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Building Information

Modeling (BIM): Trends,
Benefits, Risks, and
Downloaded from by on 05/24/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

Challenges for the
AEC Industry

ABSTRACT: Building information modeling (BIM) is one of the most promising recent
developments in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. With
BIM technology, an accurate virtual model of a building is digitally constructed. This
model, known as a building information model, can be used for planning, design, con-
struction, and operation of the facility. It helps architects, engineers, and constructors
visualize what is to be built in a simulated environment to identify any potential design,
construction, or operational issues. BIM represents a new paradigm within AEC, one
that encourages integration of the roles of all stakeholders on a project. In this paper,
current trends, benefits, possible risks, and future challenges of BIM for the AEC industry
are discussed. The findings of this study provide useful information for AEC industry
practitioners considering implementing BIM technology in their projects.

he architecture, engineering, and con- and construction activities required to realize the
struction (AEC) industry has long building (Eastman et al. 2008). After completion, this
sought techniques to decrease project model can be used for operations and maintenance
cost, increase productivity and quality, purposes. Fig. 1 depicts the typical applications of
and reduce project delivery time. BIM at different stages of the project life cycle.
Building information modeling (BIM) A building information model characterizes the
offers the potential to achieve these objectives (Azhar, geometry, spatial relationships, geographic informa-
Nadeem et al. 2008). BIM simulates the construction tion, quantities and properties of building elements,
project in a virtual environment. With BIM technol- cost estimates, material inventories, and project sched-
ogy, an accurate virtual model of a building, known as ule. The model can be used to demonstrate the entire
a building information model, is digitally constructed. building life cycle (Bazjanac 2006). As a result, quan-
When completed, the building information model tities and shared properties of materials can be readily
contains precise geometry and relevant data needed extracted. Scopes of work can be easily isolated and
to support the design, procurement, fabrication, defined. Systems, assemblies, and sequences can be

Leadership and Management in Engineering 241 JULY 2011

Leadership Manage. Eng., 2011, 11(3): 241-252

one that encourages • Cost estimating: BIM software has built-in cost integration of the roles of all stakeholders on a project. Construction documents such as BIM also supports the concept of integrated project de- drawings. For ex- It is important to note that BIM is not just software. engineers.. virtual model. the sheet metal ductwork shop drawings can it is a process and software. waste and optimize efficiency through all phases of passes all aspects. ample. the project physically breaks ground (Carmona and • Fabrication/shop drawings: It is easy to generate Irwin 2007). As the model is being created. new paradigm within AEC. JULY 2011 242 Leadership and Management in Engineering Leadership Manage. within a single.176. subcontractors. Figure 1.82 on 05/24/17. and business structures (Khemlani et al. Eng. livery. BIM represents a projects. 2011.Downloaded from ascelibrary. Different components of a building information model: MEP = mechanical. three-dimensional intelligent models but also making • Code reviews: Fire departments and other officials significant changes in the workflow and project may use these models for their review of building delivery processes (Hardin 2009). Material quantities are automa- It has the potential to promote greater efficiency tically extracted and updated when any changes are and harmony among players who. Atlanta. team members A building information model can be used for the are constantly refining and adjusting their portions following purposes: according to project specifications and design changes • Visualization: 3D renderings can be easily generated to ensure the model is as accurate as possible before in house with little additional effort. Copyright ASCE.43. contrac- APPLICATIONS OF BUILDING INFORMATION tors. BIM means not only using be quickly produced once the model is complete. and plumbing (Courtesy of Holder Construction Company. For personal use only. 11(3): 241-252 . estimating features. saw made in the model. shown in a relative scale within the entire facility or themselves as adversaries (Azhar. all rights reserved. and suppliers) to collaborate more MODELING accurately and efficiently than using traditional proc- esses. electrical. Hein et al. disciplines. allowing all design team members (owners. 2006). 2008). architects. shop drawings for various building systems. and systems of a facility the project life cycle (Glick and Guggemos 2009). submittal processes. GA). in the past. which is a novel project delivery approach to and other specifications can be easily interrelated integrate by 179. systems. and practices into a collaborative process to reduce BIM can be viewed as a virtual process that encom. group of facilities. procurement details.

