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Active Water Loss Control
EPAL Technical Editions

Edition:EPAL, Empresa Portuguesa das Águas Livres S.A.

Authors:José Sardinha, Francisco Serranito, Andrew Donnelly, Vera Marmelo, Pedro Saraiva, Nuno
Dias, Ricardo Guimarães, Daniel Morais, Vitor Rocha
Technical Co-ordination:Francisco Serranito, Andrew Donnelly
Editorial Support Team:Pedro Inácio and Mariana Castro Henriques
Translation:Andrew Donnelly

Art Direction / Graphic design: António Carvalho
Photography (except chapter divisions): V
 era Marmelo

2nd edition january 2017

EPAL and the authors will not accept responsibility for any loss or damage suffered by any person or entity acting
or refraining from acting upon any material contained in this publication.

The mention of specific companies, certain manufactures or products does not imply that they are endorsed or
recommended by EPAL in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned in this publication.

To reference this publication: Serranito, F. S. and Donnelly, A. (eds) 2015, Active Water Loss Control. EPAL, Empresa Portuguesa das
Águas Livres S.A., Lisbon. 95pp. ISBN 978-989-8490-02-5

Preamble and Foreward
1. Introduction 9
2. Losses in Water Supply Networks 11
2.1 Context 11
2.2 The importance of policy and strategy in combating water losses 14
2.2.1 General Considerations 14
2.2.2 Historical Overview of approaches to reducing losses 15
2.2.3 Policies to adopt 16

3. Definition and Quantification of Water Losses 23
3.1 Water Balance 23
3.1.1 Principal Concepts and Definitions 23
3.1.2 Calculation Methods 25
3.2 Real Losses 27
3.2.1 Characterisation of Real Losses 27
3.2.2 Management of Real Losses 29
3.3 Apparent Losses 31
3.3.1 Characterisation of Apparent Losses 31
3.3.2 Control of Apparent Losses 32
3.4 Principal Water Loss performance indicators 32
3.4.1 Financial Indicators 36
3.4.2 Real Losses Indicators 36
3.4.3 Apparent Losses Indicators 38

4. Strategies for control and reduction of real water losses 41
4.1 General Considerations 41
4.2 Economic Level of Leakage (ELL) 43
4.2.1 Concept 43
4.2.2 ELL Calculation Constraints 44
4.2.3 Characterisation of Real Losses ELL 45
4.3 Factors to define water loss control strategy 45

3 Network Sectorisation and Monitoring 57 5.2 5.2 Client Information Management System 50 5.4.4. Monitoring and Control of Leakage 49 5.1.3 Digital Terrain Model 51 DMA Implementation and Integrity Confirmation 67 5.2.2 Step Testing 81 6.1 Geographic Information System (GIS) 49 5.2 Flow Measurement 53 5.5 Collection.4.1 5.1 Minimum Requirements 49 5.2 Leak Localisation Techniques 78 6.3 Mains Pressure Mapping 83 6. Management and Treatment of Information and Data 69 6.4 Techniques for precise leak location 84 7. Organisational changes for Active Leakage Control 93 BIBLIOGRAPHY 95 . Leak Detection and Localisation 75 6.2 DMA Dimension and Size 60 5.1 General Considerations 75 6.3 Considerations for Water Quality and DMA boundaries 62 5.1 DMA Sub-zoning 80 6.4 DMA Planning Projects 64 5.2.1 Definition of District Monitoring Areas 59 Water System Hydraulic Model 52 5. 5.4.4 District Monitoring Areas 59

3 detection 76 International Water Association (IWA) Simplified Figure 3.8 meter installation 80 Figure 3.7 metering 33 Figure 6. 19 Figure 5.2 supply system 24 Flow profile alteration due to a progressively Figure 6.10 Effect of Step Testing on DMA flow profile 82 Figure 3. Relevant aspects for flowmeter selection and Figure 5.6 other large cities 21 Integration of network monitoring with leak Figure 6.6 DMAs 60 contents TABLES Pag. reservoirs and rivers 12 Figure 5.17 Deploying a Correlator 88 Differing elements of the various types of volu.15 Geolocalisation map of Lisbon DMAs 73 Water Loss reduction evolution in the EPAL distri.5 flowmeter 56 Schematic representation of two contiguous Figure 5.20 Tracer Gas Injection Method 91 Figure 5.2 Principal factors of reducing losses 44 Figure 6. contents FIGURES Pag.4 EPAL system during the 1990s.1 Distribution of water on Earth 11 Figure 5.7 Process of DMA sub-zoning 80 Minimum night consumption and estimate of Figure 3.3 Top-Down & Bottom-Up approaches 26 Figure 6. contents FIGURES Pag.16 Use of Geophone or Ground Microphone 87 Figure 5.1 losses 34 DMA boundaries within the city of Lisbon distri.1 Essential actions in a water loss reduction strategy 41 Figure 6.2 Water supply system monitoring schematic 53 Figure 6.1 Leak Detection Strategy Definition 75 Figure 2.4 Bottom-Up approach for determining real losses 28 Figure 6.5 potentially recoverable real losses 29 DMA Sub-zoning schematic with provisional Figure 6.6 Principal factors for reducing real losses 30 Figure 6.7 distribution network 64 Table 3.14 Optimized DMA analysis and control process 72 Figure 2.5 m3 nominal Figure 6.12 Leak Noise Propagation 84 Figure 3.1 CIMS Interfaces 50 Figure 6.8 bution network 66 Table 5.3 metric and velocity meters 55 Figure 6.8 Principal factors for reducing Apparent Losses 33 Figure 6.3 niques 16 Figure 5.4 system 77 Flowchart of the various water loss factors in a Figure 3.5 bution network 20 Figure 6.13 Installation of acoustic noise loggers 85 Figure 4.14 Acoustic Patrol Loggers 86 Figure 4.5 larger leak occurance 77 Figure 3. Class C 55 Schematic representation of an electromagnetic Figure 5.9 Step Testing Schematic 81 Apparent water loss control in a DMA with 100% Figure 3.2 ground aquifers (c) in lakes.12 DMA Daily Control page 70 Chronological evolution of leak detection tech- Figure 2.1 installation 57 .19 Static Pressure Decay Test 90 Error curve characteristics of a 1. Figure 6.10 Dataloggers and Telemetry Equipament 69 (a) in polar ice caps and permafrost (b) in under- Figure 5.13 DMA Ranking 71 Evolution of Non-Revenue Water (NRW) in the Figure 5.9 from service 39 Figure 6. Figure 6.15 Use of Listening Stick 87 Figure 5.9 Illustration of a Pressure Zero Pressure 68 Change in availability of fresh water on the globe Figure 5.2 Life cycle of a leak 76 Comparison of water loss levels in Lisbon with Figure 2.11 WONE Monitoring Dashboard 70 Figure 2.18 Acoustic Correlation and correlation graph 89 Figure 5.11 Pressure Mapping Schematic 83 Graph of measurement errors of meters removed Figure 6.1 Water Balance 23 Flow profile alteration identified in a monitoring Figure 6.6 Daily Total and Minimum Nightline Flow graph 78 Figure 3. DMA boundary limit alterations in the Lisbon Key Performance Indicators related to water Figure 5.4 flow volumetric meter (DN15). Figure 2.

Also highlighted are the requirements for Geographic Information Systems (GIS). a move which has led to non-revenue water levels being amongst the lowest internationally and allowed development of new products such as WONE. the book also includes internationally recognized basic concepts. the link between all areas of a company in order to achieve a common goal. customer information systems. network hydraulic models and especially. without reservation. leak detection techniques and location. does not affect my objectivity to welcome and recommend. the commitment of top management that has defined water loss reduction as a priority corporate objective over the past few years. applicable in the best companies. essential for utilities wishing to undertake the first steps on the long journey towards efficiency and excellence. in a systematic way. which is being used successfully in other companies. active leakage control. DMAs – District Monitoring Areas as well as the minimum requirements for any water loss reduction process. This work. reflects the knowledge accumulated within the company in regard to this field. strategies and methodologies for water loss reduction and incorporates important innovations and improvements resulting from their practical application in one of the oldest and most prestigious companies in the world: EPAL. including the water balance. The fact that I had the privilege of working with the outstanding employees of EPAL a decade ago. to widely divulge EPAL’s expertise in this area should be welcomed. Essential aspects are addressed with clarity and objectivity. Preamble This book presents. the work undertaken by a great water loss control team and. the most modern and internationally recognized concepts. which is very consistent and easy to read. Joaquim Poças Martins Professor at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto General Secretary of the Portuguese National Water Council . infrastructure registers. based on state of the art information systems with data collection and processing in real time. above all. especially in Portuguese-speaking countries. this timely and excellent publication that will certainly inspire and technically support the many aspects of water loss reduction. calculation of economic level of losses. This initiative by the administration board. chaired by José Sardinha. Without partiality to present methodologies and sophisticated technologies. control of flow rates and pressures in the network.

the reduction of losses has been established as one of the most relevant factors and challenges for the years to come. EPAL. the implementation of such a strategy. transversely involving several teams and operational areas of EPAL. the water requirements for human consumption have reached critical levels in many areas. a goal that is advocated by major international organizations. Naturally. which is now one of the most efficient global capitals. with water losses of the order of 8%. due to population growth on Earth and progressive concentration in large urban areas. involving the incorporation of some of the best international practices. This situation reinforces the urgent need for all stakeholders in the sector to seek to ensure increasingly efficient management of water resources. our main goal is that this book will be useful to other utilities as well as technicians and students within the water sector. Foreward Throughout human history. As such. Given the high level of water losses in supply systems. Thus. the results of which have allowed the company to reach levels of excellence in the management of the Lisbon distribution network. This book has this intention. making water features as one of the determining factors for sustainability of life on the planet. To this end. At present. with particular emphasis on reducing levels of water losses. provides any utility with a very enriching experience at different levels. being the result of more than a decade of operations. this is seen to be part of our mission as a reference public company. José Sardinha Chairman and CEO of EPAL . shares these objectives of continuous efficiency improvement and increased operational sustainability. the constant search for operational optimization and increased levels of efficiency over the various aspects of the company's activity has been one of the main concerns of EPAL over the past few years. water is undoubtedly the deciding factor for human settlement and for sustainable development of society. the company has developed and implemented an active leakage control program. having integrated these into their mission. providing a contribution to the overall objective to reduce water losses in supply systems and thus increase levels of sustainability in terms of use of the essential resource that is water. with sharing of experience and knowledge gained with the various sector stakeholders. as the oldest and largest utility in Portugal and a reference company as regards water supply. allowing its workers to continue strengthening their knowledge and ability to overcome new challenges. In this context. thus forming one of the fundamental aspects of their operations.


. the change of mentality as regards water resource management. it is estimated that by 2050. the main concepts and approaches related to the theme of active water loss control are outlined. Active Water Loss Control 1. The intention of the book is to contribute to the dissemination of strategies and methodologies to control water losses in supply systems through a systematic approach to practices and technologies that have been properly tested and proven in the Empresa Portuguesa das Águas Livres. 9 through the use of new management methods and technologies that should be implemented by managers as well as by the various water sector stakeholders. Indeed. which is estimated to evolve from the current 7 billion to 11 billion people by the end of the century. provokes the tendency to significantly increase water stress in many areas of the globe. making fresh water an increasingly critical resource that must be preserved and managed with maximum efficiency.A. together with the increasing population concentration in large cities in coastal areas. Introduction “Water is the start of everything” Tales of Mileto The exponential growth of Earth's a key factor for the improvement of efficiency. the reduction of water losses in urban supply systems . In this context. culminating with the one factor that will undoubtedly be the most important in the whole process – namely. in differing contexts..that reach values of about 50% at a global level . implying the adoption of a more sustainable approach. including clarification of internationally applied monitoring systems and leak detection procedures. S. EPAL system and which may be used by other supply system utilities and technical sector. so this theme constitutes a crucial issue and is the subject of concern for governments and major international organizations. around half of the world's population may suffer from a lack of water. Thus throughout the text.


2% 2. combined Water from annual rainfall amounts to only 0. especially under climate change scenarios and progressive concentration of human populations in large Freshwater is essential for all life forms. Active Water Loss Control 2. particularly concentrated in coastal areas.5% of available water is fresh.49% Living things 0. distribution of freshwater by their a significant portion of this volume is concentrated at different forms and surface water.1% 69% s te r Fre S ur ter wa Lakes al 0.2% of the total freshwater availability exists as regards freshwater around the on the planet (Shiklomanov.1 Context resource. which. the fact that it has to be a major long-term sustainable is leading to growing imbalances that cause areas of 11 te r a n d ot h e r fr wa es a te r e h hw Groundwater Ground ice and permafrost wa fa c 30. 1993).7%) and in underground aquifers (30. Losses in Water Supply Networks 2.2).26% Figure 2. with water in rivers and lakes It should be noted that a large variation of resource corresponding to only about 1. Figure 2.8% Soil moisture 3% Atmosphere Swamps/marshes 2.1 presents the way in which water is distributed making a total volume of approximately 35 million m3.7% 3. with areas of profound water shortages and other resource richer areas (see Figure 2.9% lo b Other saline water Total g Surface/other fresh water Freshwater 1. Although urban areas. globe.1  Distribution of water on Earth (adapted from Shiklomanov.5% GLACIERS AND ICE CAPS Oceans 96. the polar caps and glaciers (68.1%). 1993) . only about 2. around the globe.12% of with the continued growth in population human on existing freshwater has its importance enhanced by the planet.6% Rivers 0.9% 20.6% 68. about 70% of the surface of the planet Earth is covered with water.

Compounding this scenario.2 South America 3 431 South America Australia 900 Australia 221 180 Antartica 30 109 800 b c a North America 4 300 000 Asia Europe 7 800 000 1 600 000 Africa 5 500 000 Figure 2. corresponding levels. This situation will.potentially provoking contentious disputes at all water for various purposes and uses. extracting and utilizing available . man has been interfering with become the key critical element for water resources the hydrological cycle.considering only the • Domestic/urban: 9. This process of awareness must be Greenland 12 North America 2 600 000 North America 90 000 27 003 Asia Asia Europe 60 984 Europe 30 622 2 529 18 216 Africa Africa 31 776 0. Throughout the ages. 2000) .800 million in 2025 (UN that water resources are limited and the need to protect Water. reservoirs and rivers (values in km3. the estimated number of people who suffered water shortages in the world . Active Water Loss Control high water stress. 2006. there is a fundamental awareness likely to increase to almost 1.1%. in the near future. it seems that the to the following approximate percentages in terms of phenomena associated with the effects of climate change extracted volumes: will accelerate and accentuate this situation even further.200 million.2  Change in availability of fresh water on South America Australia the globe (a) in polar ice caps and permafrost (b) in 3 000 000 1 200 000 underground aquifers (c) in lakes. situations of high water stress – were of the order of 1. whilst it is estimated that this number is In the current context. • Agriculture: 70. This idea is further reinforced if one considers that in • Industry: 20%.9%. 2007) and preserve them.

since they account for about 90% of consumption. improved degradation of infrastructure. and competitiveness should be focused on agriculture and industry. In Portugal. whilst in many cases. The size and importance of water loss at the global level Thus. These losses. commonly referred to as management methods or changing behaviour. these actions supply systems a crucial factor to achieve this and which may follow urban space redevelopment projects and involves the adoption of an active and responsible social inclusion in an overall action plan. that. often reflecting urban structure (or lack thereof ) consequences. as well as situations of water usage order of 50%. on average. as global water losses reach values of the and local customs. treatment and transport of water over long distances. implementation of integrated strategies for demand management and water conservation. water losses in supply to seek increased levels of efficiency of resource systems are best known as the result of poor quality or utilization. however. the extraction. can be reduced through control In this dominion. water loss reduction. usually associated with the term "economic" The urban sector. it is essential In terms of common sense. 2001). attitude in order to ensure proper management and sustainability of this increasingly scarce and essential In this area it is important that utilities promote the natural resource. it is evident that the environmental and economic issue of resource scarcity is still placed only in certain importance of water losses in water supply systems is a areas of the planet. with its attendant economic practices relating to the management and use of water. with reducing losses in water equally important. another aspect. component due to greater water resources use efficiency. as well as the development of specific rules aimed at also corresponds to a direct reduction in energy and promoting improvements in processes and management . usually more relevant globally. 2012) and register a inadequate metering policies or an asset management great diversity in performance between different entities policy that does not sufficiently consider the losses from with volumes of non-revenue water ranging between 8% under-metering. though the vision of a community or a and combatting of water leaks and appropriate strategies country. Active Water Loss Control accompanied by concrete steps that lead to changes in reagents consumption. From the above it is very clear that. especially in the case of large cities. utilities have water losses rates without metering or tampering with metering systems. a significant portion of the operating cost environmental awareness or through provision of associated with water supply system management results innovative services or products and to help communities from the consumption of electrical energy required for adopt more effective behavioural patterns. from a perspective of integrated water resources management. beyond the environmental has justified many studies of good practices in this area. This component of water losses. Indeed. which accounts for only 10% of or "apparent" losses. such 13 improvement given the very considerable economic as theft. particularly through the development of strategies for efficient use of water (Almeida et al. increasingly significant dimension and with a central role in the focus of water supply utilities. reach 40% (ERSAR. whether through Currently. the issue of quality is discussed as a problem on a global scale and which is becoming of an whole (Marques. it is evident that promoting increased efficiency for renewal of network programs. must find opportunities for situations of losses from unauthorized use of water. the Thus. benefits. 1999). There is. whether through new technology. and 80%. "real" losses. which contributes to water loss.. This component arises from global water consumption. which can be reduced by promoting the It is therefore important to find ways to improve adoption of appropriate socio-economic policies are efficiency in water use.

