the agreement between the visually evaluated color-difference and the computed color-difference Chroma G 5 ~e2 1 f2!0. chroma and hue.5). see ~loge~1 1 0. Sample Structure Visually homogenous For textiles the following equivalence relations holds: To obtain an equivalent computed difference to a CMC (l = 2.B 2C99.S 1 b99.045 kCHkE! specific information or agreement between parties. to recommend a new equation that addresses the short- need to make the specimen identified as standard the source of comings in both color tolerance equations. 180 Hue angle h99 5 hef p eters SL. Visually. position of the reference color in CIELAB color space for b* are perceptual variables while the axes L*. DE99 5 =~DL99!2 1 ~DC99!2 1 ~DH99!2 TABLE 1 Basis Conditions for CIE94 Tolerance Equation with Attribute Requirement DC99 5 C99. Thus computed color differences are based only on the Euclid.B · b99. as weaknesses of the color tolerance equations was using the neither the tristimulus values XYZ nor the CIELAB axes a*.S Illumination D65 source ~a99. the roles of the two specimens may be switched Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). By using the position of the arithmetic average color between ean distance in the DIN99 space. No further reproductions authorized. In the process. there is no change in the magnitude of the the annoying reference-color based distortion of CIELAB. They are computed using the Yellowness b99 5 C99 sin ~hef! following equations: Lightness L99 5 105. CIE94 Step 1 comes with a well defined set of conditions under which the Redness e 5 cos ~16°! a* 1 sin ~16°! b* (25) equation will provide optimum results and departures from this Yellowness f 5 0. the researchers came to the conclusion functions of CMC and CIE94. When correlates of the perceptions of lightness.S · b99.5 · ~C99. reference now the test specimen) the computation results in a This resulted in a formula which is easy to use and has different computed color difference. kH are the parametric factors that can f Hue angle hef 5 arctan e SD be used to compensate for texture and other specimen presen- tation effects. All the k values default to 1 in the absence of ~0.B · a99. which indicate 6. TC 1-47.6 CIEDE2000 Color Difference Equation (5)—The devel- German standards institute (DIN) to further develop and opment of this color difference equation grew out of the standardize a modified version as a new color difference research being performed to try to determine which of the two formula that globally models color space using logarithms of color tolerances equations.S 1 a99.B 2 a99. kCH = 0.045 · C* Step 3 SH 5 1 1 0.B · b99. Also.5 DIN99 Color Difference Equation—The publication in that kE = 2 and. C* and h*ab are computing the local distortion of CIELAB color space. again based on the position of the Redness a99 5 C99 cos ~hef! standard specimen in that space. Hue & Lightness and the logarithmic expansion of the new axes to match that of Dependant Correction to Industrial Colour Difference Equa- the spacing of the CIE94 color tolerance formula without the tions.B · C99. . the two specimens to compute the local distortions to CIELAB ing the DIN99 formula are: color space.S! Specimen Illuminance 1000 lx D H99 5 Observer Normal color vision =0. difference between the specimens simply by switching roles. Those conditions are given in Table 1. The equations derived and that neither formula was truly optimum. kE (1 : kCH). One of the major the distortion of distances in the CIELAB color space. 1996 of the paper by Rohner and Rich (4) prompted the 6.045 G!! Chroma C99 5 (26) Appendix X3. kC.015 · C* DE99 5 =~DL99!2 1 ~Da99!2 1 ~Db99!2 (27) In Eq 24.5.

