You are on page 1of 179

GENIUS LOCI: THE

SPIRIT OF PLACE
by

Samantha Eufemia Morreale

A thesis
in
Architecttu*e

Submitted to the architecture Faculty of the College of
Architecture of Texas Tech University
in partial fulfillment
for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE

Chairman of Committee
t

Programming InstDOptbr (ARCH 4395) -- David Driskill

Design Critic (ARCH 4631) - Ben Shacklette

^,<^^l/^..A.'i/tu\f^^y^^^tA<

Accepted, Dean, College of Architecture

GENIUS LOCI: THE
SPIRIT OF PLACE

Samantha Eufemia Morreale

ARCH 4395

December 9, 1992

GENIUS LOCI: THE
SPIRIT OF PLACE

Samantha Eufemia Morreale

ARCH 4395

December 9, 1992

^ . ri TABLE OF CONTENTS THESIS 1 Thesis Statement 2 Definition of genus loci or spirit of place 4 Elements that create genius loci 6 Defining a plan 8 Loss of genius lod 10 Genius loci vs._^. illusionism 14 Bibliography 16 Thesis case studies 17 CONTEXT ISSUES 21 Cultural context 22 Psychological context 32 Built context 35 Natural Context 43 Site 49 Context case studies 57 VEHICLE AND ACTIVITIES 60 Activity analysis 62 Backof the house 63 Hotel operations 64 Front of the house 74 Guest/public 55 Spatial square footages 94 Grand summary of spaces 99 Bibliography 100 Facility case studies 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY 113 APPENDIX 115 .

THESIS .

THESIS STATEMENT .

Architects must incorporate current and innovative technologies with the traditions and style of an area to create an architecture which upholds and reinforces the genius loci or spirit of the place. .

^ DEFINITION OF GENIUS LOCI: OR SPIRIT OF PLACE .

. climate and presence of water. In fact.).landforms or topography vegetation. forts. So. 3. (H. Sensory experience . There are many definitions for this term.this is primarily visual and results from the interaction of the landscape and the culture of the area. This attribute is called genius loci or spirit of place. 2.) In other words.L.bridges. Natural environment .B.) which in some way creates that special sense of place. it is actually the emotions or feelings about a place which are the key to imderstanding.).C. illusive quaUty which attracts people.H. it is the collective reaction of a group of people to their environment over time (M. physical location or human activity. and line can be combined to evoke emotion (B. but there are three main components which provide a basis from which to start: 1. texture. Cultural expressions .G. Some places have a special. social history. This is not to say that only a very few places have this special quality. one must begin with one's feelings (M. There are a variety of ideas regarding this intangible commodity. color.H. form. Some say that to understand a place. every town will most likely have some special quality about it. while it seems that there are three base components which contribute to the spirit of a place. While another defines the craft of architecture as the ways in which space. hilltop churches which are a relation to the landscape. and the place as a cultural artifact.

ELEMENTS THAT CREATE GENIUS LOCI .

G. rainfall. temperature variations). unique natural setting. specific characteristics can be investigated/logged and organized so that one will have a better sense of what creates this individuality. . and lastly. memory and metaphor (what the place means to people who have experienced it) use of local materials.G. Some characteristics which should be observed include: architectural style. craftsmanship. there are a number of ways to identify exactly what has created it. 3) meanings and s)anbols (H.L. town-wide activities both daily and seasonal (H. sensitivity in the siting of important buildings and bridges.L.). climate (light. The natural and cultural attributes which affect our sense of a place identity are: 1) identity through landscape or physical features and appearance. peoples' values. Beyond these three wide categories. high quality public environments which are visible and accessible. cultural diversity and history.). Once the sense of place has been felt. 2) observable activities and functions.

DEFINING A PLAN 8 .

more literal connection with the context. boring or monotonous. The problem with this sort of loose interpretation is that futtu"e designers may use the plans looseness as a loophole to get by with a new architectural style which fights the old. The first is a less literal interpretation or connection with the context.). The problem with this t3T)e of plan is that the end result may be stylistically homogeneous and. This includes using new forms which have the same visual effect as the old ones and abstracting the original forms. This could include close copying or the use of similar forms rearranged (B. When lajdng this plan one must reaUze that visual integration and not necessarily stylistic homogeneity is important. Once all of this information has been recorded and catalogued it is necessary to determine the best plan of growth for the town which will allow for change while preserving the essence of place. On the other end of the spectrtun is a closer. yet exciting place. It is the job of the planner to find and strike a balance between the two opposing views which will create a visually harmonious. . There are two general ways to go about defining visually the growth of a town.C. therefore.B.

^ LOSS OF GENIUS LOCI 10 ..

Almost all airports are the same with no distinctive characteristics which make them special. In the past we were dependent upon the streetcar which was not only more efficient but it also linked us to the city. the transitory state of society. This all leads to a sterihzation of the society in which we five (M.). The problem with today's towns and cities is that this type of diagnosis and plan has not been developed. Second are social and perceptual issues which relate to the economic forces that create strip and shopping malls. 11 . A second reason for this loss of identity is the transitory state of society today. And the third factor affecting placelessness is energy and resources. architects' egos.). towns are growing without a design and are losing their hard built identities. People today see the city as an unlimited one-way energy system. Another example of the travel corridor as a placeless landscape is the airport.H. not an integrator of people. With the advent of the automobile. There are many reasons for this loss of identity including placelessness. and the basic economics of society. Highways ignore both the topography of the land and the natural flora of an area creating a homogeneous stretch of asphalt which reaches from one coast to the other. First is the idea of unbuilt space and how we handle it. therefore.H. The street becomes a separator. This. in turn. We isolate buildings with it and then we disregard the region and create whatever type of outdoor environment we desire around our disengaged building. The idea of placelessness deals with many issues. the suburb became home and people became isolated (M. takes people fi-om the streets and downtowns and puts them in their cars.

L. and organized tourism (H. Last and hardest to change are the basic economics of society today. organized tourism is the most destructive in a subtle way. Third is the change from a natural environment to a man-made one.H. population shifts which follow the industries). This idea would not only help a town retain its integrity.G. And last is that the brevity of a tourist's stay usually creates a lack of commitment to that place.C. transportation expansion. urban growth. and the ego.B. which have destroyed the town. Industrialization is the most obvious and also the most necessary if some towns want to remain alive. First is the destruction of the regions scenery and native landscape which are main contributors to the spirit of the place. Tourism may be economically rewarding.). it is the character of a place which intrigues the tourist. Genius and originality should be replaced by excellence of execution with the given context.). Other important and related factors include real estate speculation. The phenomenon of tourism is odd. Third. it would also allow an architect to be judged. but the constant attention of that very same tourist causes a place to lose that uniqueness (M. 12 . Second is the added pollution which causes the destruction of the ecology. This has created a hodge-podge of architectural styles which have no foundation and do not harmonize with their surroundings. but rather by the skill and subtlety with which that style is used (B. not by style of vocabulary.). Of these. but there are four main pitfalls. it is the architect. It seems that today's architecture student is taught to beheve that one must be different to be good.

If this t3T)e of plan is enacted. growth can occur while retaining the character of a town. everyone benefits. Yet. and the city government and public leaders. that with a good comprehensive plan. My project will exemplify the way in which new building growth can occur while still preserving the character of the area. it is possible. All of these ideas lead to the downfall of a society or a culture. conmiercial and business concerns. 13 . It will be an example of one approach new growth may take. the townspeople.

<7 GENIUS LOCI VS. ILLUSIONISM 14 .

nature and people. This idea relates only to a given building in a given area. Genius loci deals with the combination of two very different elements. Contextualism is the possibility for the future expansion of a given building and the desire to relate it to its immediate siuroundings.). a feeling or emotion. Contextualism is best understood in the post modernists words of Robert Stem. First it deals with nature. that they have put on the site and how they are interacting with one another and that site.H. The difference between these terms is that genius loci deals with something intangible. it is not the underlying imderstanding which Stem is after but rather a surface approach as seen in the post modem movement. VemaculEo* is the form(s) that grow out of the practical needs of the inhabitants of a place and the constraints of site and climate (M. A term very similar to this is the word vernacular. a form which has been created.' This too relates to form and not to the feehng associated with a place. the natural processes or setting which has been created. Stem explains contextualism and illusionism as they relate to the post modem movement. vernacular relates to a tangible object. It is the emotion created by the combination and integration of these two disparate elements which creates a sense of spirit in a place. Illusionism references the history of architecture which somehow goes beyond 'eclecticism' to a somewhat vague category called 'the relationship between form and shape and the meaning that particular shapes have assumed over the course of time. 15 . This spot is individual and unique unto itself Next are people.

Hough. Kent C. New Haven: Yale University Press. Moore. Michael. and Charles W. Also ways of adapting to previous styles and definitions of vernacular. It was also the springboard for two case studies (the Brown Palace. 1990. Memory and Architecture. Denver and the Hyatt Regency. its definition and attributes. Maintaining the Spirit of Place: A Process for the Preservation of Town Character. The idea of feeling in architecture and some of the reasons for loss of genius loci. Arizona: PDA Publishers Corporation. Body. 16 . 1980. Architecture in Context: Fitting New Buildings With Old. Definition of genius loci and what it encompasses. Brent C. Mesa. 1985. Atlanta by John Portman). This relates to the idea that it is not the architectural style that is important but rather its execution which is. New Haven: Yale University Press. G a m h a m . also the idea of a plan for future growth. 1977 This relates to architecture as an extension of ourselves as well as the idea of the familiar and the surprising within the realm of architectural design. Out of Place: Restoring Identity to the Regional Landscape. illusionism-the importance of continuity.Annotated Bibliography Bloomer. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Harry L. Bronlin.

C7 THESIS CASE STUDIES 17 .

porches and boldly gridded gables. They form duplexes which are connected by one story covered walks. The lodge is the center of the design with its larger size.INN-BY-THE-SRA Architect: Teas. These rooms are duplex-like and consist of a double height living room with views of the ocean. which looks south across the salt marshes and sand of Crescent Beach State Park toward a picturesque bay. Feely and Hingston Location: Cape Elizabeth. The cottages are detached from the main lodge and are also duplex-like. a flagpole. Solution: A shingle style structure consisting of a lodge and cottages reminiscent of homes and inns which once dotted the Main coast. some of the rooms are attached and are entered off a single locked corridor on the second level. Extending out from the lodge. Maine Program: To create a 43-room hotel which keeps in mind the previous hotel which stood on the same spot and also stay in keeping with the environmental sensibilities of the wealthy resort area. Site: A low bluff. 18 .

19 . Also the idea of a main lodge with detached cottages.Design: The idea of contextualism. This uses ideas similar to that of this project with small individual units with pitched roofs and porches. This type of room layout may possibly be used in the suite design of this project. This is contextualism used in new construction.

The layout is geometric and the forms are made up of sandblasted concrete which create a center point for the arena. 20 .HYATT REGENCY. This inside-outside idea was reinforced by the fact that the user must interact with the Hotel before discovering the Plaza.000 sq.ft. with a large lobby area Site: The site is important because of its context and location. Design: The hotel consists of 17 tiered levels which make up the guest room corridors. long opens up the upper levels and ends the upward flow of the tiers. It is where Market Street meets the water in front of the old Ferry Building. At the top of the tiers a skylight 300 ft. California Program: An 840 room hotel of 758. The designer opted for not having open space along Market and Drum Streets. making Herman Plaza a more special place. thereby. Solution: This solution incorporated the idea of space and inside and outside together. EMBARCADERO CENTER Architect: John Portman and Associates Location: San Francisco.

CONTEXT ISSUES 21 .

CULTURAL CONTEXT 22 .

Central City/Black Hawk - "The Richest Square Mile on Earth"

It all began on May 6, 1859 when John H. Gregory discovered gold along

Clear Creek. In the beginning the area was called Gregory point or the Gregory

Diggings and is actually located between the two towns. By July of 1859 the first

arrastrea, used to rush gold ore was built. Then, by September, the town built its

first steam mill. Soon there were so many ore mills that Black Hawk became known

as the City of Stamp Mills. By 1868 the first gold smelter was built.

The primary labor force for the mines of the Gilpin County mineral district

was Cornish hardrock miners. These people brought with them a love of music and

beauty which may still be seen in the stone work which remains as an important

architectural element of the area.