the final chapter comprises a case sustainability. The level of economic development of the of leaks. and even the cultural population habits can dictate the choices of policy interventions. the utility responsible for supplying water to and fund managers to define and implement strategies the city of Lisbon. To In this context. Influences • Improvements in metering and billing . 2014).since leaks results in the medium term. water changes (McKenzie and Hamilton. reflected in the need for greater efficiency study on the experience of controlling water losses at of water supply fact. It is however. advancement. environmental awareness. The attitude of governments. national and local agencies. a utility should preferentially promote public and . which in • More efficient management with benefits in terms turn. The main reasons justifying the approach of a water loss reduction strategy are: Institutional policies are mainly focused on the perception and attitude toward water losses. their control. a consumer awareness to the reality of water resource process that requires awareness and involvement of all scarcity.2   The importance of policy and consumer incentives in order to implement strategies strategy in combating water losses to control and combat water losses. municipal authorities and the community • Reduction of environmental stress. that enable them to improve the performance of their systems. are pressing governments EPAL. influences the investment and human resources for of operating and capital cost reduction. operation and repair reduction. which will create the potential to obtain economic gains and greater eco- 2. The challenges dictated by the new water saving policies and the perception of more demanding 2. from industry professionals to the final coverage of this issue. as the mode of operation of water supply systems. to establish the best cost-benefit ratio. the level of corporate utility management certain control strategy losses. in turn leading to overall service improvement. as well as supporting the increasing media stakeholders.since of a political nature can also be very relevant . have contributed to encourage a It is for this purpose that the following chapters new way of intervention aimed at reducing water losses are intended to contribute to the discussion and in all areas of the globe. Thus. aimed at increasing efficiency. being necessary to motivate behavioural issues that have been experienced in recent times. Active Water Loss Control systems. government policy determines the starting point or leverage to implement priorities. 14 The approach to the problem of water loss depends on These strategies to reduce losses should consider several factors that influence implementation of the most special articulation between the need to undertake appropriate and effective strategies for their control and investment and operating costs.1 General Considerations efficiency. environmental and economic complete the study. sector regulation and even creation of plans to support developing countries. a a lower occurrence of breakage and optimum community shown a service such as the expansion of a performance level can have positive results in the new water source or the construction of a new treatment value of apparent leaks.2. can cause voids in the subsoil and consequent collapse of roads and buildings. comprising of a set of concepts and good practices inherent in the theme of water loss control. SA. which tends to produce • Reduction of structural damage . service is likely to create "greater visibility" than the beginning of a leakage policy. Changes in position around water consumer. strongly affect not only the organization itself. which country.

originally a wooden stick was used. systems with low pressure or intermittent operation. extracted and thus raise the available water resource environment may be the only viable alternative to ensure From the 1930s. The first pressure . were undertaken for the purpose of quantifying consumption in different sub. From the 1980s. involving the implementation defined areas of distribution networks in which the input of water loss reduction programs in conjunction with rate was measured by a flow meter installed temporarily. the marking or pin-pointing of the leak. • Improved client satisfaction through improved commonly nicknamed "listening".2. which includes the effective identification of the In extreme cases. Indeed. in addition to strategy to control losses.2 Historical Overview of approaches to and resulted in a progressive reduction of the size of reducing losses monitored sub-zone by closing valve and continuous metering. or abstraction distinct phases: the macro-location or leak localising. public and consumer awareness could be conducted. the first activities of acoustic surveys. the first studies concentrated on continuity of supply. Active Water Loss Control • Load reduction in sewers . Dating from the proximity of sewage and other operator to listen to the sound of a possible water leak. looked for evidence service and ensuring water quality and sufficient of leaks in buried pipelines or extensions. 15 or desalination solutions that usually involve high which focuses on the identification and prioritization of investment and therefore costs much higher than those intervention areas at a zonal the lost water into a logic of efficiency. whilst finally. which once placed on the • Reduction of risks to health and greater security main or any other element of the network. The turning point occurred will avoid or delay the need for new water sources. leak. especially in used at the time. the pin-pointing was performed only in The concept of water losses control arose from delineated areas with higher flow rates. It pollutants is real and infiltration of these pollutants was a method with reduced operating costs and showed into the water supply for human consumption an acceptable success rate in metal pipes. since the leaks. micro-location or leak inherent in the implementation of a strategic plan to locating at the level of the area surrounding a potential combat losses. to the increase in water availability which considered indiscriminately. can result in disease. reducing the volume of water exact leak location. wastewater plants. allowing the implementation of a proactive the supply system. the material through bursts. valving operations and particularly. came the first generating a loss of water supply also implied a acoustic loggers which replaced night leak detection service suspension affecting the population supplied. In the 1990s. the cutting of The logic of effectiveness progressively developed supply to clients. the widespread process of creating District Metered associated with the guarantee of improved efficiency Areas began. despite consequently increases the load on treatment generating costs. A major limitation of this type of activity was not looking The success of a strategy for reducing losses corresponds. since the entire network was in practice. same principles that are applied today. demand management techniques along with water Within these zones sequential valve closing operations conservation. The sequential closures typically occurred overnight 2. the construction of the first water supply systems. work. motivated by the water usually seeps into the drainage system and losses which were not generating revenue. for leaks targeted manner. . new wells. such when leakage activities were separated into two as the construction of dams.since leaks and bursts can result in method developed in this context was based on the decreased pressure. Thus. allowed the of supply .

particularly in household (geophones) that were placed on the ground or the pipe service connections or non-metallic mains of small network. The reports Managing Water Losses.gave way to microphones difficult detection situations.2.3  Chronological evolution of leak detection techniques . portable The recognition by countries. government agencies and quicker in locating leaks. where the application of acoustic techniques detection and leak location. has provided United Kingdom Water Industry Research (UKWIR) in 1850s 1880s 1920s 1930s 1980s 1990s 1965 1978 2001 2002 2003 2005 tic logger & tester DMAs ing radar elator ones n eters ctio d or Manual sounding s Combined acous Adavnced groun Ground microph gorund penatrat Acoustic logger Leak noise corr Tracer Gas Inje Helical Vane m Digital correlat Electronic step g) Deacon meter (waste meeterin microphones Step testing correlator Figure 2. the first acoustic have revealed rates lower success. Active Water Loss Control As regards leak micro-location.3 outlines the chronological evolution of leak These devices. autonomously perform a complex mathematical calculation to determine their exact location. with the result made available quickly and simply for interpretation by the 2. while also using the acoustic leak detection detection techniques. Figure 2. obtaining improved results in leak detection compared to the use of listening sticks. a) International which developed by use a trace inert. both from a technical standpoint or a legal framework.and their imitation metal rods . An innovative technique currently available is detecting and locating leaks by a non-acoustic method.3 Policies to adopt operator. topic being examined in different forums. published by 16 although more costly and time consuming. with use in exceptionally . method. correlation equipment emerged. acoustic correlators evolved considerably. becoming even more user-friendly. as to the importance of with noise elimination were introduced. In 2002 the first digital correlators and management companies. by the 1960s. This technique. Until the late 1990s. wooden sticks extremely reliable results. making it even more implementing policies to control losses has led to the reliable with a wider field of application technology. and which amplified noise. thus facilitating diameter. In the 1970s. harmless gas specifically injected into the water main.

including national and water use and resolution of the Council of Ministers No. The association has over 10. Management publication to be made by the Commission. being organized adapt to climate change in a world where resources are into six research teams which have focused their increasingly scarce. effort" for this purpose. Water21. corporate magazine. aims to observe addressed to assess the environmental and economic all stages of the water cycle. Active Water Loss Control 1994. published in 2012 the ability of managing utilities to measure and evaluate by the Commission European. more In June 2003. The Commission will work with the some 130 countries and is annually hosts hundreds of European water industry to accelerate the development conferences and specialized seminars on various aspects and dissemination of best practices with regard to 17 of water management. Developing Performance States and the water sector. to combat the problem of 113/2005. performance indicators and the main forms of networks. founded The Commission states that "these issues should be in 1999 as a non-profit organization. consisting of a Water Loss Specialist Group). The situation is network of water professionals through research and very different between member states. results Conference also promoted the development of a water in the consequent development of a large number of policies strategy for the European Union . to preserve water resources in Europe. Following the work of the In order to facilitate implementation of the proposed Water Loss Task Force (currently developed into the measures. Member and Control of Pressure." activities on various topics related to the practical approach to reducing water losses: Active leakage The proposed action consists in a matrix defined in the control zones. economically sustainable levels of leakage (SELL - Sustainable Economic Level of Leakage) and. international agencies. The International Water Association (IWA). management companies and their employees. an important ministerial . a change in attitude on the part of the water production and supply industry. best measurement and reduction of losses in distribution practices. serving an international benefits of reducing their levels of losses. where between development of "best practices" for managing water them. participants at the 3rd EU Water emphasis currently observed as regards this issue. financial support instruments. the definition a strategic vision for the future formed by a group of experts in the operation and of water supply infrastructure in order to help the sector maintenance of water supply systems."Blueprint to research activities. which was published in the official Portuguese water losses and above all. In fact. important groundwork. were created. included presentation of consistent and systematic Studies published in this area have established methodologies that allowed the understanding. IWA started publishing Structural Fund and the Cohesion Fund and loans from a series of articles on the results of experiments and the European Investment Bank (EIB) between 2014 and guidelines for "good management practices" in their 2021. to reduce future demand government record "has been [. This is a matrix designed the performance levels of their water supply networks. aimed mainly at the problem of leakage in water distribution networks. Control and Monitoring. the rates of water losses vary between 7% and sustainably. Evaluation of Real tools to achieve a sustainable economic level of leakage. Losses and Apparent losses. These reports have been the starting point for action to combat water losses are defined and applied.] to develop a planning for water. whilst a major concern is primarily on safeguard Europe's water resources". These are aimed at all kinds of governmental groups within the water b) In Portugal sector.. progressively guiding the course Given the increasing awareness of water resource of action towards management of systems losses. the IWA Water Loss Task Force was generally.000 members in 50% or even more. The conservation. covering best practices and Indicators for comparing systems. from which guidelines. individuals or partners and community representatives From the perspective of evaluating the efficiency of at all levels of government.

economic and ethical reasons it has become imperative In Portugal. water and energy consumption and associated reagents. 18 stakeholders and sectors or groups of users are assigned along with a set of proposed measures that allow better Water losses are occupying a central role in the use of this resource and additionally reducing waste concerns of managing utilities in Portugal. although different in every sector of use: 25% use of this resource programs. public or private. losses should be systematically reduced with the introduction of new policies for demand management in 2009 under PNUEA. beyond a generational boundary. Goal setting for PNUEA in water supply systems are typically associated with defined an indicator that reflects water use efficiency excessive consumption of water and that often results in any of the sectors considered. Active Water Loss Control and interdepartmental effort was developed to establish quality of life of the population. This program. directly. 35% in European directives. information entities. is based on four program areas. as well as the guidelines of a National Program for the Efficient Use of socio-economic development. Many companies still take waste associated with water distribution systems was still encouragement and awareness of clients to an efficient very high. it was identified that the water and water conservation. so that Portugal can have the water it needs sustainable development. coordinated by the National • Minimize the risk of failure due to the lack of Laboratory Civil Engineering. the goals set by PNUEA 2020 relating The National Plan for Water Efficiency. This inefficiency in water use is especially onerous of water resources. even before greater emphasis was given to to create a set of national objectives to: the problem of losses motivated by the establishment of PNUEA. regards this theme which was motivated by the fact that without jeopardizing the essential needs and demand exceeded supply capacity that the company had. In practical terms. 38% in agricultural use and 23% in industrial must be part of the global strategy for the conservation use. EPAL has demonstrated a significant concern as • Improve the efficiency of water use in Portugal. losses through combating leaks and renewing networks. responsible for operating water and education. during periods of water scarcity. it is known that at the regional scale as a function of the ratio between a significant number of economic or apparent losses needs and availability of water. been subject to successive updates in line with relevant point to values of 20% losses in urban areas. but enhanced aims to consolidate and effectively implement various during periods of drought. training supply infrastructure and end-users. In this sense. Establishment of these priorities have been revalued Beyond combating the actual losses. aims to contribute to a new approach to water issues in Portugal. each comprising of a set of actions. Responsibilities for different urban collective units. with the planned initiative becoming the National Water Plan. these programs in urban use. transparently from local customs combined with a low or inadequate and effectively allowing comparison between goals and tariff policy measurement. there is more emphasis on the necessity of reducing thus contributing to a lower environmental impact. households and and technical support. agriculture and 15% in medium industrial environment. it was guided by policies aimed increasingly values this resource. which water under normal situations. under a framework of sustainable • Develop a new water culture in Portugal that development. rational and effective use of water to human and economic development and resources and the preservation of its good ecological environmental preservation and a perspective of quality. These actions include The recipients of these goals are the management metering and re-use of water. which has to water losses associated with distribution systems. plans. . This portion of apparent results. agricultural and industrial units. contributing at the efficient. regulation and standardization. For environmental. Together. Water (PNUEA). Indeed. awareness.

Active Water Loss Control In the mid-1990s. the company has proceeded revenue water in the Lisbon distribution network that in to undertake systematic campaigns of acoustic leak 2002 represented 25% of water entering the network. system. resources. with greater levels of losses in the Lisbon (DMAs) and their continuous management. optimization and economy. including the development and implementation of an active water loss control Throughout the 1990s the overall values of Non. progressively based on more consistent and sustainable decision support • Continuous improvement based on experience methodologies for defining intervention priorities. when losses in its supply system Such measures have. sustainability. detection in temporary study areas in the network. of which approximately 38 million objectives for the reduction of Non-Revenue Water in cubic meters were lost in the distribution network (see the Lisbon distribution network to sustainable values. Figure 2. until 2010. At the turn of the century. distribution network. based on six key control and reduction of water losses. strengthening the approach based on distribution Revenue Water (NRW) in EPAL were relatively constant. • intensification of renovation and rehabilitation of the • Optimization of Active Control Leak procedures.4  Evolution of Non-Revenue Water (NRW) in the EPAL system during the 1990s . implied additional measures. in the early 2000s to reinforce innovation. Figure 2. and results. focusing on critical vectors of action: aspects: • Sectoring and continuous monitoring of the • promoting improved quality of information registered network.4). which led to initiatives Given the scenario described above. experience. setting the goal. of attaining levels of water losses of less than 15%. given the annual volume of non- were in the order of 25%. during 2005 the company established million cubic meters. network sectorization into District Monitoring Areas significantly. EPAL decided to undertake an effective strategy for efficiency. Lisbon distribution network. in the GIS (Geographic Information System) and 19 compatibility of information with the Customer • Development of analytical systems using internal Management System (AQUAMATRIX®). there was an overall annual NRW volume of approximately 50 In this context.

reduce energy consumption and Project development required a total investment of 2 reagents. It was also possible to review transforming the business into a cleaner performer investment strategies. advantages complexity of the distribution systems. distribution network hydraulic model and treatment reagent consumption. allowed a benefits in terms of the substantial reduction in water cumulative NRW reduction in the Lisbon losses in the network of Lisbon. • Focus on essential and effective cost control. By allowing reduced extraction rates to be obtained. including clients. between 2005 and 2013. implement a number of improvements to the EPANET based hydraulic network model. computer application. based on cumulative data million euros.5  Water Loss reduction evolution in the EPAL distribution network . avoiding. a specific computer application was developed to support active water loss control. Active Water Loss Control • Process of simple and effective analysis due to the In addition to the above mentioned aspects. as well as the development of the WONE resulted in reduction of annual emissions of CO2.000 t CO2 emissions. installation of flow meters and telemetry equipment. at different levels: In addition. including monitoring point construction. there was a dramatic restructuring of leak detection procedures and decrease in energy consumption required for equipment as well as organization and training of network the production of distribution network water analysis teams. 21.Water Efficiency for Network Optimization which is also used to support other water utilities. regulator and shareholders. namely • environmental WONE . as shown in Figure 2.5. As previously stated. created in efficiency levels by reducing water losses involve positive outcomes for all stakeholders involved. • economic and financial 20 This small investment generated significant economic Implementation of the project. company. which also development. repair response procedures and with a smaller carbon footprint. distribution network with around 98 million Millions of m3 Figure 2.

Economic. of 57 million kWh of made possible by the increased efficiency energy consumption and 5. Additionally. which are considered ten times by the global crisis.6  Comparison of water loss levels in 0% various major cities (source: Swan . an reduction in water loss volumes in the city of increased knowledge of the distribution network. Lisbon water distribution network in the last consumption habits of clients and an increase in decade. Given the reagents required to produce drinking water. resulting from data several major cities around the world facing the analysis with the aim of verifying the real need for same challenge. In parallel. These values correspond to a global reduction financial and environmental gains have been of. promoted the company to a restricted client service quality. were secured by reducing strategic investments Figure 2.Smart Water Network Forum. 21 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% Figure 2.6 outlines the levels of water losses in made by the company. considering the sale price of water. The large more expensive than planned interventions. to increase net profit and added value to the client. including tariff moderation. in the same period. other financial gains during 2013 it was possible to create a social tariff were achieved and although not quantifiable. Active Water Loss Control cubic meters of water no longer entering the • social distribution system between 2005 and 2013. a volume corresponding to a valuation of around 48 Increased efficiency has allowed the company million euros. In increased financial sustainability of the company. addition to these indicators. financial gains group of the most effective cities in the world. that benefited a significant number of families these include a reduced number of unscheduled in Lisbon with financial difficulties exacerbated repair operations. asset investment. 2011) .7 million t of chemical and effectiveness of the company.