else Here sign and arctan are functions that are defined in and are h8 5 p end if. assumed orthogonal. 7. Unless otherwise specified or agreed. Current color tolerance difference equations which DH8 5 s [2 ~C8B C8S – a8B a8S – b8B b8S! ]0. optimized for pairwise comparison of a product standard to a kH (all defaulting to unity in the absence of specific information production test specimen but not for statistical process control. SH 5 1 1 0. else s 5 21. The CIEDE2000 color differences are computed if C8S C8B 5 0 then from the following equations: L8 5 L* a8 5 ~1 1 G! · a* b8 5 b* (28) h8 5 2p else if q .2. in full agreement with the visual assessments. Such a predetermination is S DL8 DE002 5 k · S L L D S2 DC8 1 k ·S C C D S 2 DH8 1 k ·S H H D 2 S DC8 · DH8 1 RT · k · S · k · S C C H H D not possible with CIEDE2000. SC.17 · cos ~h8 2 30°! 1 0. prepare CIELAB diagram. SH and RT.2 Operate the instrument in accordance with the manufac- RT 5 –sin ~2· Du! · RC turer’s instructions and the procedures given in Practice E1164. The four color space terms are computed as specimens in accordance with appropriate test methods and follows: practices. . 180 then C8 5 =a82 1 b82 if p . The substitution in the above equation: report from CIE TC 1-47 has shown that CIEDE2000 out. expected to return values as stated in 6. See Practice E308.5 · S Œ 12 C* 7 C* 1 257 7 D While not obvious from this listing.5 base the distortion of CIELAB space on the position of the standard allows a user to predefine the acceptance volume. RC 5 2 · Œ C87 C8 1 257 7 8. graphical quality control charting. p 5 ~h8S 1 h8B! / 2 performs both CMC and CIE94 across a wide array of q 5 Abs~h8S – h8B! specimens.1 Using the arithmetic average of the CIELAB color DL8 5 L8B – L8S coordinates of the reference and test specimens to compute the local distortion of CIELAB color space introduces a new DC8 5 C8B – C8S problem.20· cos ~4h8 2 63°! to obtain an indication of uniformity. L*.6.045 · C8 surement in accordance with Practice E805. Record the location where these measurements were made on the specimen. Tue Jul 12 04:05:29 EDT 2011 6 Downloaded/printed by GAMESA INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY pursuant to License Agreement.4 Measure at least three portions of each specimen surface 2 0. for the pair of specimens (standard and batch). CIELAB coordi. Here Abs means the absolute value of the argument. 180 then if b8 5 0 then h8 5 p 1 180 h8 5 90 sign~a8! [sign~a8! –1] else else h8 5 p – 180 h8 5 180 – ~180/p! arctan~a8/b8! – 90 sign~b8! end if end if. SL. b* since the meaning of a8 is determined D E00 5 =DE002 uniquely for each pair of colors.1 This practice does not cover specimen preparation difference volume in the blue and purple-blue regions of the techniques.32 · cos ~3h8 1 6°! 8. in turn. 0. kC. G 5 0. obtain the reflectance values of the reference specimen and test speci- mens. a8B b8S. Test Specimens nates and the RT term computes a rotation of the color 7. No further reproductions authorized. 6.24 · cos ~2h8! 1 0. or agreement between parties). all displayed angles are assumed to be given in degrees. D2244 – 11 without changing the magnitude of the computed color. This where is convenient for certain textile sorting applications and for s 5 1 if a8S b8B . Thus the equation is highly The specimen or industry dependent parameters are kL.015 · ~L8 2 50!2 SL 5 1 1 (29) 8.3 When a colorimetric spectrometer is used. including Du and thus must generally be converted into radians for trigonometric analysis where C* is the arithmetric mean of the CIELAB C* values on digital computers. The three S terms operate on the.015 · C8 · T 8.a8. at a sufficient number of wavelength intervals to Du 5 30 · exp 2 SF ~h8 2 275°! 25 GD 2 permit accurate calculation of CIE tristimulus values. Procedure =20 1 ~L8 2 50!2 8. The following pseudocode (see 17) will calculate h8 for difference.4. T 5 1 2 0. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). Nor is it possible or reasonable to plot groups of colors in terms of the modified space coordinates.1 Select appropriate geometric conditions for color mea- SC 5 1 1 0.