• Sixty-six percent of those surveyed believed • Better production quality: Documentation output is use of BIM increased their chances of winning flexible and exploits automation. • Automated assembly: Digital product data can be • Two-third of users mentioned that BIM had at exploited in downstream processes and used for least a moderate impact on their external project manufacturing and assembly of structural systems. productivity. of a questionnaire survey completed by 82 architects. CURRENT AND FUTURE TRENDS For example. ing reported the following benefits of BIM (cited in Kunz and Gilligan (2007) conducted a question- CRC Construction Innovation 2007): naire survey to determine the value from BIM use and factors that contribute to success. interference. projects. the role of BIM in the AEC industry not intersect with steel beams. ROLE OF BIM IN THE AEC INDUSTRY: stantly and automatically checked for interferences. formance benchmarked. construction. ings of their study are as follows: • Cost estimation accuracy within 3% as compared to traditional estimates. • Sixty-two percent of BIM users planned to use it on stood through accurate visualization. reused. and across the AEC industry.43. building components. design. the use of BIM improved project outcomes. more than 30% of their projects in 2009. space planning. For personal use only. and maintenance operations. • The use of BIM had significantly increased across all • Up to 80% reduction in time taken to generate a phases of design and construction during the cost estimate. • Better customer service: Proposals are better under. BIM would be widely used to reduce costs and im- prove the quality of work put in place. such • Controlled whole-life costs and environmental data: as fewer requests for information (RFIs) and de- Environmental performance is more predictable. and delivery schedules for all • Up to 7% reduction in project time. creased field coordination problems. and lifecycle costs are better understood. McGraw- Downloaded from ascelibrary. all major systems can be in. As a whole. and so by 179. • Conflict. Eng. or walls. be easily adapted to graphically illustrate potential Hill Construction (2008) published a comprehensive failures. and collision detection: Because building information models are created to scale in 3D space. all rights reserved. simulations performed quickly. 101 engineers. market report of BIM’s use in the AEC industry in • Facilities management: Facilities management de.82 on 05/24/17. The main find- • Up to 40% elimination of unbudgeted change. • Lifecycle data: Requirements. this process can verify that piping does In this section. and operational information can be used in facilities The report predicted that prefabrication capabilities of management. leaks. and per. 2008 and projections for 2009 based on the findings partments can use it for renovations. practices. After gathering data on 32 major projects. 2011. Some of its accurate geometrical representation of the parts of the key findings are as follows: a building in an integrated data environment (CRC • Architects were the heaviest users of BIM—43% Construction Innovation 2007). 80 contractors. • Eighty-two percent of BIM users believed that • Better design: Building proposals can be rigorously BIM had a very positive impact on their company’s analyzed. Leadership and Management in Engineering 243 JULY 2011 Leadership Manage. past year. evacuation plans.. and 39 owners (total The key benefit of a building information model is sample size of 302) in the United States. enabling improved and • Seventy-nine percent of BIM users indicated that innovative solutions. Copyright ASCE. ducts. 11(3): 241-252 . and ordering. • Construction sequencing: A building information • A savings of up to 10% of the contract value model can be effectively used to coordinate material through clash detections.176. and its current and future trends are discussed based • Forensic analysis: A building information model can on the results of two questionnaire surveys. with nearly half (45%) using it on less than 15% of projects and only • Faster and more effective processes: Information is a quarter (23%) using it on more than 60% of more easily shared and can be value-added and projects. Stanford BIM adoption was expected to expand within firms University’s Center for Integrated Facilities Engineer. fabrication. Other related benefits used it on more than 60% of their projects—while are as follows: contractors were the lightest users.