23

Black Hawk

Black Hawk dates back to 1864 and is the only town in Colorado not to have

been destroyed by fire. Originally most of the buildings were wooden structures or

tents with only important buildings made of stone.

The town got its name from an ore milling machine which originally came

from a Sauk Indian named Black Hawk.

Black Hawk City Hall • L. Fritz Collection

24

Central Citv

First known as Center City, Central City is centrally located between the

Gregory Diggings and the mines in Nevada Gulch. It is one of Colorado's oldest

surviving mountain towns and has even been designated a National Historic

Landmark. (This however, does not impact my site since it isn't a part of either

town.) The town was voted the county seat of Gilpin county in 1861 when the Pike's

Peak region was organized as the territory of Colorado.

In 1874 a fire destroyed most of the town but the townspeople began

rebuilding immediately and by 1874 the town was completely rebuilt.

25

for example). It is also important to keep in mind that the materials used were items found in the area or easily transported from Denver.Potential Response One must keep in mind the history of the area when designing a new building in the area. The history of the area is important because it is what gives this place its character so therefore it must not be forgotten. less expensive stays. but also because visitors enjoy it." This is important because not only do the townspeople want to keep this atmosphere. nicer rooms with connections so they can be turned into suites for conventions or people with the longer vacation in mind. 26 . less luxurious rooms for short term. c) larger. d) the grand suites for the few "high rollers" who wish for a different gambling town (a change from Las Vegas. This should include: a) smaller. The hotel should feel like a community within the community with rooms as homes and common spaces as the town. It is therefore important to design a variety of types of rooms for the different types of visitors. then later were built to show the individual's and the town's wealth. The idea that mining is the area's history is important in that buildings were first built for protection. b) a moderately appointed and sized room with lockable connection between rooms for families on budgets as individuals who desire to stay longer. Another important design idea is that of the small town "mind set. In designing this hotel the idea of community is important.

It is also importeint to remember that while these rooms are the individuals' private space. they should still be very accessible to the common areas to enhance the feeling of community. 27 .

Central City Opera House is completed.St. James Methodist Church established. Gold in this thriving camp is "too common. Grant visits Central City. built by popular subscription.Colorado becomes a state!! Central City misses becoming the capital by one vote! 1878 . 1873 . Over 10 million ounces of gold have been mined from The Richest Square Mile on Earth and the oldest operating gold camp in the U. Tabor. 1872 .The Teller House is completed. six years later it gets to Central City.Fire destroys the greater part of the downtown area of Central. 1861 . A. A path of silver ingots is laid for his entrance. Finest hotel between the Mississippi and San Francisco.John Gregory discovers gold on May 6 in Gregory Gulch. it is the first in Colorado. By June of 1859 the population had reached 15." 1874 . It is quickly rebuilt of brick and stone with metal fronts. 1859 . W. Baby Doe lived in Black Hawk until her marriage to H.000.First foimdry and machine shop is setup in Black Hawk.S. first stamp mill - 1859. 1872 .w A BRIEF HISTORY 1859 .Narrow gauge railroad arrives in Black Hawk. 1876 . the silver king.Pres.Aug. 28 . 1 .

1932 . rye and oats 7 feet tall! 1927 . hundreds of tons of hay.5 mi.RoIlinsville/ToUand Valley farms on the old stage road from Denver to Middle Park. one of the largest rail tunnels .6. produce 7-8.Moffat Tunnel completed.Opera House is restored to its former glory after many years of abuse.one of the oldest in the U. Summer Opera Festival begins . The wagon route and old rail bed built in 1901 are abandoned but left intact. Cost of 18 million dollars.000 bushels of potatoes.1880 .S. 29 .

21 .u ENTERTAINMENT TODAY Festivals and Events June 2 to Sept.Weekend on Wheels Sept.Gilpin Cty. Soc. Opera Festival August 23-25 . "Cemetery Crawl" Oct.Scheduled Opening ltd.Central City Jazz Festival August 24-25 .Wintershire Festival Attractions Colorado's oldest Art Gallery (Simimer) Colorado's oldest Opera House (1878) Face on the Barroom Floor Lace House Gilpin Historical Museum & Thomas House Gold Mining Museimis & Tours Historic Church Tour Horse Drawn Carriage Rides 30 .Gilpin Hist. 22-24 . 14-15 . 1 .C. 8 .Lou Bimch Day July 6 to August 17 .Gilpin County Turkey Shoot September-Aspen Trails Time Sept. Arts Annual J u n e 15 .C. Gaming Nov.

Once Colorado's Finest Historic Cemeteries Limited Stakes Gaming Self-Guided Walking Tours "Oh.Virginia Canyon Shopping and Fine Dining Outdoor Recreation Camping-Hiking-Fishing-4WD Trails Horseback Riding-Scenic Auto Drives Cross Country Skiing .Authentic Narrow Gauge Train Ride 1872 Hotel . My Gawd road" .Ice Skating Breathtaking Photography Gold Panning 31 .

W7 PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT 32 .

These are people coming in from the surrounding areas such as Golden. It is the history which makes this area more than just a gambling town. modem bathroom 33 . and the new co-existing harmoniously. it becomes a place to experience. They represent the new working class of the area. d) while creating this atmosphere of a by-gone era. and even Boulder. It is the combination of the old and the new in this area which makes it so exciting. It ranges from the day visitor from Denver to the out-of-state vacationer. music. c) a high standard of service which makes the visitor feel special. The history. b) a high standard of building which creates a sense of security within the building and reinforces this with regard to the town. Many of these families have been in the area since its first days of mining in the late 1850s. old buildings and generations of families provide the base upon which the new may be built. televisions. Adding to this is the new. Potential Response The psychological context of the area is that of the old. but well rooted permanent resident base which consists of many generations of families.w Today Black Hawk and Central City are a melting pot for the old and the new. Both have a small. it is also important to provide the guests with all of the modem conveniences of today such as high quality telecommunications. incoming population needed to staff the new casinos. Denver. Ideas which are important to this project include: a) the recalling of previous architectural styles of the area to provide a sense of continuity. This group is wide and varied. Last and most important are the tourists.

facilities (including toiletries). This can be done physically through the use of card keys which are used not only to access rooms but also to access elevators. It is therefore important when building something new to remember these ideas and to create a building which allows both influences to be expressed. This hotel should encourage the feeling of community discussed in the Cultural Context potential response section. especially in guest room corridors where guests may be traveling alone late at night. Lighting should be ample. It is important that anything the guests need be accessible to them. Psychologically the most important aspect of this project is the high quality with which it must be executed which will in turn make both visitors and employee feel secure. 34 . Beyond this it should provide a sense of safety and security to its guests.

::/ BUILT CONTEXT 35 .

^

The built context in his area is very important to its sense of place. For the

most part the buildings are Victorian in nature. Since Central City is a National

Historic Landmark one must help to preserve the areas' character when building

new structures. In keeping with this idea the towns have not only placed a 53'

height limit on all new structures, they also review all plans before construction

may begin.

In both towns all of the buildings are relatively small. The main streets are

composed of many buildings built in a row house idea sharing common side walls.

The facades of these buildings share common features such as height, window

spacing and ground level openings. The similarities between facades creates a

cohesiveness as one walks the main street of either town.

36

37

Building construction varies slightly between the two towns. Since Central

City was destroyed by fire early in its history, many of its buildings are constructed

of brick while Black Hawk is mainly wood frame. However, this is not to say that

either town is solely constructed out of either material. Beyond this typical

construction the main buildings of either town are constructed of stone. Such

examples of this are the Country Court and Opera Houses. There are also many

large mining buildings which are mainly wood construction and which used to be

house mining mills.

38

These houses are very Victorian and consist of one or two levels with steeply pitched roofs and front entry porch area. 39 . many homes were built above and behind the main streets. Since the terrain of the area is so hilly. Residential buildings are mostly small wood frame construction. Behind these main streets are residential areas.

40 .

41 .

this would be the least desirable since it doesn't allude to the built environment of the area. lobby area) as well as the private residential area (the rooms and other guest facilities). The commercial area fronting the main street must be used in the public . stone and mortar. In responding to the built context of the area. b) a residential area.commercial part of the hotel while the more private - residential area must also be used. or brick) with new or skewed forms.Potential Response The idea of the towns being separated into commercial main street areas and residential areas is very important. This built context consists of two parts: a) a commercial main street area and. c) using commonly used building materials of the area (such as wood frame construction with clapboard siding. These two ideas must be incorporated into the resort since it also reflects the commercial (entry. d) new materials and new forms . this project has a number of options which include: a) mimicking its surroundings using similar building materials and styles. b) recalling the area through metaphors while using modem materials. For this project another important issue with respect to the built context is the rhythm and styles of the commercial versus the residential buildings. 42 .

^ NATURAL CONTEXT 43 .

44 . The area is located in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. deciduous trees and scrub brush. one hour west of Denver. Both towns are located in a valley surrounded by mountains and are connected by Gregory Street. Much of the surrounding hillside is covered with evergreens interspersed with an occasional deciduous tree while within the town's deciduous trees are more common. Vegetation consists of evergreen trees.

It is also important that one realize the climactic condition of the area. Winters are more harsh with temperatures ranging from the teens up to the mid-30s. The flat area of the site is ideal for the commercial area of the resort while both the front and back of the hill may be used for the more residential private guest rooms. This could be done through the use of thrombi walls. Rock outcroppings as well as the natural slope of the hill at the site must be used to incorporate the hotel with the rest of the area. Climatically the area is that of a typical mountain region. Summers are mild with temperatures ranging from the 90s down to the 60s. In response to the southern exposiu-e of the site. there is a possibility for solar technology to be incorporated into the design. The structure cannot overpower or overcome the site. yet is steep enough to allow snow to melt and fall off the roof. solar panels and glazing. One design response to the heavy snowfall is pitched roof whose drainage is out of the way of pedestrian travel. 45 . Potential Response The natural beauty of the site must be respected by the new structure. this allows snow to build up which creates an insulating effect on the roof. If this is done the structure must be strong enough to allow for sizable loads. Heavy snowfall during winter months must be taken into account as well as the southern exposure to the site. Another response is the flat roof.

Spring usually begins in April and consists of mainly rain showers with occasional snowfall and lasts through May. Temperatures are cooler than lower lying elevations and days are usually sunny and clear. not melting until spring. Snowfall is common and usually stays for the winter. Svunmer is June. July and August and is the mildest time of the year. 46 . Days are usually clear and warm with temperatures dropping in the evenings. Fall is September and October (sometimes) and temperatures average in the mid 70s. This is the time when the leaves change and the mountainsides are full of color.