Da*. if they differ by more than the values shown in column R* of ing the specimens. the precision of color-difference measurements. Calculation uses data from a commercial collaborative testing program to 9.03 0.07 0. a*. 10. SH) if not obtained automatically.1. 12. Table 2 gives the mean color differences and their 10. respectively.00 0.2 The Collaborative Testing Services Color and Color 10.D ECMC and their puting the color space parameters. and the color-scale system deviations. involved. no definitive state.6 Identification of the instrument used.5 Description or identification of the method of prepar.03 0. usually known as double precision. DL*. two color-difference results.1. or DE00. paint on sealed white paper stock should be considered suspect 10.2.1. together with the conditions distortions do not necessarily provide continuous. used.21 45°/0° D65 1964 CMC(2:1) 54 0. Precision and Bias and is thus likely to be representative of the precision obtain- 11.1. color spaces. obtained by difference magnitudes obtained for different areas of the operators in different laboratories measuring opaque. was equivalent to the precision of measured values of color as reported in the literature (10.1 Total color difference DECMC. or DE00 of the precision of color and color-difference measurements by each test specimen from its reference. 10. DE99.11) 11.2-6. of Mean Standard R*A Geometry Illuminant Observer Equation Instruments DE Deviation 45°/0° D65 1964 CIELAB 54 1. 11.4 For non-uniform specimens.3 Precision—Based on the within-laboratory standard facturer’s name and model number.1 Calculate color-scale values L*. DC*ab. if not obtained automati. summarized in Table 2.1 color.2 For CIELAB color differences. and local illustrate precision for one material. or DE94. color tolerances Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). 118 instruments were DH*ab for each specimen. by the manu. range of color. carried out in IEEE floating point format to greatest number of cally.18 SphereB D65 1964 CMC(2:1) 282 0. 2000).53 0.55 0.1. a*. DE99. The next section. Report 11. color difference. correlated parameters. Keywords preparation and presentation of specimens. ment about precision and bias can be made. standard deviations. DE94. and survey (Report No. 11. b* for the differences on a quarterly basis since 1971. .6.1 Report the following information: Difference Collaborative Reference Program (9) has surveyed 10.1 Reproducibility—Based on the between-laboratory 10. b*. bits of precision available on the computational system. In a typical recent reference.06 0. separated from the effect of the specimens and materials and since this practice does not address the issues related to the 12. trigonometric functions and power functions involved in com- 9. Db* and if desired Dhab. SC. No further reproductions authorized. D2244 – 11 TABLE 2 Precision of Calculated Color Differences Determined for Various Conditions of Measurement and Analysis Measurement Conditions DE No. L*. as described in 6. 9. matte specimens. B Specular component included for integrating-sphere measurements.09 A R* is the approximate inter-laboratory precision = 3. sending out pairs of painted chips exhibiting small color 10. standard deviations for the groups of instruments considered only the CIELAB coordinates should be reported as the local separately in the intercomparison. color metrics. Because of the many tolerance weights (SL. February.2 Calculate color differences DE*ab.1 Since the precision and bias of a test method cannot be able for all production materials. Tue Jul 12 04:05:29 EDT 2011 7 Downloaded/printed by GAMESA INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY pursuant to License Agreement. Table 2. all computations should be components. visually of analysis and measurement.3 For other color tolerance or color difference metrics.0 3 standard deviation.09 SphereB D65 1964 CIELAB 282 1.1.05 0. 111.