a midsize gen- support. Downloaded from ascelibrary. clash detection. For personal use only. Case Study 1: Aquarium Hilton Garden Inn.. the AEC industry use these models for clash detection analysis. 55 clashes were identified. reported in this section were collected from the tion document development. 11(3): 241-252 . no data were provided lisions or clashes between various structural and to quantify and support these facts. Eng. • At the time of the survey. • BIM users represented all segments of the design realized in developing and using a building informa- and construction industry. The survey findings indicate that tion of clashes users want a BIM application that not only leverages • Schedule benefit: 1. the GC began to In the above-mentioned surveys. and practices for conducting its business. During the design development four case studies illustrate the cost and time savings phase. 484. This BIM participants indicated that BIM use resulted in time application enabled the GC to identify potential col- and cost savings. struction. or GC). Most budget ($40. structural. Atlanta. The following mechanical systems. eral contracting company based in Atlanta.000 attributed to elimina- this technology. 2011.176. and plumbing models of the proposed facility. and reduced mixed-use hotel. which resulted in a Figure 2. Brief project details are as follows: • A shortage was noted of competent building infor- mation modelers in the construction industry. conceptual design Holder Construction Company (HCC). signed using BIM technology. AEC professionals are realizing the power of • BIM cost to project: $90.000 paid by owner) of the companies using BIM reported in strong favor of • Cost benefit: Over $ by 179. All the data • The major application areas of BIM were construc. At the same and work sequencing time. 2. • Delivery method: Construction manager at-risk (CM at-risk) The results of these surveys indicate that the AEC • Contract type: Guaranteed maximum price industry still relies very much on traditional drawings • BIM scope: Design coordination. These models were created using detail-level information from sub- contractors based on drawings from the designers. most companies used BIM for 3D and 4D clash detections and for plan. electrical.143 hours saved the powerful documentation and visualization capabil- ities of a CAD platform but also supports multiple Although the project had not been initially de- design and management operations.000. as shown in Fig. and preproject planning services. the GC led the project market are continuing to evolve as they respond to team to develop architectural. mechanical. beginning in the ogy is still in its formative stage. and solutions in the design development phase. retail shops. contingencies. all rights reserved.82 on 05/24/17. and users’ specific needs. and a parking deck. ning and visualization services. design. or 0. GA). Georgia • The use of BIM led to increased productivity. The Aquarium Hilton Garden Inn project comprised a better engagement of project staff.2% of project BIM for more efficient and intelligent modeling. Atlanta. BIM as a technol. BIM BENEFITS: CASE STUDIES After the initial visualization uses. with a similar contract structure. Copyright ASCE. Georgia • The use of BIM lowered overall risk distributed (hereinafter referred to as the general contractor. and • Project scope: $46 million.43. JULY 2011 244 Leadership and Management in Engineering Leadership Manage. Building information models of the Aquarium Hilton Garden Inn Project (Courtesy of Holder Construction Company. and construction phases. and they operated tion model for the project planning. precon- throughout the United States. However.000-square-foot demand was expected to grow exponentially with hotel and parking structure time.