7 b2 1 72 3 78 9 75 9 b7.5 0 4 0 1 34 3 Heavy Fog V.s ibl 1 i ty 1/4 mile or 1 ess 39 3.70 0.b 1 2 1 3 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 » 0 2 1 0 2 1 8 8 Thunders t orms 39 0..2 11 9 13 8 121 .00 0 04 0 01 0 00 -Year 19b1 1972 1972 1958 1970 1980 1972 195b 1953 1952 197b 197b OCT 1952 -Maximum in 24 hrs 39 0 b4 0 55 0.0 0.5 52.5 137.» 11 5 b AVG.0 0 0 0.5 849 4 850 9 853 2 853 4 853 3 654.33 1 13 1 57 1.5 0.7b 0 44 0 47 0. 1 0.7 105.2 31 20.4 0 2 0 0 0.5 14.9 5.7 51 0 38 7 b5 7 -Da t 1y Mini mom 15 2 22 4 29.2 b 2 5 8 5.0 7.5 b 3 72 3 Snow. b b3 8 b1.3 4 8 7 b 7 b 5. .9 Ob 0 1 0.5 5 7 5 5 5.* 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0. STATION PRESS (mbl 13 854 b 853 b 848 8 849.0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.4 17.0 1 .42 1.8 1 . 1 7.0 0 0 0.81 3.5 12 4 10.1 0.0 5b. 2 87 9 94 0 90 3 81 9 b8.45 2 00 1 89 3 48 -Year 1957 1948 1979 19b5 1957 19b9 1983 1957 1982 1972 1983 1951 AUG 1957 -M.9 51.2 7b.0 lb 5 14 q 10.4b 1.b -Partly Cloudy 39 7.8 8 4 Temperature F -Hd"imum 90° and above 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.7 44 5 54 1 b5.b 8.02 1.Ice pe11ets 1.1 8 3 9 1 10 7 9.75 0 71 0.b3 0 58 8 00 -Ma»imum Monthly 39 2.4 5.48 2. lb 1 57 -^ear 195b 1980 1983 19b5 1983 19b9 1974 1953 19b5 1957 1983 1951 JUN 19b9 Snow.1 ' .5fc 2. 22 b5 52 43 34 31 25 29 31 33 39 51 b2 41 Hour 17 "-°^a' f""«' 22 b3 4b 3b 28 25 20 22 23 2b 34 47 bO 3b Hour 23 22 75 bb 5b 4b 42 34 37 39 41 51 b5 75 52 PRECIPITATION (inches): Hater Equivalent -Norma 1 0 b4 0.54 0.2 20 4 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 b5 3 32° and below 22 11 b 2.2 8 5 9.8 9.M a » 1 m<^tT Mo'^thl y 39 33 7 lb 4 14 9 14 3 5 0 31 b1 12 1 19 0 33 7 -Tea.7 38. 1957 1948 194fa 1975 1979 19b5 197"^ 19b4 1983 JAN 1957 -Ma«'mom If 24 hrs 3^ 9 1 8 fa fc 1 8 9 5 0 31 b 1 8 4 b 0 9 1 -Year 195 7 1948 1948 1975 1979 19b5 '9 75 19S4 19b7 JAN 1957 .87 0. y.9 .5 3 9 4 2 4.95 1.2 b 0 7 8 b 3 b 7 4 2 5 0 b.nlmoffi Mon t h1y 39 I T 0.0 0.7 -Cloudy 39 14.79 2 07 1 92 3.3 0 8 1 9 4. lai JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE J U L Y AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR TEHPERATURE °F: Normals "Dd i 1V ha* i mum 35.21 1 35 1. 1 28 2 17 9 39 b -Mofith I y 25 5 33 5 41.2 41 .2 29 3 133 1 0° and below 22 3 9 Ob 0 0 0 0 0.01 inches or more 39 7.0 0 8 7 0 22 0 -n i n i mum 32 and below 22 30 2 25.7 13.1 8.0 853 5 854 9 852 4 RELATIVE HUMIDITY (XI Hour 05 22 77 70 b3 5b 53 45 49 50 52 58 70 7b bO Hour 11 .91 0.Sunse t 39 b 2 h.4 8.7 15. 3 3 b 4 2 54 5 9 5 1 MEAN NUMBER OF OATS: Sunrise to Sunset -Clear 39 9 0 7.5 5.5 5.02 0 Ob T T 0 03 0 04 T 0.24 0 83 1 .0 0 0 0.3 7.1 7.4 11 9 11.1 13 7 14.1 54 9 39 b 28 3 52 b E» tremes -Record Highest 39 bO be 81 85 95 103 105 103 98 88 75 t4 105 -Year 1971 1981 1971 19b9 195b 1961 197b 19b9 1977 19b3 1977 198G JUL 197b -Record Lowest 39 -23 -14 5 11 2b 34 4b 43 29 18 -2 -12 -23 -Year 19b3 1951 1948 1975 1970 197b 1982 19b8 1978 1975 197b 1976 JAN 19b3 NORMAL DEGREE DAYS: Heat ing (base b5°F1 1225 882 71b 403 148 19 0 0 b5 325 7b2 1138 5b83 Cooling (base b5°F1 0 0 0 0 58 238 431 338 128 12 0 0 1205 X OF POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 39 bO b4 b3 b9 72 80 76 7b 79 7? t3 bO 70 HEAN SKY COVER 1 tenths 1 Sunr i se .8 Prec ipi tat ion .2 48.9b 1 .7 25.5 13.0 inches or more 3° 2.Ice pe M e t s .

7 1 3 S 7 12 8 1 ..i CLIMATICAL DATA CONT. 35 35 35 3i 39 32 53 1982 1961 1985 1985 1985 1981 1985 1985 1962 Peak Gust 199' 1982 1982 JUN 1981 -Oirec t i on NE SE w -Speed ImphI 25 S U U S£ s N SW S 29 45 78 5b 53 59 74 41 5J 49 -Date 1985 3b 78 1985 1985 1985 1985 1980 1984 1984 1985 1984 1984 APR 19P SNOWFALL (inches) SEASON JULY AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE T O T A L 19Sb-57 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 2 3 b 4 33 7 0 3 i 7 1 6 6 0 0 6 49 0 '")S7-58 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 S 4 b b 2 2 2 1 8 T 0 0 0 0 16 7 IS58-5"! 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 8 4 S 5 9 0 1 T 0 0 0 0 15 5 1^5")-b0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 b b 2 3 13 8 5 t T T 0 0 26 9 ISbO-fcl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 1 I 1 2 7. 33 26 29 2.i b S .2 1 3 2 0 I 0 0 34 0 1S73-74 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 7 5 7 17 0 S 5 I 1 2 0 0 0 0 37 1 t')74-75 0 0 0 0 0 0 T 0 1 4 b 7 S 4 4 8 8 14 3 1 3 0 0 4 1 4 1")75-7b 0 0 0 0 0 0 b 1 3 •) 7 2 1 . 1 M.6 ! : no C rec t I en ~> b T i 9.70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 b 0 5 4 8 5 2 T 12 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 24 7 1S70-71 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 T 4 1 3 2 1 5 0 2 1 1 T 0 0 13 2 l<)71-7? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 "1 10 4 4 0 I 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 t6 6 1S72-73 0 0 0 0 0 0 '. ') ? 1 through T9o3 tSL [•it fsE EbE tst lA ESf Fastest OD'.' 2b .4 l^erord * * • 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ? 3 0 5 5 7 4 4 0 4 1 1 1 0 2 0 0 25 9 .8 O b 0 0 0 0 12 9 l-Jbl-t? 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 1 1 8 1 4 b b 1 1 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 24 b 1'ib?-b3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 4 t 17 7 0 2 4 3 0.n fS'l Eii tbf lA F\! -Direct .. 7 4 0 b 8 0 2 0 0 0 0 29 9 197b-77 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c I 0 1 4 2 I 2 3 1 7 0 0 0 0 6 3 I'}77-78 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 3 3 2 S 12 0 2 5 0 b T 1 0 0 20 9 197e-7<» 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 <) 1 1 8 18 7 1 b 3 4 1 1 5 0 0 0 ^2 5 1<)7<»-eO 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 2 3 5 2 2 0 5 7 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 21 9 ISBO-BI 0 0 0 0 T 4^ 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 S 0 8 1 2 I 0 0 0 0 5 9 00 isei-ej 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ^ 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 0 0 8 t 0 0 0 0 15 4 i')8?-e3 0 0 0 0 0 0 t I 1 <) b t 3 1 1 5 2 2 I 0 0 14 e i<)e3-e4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 1"? 0 3 7 0 b b 1 2 S 0 0 0 0 3b 5 1984-85 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 2 0 2 7 5 0 2 7 5 b 0 1 0 0 0 0 16 6 1Se5-8b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 b 4. 5:.0 9 r '..i4 Jj -Speed !Mrni 35 29 35 4b 41 -Yea.. MIND: Me3n Speed • npii I I 3^^ b " 6 4 '-> fa 9 6 " -^ 1 P"-? . 2 0 0 0 0 30 b ISb3-b4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 7 0 4 8 0 4 8 0 0 8 T 0 0 21 0 lSfc«-b5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 1 3 0 5 9 7 5 3 8 0 2 I 0 0 32 5 ISbS-bb 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 2 e 3 5 11 0 5 S 0 3 0 8 T 0 0 27 4 Hbb-b7 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 t 4 2 b 3 2 8 I 0 2 C 4 I 0 0 1S 6 1Sb7-b8 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 5 'b 7 3 7 0 <i 0 3 0 b T 0 0 22 7 (•ibB-b") 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 8 3 4 3 8 <) 5 I I 0 0 24 7 l .

w SITE 49 .

J.w • I :::j^>>:y:::^s:tVX--.]^>cMt<>K>*<OHtSf<M»3*¥oii*3i»fO^>otte3iiQtK3i<>itts**e3f<3tic3f»o*<3f:rr-rr^ 5 0<3 The h5 '^ 6 •. . 1859 he discovered one of the first gold mines in Colorado. 1859.•v^^A^.000 in Gold. ^ .:^::<>-:^->-xr:-fr. „ .-.I.: .. ••. 1932.^. oto»«o^ol ^ •^ OlOtlOtO lA\.000. .w.^..M. On May 6. ^ .•. The site I have chosen is on Gregory Street between Central City and Black Hawk and is directly across from the Gregory Monument. It fronts on Gregory Street and consists of a flat area along the street which is backed by a gently rising concave hill.:\.. His first pan contained VA of an ounce of gold. KARS 50 . Gregory Monument 6 ^ »'"^ rX'. Hall Foundation and by State Civil Service Employees of Colorado.i^ Halfway between Black Hawk and Central City a monument was erected to honor John Gregory. the lode produced nearly one million ounces of gold.l^.•••.'J.'jvw. j .-.'.'. Gregory of Georgia Discovered the First Lode Gold in Colorado on May 6.-i>:<Sax^:^x^^^ 5L-i:. .. . . The bronze plaque reads: This Discovery Inaugurated the Permanent Development of Colorado.N. „ • • •/^^••^. Erected by The State Historical Society of Colorado. The District Has Produced 585.i ' v vw. On this ground. later known as Gregory Diggins John H. .. WW jwiv. From The Mrs.:-lo»o<toii^»oi«ai*04vo)>oitoitot<o««oi>o:>oi»o>»oi»oi>oi«otiotoL^i:.

51 . This provides a buffer between the site and the Casinos of Black Hawk.f On the East side of the site a large rock outcropping exists.

52 . This site is ideal for a non-gambling resort hotel because of its central location to either town.[/ To the west open area separates the site from Central City located approximately one-half a mile away. Across Gregory Street is the Gregory monument and the Red Doll Casino backed by a steep hill covered with evergreen trees.

53 .

SfefTBCropriCS GOLDEN. r4 5kj(^Qrapfia NEDERLAND BOULDER M 8 • > e Sf 0?-' E_6thJit_-l-5 ' 3 )"<*nca 8t o'w Vs sr^i—*— (SEE INSET) -<NEVADAVJLLE POINTS OF INTEREST 1 Q%>ki County Courlhouse 2 Q i ^ County Historical Muaeun 3 TeNer Opart Houaa J D A H O SPRINGS 54 . DENVER > CENTRAL CITY Not evary t t r e * ! may ba namad on map. INSET BLACK HAWK J ^ Not avary atraal may ba namad on map. .

r Gilpin County Colorado .

• •> ^ aI ^ • i.•/.••.K.' or ( w r » a r .. • " • AKJEJ^AL ^TREJIT SCAL£i VmUXf — .•Ori^ ..I5T5 •(•. UJATE.CTOl^ ^ T R i E T .CC?LLE... 5LRV1CE. CO •~ ./::\i / l\\\iR£. Z<9ME. eoiLoi^AisxO) 1 . .SID£NTIAL Unni COMMEK-CIAL/ PAPLlClMCh Q PUDLIC 1 lOPE^ 5PAGE- H S UPPER.' DEVELOPMENT PLAM W&P cuMTO^AiL erirv. V. v'V < 3 a peM0T£6 CONVEYANCE OF T0UR.•..••<%.

^ CONTEXT CASE STUDIES 57 .

At a glance. this does look very much like an adobe home but it is the subtleties which give it its originality. and combines both the traditional smaller windows with large 58 . For example. not a duplicate. New Mexico Program: To create a southwestern style home in which the transition from public to private seems unforced. Predock leaves the interior courtyard and includes a pitched roof and metal smokestack. Site: A long open ridge with views of Los Alamos £md the Sangre de Cristo mountains.THE TESUQUE HOUSE Architect: Antoine Predock. FALA Location: Tesuque. Structure: Concrete block and cement plaster Cost: Unavailable Solution: The architect wanted to create a home with the character of the place. space technology and Hollywood B movies. This was done with a combination of such disparate ideas as regional items.