56 51.133 F7 – 1964 10° 172.195 C – 1931 2° 175.85 61.09 52.S (X1.1 The total color-difference DEH between two colors a H 5 Ka S D S D X Y Xn – Yn (X1. and Z are CIE daylight tristimulus values LH.092 D55 – 1931 2° 172.1 Some Selected Values of Ka and Kb for Various CIE Standard Observers and CIE Standard and Recommended Illuminants Illuminant/Observer Ka Kb A – 1931 2° 185.687 D75 – 1931 2° 172. In general.99 52. TABLE X1.95 66.6) S D Y Yn 2 DbH 5 bH.30 63. bH is calculated as follows: 1 1 S D Y Yn 2 where: DEH 5 [~DLH!2 1 ~DaH!2 1 ~DbH!2#2 (X1. aH.642 F11 – 1964 10° 180.798 D55 – 1964 10° 172.232!1 / 2 produced by plotting in rectangular coordinates the quantities where Xn and Zn are the X and Z tristimulus values for the LH.21 71. X1. bH.1) X1.403 A –1964 10° 186. bH.B.710 F2 –1931 2° 175.96 61.175 D65 – 1964 10° 172.B – bH. bH Color Space and Color-Difference nation to which the tristimulus values refer. .27 67. bH calculated as follows: perfect reflecting diffuser in the chosen illuminant-observer 1 combination.B – LH. aH. DbH have the same approximate are coefficients that vary with the illuminant-observer combi.3.79 58.2. aH.1 Table X2. D aH.B refer to the test specimen or batch.S.1.000 C – 1964 10° 174. Y.481 D50 – 1964 10° 173. EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS FOR COLOR TOLERANCE EQUATIONS X2.292 D75 – 1964 10° 171.379 D50 – 1931 2° 173.5) 1 DaH 5 aH.S. Tue Jul 12 04:05:29 EDT 2011 8 Downloaded/printed by GAMESA INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY pursuant to License Agreement.1. meaning as do their counterparts in 6.074!1 / 2 and Kb 5 70 ~Zn/118. aH.21 38.2) each given in LH. aH.1.S (X1.S (X1. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved).52 58.1 Hunter LH.387 D65 – 1931 2° 172.06 66. COLOR SPACES AND COLOR DIFFERENCE METRICS NO LONGER RECOMMENDED FOR NEW USERS X1.71 70.58 53.30 38. Examples of Ka and Kb are tabulated in Table Y LH 5 100 Y S D n 2 (X1.144 X2.4) bH 5 Kb S D S D Y Z Yn – Zn (X1. D2244 – 11 APPENDIXES (Nonmandatory Information) X1.00 70.7) where LH. The signs obtained from a measurement or other source and Ka and Kb of the components D LH.849 F2 – 1964 10° 179.486 F7 – 1931 2° 172.805 F11 – 1931 2° 177. No further reproductions authorized.28 67.B. Equation—This approximately uniform color space (16) is Ka 5 175 ~Xn/98.3) DLH 5 LH.S refer to the reference or standard and where X.B – aH.