a conservative approach was adopted through collaboration. For calculating net cant.714 79 hrs 3-Apr-07 Level 2 49 $23.500 n/a 30-Jun-06 Construction (MEP collisions) Basement 41 $21. The overall cost savings based on the 590 colli.43. and plumbing.173) Net adjusted direct cost avoidance $200.000.144 75 hrs 5-Jul-07 Level 12 28 $36. subcontractors also model was updated and resolved collisions were made use of these models for various installations.187 86 hrs 12-Apr-07 Level 4 28 $35. The col. understanding. to help aid operation and maintenance procedures lision cost savings values were based on estimates for down the road.276 68 hrs 14-May-07 Level 5 42 $43. Just this stage alone tables) before actual construction begins. At the construction documents phase. expectations of the owner and other project team sions detected throughout the project was estimated at members.g.397 74 hrs 3-Jul-07 Level 10 31 $33. Note. the archi- sequential composite overlay process using light tect and GC began to use BIM technology on all major Table 1.898 162 hrs 12-Apr-07 Level 8 29 $37.220 1.82 on 05/24/17. the During the construction phase.211 50 hrs 28-Mar-07 Level 1 51 $34. Thus.844 Subtotal cost avoidance $801. tracked.392 Source: Holder Construction Company. the GC’s commitment to updating the model team via the model viewer and a numbered collision to reflect as-built conditions provided the owner a dig- log with a record of individual images of each collision ital 3D model of the building and its various systems per the architectural or structural discipline.392.589 72 hrs 5-Jul-07 Level 13 34 $38.143 hrs 20% MEP material value $112. cost avoidance of $124. The cost benefits to the owner were signifi- $801. and the unknown costs that were avoided cost savings. electrical.557 77 hrs 13-Jul-07 Level 14 1 $484 1 hrs 13-Jul-07 Level 15 1 $484 1 hrs 13-Jul-07 Subtotal construction labor 590 $ by 179. Downloaded from ascelibrary. the yielded a net savings of $34. Copyright ASCE. all rights reserved.565 Deduct 75% assumed resolved via conventional methods ($601.176. An Illustration of Cost and Time Savings via Building Information Modeling in the Aquarium Hilton Garden Inn Project Collision phase Collisions Estimated cost avoidance Estimated crew hours Coordination date 100% design development conflicts 55 $124. the Aquarium Hilton Garden Inn collision not been detected earlier.500 based on the original net adjusted cost savings was roughly considered to building information model development cost of be $200. For personal use only.565. $90. After this project. GA. Leadership and Management in Engineering 245 JULY 2011 Leadership Manage. MEP = mechanical.546 67 hrs 5-Jul-07 Level 11 30 $45.250 57 hrs 3-Apr-07 Level 3 72 $40. 11(3): 241-252 . to the reported savings.735 112 hrs 19-Jun-07 Level 7 83 $78.. by assuming that 75% of the identified collisions and identification of conflicts early were in addition can be detected through conventional practices (e. making design changes or field modifications had the In a nutshell. as shown in Table 1.397 74 hrs 3-Jul-07 Level 9 30 $37. use of BIM technology and certainly exceeded the gan.500. visualization. Atlanta. More than 590 project realized some excellent benefits through the clashes were detected before actual construction be. 2011..351 88 hrs 29-May-07 Level 6 70 $57. Each critical clash was shared with the design Finally. Eng.

.176. and the owner used the developed building For this project.000 the same conclusion using traditional drawings. his requirements. • Project: Higher education facility. cess took 2 weeks. all rights reserved. estimates were also prepared using three different cost Savannah. pare building information models of three different design options. Georgia and trust between stakeholders and enabled rapid • Cost: $12 million decision making early in the process. projects.000 cost savings at the predesign stage by se- • BIM scope: Planning. value analysis lecting the most economical design option.000 it could be argued that the owner may have reached • Cost benefit: $1. Eng. sf = square foot (Courtesy of Holder Construction Company. the GC coordinated with the information model for sales and marketing presenta. Savannah State rative viewing sessions also improved communications University. Several collaborative 3D viewing able building layout.995. These collabo- Downloaded from by 179. the Figure 3. Scope and budget options for the Savannah State Academic Building: GSF = gross square foot. 2011. the BIM-based cost Case Study 2: Savannah State University. as This case study illustrates the use of BIM at the project shown in Fig. JULY 2011 246 Leadership and Management in Engineering Leadership Manage. The project details are as follows: sessions were arranged for this purpose. Georgia scenarios (budgeted. guaranteed maxi. The entire pro- • Delivery method: CM at-risk. GA). architect and the owner at the predesign phase to pre- tions (Azhar and Richter 2009).995. and high range). Copyright ASCE. Atlanta. 11(3): 241-252 .82 on 05/24/17. midrange. The owner was able to walk through planning phase to perform options analysis (value all the virtual models to decide the best option that fit analysis) for selecting the most economical and work. For each option.43. Although • BIM cost to project: $5. For personal use only. Savannah. 3. and the owner achieved roughly mum price $1.