59 .expanses of glass. Predock takes the idea of the pueblo style house and abstracts and extrudes it. Another example is the kitchen which recalls an ancient ceremonial kiva yet contains all of the modem amenities one would expect. He explodes the tradition parti. It is just this type of contradiction which not only emphasizes the regional qualities which are so special but goes beyond this to create a new and complementary kind of architecture.

r VEHICLE AND ACTIVITIES 60 .

" (F&C) 61 . No other structure is expected to provide such diversity and comfort concurrently. hotels are expected to combine fantasy with convenience. to cater to the travelers' needs and to provide amenities that exceed those found at home and at the office.^ "Meant for the transient individual.

All components are interrelated yet guests see only the front of the house while employees must travel between front and back regularly. and the guest rooms. This is broken down into front and back of the house. The goal of good hotel design is to give the guests a pleasant stay while creating an efficiently planned design. The back of the house relates to the operations which make the hotel run smoothly. the public spaces. the service operations component. ACTIVITY ANALYSIS FOR 250 ROOM HOTEL: Activities and Participants A hotel consists of three main components. The front of the house consists of anything relating to the pubUc. 62 . including all public access areas and guest rooms.

r BACK OF THE HOUSE 63 .

Control and efficiency of staff and supplies is the main idea which needs to be addressed when designing this part of the hotel Receiving • loading dock • receiving area • receiving office • records storage Employees • men's lockers and toilets • women's lockers and toilets • employee cafeteria • sleeping area Laundry • soiled linen storage • wash/dry area • supervisor's office • seamstress • clean linen pick up Housekeeping • chief housekeeping • large storage area • miiform room • service area on each floor Food and Beverage Service • main kitchen • food preparation • rough food cooking • finished food cooking • serving/delivering • dry food storage • cold food storage • self service area • employee toilets • chefs office • ticket checker • room service and banquet storage 64 . Hotel Operations .

locksmith • storage • electrical room • telephone room 65 .Food and Beverage (continued) • room service operator • china/flatware storage • pot scrubbing • dishwashing Mechanical Spaces • main mechanical room • engineer's office • repair shop • carpentry. upholstery.

• receiving area . • records storage .Receiving: Activities: • receiving of shipments • receiving anything entering hotel • sending received items to their destination • point of removal for anjrthing leaving hotel (garbage. mail.300 s.f. etc. 66 .) Participants: • steward/receiving manager • assistant Adjacencies: • loading dock and scale • personnel entry and locker area • timekeeper • trash chutes • mail room • laimdry • housekeeping • food and beverage storage Separation: • guest activity Spaces needed: • loading dock covered . • receiving office .f.100 s.f.300 s.100 s.f.

• women's lockers and toilets . 67 . • sleeping area .200 s.800 s.500 s.f.f.f.Employees Activities: • changing • showering • restrooms • clothing/personal item storage • napping Participants: • all employees Adjacencies: • personnel entry • uniform issuance • timekeeper Separations: • supply movement path and storage • guest activity • trash chute for collection Spaces needed: • men's lockers and toilets .f. • employee cafeteria .700 s.

f. 68 .100 s.Laundry Activities: • washing • drying • ironing • dry cleaning • mending Participants: • laundry manager • seamstress • valet Adjacencies: • employee locker • linen chute • receiving area • service elevators • housekeeping Separations: • employee entrance • guest activities Spaces needed: • soiled linen . • clean linen pick up .50 s. • washer/dryer area .100 s.000 s. • seamstress .f.100 s.f.f. • supervisor's office .2.f.

f. room service menus and other necessities for rooms • supply service areas with above supphes • supply guest needs (irons.f. safety pins. soap.f. each • uniform room .f.800 s. Miscellaneous • Figure 12-15 rooms per day per maid • one porter per maid • one night maid for every 2 day maids 69 . • phone access to guests • service areas on each floor for maid cleaning carts and guest supplies .400 s. Imp. facial tissue.Housekeeping Activities • store linen.300 s. • linen storage . matches. • large storage area with inventory . anything) • clean rooms and other spaces • minor maintenance Participants: • chief housekeeper • assistant floor housekeepers • maids • porters • maintenance personnel Adjacencies: • laundry • receiving • storage • service elevators Separations: • employee entrance • employee lockers • guest activities Spaces needed: • chief housekeeper's office -150 s.f. toilet paper.200 s.

rough cooking • finished cooking • exit • waiters self serve area • bartender • ticket checker • room service • service elevators • rolling table storage • room service operator 70 .Food and Beverage Service Activities: • food storage. dry storage • menu planning • purchasing of food inventory • rough food cooking • finished cooking • baking • dishwashing • ticket checking • cleaning Participants: • food and beverage manager • one assistant for food • head chef • assistant chefs • baker • dishwasher • pot scrubber • wait people • garde manager • bartender • room service (phones and delivery) Adjacencies: general • storage • dining • service elevators • locker rooms • employee entrance • guest activities Adjacencies within activity: • storage-food preparation . cold holding rooms. liquor storage.

f.100 s. • china/flatware storage . 71 .f.200 s.f.f.500 s.70 s.f.f. • waitperson self serve area .f.f.f.delivering . • food preparation area • rough food cooking • finished food cooking • serving .500 s. • chefs office .Separations within activity: • food preparation and cooking • dishwashing • bakery • dining dishwashing Spaces needed: • dry food storage .f.4. • room service operator . • room service tray and banquet storage .50 s.f.000 s.300 s. • bake shop . • ticket checker . • employee toilets . • dishwashing . • cold and frozen food storage .300 s.200 s. • pot scrubbing .200 s.150 s.f.100 s.f.

P«r«l'»« '»'•'"'• " • * * * " ' " * 72 .( « 1 E ^ Main kJtchan.0A0IN4 T ERATION I BOX —jviASHINQ *""" 5 ~ DOCK fOR TRAOC 01 SPLAT ACCESS L COLD FOOO i T M t l t COFTCE 1 HOT POOO Tmicx ict a wrcR tANQUCT HOOMt SCA. MEAT FRCeZER WE AT RCFRIGCNATOII FOOD STORAGE 1.^ Food and beverage service diagrams REeTAURANT (CHECKER SERVICE BAR LCMOMO DOCK SALAD a • IE MANOER ENTRANCE I FOOD CHECKER TIME KEEPER HOT a COLD STOfi MJf CAfilS 1 lllJUillL {. BANQUET ROOMS L !. KEY PERSONEL HOUeEKEEPER VWMW«M«AMA^^ FOOD FLOW ^ ^ IStRVrlUt COOKED FOOD ELEVATOR SERVICE TO 8 FROM RESTAURANT SERVICE TO a FROM BANQUET ROOMS ROOM SERVICE GARBAGE Flow diagram of sarvica araas.

2. • storage . • boiler or mechanical room on each floor • engineer's office .f.f.000 s.000 s.250 s. upholstery.5.f. • mechanic repair shop . • electrical room .f.f.f Mechanical Spaces Activities: • maintenance and repair of mechanical systems • key/lock repair • major building repairs and upkeep Participants: • house engineer • locksmith • assistants Adjacencies: • none Separations: • guest activity Spaces needed: • main boiler/mechanical room .250 s.f.f. locksmith . 73 . • carpentry.250 s.200 s.400 s. • telephone room .

<7 FRONT OF THE HOUSE 74 .

satisfying place to stay for the guest. It must incorporate the ideas of community and security for the guest. Guest/Public .This needs to be a pleasant. Guest entry/exit • covered drive • exterior transition • entry • interior foyer Guest Registration • registration desk • mail and key area • message area Advance Reservation • office • mail and key storage Cashier/Bookkeeping • cashier's desk • vault room • private room • accounting office Administrative Area • manager's office • assistant manager's office • food and beverage manager's office • convention and banquet manager's office • marketing/sales representative's office • secretary areas Restaurant Facilities • two specialty restaurants • cafe • bar/loimge Lobby Areas • open/flow space • seating area • retail area • retail • bellmen station • restrooms 75 .

one adult) • outdoor bar • restrooms • indoor adult pool • sauna and steam rooms • hot tub • tennis court • aerobic room • weight room • running track 76 .Guest Rooms • suites • king rooms • double queen rooms • double double rooms • disabilities accessible • studio rooms Meeting and Banquet Facilities • three convention rooms seating approximately 150 people per room • pre-convention space • board rooms Recreation • two outdoor pools (one children.

• entry/exit transition .000 s.f.f.000 s.main entry • interior foyer .1.f.000 s.Guest entry-exterior to interior Activities: • taxi drop-off of guest • car parking (own and valet) • luggage transfer to bell boy Participants: • hotel guests • visitors • valet • bell boy • doorman Adjacencies: • hotel entry • parking • guest registration and checkout Separations: • receiving/loading dock • employee entry • elevators Spaces needed: • covered drive thru .3. • exterior transition . • face of building 77 .1.

• guests • visitors • bell boys • registration clerks Adjacencies: • hotel entry • elevators • advance registration • key and mail area • cashier • administration • restaurant • lobby • guest rooms Separations: • hotel operations • check out Spaces needed: • registration desk .w^ Guest Registration Activitiefj. . • bell boy .f.: • guest greeting • guest check-in • guest gets key • famiharization of guest with hotel Participants. 4 Th* Churchili Hotel.f. • message area .f. London. • mail and key area .luggage .wait area REGISTRATION I C A S H I 0 ? ^ P SAFE DEPOSIT I EXAM ROOMI 78 SCALE m FEET if.25 s.25 s.100 s.

200 s. • access and furniture • reservation list access 79 .f.Advance reservations Activities: • guests and travel agent phone • calls for reservations • scheduling of rooms for advance reservations Participants: • reservation clerks • registration clerks • guests and travel agents (by phone) Adjacencies: • hotel registration desk • administration • hotel operations Separations: • guest view and access Spaces needed: • office with phone .

w Mail and keys Activities: ^ mail sorting and handling • key drop-off Participants: • guests getting mail or keys • clerks putting mail or keys in individual spots Adjacencies: • mail room • registration desk Separations: • public access Spaces needed: • individual room breakdown to put keys and mail in for easy access 80 .

cafe.60 s.100 s. etc.f. • private room (for transferring valuables) . • accoiuiting office .f. 81 .Cashier/Bookkeeping Activities: • guest drop-off and holding of valuables in safe or safety deposit box • guest pajnnent • cash and receipts from other sources (restaurant.100 s.f.f.200 s. • cashier's desk .) • entries and bookkeeping Participants: • st£iff accoiuitant • central cashier • guests Adjacencies: • registration desk • private room • accountant's office • vault room • lobby • other cash sources Separations: • public access to back Spaces needed: • vault room . bar.

f.f. • convention and banquet manager .150 s.150 s.150 s.Administrative Area Activities: Hotel Administration • bill pa3dng • incoming/outgoing hotel related mail • marketing • convention booking Participants: • manager • assistant manager • food and beverage manager • convention/bsmquet manager • marketing • secretaries Adjacencies: • other hotel operations managers • public access • lobby Separations: • general hotel operations (excluding loading dock or employee locker room) Spaces needed: • manager . • assistant manager .300 s.150 s.f.f. • food and beverage manager . 82 .secretaries .f. • marketing/sales . • foiu.200 s.f.