• System Input Volume (SIV) . This volume represents the amount of water amount of water entering the system that can be that is introduced into the system and which.annual volume of water entering the distribution system. the overall Water balance. comes a set of definitions leaks present on client service connections. the tool which has come to constitute the basis water. mains and Exported) Losses service connections up to point of (leakage) customer metering Figure 3. being separated into distribution systems. fails to be delivered or charged to the consumer. It may be further considered that the amount of loss depends on the specifics of each system.1  Water Balance of the components related to system inputs and water losses in water supply systems.1  International Water Association (IWA) Simplified Water Balance . assists with the characterization of the actually lost.the Water balance. the supplier itself or by those who are series of investigations and initiatives on the subject. in particular the The significance of each principal of water balance infrastructure condition. In implicitly or explicitly authorized to consume 2000. with a variable volume of water components.annual volume of water comparison between the performances of different metered or unmetered but actually consumed 23 operators. Definition and Quantification of Water Losses 3.1. Active Water Loss Control 3. The occurrence of water losses is inherent in all This method of calculation. such as social commitments and legitimate for almost all analysis that takes place regarding water use by the fire service. thus calculating and quantifying losses may be just as important as the challenge of reducing it.1 Principal Concepts and Definitions outlined in the respective water balance table. Faced with the need to assess water loss volumes and its components and thus enable an international • Authorized Consumption . for various individually measured or estimated in order to complete reasons. the IWA Water Loss Task Force undertook a by clients. operational and maintenance components is as follows: regimes. In addition. which are articulated and 3. SIV 1 Potable SIV Water Billed Potable Water Exported (metered + unmetered) 2 Imported Authorised Consumption Potable Water Billed Authorised Consumption (metered + unmetered) Imported Potable and Input Unbilled Authorised Consumption Potable Water Input from Utility Unauthorised Consumption Water from Utility Treatment Apparent Supplied Treatment Works Non-Revenue Losses Customer Metering Errors (excluding Works Water Water Potable Water Losses Real From service reservoir. as shown in the figure below. the volume of losses was introduced . Added to water that is exported is also included and existing the concept of water balance.

with the volume of authorized consumption at between the volume of water introduced into one or more points in the same system. bursts and leaks in pipelines. or. NRW includes all the system and the authorized consumption that losses. number of defective meters and using estimates of per capita % Non-Revenue Water = (Unbilled Volume / consumption used to calculate the volume. real and perceived. NRW is the water loss plus the segment that translates into unbilled authorized consumption. having come to form the volume produced or transferred in from one point of the basis for national and international comparison of utility Production losses Losses on transmission Losses on distribution Exported water mains mains EXTRACTED WATER TREATED WATER REVENUE WATER Imported water Operational & illegal use Apparent losses Figure 3. graphically in Figure 3.2  Flowchart of the various water loss factors in a supply system . System Input) x 100 • Real Losses – volume that is lost annually through The various factors of water losses are illustrated all types of leaks. as often happens. The water balance and the definitions of its components are the most common solution for calculation and The estimated loss is obtained by comparing the evaluation of water losses. reservoirs and service connections to the point of 24 the client meter. Thus. The NRW calculation may be presented by the difference system. is actually billed. Active Water Loss Control • Non-Revenue Water (NRW) .2. in percentages: consumption and can be estimated by checking the number of illegal connections. Non-Revenue Water (NRW) = Water Losses + Authorised Unbilled Consumption • Water losses – the difference between the volume of water introduced into the system and Water Losses = authorized consumption. representing both real Real Losses + Apparent Losses and apparent losses. as • Apparent Losses – corresponds to theft and illicit indicated above.

so the unbilled water undertaken on paper or as a desktop exercise. However. in is often expressed as the percentage of the volume of which no field work but a number of estimates system input volume. which entails the unbilled consumption. Despite being the far more common and more easily For recovery of the loss components. whose objective is losses that assesses the need for intervention over 25 to allow benchmarking between utilities. To this end. as well 3. The following approaches to has on the final result. of prior to determining performance indicators. means it is possible to possible. Overall. Active Water Loss Control performance. the whole network. the correct have a greater or lesser extent and that will be considered calculation of water volumes which are not charged and in proportion to the relative volume of unbilled water secondly. were calculated by the Top-Down approach and is based on the analysis of Minimum Night The methods used for determining the estimated Flow obtained from data with high value of components should be defined. metered or unmetered.2 Calculation Methods as billed and unbilled authorized consumption and apparent losses due to illegal connections IWA recommends calculating water balance volumes and potential measurement errors. recorded and subject to certainty. then every effort should be made to evaluate calculate the volume of real losses from night as accurately as possible. losses. each component volume and flow values (OFWAT 2001). determining losses are accepted consensually: However.1. billing systems. leading gradual determination of the current levels of to the determination of volumes of real and apparent the various potential losses. and actual losses. complementary approaches NRW is not without some controversy. usually being for comparison in performance. The water balance should be based preferably on the • Bottom-Up Approach. This calculation is based on the volume of water introduced The analysis evolves. In this approach. quantification of authorized billed and separated into smaller areas. are made. namely the perceived indicator. The basis for calculation is annual (12 full months). minus values obtained by client discrepancies. firstly. which starts the process unbilled volumes amounts does not establish any basis with all available information. the system input volumes through metering are analysed. losses are calculated from metering of the various minimizing any time between meter reading and billing system inputs. direct confrontation between the • Top-Down Approach. are liable to error and uncertainties that may monitoring of flows in order to permit. many other indicators have been established This approach begins with a macro-analysis of with different levels of sophistication. so the whole system is into the system. applied in cases actual measurement of flow rates and volumes. given the direct should be used for calculation and results obtained can influence that the volume of water entering the system be considered as credible. given that the size and constraints of utilities are very diverse. This approach serves consumption and estimate realistically each of the water as a counterpoint to the value of real losses that balance component. calculated or of water supply systems should include continuous estimated. These volumes. of sectorised systems and equipped with whenever a reliable duly verified measurement is not continuous monitoring. the use of percentages to quantify real and apparent losses. this approach requires . identification of potential water loss. However. Correct and applicable management continuous improvement.

3  Top-Down & Bottom-Up approaches . balance and ultimately. optimizing the process of sectoring and Convergence of the values obtained by these two subsequent estimation of combined flows for each of the approaches gives credibility to the results of the water analysed functions or network zone. a key role in creating a better understanding of network behaviour. Active Water Loss Control thorough knowledge of the network and a more To adopt this approach.3 (DMA). The construction of a hydraulic model also has schematically. being analysed through permanently sectored District Meter Areas illustrates the two approaches mentioned Figure 3. System input TOP volume - DOWN Billed 26 Approach consuption = Non-revenue water Apparent losses Real losses = Authorised BOTTOM consumption - Minimum night flow UPApproach Figure 3. assists in identifying any uncertainties encountered more accurately. accordance with its normal operation. the network should be sophisticated level of management in terms of progressive and properly structured and equipped in network control.

operation of the company policy and practices. depending on where the water leak leakage strongly influenced by system infrastructure occurs. are: • Leaks on client service connections up to the meter. with the extent of water loss caused by the water balance. age and attention to the original of leakage corresponds in general terms to physical loss settlement of pipelines. namely: characteristics and its surroundings.1 Characterisation of Real Losses the duration leak existence. whilst recording the process for • State of hydraulic transients protection auditing purposes. time.2  Real Losses • Unreported leak losses – characterized by average flow rates and volumes dependent on 3. namely: • Materials used for repairs. • Geotechnical conditions and instability of the soil. hydrants and air vents. of water in each component of the water balance. leaks. In this context it should be considered that the concept • Material. . • Surface or "trop-plein" discharges. so that. Active Water Loss Control 3. which • Pressure at which the system is operated and in the second case can exist for an undefined period of pressure fluctuations throughout the day. short duration. long lasting and thus with large volume losses. management and • Leaks in water supply and distribution mains. and potentially able to be identified by active leakage control . such as valves. depending on the circumstances of each site and supplier. There are also other water loss definitions. • Number and quality of service connections or 27 Leaks occur in all supply systems varying greatly in size extensions. which correspond to moderate loss volume. Leaks can be visible or invisible. Real losses represent the volume of water lost in the network and infrastructure of a utility. as well as leak detection and repair strategy. associated with different types of leakage that can occur. distribution pipelines. and severity. • Burst losses – characterized by high flow. in most cases. equipment. • Condition of the main transmission and normally underground. • Background losses – occur through small • State of foundations and walls of the reservoirs. The most important causes for infrastructure leakage occurrence • Leaks in the structure of the reservoir and overflow. which are • Protection against corrosion. tests and trials must be undertaken to quantify losses with any precision. • Road traffic or other vehicles loadings. undetectable using available detection equipment and characterized by low flow rates. Even the simple detection of a leak • Number and condition of network accessories cannot quantify the amount lost. often visible and associated damage. These losses Leakage ranking results from experience of observing are further divided into different subcategories within their causes. which can be prolonged if efforts to detect them are not undertaken.2.

where it is known that high pressures: In the case of Bottom-Up approach. in this approach. Authorised consumption In the case of top-down approach. it is assumed that: Minimum Recoverable real losses nightline Volume of Real Losses = System Input Real Losses Volume . the relevance of each is overestimating the problem of system leakage. a portion of the value associated with apparent losses remains in. system. the volume of real losses is estimated based on the observation of night flow values • Are associated with a higher rate of damage and to the areas in question. calculate the Night-Day Factor. assessing the volume of leakage through a combina- management of which strongly influences losses in the tion of other methods is recommended. analysis of night flows through the Bottom-Up analysis of water balance components and a combination these approaches. A proper estimate of actual losses in a network can be achieved by applying four different methods: Top- Down Analysis of the Water balance. and 4am and then extrapolated to 24 hours of operation. variations in pressure there is a greater tendency for fatigue in pipes and accessories. relating in particular to metering los- ses or theft.4 illustrates this approach. re. Figure 3. Figure 3. especially designed for plastics. The IWA has published the result of a series of studies to • Increase the likelihood of hydraulic transients. monitoring systems. applicable • Imply a greater amount of water consumed either to sectorised networks equipped with continuous by bursts or by the client. typically observed between 2am breakage in pipes and fittings. which corresponds to the Hydraulic transients can cause bursts in pipelines. Active Water Loss Control Of all the factors noted.4  Bottom-Up approach for determining real variably added to the value attributed to the real losses. defined particularly in the start and stop events of by the type of client.(Authorized Consumption Volume Unavoidable real losses + Apparent Losses Volume) This approach is dependent on knowledge of variables that are not easily measured or estimated. losses . as is the case of apparent losses. estimate standard authorized night consumption. in the network (usually during the night which is the best estimate of losses) and the minimum pressure recorded In systems subject to significant and recurring during peak periods. it is essential to pumping groups and of isolating valve operations. greater efficiency in acoustic leak 28 detection is achieved with higher pressure values due to the increased noise level caused by the escape of water that propagates through the pipeline network and accessories. In this approach. ratio between the maximum pressure variation present shifting stabilising blocks or damaging joints. Therefo- enhanced by the influence of operating pressures. Furthermore. For this reason.

2014).3530 . Diários ZMC . enabling • active leakage control. Gráfico do Total e Min. Active Water Loss Control Volume of Real Losses = (Minimum Night amount of water lost through real losses and the cost of consumption .5. either for The IWA Water Loss Task Force identified four basic the whole system or DMAs. with the aim being to achieve a level of real of the most effective ways to combat water loss. An important advantage of this type of analysis is the possibility to calculate the volume of real losses. • speed and quality of repairs. widely dealt losses with the lowest cost combination between the with in several studies. with the correct Real losses can be minimized but not completely management of pressure in water supply systems being one eliminated.2 Management of Real Losses Water supply system pressures unequivocally influence the occurrence of bursts and leaks. automatic implementation of this approach as illustrated in Figure 3. For this purpose. referring to one of the DMAs in the Gráfico Lisbon do Total eThe following figure highlights the four main areas Min. (Trow and Tooms.2. This is the concept of Economic Level of Losses . enabling the utility to ranking factors of real losses management: and align areas according to intervention priorities. application.Chelas ISEL 1450 16 29 1400 14 1350 12 1300 10 1250 Potentially recoverable 8 real losses 1200 6 1150 4 Authorised consumption 1100 + Unavoidable real losses 2 1050 0 Daily input volume (m3) Minimum night flow (m3/h) Target night flow (m3/h) Figure 3. by the water balance and determining the relationship between network pressure and the level of losses.Authorized Consumption) X leak detection and control activities with the objective to Night Day Factor minimize the sum of both.ELL. This type of calculation provides a check of the values obtained • pressure management. . specifically for treating DMA monitoring data and network management support. focused on reducing real losses. EPAL has developed the WONE • management of network assets.5  Minimum night consumption and estimate of potentially recoverable real losses 3. Diários distribution network.

6  Principal factors for reducing real losses (IWA Water Loss Task Force) 30 The speed and quality of repairs carried out on the leaks In the short-term. efficient management of factor focuses on active leakage control . To achieve results in by a utility helps to ensure a balance between performance. ensuring that it is maintained at controlled levels. continuous monitoring of the network and the existence of a team dedicated to monitoring system analysis and leakage control was instrumental in the systematic reduction of NRW at EPAL in recent years. The last towards pressure management. . action should be promoted replacement or renewal effective and sustainable. for which control Active Control Leak is the focus of this document and is possible through the action of specialized teams and began at EPAL in a continuous and objective way in 2005 continuous monitoring of the supply system. losses in the network. proactive strategy towards the reduction of water losses through the detection of hidden leaks. Sectorisation Active Control Leak is the focus of this document and began at EPAL in a continuous and objective way in 2005 with the implementation of the first DMAs. thus effectively reducing cost and asset risk. rapid intervention to resolve the detected leakage and Implementation of an integrated asset management system improving the quality of repairs. Sectorisation of the distribution network through DMA creation. management of real losses must be detected on the network allow the reduction of losses undertaken to reduce the duration leaks through the volume. Active Water Loss Control Pressure management yy Reducing leakage losses yy Consuption reduction yy Burst reduction Speed & quality of repairs l losses U voi n a Econ ab ea le annual r d om cl eve es l of real loss i Po es nt te l lo Infrastructure management ial Proactive leakage control ss ly r yy Selection yy Installation ecoverable rea yy Leakage detection campaigns yy Maintenance yy Renewal yy Replacement Figure 3. which calls for a company assets and active leakage control. with the implementation of the first DMAs. contributing to a policy of maintenance. the medium and long term.

these situations. EPAL Apparent volume losses. which can be prematurely exaggerated illegal connections. amongst others and may require The apparent losses component associated with organizational and institutional changes. This identification can be obtained when subjected to operating systems not covered by estimating. they metering inaccuracy. which corresponds water undertaken within the Active leakage control actions. This project has had a great attributable to leakage. In turn. Apparent and their consumption. political and financial factors. which may include especially in increasing reliability in identifying clients meter errors and failures in data handling. This project had a great impact on the identification of illegal consumption and contributed significantly to the analysis quality undertaken within the Active leakage control actions.3. but either intentionally and accidentally omitted from the database. Such losses are divided according impact on the identification of illegal consumption into two components within the water balance. EPAL undertook a project to survey and validate compatibility of service connections. target under medium and long potential errors is another aspect to consider. Active Water Loss Control of the distribution network through DMA creation. To combat term action plans. Control of apparent losses is largely undertaken by analysis and subsequent resolution of problems It is recognized that mechanical meters tend to have associated with unauthorized consumption. losses can be influenced by social. cultural. the legitimate leakage control was instrumental in the systematic connections can cause apparent losses from billing reduction of NRW at EPAL in recent years. also referred to as economic undertook a project to survey and validate compatibility or commercial losses. under-invoicing and commercial 31 are harder to locate. 3.1 Characterisation of Apparent Losses connections and reconcile the physical registration of the company network with the billing system. a situation a gradual tendency for under-registration throughout that is directly related the number and location of existing their life cycle. the value to other areas. especially in increasing reliability in identifying clients and their consumption. As such. It is also With the aim of reducing the number of unknown service connections and reconcile the physical registration of the company network with the billing system. such as not recorded in the database or known about. its sizing and installation conditions.3  Apparent Losses With the aim of reducing the number of unknown service 3. concern should be shown for the correct choice of meter type. . theft and metering inaccuracies. analysing a pilot area and extrapolating by the respective manufacturer’s guidelines. errors. whilst considering unauthorized continuous monitoring of the network and the existence usage as those that include illegal connections or theft of a team dedicated to monitoring system analysis and caused by misuse of fire hydrants. are not accounted for and not of service connections. namely and contributed significantly to the analysis quality unauthorized consumption.

replacement and • Non-Revenue Water selection of meters within the overall management system must be made. It will therefore be prudent to In this perspective it is recommended to undertake meter adopt a policy of monitoring and replacement of client validation on test benches of a significant sample of meters and revenue meters. a DMA in the city of Porto. order to reconcile client data and consumption data as well as the rigorous estimation of un-metered consumption. in • Vandalism or abuse intervention. representative client databases. exported and imported by the system and registered in any of the various sectors the distribution network. as sub-metering may result in a installed on the network. test bench-based measurement and validation of a register under low flow conditions and may lead to large significant sample of meters installed in the network. identified a set of performance indicators the handling and integrity of billing data. monitoring the integrity of billing data can be maximized through use of IT. which highlights • Low accuracy class meter. to determine any deviations significant loss of revenue. control and analysis of received data and working groups. four main areas to be focused upon as regards reducing • Data transfer errors. existence of under-metering. damaged or obsolete.7. the IWA.2 Control of Apparent Losses indicators The methodologies applied for active control of Following preparation of the now universally recognized apparent losses require careful management of water water balance. from the expected standard in terms of the average meter error due to age. used in a growing number of management meters. differences between the recorded volume and the water that is actually consumed. for the following components of the water balance: Thus. whilst it is advisable to perform • Water Losses . Data analysis should • Meter bypass. • Billing software errors. with universal metering and • Meter stopped. This is essential for determination of this Some of the key factors contributing to meter factor in the water balance and the existence of reliable degradation are as follows: measurement of bulk volumes transported. • Under-billing (errors and fraud by meter reader or client) Finally.8 highlights the • Fictitious reading. Figure 3. 3.3.4 Principal Water Loss performance 3. • Metering inaccuracies Indeed. plans for meter verification. Active Water Loss Control emphasized that oversized meters tend to under. through specialized consumption. • Unlawful meter intervention The control of unauthorized use must go through the 32 identification of illicit connections. as shown in Figure 3. including more reliable and • Volume under recorded in the billing system. consider the activities of identifying stopped meters. under-metering. apparent losses. study of DMA behavior an important source • Under-registration caused by low flows and poor of information that helps detect and locate areas with accuracy due to age or high usage. implementing a control policy for unauthorized companies worldwide. in which the top of the curves allows identification the • Improper maintenance or replacement policy.

including financial. becoming more One of the most commonly used approaches in relevant as a decision-making tool. operational and water resources. outlines details relating to the It is stressed that the measurement unit for each most commonly used performance indicators. Financial and water resources .7  Apparent water loss control in a DMA with 100% metering (ceded by Águas do Porto) Customer accountability Policy enforcement control un-authorised use data integrity controls yy Illegal use identification 33 APPARENT LOSSES Customer meter management Data handling & analysis controls yy Metrological verification plan yy Stopped meters yy Replacement plan yy Control of estimated readings yy Meter selection Figure 3. regarding the supply system condition and performance. aiming towards defining performance indicators is to understand their continuous improvement and cultivating knowledge subdivision into distinct groups.8  Principal factors for reducing Apparent Losses • Real Losses The calculation of performance indicators enables • Apparent Losses a comparison between managing utilities in different countries and of varying dimensions.1. prepared by the IWA Water Task Force. indicator varies according to the type of performance indicator referred to. Table 3. Active Water Loss Control Figure 3.