University in Atlanta. the following issues at the project planning phase: and window styles. many types of corporate investments. 11(3): 241-252 . as shown in Fig. 4(b). 2011. contract documents were ing conditions at the proposed facility’s courtyard space and those spaces adjacent to the courtyard. and well-informed decision. the owner corporated during the design phase.. For personal use only. The building information model was also used to perform daylight • Incomplete design and documents. use of BIM technology helped him make a quick. ing options (brick vs. 5. based on stages in the project life cycle. in by 179. as shown As all of these design adjustments were able to be in- in Fig. Georgia structure designed to provide instructional and re- The Mansion on Peachtree is a five-star mixed-use search space. 110. the analyses pre- visually compared both options and selected the pre. the GC prepared the 3D interior elevations to clarify interior details. • The overall height of the building was reduced. from research ject team was able to complete the project on time and and development projects to training programs to within budget. shading and lighting studies and The biggest challenge was how to maintain sched. It is a multipurpose Atlanta. guaranteed maxi- • Schedule: 29 months (construction) Downloaded from ascelibrary. analyzed to flush out discrepancies and identify miss- As a direct result of these studies. Finally. right-to-light studies were conducted to determine ule and ensure quality with incomplete and uncoordi. Georgia. To achieve • Field construction ahead of design. Case Study 4: Emory Psychology Building. First. ROI is typically used to evaluate align all resources. Subsequently. and the GC identified ate various skin options such as masonry. GA The Emory Psychology Building is a LEED-certified. It to the designer to resolve this conflict before construc. an RFI was issued the many ways to evaluate a proposed investment. fixed asset purchases (Autodesk 2007). definitive. 4(c)) to decide the construction sequence and ROI = earning/cost). guaranteed maxi. 4(a). helped to decide the final • Multiple uncoordinated consultants. conflicts and issue a field use set to subcontractors • The penthouse. building. ture. design was adjusted as follows: pared via model extractions. studies. views of the facility were established within • Constant design development. the pro. Through these measures. Then. The project details are as follows: hotel in Atlanta. These shop drawings were reviewed with the design team to resolve any • Window openings on the west façade were reduced. Then coordinated shop drawings were pre. Georgia. vented costly and time-consuming redesign at later cast one based on appearance and cost. If any component was found missing or con- The return on investment (ROI) analysis is one of flicting with the other component. curtain wall. Leadership and Management in Engineering 247 JULY 2011 Leadership Manage. to-light studies were also conducted to evaluate light- ning and coordination. this.e. Right- The project team decided to use BIM for project plan. The project details are as follows: • Cost: $35 million • Schedule: 16 months • Cost: $111 million • Delivery method: CM at-risk. Initially.82 on 05/24/17. and BIM software using the software’s sun positioning fea- • Owner’s frequent scope changes. all rights reserved.• BIM scope: Sustainability analyses mum price • BIM cost to project and cost benefit: n/a • BIM scope: Planning. the building’s ing items. Copyright ASCE. Atlanta. precast) to the owner.000-square-foot facility on the campus of Emory Case Study 3: The Mansion on Peachtree. mum price • Delivery method: CM at-risk..000 to determine the best building orientation and evalu- It was a fast-track project. the effects of the sun throughout the year and the ef- nated design and how to minimize risk and rework. (Fig. Eng. was reduced in overall square footage. which. Via BIM viewer software. fects of the facility on surrounding buildings. the project drawings.440 mation model of the facility at the early design phase • Cost benefit: $15. a 4D scheduling model was prepared investment against the cost of the investment (i.43. the project designers presented two finish. construction documentation The project architect developed the building infor- • BIM cost to project: $1. as illustrated in BIM RETURN ON INVESTMENT ANALYSIS Fig. which is located on the roof of the for coordination and construction. positioning of the building on the site. compares the gain anticipated (or achieved) from an tion.176.