9924 h8ave 132.5800 29.74579 1.5065 -2.2644 1.1391 -0.53592 2.373 175.609 294.4626 63.9998 0.7513 0.00000 1.0599 0.9231 1.12 177.9090 1.88024 2.382 SLCMC 1.53592 2.0657 1.7008 DL* -0.47467 1.0000 73.99256 3.4205 1.2580 DE*ab 3.0735 6.62143 DC99 0.9999 -1.9832 -31.7599 0.9351 73.3939 39.9982 42.9430 -3.6000 15.2901 61.43 C8ave 50.83592 1.4100 28. Tue Jul 12 04:05:29 EDT 2011 9 Downloaded/printed by GAMESA INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY pursuant to License Agreement.1922 0.8532 45.3010 0.2117 -0.6646 SCCMC 2.9148 61.7538 -4.084 188.031 176.1456 0.96 190.7666 0.4387 -5.9184 4.1538 2.1391 -0.0831 35.6745 h99 2.0373 Color Coordinate STD-6 BAT-6 STD-7 BAT-7 STD-8 BAT-8 STD-9 BAT-9 STD-10 BAT-10 X 15.6195 -31.9998 0.8100 Z 11.6476 1.7848 L* 60.8645 2.9757 G 0.249 295.5525 22.0109 62.97335 DL99 0.2500 9.469 274.7500 0.1424 15.1428 31.5472 -1.4421 2.5669 3.92 304.7684 2.5329 1.829 kE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 kCH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C99 22.3939 -40.2574 60.7611 31.4966 0.2653 SL 1.2474 1.3637 -38.7656 2.33 289.8663 -4.683 187.2231 1.381 DL* 0.2064 0.1911 47.0228 2.5095 -29.9999 0.7950 19.6952 1.7194 52.99825 -4.4648 -1.27658 1.4800 22.2630 1.1016 -4.5738 70.7677 2.0218 1.5991 SHCMC 1.4282 1.2282 -1.3600 62.9522 4.5517 21. D2244 – 11 TABLE X2.2993 22.6441 1.0000 19.160 130.8204 2.5100 3.66419 1.0232 22.23737 2.1762 0.8714 2.1743 DC* 3.7463 DE99(Lab) 1.5878 SH 1.9257 88.9105 3.1772 0.565 176.4663 -1.4560 1.1356 0.3579 19.5791 38.9720 0.8796 31.419 SL 0.9850 18.7890 0.8200 78.6045 8.55497 23.7515 0.7095 f 0.857 263.29470 2.2549 1.8994 72.6996 0.5202 7.988 280.65617 b99 17.0904 14.66348 f 30.2303 1.5110 SC 2.0599 0.14 175.21 130.8000 84.00000 1.9991 0.0279 T 0.2542 5.7488 5.34462 -3.11774 -0.0864 -5.6983 -21.3550 50.5406 -0.6408 hef 126.0447 -0.6029 -19.9402 0.7590 52.0018 -1.0863 35.3872 81.5712 -1.3636 DE00 1.7623 1.1772 0.9525 30.0621 b* 18. .6046 L99 70.878 165.42401 1.6000 31.9951 1.3852 21.98756 1.00000 1.1819 2.0653 1.280 289.5847 DECMC(1:1) 1.5947 0.4247 -2.5330 46.5836 0.2200 0.28747 SH94 1.7488 0.3501 -2.94729 0.0000 0.7747 5.9726 3.7933 1.4688 32.76249 DE94 1.1378 0.36339 3.0258 3.7014 0.0776 0.4292 35.31296 -1.5619 C* 49.0677 1.25091 1.6226 -1.1897 0.4612 36.3643 -44.8731 1.79667 a99 -13.05329 -0.25091 1.0870 DECMC(2:1) 1.9950 69.2715 90.5561 e -22.6478 18.9148 73.0961 -29.3237 20.004 263.0000 0.1965 1.47886 6.4549 1.1164 -40.0500 78.07769 -21.7924 145.91969 2.8782 C*ave 50.6063 6.3670 32.6400 31.9033 a* 47.0000 1.7196 2.1586 1.3700 29.05161 2.0148 22.8646 22.7239 -2.5557 40.85513 42.0026 a8 -34.1350 -0.0200 4.0063 0.0532 22.8591 5.68237 -0.1400 4.9730 b* 36.3995 1.0831 -1.9430 -3.2680 54.9600 4.0974 0.0106 -19.3315 6.3098 DC* 2.6651 Y 28.4521 71.2480 -44.1857 31.2946 2.0604 SL94 1.1751 -31.1452 L* 36.7400 8.62143 L*ave 60.4129 4.2238 33.5490 5.5848 f 0.1313 2.9950 44.0678 -34.5400 8.8510 0.6940 -42.6500 0.7500 35.5110 0.6369 0.16065 0.0000 -0.026 166.7138 DH* -1.4295 1.7489 72. No further reproductions authorized.9897 Du 0.583 218.086 177.2134 1.3250 0.0717 1.1031 50.5901 -46.6447 30.9620 3.4100 19.6949 0.7844 2.7040 0.5766 10.1922 0.8177 39.7233 