To confirm this. and unavoidable annual real losses = CARL allow for the effect of intermittent tems with less than 20 service / UARL. that can lead to significant under-metering. one of the relevant aspects is related to the issue of service connections. be any connection from a main pipe of a water supply which constitute an effective weak point in the mains. First. this for systems with 20 or more Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI): defined as indicator is calculated "per day" Operational service connection per km of the ratio between current annual real losses when the system is pressurized to systems main or use m3/km/day ​​for sys. if most of the losses occur on the service connections or not. a review of Given the diversity of situations that can occur in water past service connection repairs could be undertaken. based on a sufficiently representative network elements and irrigation systems. supply connection per km. Active Water Loss Control indicators often use percentage loss in volume or sample of connections and which have used the percentage of the water value. intermittent supply to undertake more concrete studies. in supply networks and the intrinsic characteristics of their order to assess any potential impact on water losses. day. it will therefore be necessary and changes in volumes consumed. service connections with the flow out-going flow at the customer consumption points. Thus. In functions. building works .1   Key Performance Indicators related to water losses performance indicators. system to an element supplied from this pipe. only by investigating the subject more deeply will key concepts inherent in the calculation of the indicators it be possible to state unambiguously and technically mentioned in order to ensure a uniform perception. In the case of operating will it be possible to validate if the dimenison of losses on Component Type Performance Indicator base Performance Indicator detail NRW volume as % of water Non-Revenue Water Financial NRW system value as % of system cost volume in system Water Losses Operational m3/service connection/year - Apparent Losses Operational m3/service connection/year Real losses volume as % of Real Losses Water Resources - water volume in system Litres/service connection/day Real Losses (in each case. there are no known studies that support this locations may be open grounds. buildings. The importance of service The definition of a service connection should also connections to the level of water losses stems from the be clarified as to what types of locations fall into this conviction expressed by several authors that a significant category. or year). correctly. whilst operational installation of flow meters at the start of these connections indicators consider units of volume per service to compare the volume registered by customer meters connection or per kilometre of network per time served by each individual connections. fire hydrants. involving tests to and the presence of client-side storage tanks. presumption. due to low including measurements comparing flow into the flow rates. a service connection is considered to proportion of water losses occur in these connections. Only in this way period (hour. In addition. These However. it is important to contextualize some of the fact. this differentiation appears to service connections is indeed one of the main aspects of avoid misinterpretation of the results due to differences water loss. a situation provide actual data of sufficient statistical dimension. 34 Table 3.

On the other hand. direct supply to resulting economic loss that will ultimately be transferred network elements and buildings or condominiums which to the customer in the form of extra costs. justifying particularly careful consideration. there are still many doubts of their meaning by the population served. Given the above. load since the connections do not have an isolating valve at the beginning and thus can be at risk of leaks. making direct comparisons in terms of such length of section in private ownership. noting examples where the predominant simplification of the situation rather than for hydraulic family housing unit varies between situations where each or technical reasons. consideration of water loss indicators apartment buildings or even. as operator. because in and questions about the limits of a service connection most countries all properties have a meter (and those entity. This latter situation has a direct correspondence the perception of efficient resource management and in the case of single dwelling houses. which do not. particularly if this battery is away from It is thus clear that. This does not indicators not only is not recommended. the application and usefulness of most of situated in each apartment on different floors. given that with a higher number of terms of assessment systems and water loss performance meters and greater total length of service connections. which is an essential step in Indeed. in which vertical construction predominates with multi. This may. This is despite the existence of above-ground the IWA has confirmed in several publications on water sections and in private buildings which normally imply loss indicators (Alegre et al. irrespective as to whether they are that the volume of leakage is much smaller compared to in service or not. be questioned in cases of buildings that have a meter battery. In this latter case. This is a valid whether or not there This variety of situations naturally has implications in are active contracts. the fixed or variable component of the client water bill. diversity of situations. being under pressure and always under other situations. it would seem logical that the service connection the reduction of consumption). such as in cases in which meters are Accordingly. however. since it does not have any effective connection corresponds to a single client to situations correspondence with the actual physical infrastructure. In addition. all served by a single connection. condominium for example. large differences in the typology of urban property or building. 2000). considered as an indicator. all of which create possible water losses along system or managing utility with additional care taken these sections. network discharge the early identification of a leak and respective repair. it is undesirable. either through have a totalizing meter at the entrance area. whose losses are borne by the 35 utility. Active Water Loss Control extensions. which are still the responsibility of the when undertaking benchmarking between utilities. . the type of urban planning adopted and even social connection to the main pipe and the limit of private differences. exist in the infrastructure. should have. In these these indicators should be aimed towards monitoring cases. building or issue which is the responsibility of the utility. expressing the volume of losses in In addition to the potential distortion provoked by the terms of the number of meters increases the perception situations described above. apply to all buildings. air valves. given the diversity of supply systems the building entrance area and therefore with a variable contexts.. This is more associated with a areas exist. indicator calculation and may give rise to a significant then the greater the number of weak points that will distortion in the comparison between different systems. or the network element being this helps to convey to both clients and the population. so that customers can corresponds to the connecting portion between the understand the significance of water loss per meter. when there is a signifcant each connection corresponds to a high number of clients. as in some areas of the city of based on the number of service connections can lead Lisbon. Therefore. supplied. with numerous apartment buildings with several to questions as to why the number of meters is not floors. it is easily understood that it is often considered that the extension length is the distance It is also stressed that due to the topography of many between the point of contact between the service cities. so points and dead ends. an principal main and the meter of a house. sampling points. there are long building pipes connected to the and assessing trends in the performance of a particular meters.

management of real losses against the pressure regime in which it operates. Lm – network length (km). meter another management company. The expression above presented operating pressure values that all influence network results from a statistical analysis from international data behaviour and burst frequency. 2003).4. .1 Financial Indicators and seeking to remedy the limitations of indicators that consider only water volumes. the IWA Water Loss Task The economic-financial performance indicators for Force developed the ILI . accounts for actual losses inherent Apparent Losses) Sale Price * Volume of in the system infrastructure (Lambert. Nc – number of service connections. UARL . or average system gains to be achieved. 3. percentage (Lambert. Pmed – average operating pressure in the study area (m). The indicator associated with the actual losses € Non-Revenue Water = (Volume of understandably used most commonly is the unavoidable Unbilled Authorized Consumption + Volume annual real losses. of which the latter is considered the unit of intended to measure utility efficiency as regards greatest relevance and representativity as a measure. 36 Real Losses + * Average Cost of Production UARL (litres / service connection / hour) = Financial indicators should be used by managers to [18 x (Lm / Nc) + 0. Considering just the that includes twenty-seven water supply systems in specificities of different supply systems will enable a twenty countries. a service connection density of between 10 and 120 connections per km of network and meters for In order to try to take into account network clients on service connections with medium length of up characteristics in determining performance indicators to 30 m. This infrastructure losses indicator or value.4. this ratio does not consider network length only be reduced with an investment effort above the or service connection density.Unavoidable Annual Real Losses. if the water was purchased from service connections. the actual losses will be higher in situations of the relationship between the volume of real losses higher pressure and being unable to reduce pressure and the total volume of water entering the system. such as the lack of revenue from sales or excessive costs in water where: production and distribution in order to identify priority actions for improving cash-flow of the utility. 100 m. losses between networks of different dimensions and since they represent the volume of water that would structures. number of water and imported. Active Water Loss Control 3. average operating pressure. Therefore: location and continuity of supply. conditions in the system. the indicator intends to relate the otherwise be delivered to the consumer.8 + 25 x Lp] x Pmed / 24 identify the largest financial losses in the system. considering the five factors cost of water production or purchase price of treated with the greatest impact: network length. The UARL can be applied to networks consistent comparison between networks of different with an average operating pressure between 20 and characteristics. hence ILI is based on components Unbilled authorized consumption and apparent losses that allow calculation of the comparison of actual must be evaluated according to the water selling price. the minimum losses value can However. The actual present value of system annual real losses against an losses may in turn be evaluated based on the average estimate of inevitable losses.2 Real Losses indicators Lp – average underground service connections length (km).Infrastructure Leakage Index NRW can be expressed in terms of volume. the most immediate indicator of performance for system water losses arise from Thus. 2009). At first sight. Thus. This indicator.

shown on the previous page. meter located after the edge of the street: 25 l / (km of underground service connections / day / m The coefficients for the three infrastructure variables of pressure). unreported). flow rates and durations of different The relationship between CARL and UARL using the types of leaks (background. used in the UARL equation. 1999). Active Water Loss Control • Leakage in service connections. for frequencies.8 l / (service connection / day per km of mains. • Leakage in mains: 18 l / (km of mains / day / m of pressure) ILI = CARL / UARL 37 . reported. if consumption locations. indicative of the general condition of infrastructure under the pressure regime to which it is subject. mains to property In networks with a low density of service connections. using aforementioned ILI indicator is a dimensionless index auditable values and assumptions (Lambert et al. The ratio of the Current Annual Real Losses (CARL) are calculated using a leakage component analysis model value to the UARL represents the maximum potential (Background and Bursts) with 24 additional parameters reduction of real losses when the system is pressurized. rather than relating them with the number of service connections or • Leakage in underground service connections. if meters are located at or close to the usually rural areas with less than 20 service connections edge of the street: 0. it is more appropriate to express the / m of pressure) indicators of losses in terms of length of mains. boundary.

One of the recommendations to estimate the volume The ILI is intended to allow comparison of network of losses originating from meter errors is the application performance. model and age. with The indicator results from an auditable component based the selection being determined by the measurement 38 analysis and should be used with caution.000 meters installed. 2009). but it can be applied to international comparisons to estimate measurement errors associated with client if the number of service connections is greater than 3. For developing estimate indicators for this type of loss. but there are recommendations to loss reduction program is imperative. This is the first instance. There is very inadequate resources. the latter being very difficult to obtain given the resulting in a value corresponding to the metering error varying infrastructure and buildings normally existing in value of the water balance. Based on tests technical indicator and does not consider economic conducted on calibrated meter test banks it is possible factors.3 Apparent Losses Indicators excellent condition should be close to an ILI of 1 while higher values indicate older systems with infrastructure As mentioned previously. calibre. well managed systems and in 3. length. 2009). countries. on estimating the amount of real losses a result which can be positive or negative. A value of ILI of below 2 means that a sum of the volumes lost by errors in metering used for greater reduction of losses is not economically viable. billing clients with unauthorized consumption (illicit ILI values above 8 may not be indicative of a utility with consumption) and obviously not invoiced. Active Water Loss Control In developed countries. the values of ILI are doubled (Lambert. (Lambert. It depends in error meter type. This is a purely volume of water measured and billed.4. the network. based on their physical characteristics of the results of metrological tests performed on meters and pressures. These systematic tests assume that a and the average pressure over 25 m. poor system conditions and currently no accurate method to calculate apparent maintenance and where the implementation of a water losses values. reflecting the degree of management removed from the distribution network using the total efficiency in terms of infrastructure. representative sample of meters installed in the network need to be removed after several years of service. apparent losses are the deficiencies. . which is then and also estimation of the average service connection applied to the measured volume of water and charged. make.

that the values of apparent losses and their Figure 3. difference between the total volume of apparent losses consumption less the estimated value associated with However. the Performance Indicators for Water Supply Services report (2000).9 outlines metering errors obtained in laboratory respective components are always presented through tests from a sample of DN15 volumetric type meters the ratio of volume loss per service connection per year after different periods of service. in measurement errors or billing.9  Graph of measurement errors of meters removed from service . in either case. Qt Linear (Minimum Flow. it is suggested by the IWA. although the is reflected in economic losses for the utility and falsely best recommendation advises that calculation of the elevated real loss values. a fact that the portion concerning unauthorized. it is in order to maintain compatibility with the indicators and clear that this type of meters are usually affected by units used for ascertaining real losses. As can be seen. 10 Legal time limit for periodic verification 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 -10 Average Error (%) -20 -30 -40 39 -50 -60 Service Time (years) Minimum Flow Qmin Transition Flow. there is no agreed methodology for determining under-metering errors that worsen over time. Qt) Figure 3. Active Water Loss Control In turn. Qmin) Linear (Transition Flow.


1). In chapter 2.Training. network. the type of management. it is essential to take into account the you have interest in NRW. before establishing a plan it is suggested that an establish and monitor the set level. given financial constraints. Active Water Loss Control 4.Calculation of water balance Tools . In this case.How to reduce losses and improve network performance . Any implementation of this implementation. • Calculate the Economic Level of Leakage (ELL). the balance will be between strategy should be supported. Strategies for control and reduction of real water losses 4. a prior diagnosis team must not be a separate department in is necessary to determine the starting point. a number of assumptions regarding the importance of a strategy for water loss control were Actions aimed at reducing overall operational costs.Development of a strategy and action plans . clarified.How is water being lost . levels of experience and degree of knowledge of available personnel.Where is the water being lost . into consideration the following aspects: To proceed with the implementation of a strategy to • Identify internal stakeholders within the business combat losses. managed and constantly the costs arising from water losses in the system and the reviewed by a dedicated team and any utility should take benefits that will result from this strategy. initial diagnosis should be performed to characterize and detail the initial starting point. which isolation. cultural and political influences. monitoring.Pilot Studies . 41 existing infrastructure. operation and maintenance Figure 4.How to maintain the losses strategy .Utilities operating ANALYZE QUANTIFY COMBAT REDUCE Questions . noting that the NRW specific circumstances of the utility. the way in which it is operated and definition of • Establish policies to support water loss feasible solutions. Thus. monitoring. Thus.Analysis of the network and operational practice .1 General Considerations successful public services around the globe have adopted simple strategies based on four key actions (Figure 4.1  Essential actions in a water loss reduction strategy . one of protect water resources and set priorities in investment the basic issues to consider in developing this strategy requires the development of a proactive approach in consists of evaluating the potential gains from its detecting water losses. but should reflect the whole business's should ensure information collection about the supply intent to economically conserve water. From the perspective of operators. technology available • Develop an integrated policy for consumption as well as social.What is the amount of water lost .

Active Water Loss Control

• Provide estimates for loss detection targets,
In any case, given the benefits it offers, it is recommended
repairs and network renovation;
to adopt an active approach to control water losses,
• Training technicians to perform detection work. identifying two basic approaches for the same co-exist in
the management of a supply system:
Adoption of a passive approach strategy can be considered
as a limited action plan, provided only when solving actual a) Regular inspection
problems, or on the other hand, an pro-active approach
acts on a regular inspection or even continuous monitoring With this method, leakage detection works applied
of system behaviour, allowing deployment of problem progressively over the entire water supply system, may
resolution actions at an early stage. use one or more of the following techniques:

The choice of the approach to be taken by the utility • Surveillance of network design so as to readily
depends intrinsically on their systems and financial identify visible leaks and damaged caused by third
capacity as well as determinants on service level parties that could conflict with the infrastructure;
aspects, including network pressure, burst frequency,
level of background leakage, leak identification and • Systematically undertaken listening interventions
location times plus the stipulated time for repair. A utility on network accessories such as valves, discharge
adopting a passive control approach to losses provides points and hydrants, in order to discover potentially
only a reaction to the reported bursts, usually by clients, leaks;
or lack of supply capacity, identified by insufficient
pressure in the network. Although this approach may • Use mobile meters to temporarily measure flow
have a significant impact given the potential waste of in defined areas in order to locate high night flow
resource, it may be considered sufficient in systems in rates;
regions without major limitations of water resources,
with adequate treatment capacity of water and low • Use groups of fixed or temporary acoustic noise
marginal costs. Other situations for which the passive loggers.
approach can be justified relate to:
b) Pro-Active network monitoring and control of
• Reduced operating costs, in particular as regards losses
the purchase of water from external entities, either
as a result of reduced quantity, or low unit price; This method is preferably adopted by leading water
utilities with high financial control and environmental
• Low operating costs plus capital costs deferred liability, based on the network sectorisation in different
when water is saved being sufficient to defer supply areas and monitoring night flows normally
capital investment, as in the case of works for associated with network losses. In these areas, DMAs,
new sources or pumping stations; the rate of supply leakage is permanently measured,
thus guaranteeing identification of potential leakage
• Low price charged to client where water saved can be problems and allowing establishment of leak detection
sold, being typical of systems with water shortages. priorities.

It must however be noted that a passive approach A very important benefit arising from the introduction of
loss control cannot, in general, attain desirable levels of a proactive approach to control water loss is the reduction
efficiency, particularly in terms of water losses, except for of the average time for locating leaks, thus enabling rapid
a limited period of time in new systems built from scratch problem resolution, namely repair of unreported leaks.
using appropriate and quality projects and materials. Thus, it is clear that a proactive approach in combating

Active Water Loss Control

losses, which adopts a permanent monitoring strategy, balance must be constantly monitored to ensure that it
may be more successful because it allows problem is maintained.
resolution at an earlier stage in its life cycle.