43. Figure 4. Use of BIM in the Mansion on Peachtree Project (Courtesy of Holder Construction Company. Eng. all rights reserved. For personal use only. Atlanta.Downloaded from ascelibrary. Copyright ASCE.. GA). 11(3): 241-252 .82 on 05/24/17. The McGraw-Hill Construction (2008) survey of level or above. 2011.176. Doubling the system respondents were tracking BIM ROI at a moderate cost could reduce ROI only by up to 20% (Autodesk JULY 2011 248 Leadership and Management in Engineering Leadership Manage. It also found that the initial system cost AEC industry participants indicated that 48% of did not seem to be a by 179.

tection cost avoidance.Downloaded from ascelibrary. F = feasibility analysis.000) 140 2006 47 Raleigh Marriott P/PC/VA 4. P = planning.000) (6. projects.000) 32900 Total all types 260. For personal use only. Use of BIM for options analysis and sun studies in the Emory Psychology Building (Courtesy of Holder Construction Company. GA). Because administrative or other “second wave” cost savings of the large data spread. FM = facilities management. Table by 179.569.000 (67. detailed cost data from 10 proj.000) (130. 2007).120) 640 2006 88 Mansion on Peachtree P/CD 1. and in other projects.000) (196.180 634% Source: Holder Construction Company. D = design. BIM savings were measured ects were acquired from HCC to perform the BIM ROI using “real” construction phase “direct” collision de- analysis.000 (2. it phase cost avoidance.620 4. Leadership and Management in Engineering 249 JULY 2011 Leadership Manage. Note: CD = construction documentation.712) 11560 2006 16 GSU Library P/PC/CD 10. NAU = Northern Arizona University.000) (232.000) (329. In some projects.528 4. Atlanta. The probable reason for this Hence. it is hard to conclude a specific that were realized as a result of BIM implementation.000 (800. construction.900%.000) 2600 2006 54 Progressive Data Center F/CD/FM 120. Eng.633% for all projects and 634% for projects account for indirect. Also. On average.000) (495. the BIM ROI for different were computed using “planning” or “value analysis” projects varied from 140% to 39.092 1633% Totals without planning/VA phase 247. all rights reserved. 11(3): 241-252 .000) (710. The results are shown in Table 2. savings As evident from Table 2. Atlanta.995..176.500) (47.620 1.000) (1. range for BIM ROI. ROI = return on investment. the actual BIM ROI can be far greater than spread is the varying scope of BIM in different reported here.000) 39900 2007 32 NAU Sciences Lab P/CD 1. design.120) (64.440 (15.000 (330.440 1. Figure 5. none of these cost figures was 1.800 (200.000) 780 2007 58 1515 Wynkoop P/D/VA 3.82 on 05/24/17.000 (135.850) 940 2007 47 Aquarium Hilton F/D/PC/CD 90. GSU = Georgia State University. PC = preconstruction services. For this study.200) 5160 2007 82 HP Data Center F/D/CD 20.516.000 (74.43.816. GA.000 (395.256.500) 240 2007 14 Savannah State F/D/PC/VA/CD 5. Copyright ASCE. 2011. Building Information Modeling Return on Investment Analysis Year Cost ($M) Project BIM scope BIM cost ($) Direct BIM savings ($) Net BIM savings ($) BIM ROI (%) 2005 30 Ashley Overlook P/PC/CD 5.288 (500.000. VA = value analysis. or owner without a planning or value analysis phase.