000 s.2.f.f.500 s.guests and visitors • wait people • bus people • maitre-de (specialty only) • chef ( specialty only) Adjacencies: • food and beverage service • hotel entry/lobby • convention areas • bar/lounges • rooms Separations: • dishwashing • food prep Spaces needed: • two specialty restaurants .000 s. each which need to include: waiting/entry area restrooms • one cafe . • one bar/lounge .2.Restaurant Facilities/Specialty and Cafe Activities: • dining • conference/dining • table waiting and food serving • table clearing • relaxing/talking Participants: • diners .2.f. 83 .

f. guest-visitor. 84 . retail .f. restrooms • possible smaller ones located where needed • storage for bell captain (large for luggage and small for parcels) .200 s. telephone.800 s.f.700 s.f.Lobbies Activities: • guest congregation/meeting spot (guest-guest.250 s.000 s.2.f. seating . bellmen station. group-individual) • public entry to building • hotel orientation (where am I? where do I go?) Participants: • guests • visitors • bellhops • bell captains' station Adjacencies: • hotel entry • registration desk • checkout desk • elevators • entry to administration • restaurants and bars • cashier Separations: • hotel operations Spaces needed: • large open space upon entry . flow space .

maintenance) • room service • mechanical Adjacencies (services): • housekeeping storage • food preparation/kitchens • receiving • mechanical storage Separations (services): • guests • public access • not hotel employed Spaces needed (services): • waiting area for people with carts • location close to all hotel operation services 85 . full length mirror and ash tray Participants (services): • housekeeping (room and cleaning supplies) (maids. porters.Elevators Activities: • movement of people from lobby to upper floors • waiting for elevators • waiting for other people • vertical circulation for guests and services Participants (public): • guests • visitors • bellhops Adjacencies (public): • hotel lobby • registration desk • rooms Separations (public): • hotel entry • hotel operations • guest rooms Spaces needed (public): • central location • lobbies for waiting and separation from rooms with bench.

light and recess guest room doors 86 . to vending machines and elevators • transition between pubhc and private space Participants: • guests • visitors • hotel operations services Adjacencies: • elevator lobbies (public and services) • rooms Separations: • N/A Spaces needed: • not over 100 feet in length • nominal six feet width • pair.Guest Floor Corridors Activities: • guests walking to and firom rooms • services gaining access to rooms • horizontal circulation between rooms.

f.f.600 s.250 s.400 s.f.350 s.f.f. 87 . • 25 .2x double rooms .500 s. • 5 disability accessible rooms . • 20 studio rooms .f.2x queen rooms . • 125 .Guest Room Activities: • sleeping • eating • dressing • lounging • resting • television watching • working • socialize • cleaning (services) Participants: • guest(s) • visitor • maids Adjacencies: • corridor • bathroom • closet • suite/living space (possibly) Separations: • elevators • public spaces • mechanical rooms • maid service rooms Spaces needed: • 25 suites . each • 50 king rooms .450 s.

4'6".r Guest Bathrooms Activities: • showering • using the restroom • applying makeup • drying hair • shaving • washing face • brushing teeth Participants: • guest • visitor Adjacencies: • room Separations: • seating area Spaces needed: • minimal: tub/shower. and a shelf for miscellaneous Imp. • tub size 6' • ledge for lavatories Guest Room closet • must be able to store luggage out of sight. nominal length (includes bath) 25' long • consider soimd transmission when planning wall construction • suites may have living area • living area should have a restroom and possibly a bar •See appendix. Misc. have hanging space. lavatory.full . queen 5'. a bidet. 88 . a shoe rack. watercloset • may have 2 lavatories.: • twin beds with one night table between them • bed sizes (all 7 feet long . king 6') • nominal room width 12'6" (includes bed and dresser).

QUEST ROOM PROTOTYPE FURNISHING PLAN .

«0OM PLAN .

200 s.Guest Floor Service Space Activities: • linen storage • maids' carts stored • cleaning supphes stored • room service carts temporarily stored Participants: • maids • porters Adjacencies: • service elevator • guest corridor Separations: • guest elevators • guest rooms Spaces needed: • storage space .f. per floor 91 .

f. for each three spaces • pre-convention space with bar .: • person standing takes up 5 square feet • person seated for seminar takes up 8 square feet • pre-convention is 1/3 of meeting space area 92 .400 s.f.Meeting and Banqueting Facilities: Activities: • meeting for 10 to 1000 people • seated dining Participants: • guests • visitors • wait people • furniture movers Adjacencies: • hotel lobby • kitchens • bar • dining facilities Separations: • loud noises Spaces needed: • smaller rooms which have moveable walls that may be opened to create a larger room to accommodate seating 150 people .1.200 s.300 s.f. for three spaces • two board rooms . each I m p . Misc.

outdoor . as well as.000 s. (includes deck) • pool .f.1. relaxing environment for the guest • pool .000 s. steam room and hot tub .1 adult.R e c r e a t i o n . indoor . • tennis courts .1. • weight room .000 s.to provide an athletic.f. • running track Activities: • swimming • relaxing • sunning • tennis • aerobics • weightiifting • running Participants: • guests • visitors • maintenance • lifeguards Adjacencies: • guest rooms • changing rooms • one Separations: • public • hotel services 93 .200 s. 1 child.f.f.3.4.f.2. • aerobic activity .f.900 s.400 s. • sauna.1 adult.

r Spatial Square Footages 94 .

600 3.3 = Usable x 1.055 3.666 Housekeeping 69 chief housekeeper's office 150 storage 400 linen storage 800 uniform room 300 Total 1.145 2.574 95 .860 3.2 = Gross Page Receiving and storage 66 loading dock 300 receiving area 300 receiving office 100 trash 200 refrigerated garbage 100 compactor 200 general storage 900 Total 2.432 Emplovee areas 67 Personnel: timekeeper/seciuity 120 personnel manager 120 assistant 100 files 90 Facilities: men's lockers/toilets 500 women's lockers/toilets 700 employee cafeteria 800 sleep area 200 Total 2.Back of the House Space N e t x 1.056 Laundry 68 soiled linen 100 washer/dryer 2.350 3.650 2.200 2.000 supervisor's office 100 seamstress 100 clean linen pickup 5Ii Total 2.380 4.

026 96 .855 13.3 = Usable X 1.000 engineer's office 200 repair shop 500 storage 5.621 12.350 10.500 bake shop 500 room service calls 100 room service storage 200 chefs office 150 dry food storage 500 cold food storage 300 wait person area 100 toilets 70 ticket checker 50 china/flatware storage 300 pot scrubbing 200 dishwashing 200 Total 8.170 10.000 banquet pantry 1.746 Mechanical Spaces 73 mechanical plant/room 2.000 electrical room 400 telephone room 250 Total 8.2 = Gross Page Food preparation 70 main kitchen 4.r Space N e t x 1.

2 = Gross Page Guest entrv 77 covered drive 3.430 1.500 11.300 4.000 4.290 5. 150 c & b mgr 150 marketing 150 four secretaries 300 Total 1.000 Total 5.260 Lobbv 84 large area 3.000 cafe 2.050 bell captain 50 storage 200 Total 3.716 Restaurants 83 two specialty @ 2.000 6.500 7.3 = Usable X 1.148 97 .000 Total 8.500 bar 2.050 13.100 1.000 interior transition 1.w Front of the House Space Netx 1.000 exterior transition 1.800 Guest registration 78 registration desk 125 message area 25 Total 150 195 234 Advance reservations 200 260 312 79 Cashier/bookkeeping 81 cashier's desk 100 private room 60 vault room 100 accountant's office 200 Total 460 598 718 Administration 82 manager's office 200 assist£uit 150 food and beverage mgr.

500 2x queens (25 @ 400) 10.200 2.296 Recreation 93 pool 2 @ 2.500 98 .000 kings (50 @ 450) 22.f Space Netx 1.3 = Usable X 1.200 weights 1.000 Total 12.400 boardroom 2 @ 300 600 Total 6.580 10.000 (indoor .725 153.000 (outdoor .2 = Gross Page Guest rooms 87 suites (25 @ 600) 15.250 127.000 4.000 2x doubles (125 @ 350) 43.400 aerobics 1.270 Function areas (including preconvention) 92 banquet 3 @ 1.includes deck) sauna 300 steam 300 hot tub 300 tennis 2.600 meeting 2 @ 1.000 studio (20 @ 250) 5.660 8.750 disabled (5 @ 400) 2.200 3.000 Total 98.includes deck) pool 1 3.

f.245 Support facilities/common areas 29. s.566 TOTAL 161.753 99 .850 136.f GRAND SUMMARY OF SPACES net.f Hotel operations/service areas 27.380 209.209 42.305 163.f s.794 251.450 38.285 45.942 Rentable space/rooms 104.080 35. usable gross s.

Time Saver Standards for Building Types. London. 3rd edition. Rutes." Whitney Library of Design. 1965. N. N. DeChiara. "Resort Hotels: Planning and Management. E. Joseph and John Callender. 100 . "Principles of Hotel Design. "Hotel Planning and Design. Penner. Walter A.J BIBLIOGRAPHY Abraben. 1985.Y.Y. Architectural Press. Watson-GuptiU Publishing. 1975. and Richard H." Reinhold Publishing Corporation." The Architects Journal.

u FACILITY CASE STUDIES 101 .

It uses a regional vocabulary of adobe-like walls. Because of the height limit the hotel is elongated which creates long corridors. Site: A ridge along Pebble Beach bordered by the ocean on one side and a stand of pine and cypress on the other. The architect provides a respite through the use of furnished alcoves with stunning views. elongated mansion style hotel reminiscent of the California missions.w THE INN AT SPANISH BAY Architect: Bull Volkmann Stockwell Location: Just outside Monterey. CA Program: To build a 270 room luxury hotel which fits in with its context. the water side uses four stories while the entrance is only two stories. Since the structure is on a ridge. more domestic side which keep the surrounding style of the area. This provides a warm comforting atmosphere that is inviting to the guest. 102 . There is a 35 foot height limit which the architect takes into accoiuit. This allows the viewer to see only the lower. heavy arcades and sweeping hip roofs. Guest rooms are 30% larger than the standard luxury hotel and contain a fireplace and deck or terrace. Solution: A quasi-Mediterranean.

.g u e s t rooms South wing B —guest r c c ~ - First level 103 .g u e s t rooms Ballroom pavilion .^-e L^ ^.Design: This architect respects the built context while creating a new and pleasing environment for visitors. By using a more elongated form the structure creates a smaller scale while respecting the 35 foot height limit. East j v i n g . Breaking up this long feeling are alcoves (alcoves and indoor/outdoor walks). Also the larger rooms with pleasing amenities make guests feel more comfortable. Lobby lounge pavilion J 1 — South wing A .

exterioirs within interiors. GA Program: An 800-room hotel within Peachtree Center played around a giant atrium. fountains. Spaces within spaces. 104 . Solution: 37 rooms off a single loaded corridor around a gigantic atrium. This idea of inside-outside and rooms around an atrium could possibly be employed in this hotel design. up and down action. this leads to an indoor-outdoor feeling which is accentuated by trees.y PEACHTRRE CENTER Architect: John Portman Location: Atlanta. Creating an atrium within the mountain on the site would expend the number of rooms available while creating a dynamic interior space. outdoor cafes and enclosed interiors. and multi-level circulation create excitement within the atrium space. Design: This hotel is based around an atrium with rooms around it. The atrium is 140 by 223 feet in area and consists of a bubble skylight and clerestory rimming the top.

squares and rectangles. The hotel's entry lobby is smaller due to budget reasons yet Graves says it prepares the visitor for the expansive volume of the restaurant. pools and courtyards.THE AVENTINE Architect: Michael Graves Location: La JoUa.7 acres overlooking the San Diego Freeway Solution: This solution consists of a mega-scale composition which is elegant. These structures are small scale and are scattered on the 105 . CA Program: To create an exciting mixed-use complex in an ordinary suburb. The key elements in my project are small scale (three-story maximum) pitched roofs. 400 room Hyatt Regency Hotel Site: 11. Architectonically the design was based on Italian style which relates to its name. Design: The design of the hotel is fairly straight-forward so Graves takes the ideas associated with the Italiante style. circles. bold and clear which can be seen down to the smallest detail. including a 16-story. and oblongs hnked by pergolas. fountains. In this project it is the composition of squares.

of manipulated forms evoking the idea upon which the design is based.^:^..^n.. 106 -AA>.^^.. commercial area. This is a good exampl... Another concept which stands out is the idea of the classical base for the design which is then played with through the use of color and scale.. .w/ hillside and are linked by walkways and stairs which lead to the front..L^^.

000 sq. These criteria are addressed by Graves through his use of color. Site: 50 acres of lagoons next to EPCOT Center Structure: Hotel tower is reinforced concrete and the low rise buildings are steel super structure.ft. snack bar. 700. restaurants. health club. His decorative strategy is carried into the guest room areas through the use of beach scene walls and cabana guest room doors. Even the 107 . It is Graves' use of decoration that makes this building visually exciting. ground bar and lounges. total. game room. architecture and should be easily understood by the user. scale and form. retail space. iconography. Cost: $120 million Solution: This is based on entertainment.V WALT DISNEY WORLD SWAN HOTEL Architect: Michael Graves Location: Lake Buena Vista. Florida Program: 758 guest rooms and suites. The hotel is based on an axial plan and is architecturally straightforward. swimming pool. convention center.