One of the main tasks of a water losses control plan 4.2 Economic Level of Leakage (ELL)
is installation of new infrastructure, procedures and
even new attitudes. The development of a strategy for 4.2.1 Concept
NRW reduction implies the ability to assess the current
situation accurately, being necessary to obtain precise A utility is considered to have reached the Economic
level of flow measurement and client data. This strategy Level of Leakage (ELL) when the sum of the cost of water
must be supported and have direct support from the lost in the supply system and the cost of active leakage
highest levels in the utility through enabling policies and control activities undertaken reaches a minimum. In this
provision of adequate resources and training. way, a limit on loss reduction investment is defined, after
which it is no longer economically feasible to exceed the
Alternatively, implementation of a water losses control cost of water production. This notion applies to real and
strategy should be considered a long term goal, aimed apparent losses, whilst ELL is achieved only when their
at reaching the ELL as defined by the operator. When economic levels occur simultaneously.
this loss level is reached, data related to the water


Active Water Loss Control

shows, in simplified form, the ELL concept in
Figure 4.2 and quality of repairs, state of network assets and efforts
terms of total cost in relation to the level of losses. With made by the utility as regards active leakage control
increased level of losses, the cost of lost water increases , particularly in investment in pressure management
linearly. Moreover, the cost of active leakage control and implementing monitoring and control systems. It is
decreases with increasing levels of allowed losses. There therefore recommended that ELL calculation must be
is an optimal level of total system operating costs where reassessed anually.
the marginal cost of leak detection activities is equal
to the marginal cost of water. This point also allows To ensure reliability in calculating and defining the
identification of the economic level of resources to be basic goals for a water loss control strategy, an accurate
allocated to leakage control. characterization of the supply system, based on validated
information and identification of all dynamic influences
on the system is required. It is important to establish
procedures for the collection of this base information,
Background leakage

Reported bursts

which is divided into three distinct categories:

operational, tactical and strategic.

Operational information
Annual cost (€/year)

▶▶ Level of losses;
e le

▶▶ Network Pressure;

Short ELL

▶▶ Regulation of existing pressure reducing valves (PRV);

r ▶▶ Records of number, location and type of bursts
of lost
Unreported Cost found;
▶▶ Time utilised for active leakage control;

Average real losses per year (m3/day) ▶▶ Water consumption by industry.
Figure 4.2  Principal factors of reducing losses
Tactical Information

As mentioned above, water losses are impossible to ▶▶ Supply zones limits;
eliminate completely so will always be a portion that
must be tolerated, leading to the need for calculating a ▶▶ Points of supply or transfer points of each system;
level of sustainable economic losses, thus being a key
factor for determining the objectives of a water losses ▶▶ Existing metering equipment for water balance
control strategy. assessment;

4.2.2 ELL Calculation Constraints ▶▶ PRV type installed in pressure controlled areas;

There is currently a lot of information about methods for ▶▶ Maintenance records;
ELL determination. The value of this indicator for a utility
varies over time and depends on the burst rate, speed ▶▶ Existing assets.

Investments control of losses. This considers the impacts that certain investment needs have on the ELL calculation. noting that the value of water lost in the network will be higher than the marginal cost of ▶▶ Calculations for the water balance. it is also possible to balance investment costs with ▶▶ Personnel and equipment involved in the active those of increased work to reducing losses.3 Factors to define water loss control repair of actual losses. practicable indicators can be calculated to define action priorities for setting desired losses levels • How ELL varies depending on short-term 45 and action or investment alternative scenarios. through leakage. b) Long-Term ELL (ltELL) ▶▶ Database of events in the network. organizations to achieve certain efficiency goals. It may still be is conditioned from the outset by external and internal considered in analysing pressure management actions.2. it is stressed that the equilibrium include funds in their operating budgets earmarked for . ELL calculation can observe two distinct forms: The answer to these questions will allow the utility manager to decide on its investment policy. a) Short-term ELL (stELL) This considers only the marginal cost of detection and 4. Based on • What is the short-term ELL? this information. Thus.3 Characterisation of Real Losses ELL policies? To be able to understand the estimated ELL value. in relation to the marginal benefits of water which is no longer lost in leaks and overflows. mains. or even being able to • What is the return on investment? differentiate between different areas of the same supply system. all of investments? which fits within the ELL. this being a specific calculation for each region. or to In the short term. The implementation of any water loss control strategy establishing an optimal balance point. or considered as reliable values.) or investments in creating permanent DMA. In addition. factors to the utility itself. Active Water Loss Control Strategic Information between the marginal cost of active leakage control must be aligned with the marginal cost of water lost ▶▶ Average flow rates for the distribution. when compared with existing company 4. For example. such as expansion or ▶▶ Databases of clients and their measured or construction of infrastructure (new extraction points or estimated consumption. Regulatory policies defined mains condition or other operations not involving for the water sector in each country legally oblige significant investments in the medium or long term. these indicators are calculated by successive repetitions until they may be • How much lost water can be recovered. the cost of active strategy leakage control. it is • What is the cost of the proposed investment? necessary to examine how water is valued. ▶▶ Undertake and analyse results of pilot studies. etc. production. a possible change in the active loss control policy. should consider the following questions: The ability to gather all this information in order to • What is the current level of leakage? undertake a credible water balance calculation can imply a high level of development of the organization.

leading to preventative meter replacement but without major concerns with as regards to the rigorous execution No single standard solution exists. the have to intervene when required. where a burst 46 Given the above. This type of loss control strategy or the level of investment made in a control strategy for lack of one should not be objectionable and may even combating water losses. The utility losses before taking a decision to implement any strategy. as well as disadvantages and where investments in water loss strategies to be adopted to combat water losses. Examples are utilities operating in world heritage cities. but where some investments in lower priority. Moreover. adapting their approach detected bursts. hence each company must analyze the higher quality meters. areas of the world there is commonly a scarcity of water control of supply points with zero consumption or in warmer periods of the year. utilities tend to repair bursts faster. position to achieve in the market. In these cases. Active Water Loss Control investments in combating water losses. forcing managers to service connections without clients associated. In order to convey an image of real concern. through service quality is significantly affected. These restrict supply at certain times of day. In parallel. application of high quality materials Utilities may also exist where adoption of mixed in distribution networks or through timely repair of strategies is undertaken. it is apparent that water utilities repair intervention can cost values far above average. development of active leakage control measure. external and internal constraints to which it is subject. leakage detection teams significant differences in results obtained by different . including observing significant financial they are more sensitive to efficient water use and less gains from the implementation of a proactive strategy. particularly when organizational structure and utility culture. expertise of its there are leaks on private property and the source of professionals. In these periods companies can easily recover investments in combating clients impose greater pressure on utilities because water losses. or that have a higher purchase or production cost per involve participation of numerous environmental and cubic metre of water are those that should adopt more archaeological organizations. itself does not have the implementation of policies to The result of this analysis will influence identification of combat losses as a priority or even a strategy defined the level of losses to achieve and will directly dictate for this purpose. unequivocally determines implementing these teams. water loss proactive strategies to combat losses. such as irrigation of green spaces. thus defining a suitable technical and economic level At the opposite extreme are utilities with significant of leakage. In such cases. more reactive water loss strategies should be adopted. pressure management. In this control far exceed the benefit-cost ratios achieved by the context. In certain of a rigorous plan for preventive meter replacement. utilities where the cost-benefit ratio or even to place restrictions on water uses considered is not as advantageous. receptive to resource wastage. it is important that each entity undertakes a implementation of these measures. however. There are. which is applicable of plans for preventive replacement of meters or use of to all utilities. but mostly. application or on the influence imposed by their clients. implementation of measures policies and strategies to control losses. The level of apparent losses can be depending on the cost-benefit of each supply subsystem controlled by use of higher standard meters. yielding taking active control measures. It is obvious that in the calculation of cost-effectiveness simply intervening when problems occur. Although not there are certain factors which are under-valued. water loss control can still be justified. These companies interventions are justified only in situations where the structure their operational plans in order to work water supply to the population may be jeopardized or actively and continuously to fully combat losses. be admissible in very specific situations. the financial balance of these the problem cannot be identified without resorting to organizations. These companies cost-benefit analysis of the financial burden associated have no worries about the timely repair of visible leaks with the implementation of various measures to combat or leak detection teams in the organization.

the price of cubic metre of water is also higher. where it assumes a greater impact ecological footprint. those relating to the impact on combat losses. environmental issues or more comprehensive. Active Water Loss Control operators. on business. In some countries in Europe. leading utilities to adopt measures based on cost- In parallel. The optimal punitive powers to do so. in countries where regulation is corporate image in the market. the rules or goals imposed by regulators benefit analysis. may also influence the choice of strategies to be adopted by utilities entities in controlling losses. provide greater added certain efficiency goals or they do not invest a certain value for all stakeholders and organizational value. However. percentage of the annual budget in control measures to 47 . in particular. Regulators Each company must therefore adopt a strategy for with only recommended action do not introduce large water loss control that most suits their actual reality and pressure on companies but additionally they may have bring a better quality of service to its clients. strategy should be that required to achieve the Suitable utilities may be punished financially if they do not reach Level of Leakage and additionally.


. In general. namely: (attributes) regarding the supply system infrastructure. elements. A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer • Location and characterization of hydrants. which are geo.1 Minimum Requirements management and representation of an area and events which occur in it. enhancing process efficiency. capacity that associates any point with its elevation value.1. Monitoring and Control of Leakage 5. are very important for the quality of results and overall optimization of the • Service connections – association with clients. requires the existence of When applied to a water utility. referenced and which must be updated regularly and also include terrain mapping representation. of a monitoring system aimed towards active leakage control. diameter. Hydraulic System Model – a software tool that • Valves – year of installation. basic and essential information in the water utility registration includes the following attributes: 49 Client Management Information System – IT system that compiles all client information and is interconnected • Mains – year of installation. diameter. with the GIS. length and working order. diameter. maximizing year of installation. mode of operation and required inputs. The and topology of network features. maximum volume These tools. monitoring system and water losses control. from the characteristics of its components. GIS adds information some basic tools. in order to generate implementation. curves and working order. system implementation. material. type and allows analysis and prediction of the system hydraulic condition of operation. This application application to visualise all infrastructure. • Flow meters – year of installation. It thus provides the user with the network that require the prior profound network ability to relate information from the existing position knowledge. it becomes imperative to consider a series layers and stores them independently. The adoption of a supply system monitoring policy to control losses considers sectorisation into DMAs. • Reservoirs – year of installation. namely on characteristics and operation. minimum and maximum level. behaviour. whilst not being essential to monitoring and working order. The GIS separates information on different thematic To this end. type and height. application for spatial information and computational air vents. Active Water Loss Control 5.1 Geographic Information System (GIS) and condition of operation. including both its correct geographical location and Geographic Information System (GIS) – computer physical/non-physical characteristics. type 5. requires constant maintenance for updating information. material. allowing quick of conditions and actions to be implemented in the and easy manipulation. Digital Terrain Model  – a set of numerical data support • Pumping Groups – year of installation. without jeopardizing the quantity and new information. length and their results and speed at which they can be obtained by operating status. quality of water supply. discharge valves and other network procedures that enables and facilitates analysis. diameter.

creating binding interfaces between preventive replacement of metering equipment. (Figure 5. In parallel.1). The definition of registration of clients on CIMS allows illegal the core mission of a company is proof that it is usually connections and theft of water to be identified with focused on the client and service to them. them. g Flexibility acceptable when associated with seasonally adjusted billing. clients and service connections that supply them. The timely replacement of meters tion Flexibility will significantly decrease the amount of water nnec Ma Co lost by under metering. • the first relates to the physical register and correct association of service connections to existing Indexed with all this information. it becomes possible to clients – noting that it is important that managers visualize the spatial scope of the network sectorisation have thorough knowledge of the location of its project. information systems must na ply te e ge Sup also allow managers to identify the correct type me n me BI of installation at each client meter location. In the case of greater ease and speed. which should intercept flow meters and loss areas. The CIMS should A Client Information Management System (CIMS) must manage the meter installation date. Additionally. Client management and the relationship between those when seeking to determine volumes of recoverable who serve and those who are served is one of the most losses in each of these areas. nt Inf New try WE facilitating association of consumption of each CIMS client to the correct meter profile curve. so as to provide users with treated information. based on the criteria in Measurement Instrument inherent in different areas of the utility. ormation bility GI S ent • the third is related to reading and billing of amounts lexi supplied where utilities should include the need em F ag Do for accurate billing of water volumes supplied Me s n cum ent Ma ice er in its business relationship. This enables utilities to scale DMAs with greater 5.1  CIMS Interfaces when effected. proper strategic activities for any company. based on actual meter readings Figure 5. increasing business ce Tel r fa efficiency. which will help increase operators. avoiding the use of t rv Re Se adin estimates. to the population is in sufficient quantity.2 Client Information Management System accuracy. quality and at the lowest cost. as well as enables the correct calculation of inevitable losses and authorized consumption. prompting the need for diverse set of data. as well as the have the ability to be able to systematize a vast and volume of water measured. Prior knowledge of the physical . Active Water Loss Control • DMA boundaries (virtual polygons that delimit The CIMS must encompass four predominant for water DMAs. including the DMA set-up master plan. the mission must ensure that the water supply the company's efficiency and loss reduction. however. principally for apparent losses: all boundary valves) – DMA Code and name and implementation date. Directive (MID) or the legal requirements for each country.1. The relationship between the client and utility • the second area concerns meter management - should therefore be regarded with the utmost importance the proper management of metering equipment and must be sustained and supported by an information used for charging clients for the correct volume 50 system to help businesses better serve their clients. of water supplied is a key element to control small values of apparent losses. Consumption estimates are.

having a direct impact on the financial sustainability of the business and client service levels. • the fourth and final area concerns reporting and management indicators where the CIMS should 5. allows the user to associate any based on the variables under analysis and can be point with its corresponding elevation value. Thus. for a given area.1.3 Digital Terrain Model make a set of reports and indicators available to managers as a basis for decision-making within Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is a digital data support each company. the existence of meter readings and decrease in water theft. which can lead errors in meter readings or missing information. cells arranged in a regular three-dimensional space . or as without a client associated or reports of meters is more commonly regarded. to less unlawful behaviour by some clients as well as a Alternatively. a customized by each user in order to allow more DTM can be represented in a two-dimensional or three- detailed analysis. or lines through an associated interpolation rule. avoiding even potential appearance of organizational efficiency. including quickly resolve such occurrences. It is thus evident that the use billing modules in CIMS allows utilities to easily of an information system for client management is a identify stopped meters and act accordingly to leading tool for managing losses in a utility. conveying the all consumption points. as a surface composed of installed for over X years should be generated. reports of sites with zero consumption. allows utilities to read the company's image with its clients. Active Water Loss Control record of each consumption location and the Use of a high performance CIMS can also enhance use of appropriate meters. 51 . in particular through a set of points losses. For the management of such dimensional shape. These reports should be structured that.

expressed in terms of key state variables. by searching the best topology. a model for simulation of a hydraulic water valves and pumps. closing of regulating valves and • a set of descriptive data on the system physical pumps. However. characteristics. from information available in a GIS is not necessary. and thus anticipate a set of network. enabling spatial analysis on the However. a of operation. between existing entities in a GIS register and its without recourse to computational applications. they are increasingly being developed and Armed with this information. with a margin of error. it is possible to establish an association A model can be formulated and solved entirely manually. balance. simulation models are computational tools operation. diameters and materials selection for the pipes • numerical algorithms required for iterative solving and other components and design of reservoirs of mathematical equations. Generally. 52 and water distribution systems at an operational level. solutions before investments are undertaken. Active Water Loss Control Thus. • flow rate. with all the advantages in setting of calculations. the software simulation applied by utilities with a view to making more informed offers the possibility to calculate the system hydraulic decision on various less common operating situations. pressure drop and flow rate in pipes. including any conditions imposed by reservoir used in the design and diagnosis of bulk water transport levels and/or links to other systems. amongst can be highlighted: the system as a whole. but all and prediction of the system hydraulic behaviour. operation. digital terrain model. their consumption and operating conditions. such as flow or pressure in the mains. mode of operation the existence of a GIS in a utility allows the creation of and required inputs. given the complexity and inherent slowness altimetric information. with sufficient approximation. supply system comprises of: • state of opening. allow the analysis topology and associated modelling parameters. • sizing of systems.1. the characteristics of its components. These models thus allow fast and simulation models much faster. and pumping facilities. Water supply system hydraulic models are software Infrastructure description in the model is limited to tools which. models of this type have come to be a viable and useful tool for effective system simulation in a broad range of 5. it was with software implementation that differentiated altimetric zones. design. Simulation models have multiple applications as regards planning. However. expressing in numerical and graphical form. without the need to intervene in the system concerned or risks associated with implementation of unknown modes In addition to describing the physical system. directly from the GIS.4 Water System Hydraulic Model operating conditions. such as: The system behaviour simulation can be used to predict its response compared to extended operating ranges and • pressure and piezometric head at any points of the environmental conditions. since a substantial part of efficient performance of sensitivity analysis and simulation the information required for modelling can be exported of alternative scenarios. including water levels in reservoirs. values of the state variables. simulation program enables the user to build a detailed description of water consumption and modes of Typically. . maintenance and • a set of mathematical equations that reproduce the rehabilitation of bulk transport and water distribution hydraulic behaviour of individual components and systems.

or emergency situations such as failures in pumping groups. correct measurement. through WTW outflows. DMA inputs and consumption by large clients. system management levels with 5. SCADA Distribution Reservoir s main water Water Treatment Trunk main Bulk meter Extraction Station meter Leakage at store tanks Trunk main SCADA meter Logger GSM Logger GSM DMA meter Leakage Closed PRV on mains valve Closed valve DMA Leakage on service connections Trunk main meter Logger GSM SCADA Figure 5. impact of DMA creation. essentially based on projections in time and especially consumption. reservoirs. identification and subsequent correction • managing rehabilitation of suspended systems can be developed. • control of water losses. such as seasonal consumption variations. • simulation of problems and current operating scenarios. using simulation of various options. the first premise to consider is the system and clients. and programming assistance with minimized client impact. depending on which the tasks of qualification. from the source. preventing incurring direct risks to the loss control strategy.2 Flow Measurement multiple service reservoirs. In planning a water systems. The most common scheme for monitoring any water system seeking to locate potential leakage is based • reduction of energy consumption resulting from on flow meters or water meters located throughout 53 the operation of pumping stations. for example by service pressure reduction programs. hence the proper selection and installation of meters to be installed in each monitoring • operator training for complex operational location is of great importance. Active Water Loss Control • supporting preparation of strategic development • support for networks sectorisation. flow measurement. The monitoring and control of losses require rigorous mains suspension or firefighting. feasibility and plans. the system.2  Water supply system monitoring schematic .