23.69558 -0.89928 -3.0795 -0.2110 0.5390 4.74 293.0826 6.8580 50.8888 0.5700 0.1597 SH 1.0300 8.3092 2.16080 4.3098 DC8 2.68341 DH99 -1.98756 1.7901 35.160 267.9657 33.0002 4.04121 5.8187 61.1528 90.79439 -1.2980 1.0250 3.1831 1.2052 -0.4014 SC 3.77258 11.7388 71.275 174.2677 39.6246 0.0118 C8 49.5762 29.2876 -0.0261 0.9950 28.1427 1.79346 -41.347 274.3901 -4.8878 0.5164 -0.441 239.37933 DE99(LCH) 1.8326 45.910 190.3060 79.8719 42.17512 -0.4259 2.2909 -0.5156 85.5487 DL* 0.4410 0.09824 1.6453 19.06425 0.4303 0.20334 2.6139 0.4000 0.20 187.2792 40.15662 3.9941 1.7704 4.8027 91.2962 -31.810 304.2617 RC 1.2300 0.5828 Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved).2224 1.82125 3.9999 T 0.0017 0.2333 -32.3597 35.1188 hab* 133.3200 73.0331 a* -34.2007 -5.2052 -0.0861 -0.1317 h8 133.5282 RT 0.2537 T 1.7130 0.8568 1.0490 0.0542 -21.0032 0.1500 78.429 291.1833 -12.0099 -34.822 310.5515 C* 51.1 Example Calculations for Color Tolerance Equations Color Coordinate STD-1 BAT-1 STD-2 BAT-2 STD-3 BAT-3 STD-4 BAT-4 STD-5 BAT-5 X 19.692 281.9759 1.0716 20.8985 -0.728 293.3910 1.7052 0.9208 -0.89166 0.5285 G 38.5550 hab* 21.7200 3.5589 2.8229 1.93203 -3.242 123.6381 6.1761 -5.9914 32.9033 -1.5144 0.6435 -0.44406 2.80842 -1.5490 -1.0000 -1.5698 46.80059 -35.2148 1.0933 Y 9.09015 0.5833 28.9932 1.5900 17.7946 3.4800 36.45 315.4474 44.16626 5.7215 DH’ -2.07657 3.49568 -0.6063 -18.326 178.89297 4.7944 0.00000 SC94 3.73168 -23.8527 0.0634 8.91449 4.4554 47.2481 1.1000 Z 5.0168 0.7600 0.

follows: units smaller and thus the tolerable volume in old units larger.4274 SL94 1.17986 a99 26.3916 0.118 239.1412 0. X3.13861 4.0262 2.4999 0.38662 DH99 0.1329 1.4194 2.3231 1.11140 1.4655 1.56759 -0.2330 1.48059 -0.3 Using one form of the CIELAB color difference into any of the above color tolerance or color difference equation as an example.91259 DE99 1.04805 1.18914 1.36907 -1.1546 1.6517 1.7819 6.59066 0.35579 L99 48.23643 -0.40777 1.9949 0.20967 b99 1.83863 1.79959 0.26650 4.9679 92.10989 1.01707 DE94 1.91067 -0.2306 -0.3888 1.1743 DC8 3.5616 2. .03663 1.16002 -0.00000 1.0000 T 0.33520 -0.61372 1.9239 1.4850 0.00000 SC94 3. discrepancies of 60.5189 -0.0000 0.35911 G 51.3238 0.0001 0.80 266.9197 50.63 208.39052 1.24 259.00000 1. and do not call into question the program’s correctness.00000 1.01602 1.05120 SH94 1.75767 -1.51529 -0.29081 1.3993 0.865 RT 0.4651 -0.0000 0.23942 -1.3256 54.77907 -0. a scalar factor and commercial factors larger than one make the reported units used to scale color-difference values to convenient.0004 0.42847 -0. COMMERCIAL FACTORS IN COLOR TOLERANCE AND COLOR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS X3.CF5cf 5 cf =~DL*!2 1 ~DC*!2 1 ~DH*!2 (X3.4637 2.5593 h8 20.4491 DECMC(2:1) 1.43458 2.03756 -0.5298 2.06138 0.1897 0.488 kE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 kCH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C99 26.6110 1.1231 93.72931 3.01703 1.03799 1.0005 0.7292 9. 