creating a master schedule and cost agreement over copyright issues. their BIM development plan for integrated project de- ited warranties and disclaimers of liability by designers livery (Building Design and Construction 2008). which ship. For personal use only. Further. process. the integration can be fluid. equipment and material program. The general contractor then model’s potential (Thompson 2001). This are essential negotiation points that need to be resolved exhibit may assist project participants in defining before BIM technology is used. the best solution is breakdown for the entire project. but the the AEC industry are widely acknowledged and cost of its implementation must be paid for as well increasingly well understood.. licens. Eng. Although these new costs may be dramatically offset by efficiency and schedule gains. If disagreement ensues. the claimant but may have difficulty proving fault if the owner is paying for the design. most of these project ing the designer to specify the vendor’s equipment. ownership. Many sophisticated question of data ownership. formation model.82 on 05/24/17. When the subcon- to set forth in the contract documents ownership rights tractors and prime contractor use the same software. among the project participants along with the rewards. Hein et al. In the following para. BIM FUTURE CHALLENGES before BIM technology can be fully used. engineers. management tools have been developed in isolation. 2008). they are still a cost that someone on the project team will incur. an exhibit on BIM to help project participants define plicated indemnities by BIM users and the offer of lim. Copyright ASCE. ing building information model data and ensuring its Recently. Taking responsibility for updat. there is no simple answer to the programs becomes an issue. key risks in each category are briefly discussed. to the BIM process look to each other in an effort to try graphs. then the owner with others such as the engineers (Rosenberg 2007). That program may be a BIM module or an- vendors offer designs associated with their products for other program that is integrated with the building in- the convenience of the lead designer in hopes of induc. their proprietary information needs to be pro- tected as well. Yet BIM adoption has been much slower than responsibility so much that risk and liability are likely anticipated (Azhar. (Thompson and Miner 2007).176. The goal is to avoid inhibitions or disincentives breakdowns itemized by line items of work prior to that discourage participants from fully realizing the the start of the project. While this practice might be good for business. all rights reserved. to determine who had responsibility for the matter The first risk is the lack of determination of owner. To prevent dis. but if team members As the dimensions of cost and schedule are layered are providing proprietary information for use on the onto the building information model. error. are incomplete or are submitted in a variety of sched- When project team members other than the owner uling and costing programs. The by 179. responsibility for the proper technological interface among various Downloaded from ascelibrary. It also requires more model management arrangements. as well as author- time spent inputting and reviewing BIM data. Responsibility for the accuracy and coordination of ing issues can arise if the designs were not produced by cost and scheduling data must be contractually a designer licensed in the location of the project addressed (Thompson and Miner 2007). Requests for com. In cases where the data and responsibilities (Rosenberg 2007). 11(3): 241-252 . For example. the lead professional ship of the BIM data and the need to protect it through not only will be responsible as a matter of law to copyright laws and other legal channels. integrated project deliv- trol the entry of data into the model and be responsible ery contracts in which the risks of using BIM are shared for any inaccuracies. may feel entitled to own it. project. For example. a team member—usually and architect/engineer contribute data that are inte- a general contractor or construction manager—must grated into the building information model. JULY 2011 250 Leadership and Management in Engineering Leadership Manage. and other contributors gal (or contractual) and technical. and level-of-development require- is a new cost in the design and project administration ments. Consider the scenario in which the main reasons. 2011. compiles the data. to implement BIM is readily available and rapidly ma- The integrated concept of BIM blurs the level of turing. licensing re-enter and update a master scheduling and costing issues can arise. contracting teams require subcontractors to submit sponse for every project depending on the participants’ detailed critical path method schedules and cost needs. Thus. risks is to have collaborative. raised. the technology (Thompson and Miner 2007). technical and managerial. it requires a unique re. Thus. BIM RISKS owner of the building files suit over a perceived design BIM risks can be divided into two broad categories: le. not only must The productivity and economic benefits of BIM to the risks of its use be identified and allocated. the American Institute of Architects released accuracy entails a great deal of risk. At present. One of the most effective ways to deal with these Another contractual issue to address is who will con. There are two to be enhanced. at various project phases.