allowing which differ in technological terms and the principles consideration of values actually read instead of resorting underpinning its operation: namely mechanical. A mechanical water meter is a measuring instrument that incorporates a totalizer and allows continuous b) At the customer level determination of the volume of water flowing inside. being central to effective established either by legislation or by the company itself. are three types of velocity mechanic meters: single-jet turbine. it is essential that through a chamber. The correct selection and field application suitability. Active Water Loss Control presents a simplified diagram of water supply Figure 5. namely for its means and converts the volume passing through in a sustainability and self-confidence in the volumes of water given time interval. most businesses depend of water passing through it. on the mean DMA flow rate. This measurement can be performed by direct mechanical The main challenge faced by water distribution system means (volumetric meter) or indirect (speed meter). The volume registered by the counter metering is the most accurate possible. leaving and that are specified in accordance with the scope and level of rigor consumed in supply systems. there that it reports at different process levels. principles. and efficient monitoring and evaluation of system losses. particularly meters are typically installed. 54 of the existence of customer metering. it is clear that flow or water meter instrumentation element sensitive to this velocity. when associated with DMA implementation.2 and for evaluation and monitoring of overall system system monitoring. industrial clients and public entities are measured. a) At the DMA level Consumption by domestic. Among the different equipment available. for Accurate measurement of night flows in supply areas water meters whose operation is based on mechanical is essential to identify the emergence of new leaks. moved by flow action passing to charge for water supplied. managers is the ability to operate on a sound financial basis. multi-jet turbine and Woltmann. as its name indicates. are essential to the water balance calculation. commercial. It consists of a rotating As such. According to its construction. regardless DMA can also be based on these principles. as well as for the accurate detremination of the ELL for each DMA. within technically corresponds to the number of times the chamber with and economically feasible limits. This logic is fundamental: ultrasonic and electromagnetic flowmeters. together High levels of meter accuracy and reliability is essential with a proper installation are key conditions for good in supply systems. The primary Flow meters are the basis for correct customer billing element of the first meter type has flat turbine vanes . to estimates. by mechanical or other is seen as a key piece for any utility. Performed continuously. indirectly the analysis and balance of these DMAs. as well as a sectoring strategy. As a significant part of turnover is based on The volumetric meter directly measures the volume customer consumption values. Therefore. so it is very important that they are specifically examined to allow consideration in The velocity meter. In addition. Meters applied in network monitoring or which can be quickly located and repaired. fills to find large clients that may represent significant influence and empties of the water passing through the meter. two types of The availability of metered values and confidence in them solutions are frequently used in water measurement. metering provides reliable information Equipment to be used in water measurement should be on the volumes of water entering. in general. measures the volume of water that passes through it by relating it to the airflow velocity. it is common movable interior walls and whose volume is known. which are identified where water performance. management and the company's assets. playing a key role in network performance of the meters. by counting the number of on their consumption metering to determine the amount revolutions of the piston.

which is During the operation lifespans. but diverge rapidly throughout their VELOCITY use when compared with measuring quality parameters of their initial state. but it has been proven that during the period of operation of these meters Figure 5.3  Differing elements of the various types of that they lose accuracy beyond acceptable limits. Over many years. since they directly SINGLE-JET measure the volume. MULTI-JET The turbine velocity meters can be as accurate as the volumetric meters. Class C 55 Such meters are commonly applied in metering of domestic consumption or other small scale consumption.4  Error curve characteristics of a 1. previously describe. It is therefore generally admitted that the performance of this type of meter is less than the VERTICAL volumetric meters due to the lower sensitivity and high degradation of its components. the tight tolerance inherent in the design of the plunger makes them more susceptible to mechanical component wear and blocking due to the TURBINE possible presence of sand and particles carried by the water. The propeller shaft may elements which are necessary for clearance between the be arranged parallel or perpendicular to the axis of the moving and stationary parts (Figure 5. with the exception of a on its periphery. usually of about seven years. . with more accuracy than velocity meters. The second type differs from the previous due to the type and design of the respective measuring type. volumetric meters caused to rotate by being on the periphery of a single present reasonable accuracy and very high sensitivity jet of water. The last type of meter is equipped with residual low level flow through the rotating and fixed a propeller driven by the flow. However. main and the meter designated as a horizontal or vertical Woltmann type.4). Active Water Loss Control mounted perpendicular to the flow direction. Figure 5. Flowmeter Type Differing elements VOLUMETRIC Figure 5. in the number of water jets which decomposes the element.3 illustrates the differing elements of the various types of volumetric and velocity meters. WOLTMANN It is well known that impurities such as sand or air can enter the network and cause problems for the normal HORIZONTAL operation of mechanical water meters. meter manufacturers have developed techniques to deal with damage caused by these impurities. requiring volumetric and velocity meters a regular replacement cycle. which means that the volume of water passing flow passing the turbine with multiple contact points through it is correctly counted.5 m3 nominal flow volumetric meter (DN15).

In such from an electrically powered coil (Figure 5. after being determined in types of meters. a calibration laboratory. Such Again. distribution networks is increasingly common. can be minimized by adjusting the meter. usually electromagnetic meters. manufacturers have developed methods to do meters can be powered by a direct electric supply or so. Coil power Coil supply Coil and velocity signal transmitter Flow direction Electrode Figure 5. created compliance with the manufacturer's instructions. This law cases where their installation has not been implemented relates flow with the electromotive force induced by the to recommended standards and reference guides or in flow of water in a perpendicular magnetic field. Active Water Loss Control An additional problem that occurs with mechanical with large consumption values. mechanical failure. through during the integration time. Such errors.5). which converts environmental conditions for operation. but they all require some form of electromechanical through a battery. whose life has been progressively system which wears out with time and is subject to increased with technological developments. electrical. as well as the appropriate and a secondary element or converter. the mechanical. implying consideration of the use of other equipment itself. in a working principle based on Faraday's Law. It is used in clients electromagnetic or mechanical influences. such as industrial or meters is converting the readings into electronic data municipal clients. which mechanic meters originates from the fact that they are not although variable should not exceed values considered compatible with the possibility of measuring bi-directional acceptable for the level of accuracy required. hydraulic and electric 56 requirements to be respected for the proper installation This instrument consists of a primary element or sensor of the equipment are defined. using that can significantly affect measurement accuracy. The main flow when installed on the network to control DMA inputs source of errors comes from performance featuring the and outputs. documentation. whilst its application in monitoring signals required for automatic meter reading systems.5  – Schematic representation of an electromagnetic flowmeter . These meters operate within a finite range of flow One of the most common limitations associated with rates over which the measurement error is made. particularly the instantaneous flow rate of the total volume passing with regard to the need to limit climatic. The conditions under which the meter is Electromagnetic flowmeters measure the quantity of installed and in operation is another important factor water flowing per unit of time inside the chamber.

strategy of network monitoring and losses control. Advances in data transmission technologies Occasionally. flow direction. minimum flow and maximum flow. since considered. Thus. be measured. suitability of the equipment for telemetry signal These notes highlight the importance of correctly broadcast. can be at risk of under-metering. construction and metrological measuring water volumes and flow rates within a equipment characteristics and costs involved. water quality. characterized by a to defining District Meter Areas (DMAs). each case must be will tend to give rise to meter under-registration. Active Water Loss Control Sizing in relation to flow Choice of technology Installation according to Metrological verification plan measuring according to application manufacturer's instructions Measuring range Flow direction Installation position Determined by law . guaranteed by closing valves. the most appropriate technology should be chosen (Table 5. installed meters are unnecessarily associated with flow metering equipment now allow oversized. cover the expected The idea of network sectorisation for leakage monitoring is amplitude. thus enabling calculation of leakage level. and according to the hydraulic characteristics of these. especially with regard to the most significant based on the implementation of a fully sectored distribution for this type of flow profile. 5. the early case it is important that the measurement interval years of the 1980s saw the first reported consistent approach associated with the equipment. keeping the acronym DMA. utilities who wish to practice this type of strategy So for the selection of the most appropriate measurement should have a consistent policy of water metering of certain flows in the supply network instrument. as well as obtaining the introducing a significant potential apparent loss in flow rates. in order to measure flow that entering or may require further analysis. which in systems where the network.1). installation location constraints. necessary indicators for decision support regarding network interventions. In this measure losses has been noted from Roman times. This Metering to Monitoring. so justifying the name change from flow rate of flow without significant pressure loss. beyond the normal level of accuracy of the meter operates outside its optimal range of lower the consumption profile whose range of flow rates to and upper limits of flow measurement. flow meter installation at strategic flow rate to be measured can vary significantly and which points is required. in particular night flow. the to ensure measurement accuracy and performance 57 range of flow rates and the consumption profile to be consistency throughout the different phases of strategy measured at the installation site must first be diagnosed implementation.1  Relevant aspects for flowmeter selection and installation In the meter selection process. In this metrology According to the manufacturer's Permanent or nominal flow Telemetry Stabilization Sections instructions Permissible measurement errors Resolution reading Maximum discharge or Water Quality overloading Table 5. DMA creation permits A meter scaled to accurately measure up to a certain analysis of measured flow rates.3 Network Sectorisation and One of the most important stages in meter selection Monitoring corresponds to the instrument design for measurement over a given range of flow rates of consumption Although the practice of sub-dividing water networks to characteristic profile which is to be monitored. exiting a particular area bounded by a permanent border. applied in the UK. as a meter of larger size allows for a higher effective monitoring. . minimum flow.

given the much broader potential increasing complexity. to ensure a regular supply to clients and The sectoring of metering zones in bulk transport reservoir levels. causes and obviously. with an analysis on an overall pipelines on the supply network is usually referred scale. in particular regarding: reception of DMA consumption data also allows validation of changes in consumption and macro- • Quantity and quality of information available location. being available for future comparisons. DMAs are a support tool for network of processes operating within the distribution management and efficiency improvement as well as system. This approach is particularly successful when implemented in conjunction with more sophisticated • Identification of each DMA client and abnormal data model analysis. which with project progress and information available. line. flow. of bursts or any valving about the network and its operation operations in the network. aims at continuous improvement feature larger diameter pipes usually above . bounded by a continuous. based on the total area under analysis. enables continuous monitoring of flow with the aim of leakage monitoring will also result in entering and leaving the zone and leakage major improvements in the management and knowledge indicators obtained based on flow night. Active Water Loss Control Therefore. Thus early in the DMA sectorisation process. their existence allows utilities Network sectorisation into smaller monitoring to define intervention order according to the worst and control areas can increase the amount of performance indicators. and recorded daily DMA implementation in a distribution network. This analysis will normally utilise night flow values. well-defined boundary 58 At EPAL. These areas differ The information available. making it possible for network performance maintenance through the early to make a detailed analysis of the network identification of new leaks and consequent triggering functioning. location of hidden faults and their repairs. Monitoring systems of water supply networks • Evaluation of trunk main DMAs which are not sectorised aim to control the network. allowing rapid analysis of DMA nocturnal consumption data. begin to play a key role scope of measurement. particularly as regards pressure of response actions necessary for their detection and management. at a DMA level. along with associated with telemetry or SCADA equipment. to as Trunk main DMA set-up. under the distribution network DMA project. a total of 179 electromagnetic flow meters were installed. as well as guiding field team activities. thus continuously monitoring 152 DMAs in the network The implementation of a plan for network sectoring. monitoring of night flows from each DMA. usually through the from distribution network DMAs as they normally SCADA system. water losses from bursts and leaks. The daily of the network.

1 Definition of District Monitoring Areas the network or other equipment. • Permit metering interface points with including either imports or exports to DMAs neighbouring DMA. implemented install. The water loss evaluation methods fixed boundaries. beings an additional level of network in the case of boundaries with adjacent network of the knowledge. is advisable: A District Monitoring Area is defined as a discrete sector • Analysis and definition of installation locations of the distribution network. a DMA should meet the following conditions: • Definition of intervention proposals for improving the network and other equipment in order to • Make use of known point(s) of water in-flow and increase or decrease DMA pressure. whilst also contributing to burst process does not imply the closing of any valve. however see analysis hampered by the existence of a greater number of measurement points. provided that the same water distribution network measurement equipment is installed. in addition to flow meters. This be referred to as a naturally closed DMA.4. pressure-reducing DMA sub-sectors (e. out-flow. both flow and pressure at DMA The DMA boundary line is physically defined by closed entrance points in each zone or group of zones section valves closed. by Pressure Control Valves at the DMA entrance. The network pressure pressure zone or sub-system. diameter and type of flow meters to The DMA behaves as a virtual polygon. Trow and Tooms. In cases with active pressure (PRV) at DMA entrance points or to create smaller control. after consultation with technical operation in the network with its shape and size dependent on of the network and equipment. . creating bi-directional exchanges or unidirectional cascades to • Management and control of pressure in the neighbouring zones. either formed naturally or for new flowmeters and other equipment (eg imposed. instruments. topography. • Location. this will prevention and minimizing of water losses. In addition type of analysis may lead to active pressure the flow and pressure is also continuously monitored 59 control in the network. Where no network exists level must comply with regulatory requirements adjacent to the DMA to be implemented and the for clients. known as DMA boundary valves monitored. 5. 2014). telemetry) and preparation for in-flow of supply through flow meters installed at their telemetry installation. which can effectively evaluate the continuous PRV. with perfectly defined and connections. provided with reliable flow measurement. not allowing unknown inter- and measurement equipment to consider are connections or interchange flows with adjacent generally the same as normal DMAs but may areas. thus it becomes possible to adjust same pressure level or pressure zone boundary valves pressures managed sections of the network in the case of the adjacent network being of a differing and optimize operations. Generally. the implementation of improvements in 5. Active Water Loss Control 300 mm and are substantially free of service • Be discrete areas.g. Access to data.4 District Monitoring Areas Taking the opportunity to install or replace meters or PRV equipment. input and output metering points. taking into the characteristics and design of the network and its account possible future developments. valves (PRV) may also be installed creating pressure controlled zones.

the design of a connections. the IWA advocates use of the number of area.4. which may prove to be very supply network. with recommended good practice indicating that DMAs encompass between 1. when it comes to defining for the correct sizing of a DMA in a distribution network. the existence of large clients useful for network operations. Through the experience gained in DMA should take into account the following areas: managing the Lisbon network.6 illustrates a schematic representation of two a typical DMA. it is considered that the use of the number of customers is • Area and geographical density of clients appropriate. improved customer customer meters instead of the number of service service and water quality. despite the IWA advocating the expression of losses in terms of the number of There are a number of factors that should be considered service connections. of associated clients. zones. implemented in an urban area contiguous DMA. water loss minimisation through proper DMA including the size and physical characteristics of the sizing.6  Schematic representation of two contiguous DMAs . whose design allowed the possibility of should comprise between 1.500 customers. In more detail. in particular as regards the and constraints imposed by existing supply effectiveness and speed of identifying problems in the DMA.2 DMA Dimension and Size Interestingly. being able to work with the DMA segmented into smaller according to the population density in the sub-zones temporarily. economic considerations. It is recommended that 60 meter meter ZoneZone ValveValve (closed) (closed) Cascade Cascade DMADMA meter meter PRVPRV – Pressure – Pressure Reduction Reduction Valve Valve Temporary Temporary zonezone valvevalve closed closed Temporary Temporary opened opened valvevalve ZoneZone Valve Valve closed closed Temporary Temporary closed closed valvevalve DMADMA valvevalve closed closed Principal Principal meter meter CPZPressure valve closed zone valve closed MainMain pipe pipe Figure 5.000 clients. Active Water Loss Control Figure 5. 5.500 The size of a DMA is expressed by the number and 2.000-3.

or public entity will also condition the human and financial resources that has a water supply agreement or contract with that will be directed to these active leakage control the managing utility. then it avoids or reduces issues when Based on the given range for the ELL associated comparing nightlines. which as a reference should encompass net values of values • Existence of sensitive or critical areas for correct of the order 1. a whole sub-zone or supply zone should be noting that this should not exceed values of the subject to DMA implementation. a greater or lesser investment effort in terms of network monitoring and consequent active leakage It should be noted that the term “customer" or “client" control work. supply • Change the topographical design of the network Defining DMA limits should take into account existing and supply points records. In addition to the previously referred to criteria. with universal of monitoring is closely dependent on the size and metering. a amount of DMA to implement in the network. especially in areas close to the lower limit of regulatory The DMA should cover areas belonging to the supply pressure. even if some are order of 5 to 10 km. understanding of these areas provided by these first network interventions. The impossibility of areas of the network that were already naturally exclusion involves installing larger diameter flowmeters. the sectorisation process implies same range. regular client supply. with the smaller the extension. business. the For easiness and to gain experience. In the case of Lisbon and the activities. In the case of this impossibility. namely those excluded from within the DMA. DMAs should established on a cost-benefit basis. DMAs there are other important factors for defining should be considered for a system-wide approach. where the closing of boundary valves requires more careful • Geographic or demographic factors such as urban. that is. such as the total network length . Only after building knowledge and raising the costs of implementation. implementing "Natural DMAs". as situation that has no direct correspondence to other well as control of key clients. always respecting since a small increase in pressure head loss can harm the maximum and minimum regulatory pressure. 61 average daily total DMA consumption. larger than others and according to the economics of then the faster leak detection tends to be . same pressure supply zone.200 m3/day. DMA sizing. .and implementation. Hence. Sizing the DMA requires special care. as they should be in the with the network. from managing a complete network however. closed. each customer has a specific meter. planning and specific knowledge. industrial or rural areas. should attention Other factors that may influence the design of DMA are: be focused on more complex areas. it is advisable DMA boundary line should follow the path of least flow that the network sectorisation process starts by resistance and these mains must be as far as possible. cities and countries without universal metering. trunk mains with higher than average diameters). given that if the DMAs are of roughly equal size. The interest of utility in achieving ELL refers to an individual entity.000 to 1. sub-areas with pressure control should be analysed within the They must also preserve main supply loops (for example DMA. It should be emphasized that the degree overall Portuguese situation in general. including experience or local knowledge. in which the flow rate must be maintained. by installing pressure-reducing valves. Active Water Loss Control Note that this assists with comparison of DMA • Economic Level of leakage (ELL) performance.