93.41774 4.76770 139.2876 -0.5819 DH8 1.441 238.0729 54.58328 0. No further reproductions authorized.3029 -0.1 Scope—A commercial factor cf may be introduced X3.96 228.8890 0. units.9076 If Table X2. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved).6441 1.0000 -0. n—in colorimetry.76514 -0.01234 -0.91044 1.62847 2.24 178. commercial factor.41297 h99 0.5717 -3.8464 G 0.13638 DL99 -0. larger and the tolerable volume in old units smaller.9441 1.4999 0.101 218.18325 -0.4407 2.0383 SH 1.76902 1.06323 -0.4905 C*ave 53.85621 -0.1461 0.5048 -0. or custom.36013 3.3501 -2.7246 SC 3.491 167.7026 1.0009 47.0001 and occasionally 60.8781 167.39052 1.95603 L*ave 36.60557 0.4 Commercial factors are always multiplicative.92365 3.9033 -1.9901 0.6444 1.0336 1.08321 2.2 A definition of the term.49518 8000 DE99(Lab) 1.3483 0.77341 -1. X3.8034 2.7490 1.3784 2.7787 DE00 1.10855 1.60532 -1.41684 hef 3. It is possible.5899 2.7357 1.2269 1.76652 1.0885 1.00416 1.1972 -0.1631 -0. by scaling two standards that would DE*ab. or customary.5768 -1.3477 -0.0511 1.9549 0.9531 1.53356 -1.1766 -0.4146 1.0288 1.1057 1.5000 0.1943 1.0099 RC 1.452 253.51660 4.9778 89. a commercial factor could be imple- equations for the purpose of rescaling the volume of the mented as shown in the following equation: acceptable region to units that are convenient.5051 2. Tue Jul 12 04:05:29 EDT 2011 10 Downloaded/printed by GAMESA INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY pursuant to License Agreement.1244 -2.1 is used to check a computer program.20 DL* -0.1692 54.30706 1.4662 -1.29736 0. naever divisive.4249 1.95603 DC99 1.08179 1.3911 10.70772 -0.9533 1.25 275.31376 -1.53729 1. Commercial factors less than unity make the reported X3.513 213.0931 C8 51.2.00416 1.5492 27.3362 0.2165 SL 1.1 commercial factor.64104 0.0850 2. ary. one unit.4010 -1.17078 4.51355 -0.5930 1. D2244 – 11 Color Coordinate STD-6 BAT-6 STD-7 BAT-7 STD-8 BAT-8 STD-9 BAT-9 STD-10 BAT-10 DH* 1.1794 23.9388 1.674 196.42 C8ave 53.0013 0.21163 f 3.848 27. X3.68281 -0.99 22.20088 0.4992 27.968 244.30618 -1.0620 1.57548 -1.0000 0.3063 e 51.3226 0.9009 1.55022 0.37149 0.18914 1.92934 1.2322 -0. say.7396 1.8108 -1.8837 94.4363 -0.1192 -0.5000 a8 47.81415 0.9751 0.42855 4.8503 h8ave 21.0000 0.02 268.1108 2.51369 -1.0002 may arise due to roundoff.00000 1.2638 -0.34716 -0.31019 0.0000 Du 0.17135 -0.1) otherwise have different tolerance values in a way that each has the same acceptable nominal value as the other.3664 90.99 260. for instance.1444 DE*ab 3.3189 DECMC(1:1) 1.11398 1.77 155.94785 -0.5381 0.0011 0.6386 0.46681 0.61372 1.4440 1.8444 3.8864 1.436 263.