108 . Graves felt the small size of the rooms help fight the big hotel feeling one normally gets in a hotel of this size.carpet caries through with these ideas. imitating such playful ideas as lily pads and quarry tile. The individual rooms break away from this grand idea and become smaller more individual.

It consists of a 27-story tower which is used to. DOLPHIN HOTEL Architect: Michael Graves Location: Lake Buena Vista. Instead the Dolphin employs gently rising "wings" which is less "building hke. the scale and aspirations of the 109 . on the interior. This isn't as conventional a hotel as the Swan is. health club. as Walt Disney puts it. Florida Program: 1.000 sq.511 guest rooms. retail spaces. It has. beckon the user inside.350. 2 lounges. the Swan. 5 full service restaurants." Here the architect plays tricks with colossal sculpture. 3 snack bars. Site: 150 acres adjacent to EPCOT Center Structure: Hotel tower is reinforced concrete. ft. a several story waterfall and odd architectural combinations. There is more happening in this hotel than there is in its sister. 1. low-rise buildings are steel super structure Cost: $220 milhon Solution: The architect's solution to this program resulted in a highly whimsical building.

This. isn't overwhelming. are both examples of illusionism. While this is important. as well as the Swan. 110 KkaoBnuaBfl . The use of an octagon ensures people will pause to experience the space. this unique shape is also the cause of much confusion when users are looking for their rooms or elevators. This is a grand space which. gypsum board looks cheaper and expansion joints and air vents are more obvious. the idea of fantasy. One pleasing architectural aspect of this hotel is its rotunda lobby.building don't meet the construction technology employed. while being pleasant.

renovation by PhylHs Lambert and Gene Summers Location: Downtown Los Angeles.000 sq. 90. retail shops Site: Near Pershing Square in downtown Los Angeles Structure: Existing steel frame under masonry walls Cost: $30 million Solution: The renovation of this hotel led not only to its revitalization but also to the rebirth of Pershing Square.ft. 27 banquet and meeting rooms. office space. 40.ft. Ill . It was named an historic landmark in 1969 by the Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Board.000 sq.ft.000 sq. Originally it was the largest hotel between San Francisco and the Mississippi and was designed in the classic Spanish-Italian Renaissance revival style. restaurants. 16.BILTMORE HOTEL Architect: Original building by Schultze and Weaver. California Program: Renovate a 55 year old hotel with 772 guest rooms.

£md was done in shades of that color. greenhouse skylights were placed to accentuate the view of the original building. (Greenhouse) In the more contemporary retail and office space. green. 112 . This included the preservation of important aspect of the building while incorporating contemporary elements into certain areas such as the office and commercial spaces. blue. and violet. In the larger suites. neutral tones created a less visual space but it was felt that the space itself was more important there. In the guest rooms the client wanted to create a sense of special experience. yellow. Beyond architectonics. the client chose to play old and new off one another then the use of contemporary art and objects juxtaposed with the traditionally ornamented hotel.The importance of this is its renovation and how the program was accomplished. This led to a renovation hierarchy with the least impact occurring on historically important spaces such as the suites and guest rooms. This was achieved through the use of color. orange. Each room was assigned one of these colors: red.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 113 .

1980. P/A Inquiry Inside the Hotel Guest Room. Henry. Walter A. Metropolizing Atianta. Mayes. Leon. TYme Saver Standards for Building Types. and Charles W.Y. New York. Donald. Harry L. Beer. Brent C. Memory and Architecture. Body. Penner.Abraben. 3rd edition. 1985. 114 . Jiily. Architecture. Architecture. Bloomer. 1977 Bronlin. 1963. Watson-GuptiU Pubhshing. Joseph and John Callender. 1975. Quotes Interiors Book of Hotels and Motor Hotels. Architecture in Context: Fitting New Buildings With Old. London. Progressive Architecture. Portman. June 1984. Mesa. August. John C. Gamham. Interiors. 1990. Architectural Press. Vernon. Hough. July. 1968. Planning the Successful Resort Hotel. E. Grand Illusion. David W. New York. Architectural Record. N. Whitney Library of Design. June 1988. Whiteson. Firmly Rooted in New England Tradition. 1988. Canty. Every Hotel Needs Fantasy and Convenience. N. New Haven: Yale University Press. DeChiara. "Principles of Hotel Design. "Resort Hotels: Planning and Management." Whitney Library of Design. Michael. McGraw Hill Books. Campbell." Reinhold Publishing Corporation. End." The Architects Journal. Kent C. "Hotel Planning and Design. 1965.Y. Allen H. and Richard H. New Haven: Yale University Press. Architectural Record. Lapidus. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Rutes. Arizona: PDA Publishers Corporation. Moore. Very Large Hotel Respectful to Nature and Its Neighbors. 1968. July 1988. 1990. Maintaining the Spirit of Place: A Process for the Preservation of Town Character. Out of Place: Restoring Identity to the Regional Landscape. 1985. Robert. Architecture. November.

w

Appendix

115

Guestroom D o t i g n

FURNISHINGS
The full list of furnishings cen be determined by D Queen or 72-inch (1.8-meter) king-size bed:
analyzing the guestroom functions—sleeping, Beds smaller than the 78-inch (2-meter) king
relaxing, working, enterteining, dressing—and create mors open space.
The definition of the marltet determines not only their space requirements. The typical double-dou- ED Convertible sofa or wall-bed: These provide
the mo»t appropriate bed combinations but also ble room has severel zones: The bathroom and more open space and flexibility, either as the
all the other furnishings for a particular hotel. areas for dressing and clothes storege are second bed with a double, queen, or king, or as
Generally, hotels include a mixture of rooms with grouped next to the corridor entrance: the sleep- the only bed in a parlor.
two beds (generally double beds), one oversized ing aree is in the center of the guestroom module: CD Adequate luggege/clothe* space: Sufficient
bed (either a queen or king), and suites of various end the seeting and work areas are located near drawers, luggage rack, and closet space reduce
types. The more common alternatives are listed in the window. New leyouts combine the several the clutter of clothes throughout the room.
Table 2. While it is uncommon in the United functions in different ways or find techniques for LD Armoire: Combining drawer space with e
States to have hotel guestrooms furnished with separating them more fully. For example, suite television cabinet and possibly a pullout writing
single, twin, or only one double bed, some hotels characteristics are provided in a standard room ledge in a single unit eliminates the need for
recently have introduced oversized twin beds in by adding a screen to separate the sleeping and tvro or three separate pieces.
place of two double beds, primarily in convention sitting portions of the space. Or a compartmental- D Lounge/desk chairs: Lounge chairs designed to
hotels, in order to provide a more residential atmo- ized bethroom is created by isolating the beth end be used at the work surface eliminate the
sphere and to allow more room for other furnish- toilet aree from the sink and dressing function. straight desk chair.
ings. Such guestroom zones are shown in the illustra- CD Mirrors: They enlarge the space visually.
The selection of a proper room mix is important tion on p. 999. Q Wall-mounted bedside tamps: These permit a
because it influences the hotel's ability to rent With the continuing increase in construction smaller night table.
100 percent of its rooms and to generate the max- end furnishing costs, it becomes more important CD Bathroom: Designs should expand the
imum revenue. For this reason, rooms with greet to find new solutions to the guestroom layout, countertop, mirror, and lighting as much as
flexibility, king-size bed plus e convertible sofa, that is, designs which combine function and com- possible and compartmentalize the tub end/or
for example, ere increasingly popular. Typical fort within realistic budgets. One basic approach toilet.
room mix percentages for different types of hotel is to use fewer individuel pieces of furniture or to
are provided in Table 3. scsle them slightly smaller so as to give the per-
ception of a larger or more luxurious room. The
designer might include the following:

TABLE 1 Hotel Guest Characteristics*
Guest characteristics Purpose for travel Guestroom design factors

Business

Group Single or double occupancy; 2-4 night stay; 75% Conventions, conferences; professional King, twin, double-double; bath with dressing
men, 25% women (rising); somewhat price associations; sales and training meetings. area; lounge seating with good work area
insensitive.

Individual Single occupancy; 1-2 night stay; 85% men, 15% Corporate business; sales; conventions, King; standard bath with shower; lounge area
women; very price insensitive. conferences. with exceptional work area.

Pleasure

Family Double-plus occupancy (Includes children); 1-4 Family vacations: sightseeing; sports, family Double-double, king sofa, or adjoining rooms;
night stay, longer in resort areas; budget or activity. lounge area and television; generous,
midprlce. compartmentalized bath; balcony, deck, outside
access.

Couples Double occupancy; 1-7 night stay; midprice to Tours, clubs, associations; sightseeing; theater, King; dining, work surface; moderate storage;
sports; weekend packages; shopping, vacation. compartmentalized bath.
upscale.
Singles Single occupancy; young professionals; midprice Tours, clubs, associations; culture, arts, theater; Queen; dining, work surface; standard bath.
to upscale. shopping.

'GuMtroom dstign muti rtftoct the n m d i of the hidg*'. Commercial hotsh, for aumple, have a high rate of tingle occupancy and, t^«r<lora. need lew rooim with two double beds For the same reasoni. they do need better designed
and Ivger work surfaces for the businesspenon and hill hotel servicet. The table klentlfies the prineipsi hotel gueit markets, their characteniucs. and thetr influence on the room design.

<Kk:dQ(a^^

f

Guestroom Design

Several details in the room arrangement and essentially the seme one pioneered by founder room have experimented with larger guestroom
furnishing do not have any "best" solution. For Kemmon Wilson's Holidey Inns and immediately speces, including more sumptuous bethrooms. In-
example, many operators insist that the tele- adopted by Howard Johnson and other compe- creesing the width of the room module to 13 or
phone should be located next to the beds, nies. 13.5 feet (4 to 4.1 meters) permiu one mejor
wherees others prefer thet it be placed at the chenge in the room leyout: two twin beds, or a
Until then, even the newest and best conven-
work area. Similarly, some prefer that the drapes queen or king-size bed cen be positioned egainst
tion hotels built in the post-World War II period
be laminated and combined in a single unit to re- the bathroom wall instead of the side wall, per.
included e variety of room sizes, including e lerge
duce the number of drapery trecks, whereas oth- mitting many other arrangements of the furnish-
percentege that were narrower than this 12-foot
ers insist on seperate sheer, blackout, and over- ings. For example, several designers hsve placed
standard. These hotels, msny of them still operet-
drape to ellow eesy cleaning and maintenance. the bed diagonally instead of against a full wall.
ing and competing with properties 30 years
Throughout the room, the designer must balance
newer, ere greetly limited by the smallness of Generelly, there is little advantage to increes-
the conflicting needs of function, safety, mainte-
their guestrooms. In the United Stetes and Can- ing the guestroom width beyond 13.5 feet. Even
nance, comfort, and budget and, at the seme time,
ada, no first class or chein-effiliated hotels (ex- this slightly larger space does not provide im-
must consider the varying requirements of the
cept for the budget Inns) are built today with proved errangements, and construction costs are
severel different markets that a single hotel tries
rooms less than 12 feet wide, unless, es in the increesed dramatically by the increased circula-
to attract.
case of renovations of older hotels, the size of e tion space and exterior well area. However, at a
few rooms is limited by unavoidable architectural room width of 16 feet or more a new set of design
constraints. alternatives arises: the bed or beds cen be posi-
In the past few years guestroom dimensions tioned against one side wall and the lounge and
have become fairly wall standardized for different work area against the opposite wall. Also, the
DIMENSIONS
quality levels within the industry (see teble greater width permits unusually luxurious bath-
The guestroom design decision which most in- below). While e few hotel operetors have tried to room arrengements, often with four or five fix-
fluences the rest of the hotel plan is the selection provide noticeably larger rooms than their direct tures, as ^ell as larger entry vestibules.
of the room's net width. This establishes the competitors, guestroom size, quelity, and room The wedge-shsped rooms cherecteristic of cir-
structural module throughout the building, includ- rate remain closely linked because of the overrid- cular towers present their own design problem in
ing the public end service areas on the lower ing influence of construction end furnishing the layout of the guest bethroom. The smeller
floors. The most common dimension is 12 feet costs. towers have a corridor frontage of only 6 to 8 feet
(3,7 meters), initially used in the mid 1950s by the The guestroom layouts on pages 1 0 0 1 - 1 0 0 2 II- (1.8 to 2.4 metera), the larger plena a more reason-
Holiday Inn chain as a standard for all their prop- lustrste the standard room design alternatives as able 10' feet (3 meters). Although many of these
erties. It was designed to eccommodate the furni- well es a number of more innovative solutions. room plans sho^ such positive features as com-
ture needed in the roadside motor inn: two double The budget cheins have slightly reduced the 12' partmentalized bathrooms (out of necessity), min-
beds against one wall and a desk/luggage rack/ X 18' (3.7 X S.5 m) motor inn room to lower con- imum foyer spsce, a large lounge aree, end expen-
TV stand against the opposite wall, with ade- struction costs, shortening it to between 14 end sive window wall, today's increasing competition
quate aisle space between. While the room hes 16 feet (4.3 to 4.9 meters), which is sufficient to in room size and upscale furnishings has made
undergone some minor changes in the last quar- eccommodate two double beds. On the other the smeller cylindrical towers virtually obsolete.
ter-century, the industry's standard room today is hand, operators who are selling a more luxurious