DMA in rural areas.000 clients.3 Considerations for Water Quality and consequent difficulty in leakage location detection. it is considered that DMA size closing of valves. completely open system. which normally does not happen in a DMA for study or leakage detection campaigns purposes. DMA boundaries For reasons relating to the analysis of night flows. Thus. such as in the center of Lisbon. such as identifying are not universal and absolute. thus setting up its boundary with should correspond to a dimension of the network where adjacent DMA. it is important to ensure the existence of potential temporary limit valves and the possibility of The existence of extremes or dead sections without that each sub-area is supplied independently from the consumption. buildings. However. interventions.500 clients.4.000 clients. example. which may necessitate adjustments depending on the topography and topology of a city and thus distribution • Variability of hydraulic conditions. namely sections if restrictions on DMA creation imply they are larger. . that it is more difficult to set a limit on their spatial dimension. social housing for physical boundaries or limits of the DMA. assuming that they may be service connection bursts and ease of access to difficult to meet due to the individual nature of each DMA. since higher density housing implies increased in the analysis of night flow 62 rates. which may correspond to the more than 3.000-3. thus allowing evaluation night flows. In this case. This procedure invariably involves the there are no more than 3. Despite the diversity of possible situations and with consequent complaints from clients. by the limits of being able to identify bursts and 5. then of mains with no exit and no consumption where water can be subdivided temporarily by closing valves inside in tends to stagnate. the ranges of values noted • Specific options for each utility. The creation of a new DMA. which can be much more problematic main flow meter. the burst. the DMA may have to cover a density. the existence of large customers including hospitals and shopping centres amongst others. such as availability network operating pressure. This limitation is imposed. the larger the probability of these potential problems. in the following categories: the DMA boundary valve was closed until whenever it is necessary to operate them to ease network SMALL:  less than 1. of 5.000 and 5. having been tested and validated in the case of Lisbon. created with DMA boundary implementation. usually involves the effective detection and location.000. DMAs can be split relative to on short or medium terms. from a low concentration DMAs implemented in urban areas with high population of housing and clients. with greater specific lengths of the dead sections. LARGE:  over 3. may increase the likelihood of degradation of water quality. Indeed. However. Active Water Loss Control • Techniques available or applicable for leakage These values relate to the average indicators for DMA control in certain areas. the larger the number of extremes AVERAGE:  1. sizing in urban areas. from the moment when their size. formation of new network extremes.500 clients. which is not defined optimization of the time associated with the identification naturally by the layout of the network in a particular area of the existence of bursts and consequent speed of of the distribution system. the predominant type of or limitation of valves for implementation of properties such as houses.000 clients. • Type of pipe material and age It should be stressed that in situations of implementing • Maintaining service levels and water quality. with an upper maximum limit whole of a town or village. may include large geographical area. This may occur conditions set out above.

of circumstances it was often necessary to reconfigure This can also be achieved by increasing flow velocity DMA boundaries. for re-directing flow direction. passing part of it to an implementation phases. such situations can be resolved through reduce the number of extremes in the DMA design and proper DMA reconfiguration. If there are no alternatives to these extremes. thus minimizing the clock-in. there are several examples where and systematic programs for water discharges or flushing alteration of DMA limits was necessary after their initial must be provided in such cases. With a change areas and correcting existing poor water quality issues. decreasing flow resistance ensuring that flow circulation in these areas of the and pressure head loss. and consideration should be given on how best to Ultimately. balancing the need to install adjacent DMA. particularly in large-diameter pipes. then this In the case of the DMA implementation project in may lead to water quality degradation. following identification of solutions to address problem. certain network problems. Indeed. It should be also stressed that the creation of extreme In this context. Active Water Loss Control This is not however an insurmountable problem in critical areas. analysis undertaken to DMA limits due to the closure or change associated with their existence in DMA and the of use of premises or establishments located at the consequent greater knowledge. hence regular the city of Lisbon. there situations where adjustments were is not necessarily bad for the network. usually with small interventions in 63 . new valves in the network in more favourable areas. improving pressures in critical network occurs at an adequate velocities. can create opportunities network extremes and with relatively high consumption.

In contrast. the possibility of changing DMA found that the cause was related to a specific customer boundaries is seen as a flexible network measure.7  DMA boundary limit alterations in the Lisbon distribution network . of the DMAs. Thus. known and controllable risks and which included a pressure mapping exercise along challenges for network management.7 illustrates the changes made within and height of some buildings. Having identified the source whilst minimizing the effects of changes on customers. Figure 5. a review and analysis of key customers to solving existing problems or arising out of the urban consumption was undertaken. This is adverse effects on the supply to other customers despite where model predictions and real-life testing sometimes leading to an increase in the number of customers in one differ. areas. the other DMA encompassed Another particularly interesting situation occurred in an fewer. thus The examples highlight that network sectorization. an intervention that allowed complete resolution of pressure complaints area new DMA boundary disruptive client Figure 5. large peaks in consumption. due to the topography variation. but primarily non-household customers and area with recurrent problems in terms of guaranteeing therefore with higher consumption and greater profile the minimum working pressure. a change in the DMA boundaries between In this context. as consumption was essentially by domestic customers. Reconfiguration had no creating conditions for appropriate flow velocities. since whose consumption profile included highly irregular. may create new. there was a worsening supply conditions but only in one of these DMAs. two DMAs in the area in question. Active Water Loss Control the network to create new water circulation routes and pressure problems in the area. it allows service quality problems to be overcome. mathematical modeling can be a very the two zones was undertaken with the ‘disruptive’ client important support tool to optimize DMA adjustments 64 being included in the DMA with a higher supply capacity. and reconfiguration. With the implementation of the limits of the two mentioned DMAs. of the problem. can also contribute the DMA. Following a more detailed investigation. through which it was area dynamics. with indicating that the source of the problem was that the consequent restriction of consumption in specific particular DMA.

network elements such as hydrants. • Problematic areas of the network. the proposed DMA. • Survey of new works and buildings not registered PMAX . their accessibility. For DMA preparation. while ensuring the • Discharge valves which allow periodic cleaning supply quality and pressure during periods of higher of these sections or.4. such as PRV including characterization of respective upstream and downstream points. namely: EP . monitoring of flow-rates and pressures. accessibility and operational check of the any pressure reducing valves or pumps. Active Water Loss Control 5. characterizing the DMA and establishing procedures for continuous implementation. as well as DMA inputs and outputs. The process of planning and design of a DMA can be described as performing a series of interrelated tasks. be identified: • Type of telemetry equipment to install in the • Pressure zone supply source. • Pressure controlled zones and characterization of • Location. condition and manoeuvrability. inspections should and client management system. including validation of type of valve operations to perform. the following must installation of new discharge valves.Point of Maximum Pressure. points of interest in the network. • Checking of the operational status of section valves of the main supply mains within the DMA and audit • Boundary valve limits.and verification of normal functioning. which include the following total volume of water billed. defining their where the overall shape is iterative. section valves of the main the status (open/closed) of DMA and subsystem/ supply mains within the DMA and identifying the supply zone limit valves. . using GIS. subsystem/supply zone or pressure telemetry should be applied. CPP – Critical Pressure performance. CCPP .flowmeters. Should large volume actions: clients be identified. PRV.Entry Point (next to the flowmeter). controlled zone boundary valves .4 DMA Planning Projects Point.Critical Client Pressure Point (client with the highest elevation supply point). high night consumption. of information obtained in the surveys and field hydraulic models should be applied to validate investigations throughout the process. identified by the GIS Based on the actions described. if none exist. In the first phase the provisional drawing of the DMA • Extremes and dead sections without consumption border should be prepared. If necessary. to propose consumption. then the installation of DMA. points and estimated pressure as the points raised. 65 • Clients supplied in the DMA. • Total length of pipes of the DMA and the average number and length of service connections. where pressure loggers equipment may be required to control DMA • Equipment associated with pressure monitoring implementation operations and subsequent tests. with the aim of created by closing DMA valves. particularly those with a significant impact on total DMA consumption or • Auditing of existing facilities . corresponding current status and existence of previous historical to their development resulting from the integration campaigns undertaken in the DMA. the influencing input and output DMA flowmeters and other reservoir. PAvg – that have impact on network hydraulic Average Pressure point. including the be conducted on-site. for continuous flowmeters.

8  DMA boundaries within the city of Lisbon distribution network . Active Water Loss Control 66 Figure 5.

analysis will be undertaken. being subsequently distributed to the field entry point. in addition to ensuring the effective closure in the GIS. should also the correct supply to clients according to the regulations. with analysis common method of which is the Pressure Zero Test (PZT). grouped by altimetric zones and DMAs. which will be operated at the time of 5.8 illustrates the existing Lisbon distribution network. • Confirm accessibility of future DMA boundary valves. the implementation process should be acceptable to 67 those areas of the company noted.operation. the most at the time of greatest consumption. construction and water network quality conjunction with telemetry data from the DMA control areas. recommended that small pilot areas are initiated to start provide for the effective closure of the DMA. thus guaranteeing such as hospitals and the Fire Service. of working resulting from DMA implementation. For its part. during periods of lower consumption. Thus. along with respective correction and of boundary valves and thus the DMA independence. point are consistent with the estimates. so it • Installing pressure loggers at the critical pressure may be necessary to implement a temporary polygon point (CPP) of the network. As already mentioned. if required. follows the • Closing of DMA boundary valves must be made validation phase. conduct a review and revision of the DMA design. pressure. namely operations. It should After collecting and organizing all data and taking into be emphasized that this test requires the suspension of account the information collection actions undertaken supply throughout the DMA and is therefore undertaken in the field. namely at the point until completion of the intended works. Sensitive consumers. Active Water Loss Control • Pumping accessories and equipment not included This test. of the impact on pressure values recorded at the . it is maintenance. be informed of these operations. the next step is validation of DMA project. After the DMA implementation phase. update. water quality and leak detection . to verify and validate the estimated team for eventual implementation of DMA. to test new ways the other areas involved in the process . Figure 5.5 DMA Implementation and Integrity implementation and check the status (if open) Confirmation of isolating valves belonging to major mains supplying the DMA. involving testing its integrity. ensures effective metering of DMA consumption through the monitoring points installed for this purpose. the Centre regarding closing of boundary valves implementation process should be implemented during in the network in order to prevent the possible a period of high consumption. in maintenance. the DMA is ready to be • Inform in advance the Operational Command implemented and tested. verifying that the mean impacts on network service or interference with network pressure values registered and those at the critical other work in progress.4. if the estimated pressure is not validated. After approval of the draft DMA proposal and termination of any network interventions. the following steps should be considered: monitoring points. With the records other operational areas in the utility. usually at night. or the process of DMA set-up. of highest elevation within the DMA in order to obtain pressure every minute for seven days The draft DMA proposal should always be validated by before locking-in the DMA. In some cases the DMA design may be conditioned to require works on the network. This is an iterative process which may require revisions to the design of the DMA polygon and hence identification To proceed with DMA implementation and Pressure of new valves or boundary locations for pressure Zero Tests. as it will imply changes • Validate DMA implementation by consensus with in the daily work of many teams.

as well with the definition of new borders. so they can be easily identified on the DMA when the supply is stopped by closing the ground by the operational and maintenance staff. Utility call centre teams the integrity of the new DMA and ensure the should be informed in order to prepare the most tightness of its boundary valves. programs to validate their operational status.9  Illustration of a Pressure Zero Test . The PZT requires analysis of the pressure curve at the • Undertake the sealing and labelling of DMA logger installed at the critical pressure point of boundary valves. in addition to the estimated values. If Any action involving DMA boundary valves should closing of boundary valves has been properly be reported immediately to the person responsible achieved during DMA closure. only for the supply within the DMA. the isolation valve at the single input DMA. A successful PZT will confirm the be undertaken and its design subsequently revised. Checks on the difference between input there is no negative impact on supply. then the pressure for network monitoring so that false alarms are not values should approach zero over a short time generated by the DMA monitoring system. the DMA is and output flow values should be conducted considered to be implemented. This test will be appropriate response to any complaints. For subsequent data analysis. the being consumed so as to minimize the impact rapid opening of the DMA boundary valves should on supply. If there applied preferably in the morning following DMA is a significantly negative impact on network implementation during hours when less water is pressure. Active Water Loss Control Critical Pressure point. to include a weekend record. Pressure Zero Test (PZT) 45 40 35 Pressure at Critical Point (m) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0:00 0:10 0:20 0:30 0:40 0:50 1:00 1:10 1:20 1:30 1:40 1:50 2:00 2:10 2:20 2:30 2:40 2:50 3:00 3:10 3:20 3:30 3:40 3:50 4:00 4:10 4:20 4:30 4:40 4:50 5:00 5:10 5:20 5:30 5:40 5:50 6:00 Figure 5. confirming the actual DMA closing valves must be catalogued in a database and annual and consequently. its correct implementation. pressure should 68 continue to be registered at the datalogger • Undertaken Pressure Zero Test using the installed at the Critical Pressure point for nine Critical Pressure monitoring point to confirm days. installation of as the lack of unknown connections as inputs or an additional input or total DMA redefinition. actual closing all DMA boundary valves. The interval. If outputs.

Implementation 69 normalized within three minutes. The purpose of this calculation is the have been implemented. At this internal or external server. The observed records should of data is essential for proper understanding and demonstrate the correct DMA operation and management of a water distribution network. which can be made available to later point. Management and must be installed in the remaining pressure Treatment of Information and Data monitoring points – namely minimum elevation point (PMax) and average point (PAvg) .also The use of a reliable system of recording and reporting for nine days. the choice of particular After stabilization of the process of continuous DMA technical solution can determine the achievement of monitoring and ensuring the existence of a reasonable monitoring objectives of the water supply network. pH.10  Dataloggers and Telemetry Equipment . zero pressure can be observed 15 minutes later. pressure or other variables.5 Collection. dataloggers 5. Given the supply to clients within regulatory conditions. chlorine. then flow and pressure data will be collected and analysed. installed Figure 5. These records will allow For control and monitoring of water supply systems. data.9 illustrates the undertaking of Pressure Zero in the network. historical record. These devices also have the ability to Pressure. notably the use of data-logging establishment of priorities for leak detection action equipment that allow automatic collection of consumption within the network. the inlet DMA valve was opened and pressure different users and for varying purposes. in which the DMA entrance is closed and the remotely download and store this data in a central. of such systems using telemetry enables more frequent Figure 5. from flowmeters or probes such as pressure sensors. Active Water Loss Control • Following completion of the PZT. calculation of the DMA water balance to identify different registration and data transmission systems levels of losses. multiplicity of existing equipment on the market and diversity of its characteristics.

a situation that is considered one of the most of capacity development to organize and analyse data. This phase will be implemented in order to enable active management of network in a real-time monitoring system. Pressure data allows the creation Figure 5. allow rapid intervention during the implementation process as well as large in case of sudden changes. give warnings about consumption 70 Figure 5. by direct analysis of any way. effective solutions for the reduction of real losses in a In most utilities the volume of information is very large distribution network. Active Water Loss Control readings and reliable records. or customers. All pressure and flow data provided by telemetry. in addition to allowing calculation of that allows storage and provision in clear and structured the water balance can also.10 illustrates various types of telemetry equipment. according to their needs. including major disruptions or system in question. in accordance with the objectives defined. anticipating complaints. can be divided according to the type of information collected. They also allow the diagnosis of the information to make it available to various areas of the source of problems in pressure sensitive areas. variations noted. and it is fundamental to aggregate and ensure the proper handling of data available on a single software platform Flow data.12  DMA Daily Control page . flow records.11  WONE Monitoring Dashboard Figure 5. supporting their the basis for definition of new pressure controlled areas. providing company. provide valuable information on the supply more serious situations. thus eliminating the need There are numerous gains for utilities arising from to estimate whilst reducing uncertainty attributable to the availability of these properly treated pressure and human factors. It is up to the utility managing this service interruptions. allowing the next stage pressures. of alarms in different network zones and DMA entry points. decisions to intervene. associated with DMA and pressure monitoring points These alarms when activated.

from which it is possible consumption alarms and measured values outside the to prioritize attention of leak detection teams. prioritizing intervention between the DMA volumes. alerts are . enabling the identification of in the monitored area. including the minimum flow rate per daily flow rate of each DMA.000 clients per km of network.11 and 5. their monitoring points and clients. defined limits. DMA performance indicators including minimum and maximum daily flow. night flow. pressure anomalies or zero total performance at any given time. an indicator that has proven 1. total daily volume and The WONE application provides an additional set recoverable losses and pressure variation alarms. in which generated to include DMA monitoring points without it is possible to verifiy which DMAs have the worst data communication. including for automatic DMA performance ranking. it allows calculation of various DMA to reliably reflect the greater or lesser likelihood of leaks performance indicators. based on example. In addition. A set of performance indicators for each DMA that allows of performance indicators is calculated. the percentage of minimum flow to the average various indicators.000 clients or per km of network.Water Optimization for Network eficiency). Active Water Loss Control values. Figures 5. as well as the daily total and night DMAs which are potentially recording excessive water flow per 1.13  DMA Ranking . with the losses and which should be the priority objective of aim of organizing performance ranking. consulting more detailed information The WONE application produces statistical analysis of about each area. the user can still navigate all DMA data.12 illustrate information made This information is systematized in a table which lists available by a dedicated application for monitoring all DMAs and identifies performance levels within a and control of water losses in supply networks (WONE set of predefined colour codes. From this page. comparing and active water loss control interventions. the authorized night 71 Figure 5. In addition.