BIM modeling may allow takes in each other’s work. teams imple- certain quantitative aspects of it. drawings. At the same time. constructors worked from architectural plans management (Post 2009). Such issues must plementation. 11(3): 241-252 . one and constructors) is who should develop and operate that encourages integration of the roles of all stake- the building information models and how the devel. or both. Copyright ASCE. better time management. Predictability of building performance and operation clear consensus on how to implement or use BIM. which include data ownership and associated the BIM process and to define guidelines for its im. is greatly improved by adopting BIM. and of America 2005). Eng. little progress has improved customer–client relationships. to bring about greater efficiency and harmony among To optimize BIM performance. ability issues. and professional organiza. collaboration within project teams single BIM document providing instruction on its should increase. a lack of critical Leadership and Management in Engineering 251 JULY 2011 Leadership Manage. With a more trustful sharing of architectural increase in the AEC industry. including tion process models to eliminate data interoper- tenants. This brought about a natural redundancy as the con- tions are working hard to resolve these challenges. facilities managers have been included as the basis for the building information model. either companies or players who all too often in the past saw themselves as vendors. Several software firms are cashing study was 634%. designers. The need for well-developed practical strategies for the purposeful exchange and integration of meaningful information among the building CONCLUSIONS Downloaded from ascelibrary. there in the building planning process in a very limited may be a loss of this critical checking phase. For personal use only. reduced costs. implementing maintenance strategies based on words. As a number of researchers. in this paper. AEC industry stakeholders (i. The construction modelers inevitably able solutions to overcome these challenges and other discovered errors and inconsistencies in the plans as associated risks. As shown been made in establishing model BIM contract docu. practi. There is a need to standardize pitfalls. average BIM ROI for projects under ments (Post 2009).82 on 05/24/17. Finding the right 2. Right now. BIM represents a new paradigm within AEC. An adversarial stance often brings a more critical Additionally. but they do not treat menting BIM should be very careful about the legal the process as a whole. service agents. Another contentious issue among the be addressed up front in the contract documents. In other by 179. the industry will have to develop review of the project in a kind of mutual guarding of acceptable processes and policies that promote BIM each participant’s own interests.43. struction model put the design to this virtual building it is expected that the use of BIM will continue to test. In the past. they created the building information models. owners. The management issues cluster around the imple. contractors. there is no BIM accelerates. before the building is completed.. The technical reasons can be broadly classified into facilities managers to enter the picture at a much ear- three categories (Bernstein and Pittman 2005): lier stage. all rights reserved. As in most paradigm shifts. holders on a project. will have to find a way to lessen the adversaries. in which they can influence the design and construction. there is no novative way to virtually design and manage projects. they may cease to look for and find mis- possession. when all players see themselves as being on the the as-built condition at the time the owner takes same team. which clearly depicts its potential in on the “buzz” of BIM and have programs to address economic benefits. which can easily be imported and serve In the past. 3.. Building information modeling is emerging as an in- mentation and use of BIM. The visual nature of BIM allows all 1. 2011. and challenge for owners. The requirement that digital design data be time to include these people will undoubtedly be a computable. Perhaps one of the greatest risks a larger hurdle of producing a quality product that is the potential elimination of an important check and customers will find reliable and manageable and that balance mechanism inherent in the current paradigm. since digital models were not shared by architects with Researchers and practitioners have to develop suit. which will lead to improved profit- application and use (Associated General Contractors ability. there will learning curve of BIM trainees.e. Furthermore. Software vendors have undoubtedly be risks. information model components. will meet the expectations set by the advertisements. tioners.176. proprietary issues and risk sharing. In the early stages of use and govern today’s issues of ownership and risk BIM. and maintenance personnel. As the use of Unlike many other construction practices. This integration has the potential opmental and operational costs should be distributed. software vendors. The need for well-defined transactional construc- stakeholders to get important information. In the future.

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