TABLE 4 Guestroom Dimensions

Living area' Bathroom Total guestroom
Dimensions, Dimensions, Dimensions,
feet (meters) Area feet (meters) Area feet (meters) Area

Budget I T S ' X 15' 172 5 ' x 5' 25t i r 6 - X 20'6- 236
(3.5 X 4.5) (16) (1.5 X 1.5) (2.3) (3.5 X 6.2) (21.9)
Midprice 12' X 18' 216 5' X 7'6" 37 12' X 26' 312
(3.6 X 5.5) (20.1) (1.5 X 2.3) (3.4) (3 6 X 6.6) (29)
First class 13'6' X 19' 256 56- X 8'6- 47 13'6- X 28'6' 378
(4.1 X 5.8) (23.8) (1.7 X 2.6) (4.4) (4.1 X 8.6) (35.2)
Luxury 15' X 20' 300 7'6' X 9' 71 15' X 30' 450
(4.5 X 6.1) (27.9) (2.3 X 2.7) (6.6) (4.5 . 9.1) (41.8)
'Living area doM not include the bathroom, ckiset or entry-
tBathroom of budget guestroom includes tub/shower and toilet sink it part of dressing area.

BmoKi

bathing and dressing or sleeping and Mtchmg TV) The designer needs to be alert to techniques tor separating some while combining others. except needs couples' weekend business All-suite 10 90 0 100 All rooms connect with a parlor Super-luxury 20 70 0 10 Double-double replaced with oversize twins Commercial 20 60 10 10 Limited double occupancy Resort/family 80 8 10 2 Provide room for cots Resort/couples 20 70 5 5 Convention 55 35 5 5 Trend toward replacing double<louble with oversize twin Mega-hotel 55 35 5 5 Double^Jouble provides greatest flexibility for family/group business markets Casino hotel 40 50 0 10 Depends on strength of tour markets 'GiMtnoni ma Ibr difffftit haul Ifptt: Hotel operators have established guidelines for himishing guestrooms based on the history of the types of guests who stay at a pellicular type of hotel or resoa Ttus table establishes Itie room mu obtectnes for particular types and classes of hotels. The table provides a comprehensive listing of hotel guestroom types (the more common being identified with an') and standard bed sues Guestroom Activity Zones. (1. (1.5 x 2 m) Queen-queen 2 queen beds Double-studio 1 double bed and convertible sofa Queen-studio 1 queen bed and convertible sofa 'King-studio 1 king bed and convertible sofa •Parlor 1 convertible sofa Wall bed (Sico room) 1 wall bed ^Ginstnom bedtyiies: Bedrooms come in i great vanely of arrangements.5 x 2 m) 'King 1 king bed 78 x 80 in (2 < 2 m) California king 1 king bed 72 x 80 m.35 x 2 m) Queen 1 queen bed 60 ^ 80 in. (1. generally defined by the type of beds and by the number of room bays. sometimes with several activities occurring at one time (tor example.8 x 2 m) Oversized twin 2 twin beds 45 x 80 in. m both cases increasing the tiexibility and adaptability ol the room to diltereni users The plan illustrates live guestroom zones TABLE 3 Guestroom Mix for Different Hotel Types* Percent of total guestrooms Double. (1. . Guestroom Design TABLE 2 Guestroom Bed Typest Type Size Twin 2 twin beds 39 x 80in. King- Type of hotel double King studio Parlor Comments Budget Inn 100 0 0 0 Motor Inn 60 28 10 2 Trend away from all double-double Conference center 40 40 15 5 Single occupancy. (1 x 2 m) 'Double-double 2 double beds 54 x 80 in. The hotel guestroom ac- commodates one to lour or more people.

Guestroom Desigt .

with bed splayed to reduce institutionai look H.r Guestroom Design Guestroom Plans. I. Typical double-double—tinishes plan: Vinyl wallcover- ing (VWC). large desk surlace and lounge area: lour-lixture bathroom i r r . DC): Unusual room wilh bed placed in front ol window and lounge area near bathroom. Typical double-double: Standard motor inn and hotel room: beds take up 70 percent ol living area: limited seating space C.titSMH^Bk . Luxury room (Four Seasons. paint (P). G. phone. Washington. King room—diagonal bed placement (Sheraton Plaza. Typical double-double—electrical/mechanical plan. Palm Springs): Resort layout. Montreal. Canada): Room with wider window dimension than depth including luxurious lounge group and oversized lour-lixture bath. Parlor (Holiday Inn): Convertible sola and small conlerence area and adioining typical king and double- double rooms. TV. f . Identity all electrical outlets. Los Angeles): Oversized room with shell/ledge in place ol headboard. King-studio (Holiday Inn): Standard layout with armoire unit and large lounge area including a convertible sola F. ranging Irom budget to convention and luxury types The larger rooms generally provide better lounge and work areas and oversized bathrooms A. Luxury king room (Sheraton Grande.r r r r i II ^•'^ •<•. Reversed layout (Sheraton. Budget inn double-double (Day's Inn): Small room layout with outside rather than corridor access: limited seating (AC unit used lor end table). J. ceramic tile (CT) identilied and keyed to legend. carpet (C). The room layouts illustrate a variety ol solutions to accommodating the lamily and business markets in hotels. sink and hanging clothesrod in dressing area B. HVAC units: outlets and cable connections should be planned around proposed turnishings. larger room size. D.

e smell seating/tel- evision lounge. A typical suite breakdown is shown in 'Percentage of total rooms. The more extensive of these tower club lounges may extend over sev- erel bays and contain space for the concierge/ registration aervice. severel new amenities have been edded to hotel suites. includes seating and \ dining areas. two mini-suites per 100 rooms. The largest suites may extend lor 10 or more structural bays and combine numerous bedrooms and living areas A range of suites includes: (A) The mini-suite. Table 6. Suite Plans. which meke up about 10 percent of the total guestrooms. Guestroom Design SUITES TABLE 5 Different Types of Suites One principel way that a hotel cen provide diffe. One of these is the inclusion of express checkin end concierge services on the upper floors. Wesllake.J no'^^ corporate entertaining The suites show two distinct lounge areas in addition to the conference/dining area with its own Q" r" ^^>xjua^ y o pantry.5 2- suite is defined simply as a living room connected 3 Conference suite One bay 1 2 to one or more bedrooms. from single-bay liv- ing rooms with a sleeping alcove to multiple-bey Executive suite Two bays 2 4 1 living rooms with perhaps six adjoining rooms. such as at conventions where they are the locus ol . Deluxe suite Three bays 2 5 05 including dining/conference rooms and several bedrooms. sells beverages. suites may be used to fill lerger structural bays of the typical floor. that it. ere usually poaitioned on the upper floora of the tower. and makes newspapers availa- ble. A Mini-suite One bay Alcove 1. these services occur in a single room near the elevetor lobby. while the bedroom teatures a luxurious 7 compartmentalized bathroom. Hotel suites combine separate living and sleeping areas and are generally lurnished with upgraded fabrics and casepieces. o_J k . In other hotels. one or more bedrooms generally interconnect. this service has been ex- pended so thet guests on the club floors or towers section bypass the busy lobby registration area and check in at the club floor. In some hotels. afternoon tea. Larger hotels frequently 4 Junior suite One bay 2 3 provide e hierarchy of suites. an office. but they may be stacked vertically where unusual conditions occur. containing a single bay living room plus a king bed alcove—created by adjacent stairs or elevators F^ The divider between the two rooms houses the TV and a built-in dressing table (B) The junior suite (Wesllake Plaza. with mini-suites tucked behind steirs or elevators and others located where the building form provides uniquely sheped rooms. Percent Suite type Living room Bedrooms Keys Bays rent qualities of eccommodations is to include e number of guestroom suites in the room mix. on an area rug over parquet lloors. Hotel suites. (C) Hospitality suites are intended for large groups. For example. where the staff serves light hors d'oeuvres. CA) is equal to the area ol two typical rooms. The living area. and a large lounge used for continental breakfast. and cocktails. Over the last 10 years. a conference room.

exterior entitnce.~ .. I4'. ' •MMM* .« .> .^ i ^ . a-0' s'-C Fig. 10 Motel (oomi .6' II Mocel itwmi-interior coiridoe .

Lg-WITH aAlCQNY ilHfilE if. • —». QualitY Courts Motel prototvoe. 7 Typlcil rooms.W I T H RALCONY DQUBil n-e' a-y * •>••• ^ ^' • I.xj^jtft'y* .F —ll-.e u-r DOUBLE . SINr.—.

. S (eontl (k) Chicopea Motor Inn. T L (t) 25'0- l2'-6. Chicopee. • m ^ (n) 1. X. Naw Yorii. Mauachusatts. IZ-i' -. (•) Rlverview Motor Hotel. Washington.. (I) and (m) Thomas Circle Motor Hotel.

(I) Indies Houta.co. 1 I ..Y. International Inn.' (i) Maisana Motor Inn. Bahama. . » . Florida. (g) Americana I tSVJa!. Tampa. . il room layout. Florida.) T . Paradise Island. Maisena. M.-15' > (h) (i) (|) S lB»t I (. Duck Key. (i) Americana of Puerto R. . Ftorida (hi P««'li»« '»'•»" Hotel.

Ftorida. typical tower room.*'A' (d) . Naw York. 5 (a) Uris Brothers Hotel. (b) Americana Hotel. |d) Causeway Inn. Naw York. 5 •• 0" Il'-y lg-Z' If . Tampa.Y. cal room. (c) Loews N. Motel. .

Florida.LMMBjm . I Tampa International Inn. Tampa. B.W.I. mw^r>mm^uBa^t^BLL. \4'. Jamaica. A'/Z' Fig. Fig. 9 Arawak Hotel.

SQUARE PLAN. but corridors extended to corners are excessive B. TRIANGULAR TOWER (New Otani. Pittstield. WA): Arrange- aC-TOD-TlT] ment shows ellicient plan with very compact core and well- laid-out guest bathrooms. CIRCULAR TOWER (Westin. Los Angeles. PINWHEEL PLAN (Berkshire Common. Tampa. Seattle. Can- ada): Layout exemplilies economical corridor plan but increased building perimeter D. MA): Plan illustrates simple arrangement of 16 rooms in 4 equivalent blocks: the core is extremely ellicient with scissor stair. Guestroom Floor r^ I II I ' ^ 1^ s _ _ /". CA): Design illustrates well-organized and well-configured core with good access to the ends ol the tower . Ontario. E. CROSS-SHAPED PLAN (Holiday Inn. FL): Design teatures extremely economical circulation and core: all bathrooms back to back: unusual yet easily lurnished corner rooms C. ffeaCg^ri TOWER PLANS A. H CORRIDOR (Noble Inn.