VA. and Taylor.. Jr. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). Examples of ways in which commercial factors might be reported follow: DEHunterLAB. McDonald.” Textile (4) Rohner. Vienna... “The Derivation of Hue-Difference Research Triangle Park. Terms from CIELAB Coordinates. Tue Jul 12 04:05:29 EDT 2011 11 Downloaded/printed by GAMESA INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY pursuant to License Agreement. Heft 4-6. Central Bureau of the CIE.1. and Color-Difference. No further reproductions authorized. 1992. F. (Approved June 1. 2005. NC. D2244 – 11 X3. 7 Pond Street. Parametric effects in colour-difference evaluation. Roderick. Vol 5. “Efficient Computation of DH. (14) Stokes. Vol 6. Color Research and Application. Committee E12 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (D2244 . NY. 1987. “Eine angenähert gleichförmige Chemist and Colorist. D. Inc.. 1977..” Color Research and Application.CF50. S.4 is essential.(Available from CIE Publications. 1981.. und Rich. 2009. Wiley-Interscience.) (1) Refined definition of hue angle h* in Section 6. R.) (12) McDonald. R.(Available from CIE Publications. and Alessi.) Bureau of the CIE. J.” Color (15) AATCC Test Method 173-1992. J. DE00. G. Salem. B.“The CIE 1976 Color-Difference Formulae.) (1) Removed the commercial factor from CMC and CIE94 (3) Editorially replaced the capital K symbols in the CIE2000 color difference formulas and discussed the commercial factor formula to lower-case k symbols.6 reporting of the use of a commercial factor and its magnitude DECMC. R. AATCC (7) McLaren. pp. 75–77. pp.. Vol 37.” AATCC Technical Manual. (Available from CIE Publications. pp. 2nd Ed.5 and 6.2. 410–411. and Rigg. pp. Colorists. A. 1992. The Measurement of Appearance.09a) that may impact the use of this standard.CF52 5 2.” Journal of the Society of Dyers and Measuring Instruments. c/o TLA Improvement to Industrial Colour Difference Equation. Vol 30.6. Vienna.. “CMC: Calculation of Small Color Research and Application.” Die Farbe. MA 01970. 2000. Salem. 128-132. Publication CIE No. 7 Pond Street. 1993. pp. 139–143..09b) that may impact the use of this standard. Vol 24. F.. K. (2) Clarified pseudocode in Sections 6. Central Bureau of the CIE. 42.2 5 0... and Mathematical Observa- (9) “Color and Appearance Collaborative Reference Program for Color tions. (3) Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage. (11) Rich. . (2) Clark. tation Notes. M. The CIEDE2000 Color Difference Formula: Implemen- Ratios.CF50. H. (Approved December 1. pp. C. 247-261. Colorimetry. pp. 1995. Technical Report 142-2001.” Color Research and Application. 1993. pp. Supplementary Test Data. Inc. and more intelligible form. Salem. W. Metrik für industrielle Farbtoleranzen von Körberfarben. 207-220. 17. and Brill. 1980. 148–152. MA 01970. No 4. Technical Report 101. (16) Hunter.. 7–11.5 Commercial factors are not part of the definition of DE*ab.” Color c/o TLA Lighting Consultants. 1984. Vol 100. 2004. (13) Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage. R. (8) McLaren. pp.4. indented. SUMMARY OF CHANGES Committee E12 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (D2244 . 21-30.CF51.. in new Appendix X3. Vol 6.84 the color-difference unit resulting from that equation. “CIELAB Hue-Angle Anomalies at Low Tristimulus (17) Sharma. 11-15. Central Lighting Consultants. 15:2004.. Technical Report 116. Danny C. 1981. New York. MA 01970. Inc... 7 Pond Street. (6) Robertson. 195–202.“Color Communication in the 90s.) Research and Application. and thus. pp. Inc.” Color Research and Application. Differences for Acceptability. W. and Harold. the CIE. M. Vol 2. P.9 5 0.. CHROMA-SENSOR Spectrocolorimeters. c/o TLA Lighting 1990. 1996.. J. F. K. “Modification to the JPC (10) Billmeyer. “Colorimetric Repeatability and Reproducibility of Industrial Colour-Difference Evaluation.” Collaborative Testing Services. McLean. Central Bureau of (5) Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage.2. Consultants.8 5 1.81 REFERENCES (1) Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage. P. Vienna. Vienna. “Assessment of Color- 79 Colour-Difference Formula. 2011. E. (3) Revised roundoff-error statement in Table X2.” DIE FARBE. (2) Recast the pseudocode in a uniform..

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