__ . llTlIlTlIlTllr. DOUBLE-LOADED PLAN (Sheraton Hartlord Harttord. DOUBLE-LOADED OFFSET SLAB (Weslin Hotel Tulsa. SINGLE-LOADED PLAN (Alameda Plaza Hotel Kansas Ciiy. Guestroom Floor SLAB CONFIGURATIONS A. JAA'.1 M 11 1 1 II 1 1 tf/Vf. niTiTLTniTiiiTiii: ] ±TL ±-^1.JAAJA.1. CT) Layout illustrates economical eievatoi core with service area betimd the public elevators C. DOUBLE-LOADED L SLAB (Boston Mainotl Hotel Copley Place Boston MA) Layout includes elevators buried at comer ol L shape creating economies similar to ottset arrangement mi. OK) The core equivalent ol three guestrooms is positioned in center ot otiset stairs accommodated by extending end rooms E. MO) Pian represents typical single-loaded design with elevators and stairs unrelated to guestroom structure B.• .fXtlfKtMlhStf . 1. DOUBLE-LOADED PLAN (Hyatt Regency Flint flint Mi) Design features elevators pulled out ot me tower stairs m bathioom zone at suite D.

area devoted to guestrooms. .' a multiple ol the room width required lor the exter shows that double-loaded slabs (and the "ottset slab" moditicalion) are the most ellicient in terms ot guestroom area percentage and that the atnum plans a providing guestroom space WM—ggMBiliWW-gJ^ . 1 > Rectangular tower 16-24 n o >^ 110 65 60 1 5-1 7 Planning problems (34 X 34) (5 6) focus on access lo cor- ner rooms lewer rooms floor make It difticun lo plan core Circular tower 16-24 90-130 67 45-65 1 05 Smaller diameter lor 16 diameter (4 2-6) rooms per floor larger (27-40) tor 24 rooms comdor area vanes tremen- dously perimeter of 16-19 ft 14 9 . and a "perimeter tactor.f Guestroom Floor Guestroom floor analysis DIMEN• CORRIDOR. TOWER SIONS. GUESTROOM SQ FT PERIMETER CONFIGURATION ROOMS/FLOOR FT(M) (SQM) X ROOM WIDTH COMMENTS Single-loaded slab Vanes 32 X any 65 80 2 2-2 4 Some economy . . .n mat 12-30 •t• length (7 5) vertical core can be ab- (10) solute minimum—not JZL attecied by room bays Double-loaded slab Vanes 60 X any 70 45 1 6-1 8 200 It (61 m) plus dead- 16-40 + length (4 2) end corridor tor two Stair (18) scheme can be turned 1 mio L or T ^ — . the amount ot area per room needed lor corridors.5 8 m) Triangular tower 24-30 Varies 64 65-85 14-18 Central core inefficient because of inanguiar shape corner rooms easier to plan than with square shape Atrium 24. . 90 + 62 95 16-18 Open volume creates (27) (8 8) spectacular space open corridor balconies opportunity for glass el- —h evators requires careful engineering tor HVAC especially smoke — • evacuation can be r 1 shaped into irregular 1 configurations Each guestroom tloor conliguration has certain characteristics which allect its potential planning elticiency The table shows the basic building dimensions. — 1 — ^ ^ p Offset slab Vanes 80 t any 72 50 1 4-1 6 Core IS buried creating 24-40 + length (4 6) lower perimeter factor (24) higher corridor because ot elevator lobby also : 1 ' ' 'L other shapes -1.

But it 3t a city that a person used to great would admire. and diversions that the gathering of great numbers of an e. and physical chartns.xciting pastime l^as well as a iseful o n e ) . n.4.' ••'" ' ? ^ .4rchitects and Engineers ears ago Atlanta was a booming city ibly proud of its cultural alertness. as follows: spring stre«t 0-room Regency Hyatt Housr Hotel laris Cocktail Lounge of the I\rgency 0-room addition to the Regtnt-y ture 70-story office apartment tower.o et tirel\ due to the addition of specific such as the new Memorial (Cultural encompassing museums and thea- r the performing arts. Portman.Atlanta is well on its way to be- 2 that kind of city—to be mentioned oeacniree street same breath as San Francisco. ay . Rome.. new m o l d s and (notably the Regency Hyatl Flouse ented in the July 1967 INTKIIIORS).4. nic expertise. consisted of both urban and sui)ur- jsidential neighborhoods delightfully d and situated on the land.. the compoii(. .1. s Light office tower 'ice tower za over Midnight Sun restaurant ichtree Center office building anta Merchandise Mart itinental TraUways Bus Terminal- 'king Garage. . Paris. uinerous com'mercial buildings in- : the -Atlanta Merchandise Mart and Hium. The change is eft e e © e . The significant new j>hcnom- in Atlanta is the emerging urban 'eachtree Center.nt5 of are in the plan at right. Montreal. anial spaces. It lacked the kind of ivhich regales both inhabitant and wilh the concentration of amenities.B: ^^ t Conti .. deieloper/buildcr and partner in the firm of Edwards and Portman.' * " " ' ?. 1 the first building in the complex id in 1 9 6 2 — i t . ee Center program weaves intimate human amenities into a major urban core John C.

Polaris Lounge (2) and new tower (3) to site plan on opposite page.Added to the guest-room-leiel plan of the Regency Hyatl Hotel is the plan of a typi- cal floor in the round tower (the circle above) which Portman is building over the ballroom to add 200 rooms to the hotel. Site plan below relates hotel (I). 1 C" lAAA^iAAA .

These buildings not only contain the necessary variety of facilities. and it swings and glitters i que opportunities for people . and freedom of movement. but are so connected—at. as our readers know. Gas Light iiiiiii office tower. below. without using their cars. should it be inclement—though light. find hotel space. and enjoy a choice of good eating facilities of many types and in many price ranges without going further than an easy stroll. the Peach- tree Center complex offers great and excit- ing spaces—interior and exterior—of which thf!_most stupendous is the huge lobb}' of the Regency Hyatt HoiJS£__Hoteh_ It is. a huge space full of luxuries. and without exposing themselves to the weather. (Anyone who has been caught in Peachtree Street traffic knows what a boon that is). view. however. (Continued from page 122) Merchandise Mart (April 1965 INTERIORS) —it was welcomed merely as a handsome and capacious business building. visit showrooms. By the time the jiiiii Peachtree Center office building. and indeed fresh air were always available. and above ground level—that the pedestrian can reach them without crossing motor traffic. and Regency Hyatt House Ho- tel began to emerge. and the imiiiri significance of the developer's grand de- sign was not yet manifest. Polaris Lounge (rear). this grand design showed its effect: It had become pos- sible for people in the central core to at- tend offices. In addition to the availability of facili- ties. congregate for relaxation. South elevation of Regency shows new guest tower.

iiii'iUKiiiinr iiiiiiiiiniiir liiiniiiimniii Ljinnnirinniii ii!]iiiiiirrn[iniiifi ^iiiiiirifirmiii viiiirrriinirni ^iiiiiifininiini iKKSBKKeeau^aas^ . and below is a plan of the Regency Hotel at Terrace Level. and on the 22nd floor. Metropolitanizing Atlanta On these two pages are photographs of the Peachtree Center complex. Indoor/outdoor pedestrian circulation is possible at street. basement. IIIIIIIISH iii""iiiiiiifii. inside and out. including the base of the new guest tower (3 elevators in the circle). terrace level.

lots_aL_up-and-down action muTti-lex*^! circulation are thematic to work of Jijlin^ P«^rtman of~Portmair"Sr . exteriors wil interiors.Metropolitanizing Atlanta Peachtree sculptures include 40-foot gas-burning candelabra by the brothers Van De Bovenkamp (near the Gas Company Tower. a kind of giant saucer lifted o concrete pillar and lidded by a steel-a Plexiglas.sBacgs. i. Occupants peer out at atrium from between the dish and its co Spacgis within . 140 by 223 feet in a —and that it feels like an atrium. i of this atrium. More importaiit are its s( —24 stories high. preceding pages) and 13-foot aluminum by Willi Gutmann that rises from the center of the tiered restaurant fountain to the plaza above. and by closed interiors below the atrium and w J n i t j ^ for example. The ^fferfjs^ accentuated bytr a fountain. parasol suspended on a a from the roof. of doors. Le Parasol cocli lounge. thanks to a large transpai bubble skylight and a clerestory rimm the top.e.. 'outdoor" cafes.

Place Bonaventure. delphia. It is Danish-inspired. 1968 INTERIORS).Atlanta Merchandise i'l.1 changing emphasis in furnishings Danish food prepared by a Danish chef. The same ably is. eventually forming a partnership with voted to permanent wholesale showrr Midniclit ("row . less Scandinavian. Early in his career.| by the Parasol and sky-high Polaris real estate as he proceeded into architec. serves superb parel M a r t ) . coherence. ""I residence provide lacunae of intimacy Portman's desire for total control of the Meantime Portman is president o ""' protection in a huge. and I ""' 24 hollow and skylit columns of his tecture. Together Portman and ""I . October 1967 and '"I'liirant). cago. as he did. '"'"'• and interrelationship of his spaces. Montreal. Its are doing such major developments a '' •• in his own home—April 1965 issue decor is fascinating. Portman is also d< ''""a. which is one reason why Portman ing urban core complexes for Dallas.if Dallas "known to our has recenllv been dtnil l«'il in -ize to '1 .. purposefulness. than those in the Midnight Sun its spaces as part of the circulation-and. realizing that tate) . ture. but his power to achieve this desire prob. Merchandise Mart. are pro. Atlanta Trade Show Corporation ''' I space which the occupant subcon.. The . clients and real estate people wield actual The condition of these enterpris ' I'rivacy without being shut in. Peachtree-Harris Corporation (real IV perceives in its entirety. and 'ix'iile form or material in architecture. environment he plans is hardly unique. he went into building and glowitjg. teer. and of Jamestown shopping c« '" "ination of safety and sweeping view. but cannot be fully S200 million San Francisco Embarca ^2 less playful. live Center. Los Angeles. the nation's second largest buildin< '"'iL'Ps of the Resencv. plex. wanted to do both the interiors and archi. design control. almost unparti. move. for understood without considering the role of essentially a megastructure (like Mont ^' 'I'le. Portman's signature lies in the facilities labyrinth of the Peachtree Com. 'I l'"rtman's work in INTERIORS reveals no latest restaurant to open at Peachtree Cen.

DOCUMENTATION .

•BonnaogEP^^ennK .

.

--^ y .V .

s ^ IV . '4-—:.'. 0^ '-' :'.v _ I i<5' . ' \ / '/ --l v/ W^' IM ^ J- . .

ti i/w I \ .\.

^^^r::::::^. .

i»>#i>Hiiiiii»iimiiiiiiiiii .

MWMIflW .

/...-1. 1 .. > A. •1 r:z-^_i .l * i 17' I.. . '>• .. I- .~=^— — • -^ y " . /.—'• ' " '>•• / • iInn.''' 1' 111 ZI^ -. / .

.

II I I I Hill IIMIlH iHIIIIIHlllllllllll /" ' / f/ r^ Oi^ J.•e^- f Or) o i A -^-""ci- .

>r'^ I.. t S •f-.J w ( r ^Z>rj\ c r «(_iv-» + ' ^ -c^ -. J f~ r M i y <' Vj^ij • '•t^t** <^_„.^ 5 \-^^ yU . .• y. • ^ . -i -1 . ^OK X w • \ .

A ^ 'CC^j^\ A-i/r-.'^ f V^ . • K W — milIIIII I -?r C -^' S" .

.

.

>.U-EY

'/'

.

^J. . • ^ ' ' .^^ LI ^ ' .C^^-h.-"-^ % 1 .

P^ 7-ri I : i I i i . ! I J ! / I i \ I i 1 1 I •• -4__i r .

0^^f dC'^'" c'- ^ T = 4 lil . ^ . 1 .

V i .

t---^ n •p / ^K .

& L*..::.~i \ K ^-Xli--v.. .-. -\ X / /- .:\^.

I .I ^ ^ ~7\.i j . '= pv- / \ VP -i^r-^-Z /' \ \. i 0 / -^ \ ^ -> r: "C -\2--<^ / t-\^'^- / ./ . a-^ —* ^ .

.

•&- r ..-^^ 4.. AJv---c.i i -iS.r ! N' .r>V.. \ \/ ^ J .:! \" x^ . .

.

v> S-=¥«^ / >\ W -1 * ^^m^\ J>^r-ilJ /r 1. — 7 I.I .

t •1 li .

''\i fa '' .l '•' -' •• '^ .-.id.

: >--" . -i. - .\Ji\ i '1 - r 4 1 1 .--""£l--fflM2E ^ ^ .' • . -• 'li^ i J i'^ ' . . i . r-. f~. '.'" ' '• r-.?/r ^ -:^ .

\ /: .7-^s / 77 .

.

•WM ^ H «»"-Ii <ziio .<•'• .

Morreale Tliesis Spring 1993 .-Samantha E.