This process can be done the invoicing of clients supported and joined with the through the construction and implementation an array GIS tools. the information will be with operational and maintenance activities on the collected from flow meters installed at the entrances and network.14  Optimized DMA analysis and control process regarding flow directions. Active Water Loss Control flow. to identify which areas are most critical The integration and linking this information with data on in terms of network losses. DMA data integration into existing Leak Repair Leakage management systems and DMA performance ranking & Target Target has produced systems which are used not only to support Validation Definition active leakage control intervention). verification of night flow rates and The existence of this type of structure also allows mean pressures that occur in the areas under review. but also to support Network rehabilitation interventions planning as an aid to operational problem diagnosis and the distribution network management under normal operating regimes as well as alternative operational scenarios. exits of the DMA will enable the calculation of the water balance of the DMA. redefining DMA limits and targeting a more balanced size and operation. as a more strategic planning of future interventions. Leak Pin-Point Macro Leak The flow data and validation of flow directions in the Detection network. the total system. allow better understanding of network functioning.13). resulting from DMA 72 implementation . Moreover. the treatment and will characterize each network area. amongst which can organization of data and its availability throughout the be noted the following: . the initial objective of of NRW management. In this context. even in situations of lack of reliable flow From this information you can create rankings to make measurement or inability to undertake sectorisation of the intervention in DMA according to their performance. will enable greater efficiency in detecting the of risk assessment in accordance with a set of criteria that level of leakage results. Knowledge Figure 5. since the closing of the DMA may contribute to flow velocity increase. inevitable 1 infrastructure losses and recoverable losses. with a view continuous monitoring. including the input and output flow directions 4 3 of the DMA and how they vary during the day according to the mode of operation of the network. is the development of a strategy to managing water losses efficiently and its connection for managing water losses. Thus. may prove to be very useful in cases of poor water quality. the utility. as well and can be used for medium or long term planning. (Figure 5. it is recommended that utilities balance the setting up of DMAs with the primary objective Given the theme discussed. ensuring the collection and network sectorisation and consequent obtaining data via consolidation of all available information. Metering & The WONE application has proved an essential tool Telemetry for network optimization and active leakage control . mean pressure in the last seven days. This information company in the form of useful information will allow provides a more rapid identification of the greater or making correct decisions and sustainability relating to lesser requirement of each area in terms of water supply the operation and optimization of the network. which contribute directly to NRW reduction in the Lisbon 5 2 distribution network.

In this context. This module allows for quick consultation of first ranking the potentially most problematic areas of relevant DMA performance indicators and associated network and in need of most urgent intervention. supported by properly treated monitoring data. experience and mastery of the techniques involved. to progressively adopt a more structured approach. • Type of socio-demographic occupation. • Soil characteristics.15 . metering and monitoring problems as well as gaining • Annual burst frequency. Active Water Loss Control 73 Figure 5. whilst simultaneously developing the process for sub- • Network pressure and daily variation. it is considered important to have geolocalisation module that allows spatial visualization This methodology will. • Groundwater level.15  Geolocalisation map of Lisbon DMAs • Network age and materials. . without great risk. a monitoring points. establish the of DMAs. start can be made to locate and resolve existing problems. as ilustrated in Figure 5. Thus.


with the water being Interventions must be preceded by an analysis process absorbed by the adjacent soils. or if possible. The surveillance gained of ongoing diagnostic of network efficiency. Thus. confirmed using detailed networks. The same can be said to happen with leak appearance of water in the street or network infra. requires operators to adopt measures to combat analysis and in particularly in DMAs diagnosed as under- 75 invisible water losses. the application of leak detection techniques should This problem.1 General Considerations person with disease that consults a doctor to try and resolve the problem. detection and application of related techniques. preventing an increase of the DMA minimum The application of water leak detection techniques flows and consequently the volume of water lost. These leaks are usually caused by mains bursts or in the associated elements. which should be based on analysis performing in terms of efficiency. Only by luck their occurrence is not evident in decreases in customer or great experience is the doctor able to effectively cure service levels such as lack of supply pressure or the this disease. supported by by continuous monitoring of network activities allow for monitoring and sectorisation strategies (see Figure 6.1). using equipment and techniques for monitoring are already clear signs of the occurrence of bursts and and leak detection. leakage detection to be possible early in the life cycle of a burst. from which the doctor decides to A significant proportion of existing leaks in a water prescribe a drug judging the solution only on the situation distribution network are not easily detectable because presented without any process of diagnosis. the lifecycle of a leak can inefficiencies within a distribution network. without any prior analysis to identify priority intervention areas cannot produce practical effects in reducing As can be seen in Figure 6. Active Water Loss Control 6.1  Leak Detection Strategy Definition . Imagine a be extremely long and may even occur for years. Leak Detection and Localisation 6. structure. This requires that utilities for the given network length. which is common to all distribution be applied in priority areas. to quantify water losses underground infrastructure. infrastructure or draining to identify areas of the distribution network where more into aquifers. difficulties in determining the exact location of the leak. subterranean streams or in other existing water is lost.2. thus Leak Detection Strategy Definition g a ti o n a li f i c a t i o n n rin if i c Qu ti o ir te nt ca pa Ide Me Lo Re ➜ ➜ ➜ ➜ What is the flow? How much is lost? What is the priority? Where is it lost? Resolution Figure 6. The application of leak establish effective mechanisms to locate these invisible detection should be used only in cases where there leaks.

3).3  Integration of network monitoring with leak detection .Assessment of minimum.% Minimum-to-average flow . indicator analysis .Total & Nightline volume.2  Life cycle of a leak representing a huge waste of water to utilities. In addition. size and may even set specific targets for leak detection teams it is apparent that their occurrence cannot imply immediate once it is possible to measure the problem and evaluate the appearance of visible evidence that allow its rapid detection. DMA ranking of intervention Definition of target nightline & . Intensive system DMA monitoring Initial DMA performance . 76 the possibility that utilities can act much more quickly and there is a clear distinction between the procedures for effectively when the leaks occur or grow to a considerable leak detection and location of leaks.Authorised consumption (monitored & estimated) priority recoverable losses & unavoidable leakage (UARL) Selection of leak detection Boundary valve verification techniques NO Communication of repair Leak location request TARGET YES NIGHTLINE Leak repair ACHIEVED? Figure 6. Active Water Loss Control Figure 6. effectiveness of their intervention (see Figure 6. Therefore it appears that the great advantage inherent in the association with a leak detection monitoring strategy is During interventions to eliminate leakage process.

As can be seen in Figure 6. it is understood thus initiating the leak detection process. followed by remaining methodologies to focus on or simply the inability to maintain sufficient water supply.5  Flow profile alteration due to a progressively larger leak occurance . the exact location of the problem. by the possibility of identifying a poor performing DMA through a higher than expected flow rate.4  Flow profile alteration identified in a monitoring system Leak detection aims to identify the onset of one or of the leak until excavation and repair. Active Water Loss Control 1200 14 12 1000 Potential leak 10 800 8 600 6 4 400 2 200 0 0 -2 Daily Input Value (m3) Minimum Night Flow (m3/h) Target Night Flow (m3/h) Figure 6.4. exact and is the process of any activity which allows for more precise and correct identification of the positioning Where the monitoring systems identify a deviation 1200 25 1000 20 800 15 600 10 400 5 200 0 0 Daily Input Value (m3) Minimum Night Flow (m3/h) Target Night Flow (m3/h) Figure 6. This activity should more leaks in a certain area of the network. Thus. In the case of a that the leak location process is one that leads to decision 77 sectorised and monitored network this process is facilitated making for conducting a survey on the ground. which can enable the macro-location of leakage in monitored sub- be supported by evidence from the monitoring processes areas. the existence of systems for monitoring and observation of information generated The actual locating of a leak may be approximate or facilitates diagnose of problem occurrence.

the utility must instigate an investigation be combined between different DMAs.6).5 400 3 390 2. a process of investigation to minimum. between fixed night hours. prior whole process of identification of the problem without to and following active leakage control interventions.5 360 1 350 0.5 illustrates a situation of this nature. These two is the basis of DMA Analysis Projects.5 380 Estimated potential recoverable losses 2 370 1. depending on consumption patterns or consumer charateristics. considering a two-phase evolution of these indicators and allows comparison of intervention approach. performance involves daily determining of the minimum night flow rate and the total daily volume of each Once a potential water leak problem in the network has monitored zone (Figure 6. time and resources. there are 6. based on the application of acoustic form of chart or table to other computer applications and survey or other appropriate techniques. This information.5 410 4 3. immediately alerting monitoring Another essential aspect in the analysis of the DMA teams. Active Water Loss Control from the normal or accepted consumption profile. highlights the of the causes of the problem. with a gradual increase in consumption. where in the effect on consumption profile is relatively clear. This information can be exported in the leak location. based on the methodology adapted from intervention areas. Although the situation illustrated in the previous figure corresponds to a sudden leak. accelerating the gains quantified in terms of minimum night flows. thus Note that the minimum nightline may use the absolute detecting a potential leak. utilities are highlighting the importance of these support tools. which is more difficult Network leak location requires specific techniques to detect without the use of support monitoring systems. hence as mentioned above. and equipment. the hourly rolling hour minimum or avarage locate the origin should be initiated. the first approaching aiming for the minimum night flow with theoretical target flow rates approximate. which can automatically detect the existence of a potential water leak. in which are the approaches should be complementary. unnecessary waste of effort. which can been detected.5 340 0 Daily Input Value (m3) Minimum Night Flow (m3/h) Target Night Flow (m3/h) Figure 6. based on a process of narrowing down for each DMA. with the second aiming for the exact 78 IWA proposals. 420 4.6  Daily Total and Minimum Nightline Flow Graph .2 Leak Localisation Techniques instances where leaks have a progressive nature. Figure strongly advised to have adequate software systems 6.

Acoustic Loggers. • Sub-zoning or internal subdivision of the DMA It may be noted that in situations of an absence without supply suspension.Hydrogen or Helium techniques or methodologies including: Detectors. a) Technical Approach to Leak Location: • Drop test applied to reservoirs and mains. of monitoring systems or of a preliminary DMA implementation stage. listening networks. detection cycles. in particular by ensuring the correlators.mathematical noise area under investigation. a strategy of detailed inspection and regular network directed to areas where there is a greater rate of • Pressure mapping along supply mains. b) Techniques for Exact Leak Location: detection teams should be directed to a process of overall coverage or leakage sweeping of these supply • Acoustic Sounding . it should be possible to adopt • Sequential Step-testing and supply closure. defining a maximum interval between sticks and geophones. 79 . In such cases. burst occurrences in customer service connections or in older sections of the networks. existence of section valves or access points to the network should be adjusted to apply the following • Tracer Gas Injection . Active Water Loss Control Depending on the size and characteristics of the • Acoustic Correlation .

Active Water Loss Control 6. namely the existence and operability of section identification of excessive consumption in a DMA is valves or the presence of possible network restrictions. In the first case.1 DMA Sub-zoning In either case. To this end. it is essential that or simply choose not to have that information.7  Process of DMA sub-zoning meter installation . The aim is to reduce requirements for The number of sub-areas designed should be adjusted application of precise leak location techniques by depending on the size of the study system and flow rate considerably shortening the length of the network profile. enabling analysis of correlation This type of test can be performed in just a few hours between the drop in flow of the study DMA and or over several days. since it is impractical to have a technician to 80 TRANSFERED NETWORK DMA meter DMA valve closed Temporary closed Temporary valve boundary Figure 6. Ideally.8  DMA Sub-zoning schematic with provisional Figure 6. implying the consequent different monitoring points. the impact opening valves DMA boundary valves and closure of valve operations and internal DMA boundary changes of internal DMA valves. If there variation can be undertaken by direct meter observation. In the second case. install flow measurement in the transferred areas is not necessary. which creates a change in the should be correlated with the flows recorded at the design of the DMA boundary. Figure 6. an analysis of flow corresponding increase in the neighbouring area.2. the utility may choose to temporarily though use of a monitoring device. in particular a logger. only flow rate data registering and monitoring equipment analysing the drop in flow within the study DMA. this transfer must be undertaken in monitored neighbouring areas. the with the potential leak location. After the test. is used.7 illustrates this process of sub-zoning. a procedure for checking conditions prior to implementation of this type of test should be The technique of sub-zoning is applied when created. considered. critical area in terms of leaks. in order to enhance test results and alignment requiring leak detection interventions. is no monitoring. which will identify the most "transfer" of subzones to neighbouring DMA(s).

it should be possible to know the losses used for permanent recording of flow rates (see Figure associated with each sub-zone.8). of each of these small DMAs. With monitoring of each of the different area monitoring point.9). Observation of a significant reduction in flow rate profile during a valve operation indicates the presence of It is important to note that the opening of DMA boundary one or more leaks in the suspended area or a potential valves can cause changes in water quality. To ensure complete sectioning and independence Figure 6. it may be required to resort to the installation of one or 6.2. Thus.2 Step Testing more meters at certain boundary points. of these valves. as well as applying a Pressure made upon observation of the measured flow at the Zero Test. the initial DMA will be monitored The principle application of this technique is to reduce subdivided into two distinct zones. creating small temporary DMAs. Active Water Loss Control manually register flows at monitoring points throughout of pipe without considerable regular consumption upstream the test period. one of which may be the size of the area being studied by closing internal supplied from a neighbouring DMA via a cascade (Figure valves and consequent suspension of water supply (see 6. 81 Valve 2 Valve 3 Subzone B Subzone C Subzone B DMA meter Valve 1 Subzone A Subzone C Subzone D Subzone A Valves 4 e 5 Subzone D DMA meter Test valve to close Figure 6.9  Step Testing Schematic . In these cases a discharge using a specific valve or fire hydrant must be performed beforehand in order In DMAs where subareas are transferred to neighbouring to mitigate potential problems with water quality. where monitoring equipment can be entrance points. 6. it may be necessary to verify all section valves operated and closed to create Assessment of the impact of these operations is the temporary boundary. if there is a length illegal connection with leakage or consumption.10). DMA and where this may cause disruptions to supply.

requires the test itself to be undertaken at night time. To define and characterize the step test area it is necessary to determine: i. • The risk of causing changes in water quality or blocking of building networks and residential meters as a result C. iii. Checking the status of valves to be operated • Requirement to ensure the watertight integrity during the test. vii. Surrounding valves (Completed for removing by-passes and to create a root and branch-style • The reduction of the supply suspension impact network). . namely: iv. of internal section valves. Boundary valves (closed to isolate the DMA area). A discharge program plan for reducing potential particles deposited inside the mains. be remembered that there are some customers. Street names and mains layout. it is advisable to collect the following information prior to application: M3/h 1º 2º 3º 4º 5º 6º 7º 8º A. in accordance with ii. such as hospitals or hotels. as well as to optimise results. position (open or closed) and direction of closure. The number of properties in the area. noting any customers with night critical aspects that may hinder or prevent the application consumption. Active Water Loss Control To apply this technique. 82 i. water quality issues. Develop a plan of the Step-Test area with indication of : sub-area. originating from authorized consumption. The number of metered clients with water consumption during the night. Preparation for the test: of service reinstatement after supply suspension may increases the flow velocity. and avoidance of potential influences on the test results. of this methodology. Figure 6. which in turn may require the payment of v. however. to staff overtime hours. thus releasing debris or i. iv. The number of unmetered non-household It should.test). which can potentially cause disruptions in the distribution network.10  Effect of Step Test on DMA flow profile iii. because of the depressurization with an estimate of their night consumption to assist and subsequent re-pressurization of the in further analysis of test data. • May involve prior warning to customers affected by the supply suspension. Sequential valve (operated during the step. Numbers of valves. the internal utility rules or legal obligation by regulatory notices. All other valves are not used during the testing. avoid mistakenly opening them. Time ii. Verify positions and details of commercial customers technical teams. which involves undertaking of Pressure Zero Tests (PZT) in each B. infrastructure. • A feeling of insecurity may be created for the vi.

the closing operation of valves account the characteristics of network analysis. The choice distribution and reduced influence on flow velocity. suspend supply to major night consumers or premises with overnight tank refilling. of piezometric levels between two successive points is this type of test should possibly be considered as a relevant. LOGGER iii. The technique of mapping the pressures along supply This technique can be further improved by using a 83 mains may be applied when excessive DMA consumption calibrated distribution network hydraulic model. v. resources. techniques have been applied to locate water leaks. technical capacity of existing human more direct flow. loggers should be installed. the of high flow rates created by excessive consumption. it is expected that excessive consumption can be last resort and only after previous efforts using other located in the section of mains or network between them.3 Mains Pressure Mapping this zone is likely not to be considered critical. Step-testing is the Analysis of this mapping exercise encompasses technique which has the greatest impact on customer verification of piezometric elevations (ground elevation service. since the losses are directly influenced by velocity. if there are no changes to the piezometric key point to highlight when step-testing is that of carefull . as there is a large flow the application of the varying techniques noted. This requirement also makes it difficult to apply in DMA with There are many aspects that differentiate and influence a high level of inter-connections. Close valves that do not interrupt client supply 40 Leak during the day. vi. as this can is identified and involves a substantial increase in flow contribute to a better understanding of flow distribution and velocities. thus ensuring a equipment available. computationally. interpreting results. 37 iv. creates the potential for increased values calculated along each profile. which in turn. Close remaining valves in the evening before LOGGER starting the test. synchronized with each other pressure monitoring and also for greater confidence in so as to allow for a comparative analysis between them. legal or regulatory requirements and especially customer service quality impacts. A Otherwise. In addition. Thus. Figure 6. Whenever possible. Verify meters of users that cannot be suspended and subtract their night flow or if feasible. elevation profiles between two successive points. To of the test type to the detriment of another must take into minimize this situation. because it implies supply suspension and can plus instantaneous pressure) at each pressure monitoring cause problems in terms of water quality or bursts in the point installed and systematic comparison of the network. then 6. monitoring within the DMA may be considered. When the decay suspension periods in order to repair these bursts.2. Take the initial night flow reading. most likely places of excessive consumption. For this purpose various pressure monitoring thus support selection of the preferred locations to install loggers may be installed. Check if the supply is not interrupted for customers at risk or those with special needs.11  Pressure Mapping Schematic vii. Active Water Loss Control ii. model calibration routines Note that this technique is far more reliable in cases can be included in order to locate.

leak detecting and locating interventions in all areas of a distribution network. the diversity of new materials 6. such as access points to the interior of the mains.2. by a leak which propagates through the mains and accessories. Example solutions include the Acoustic survey involves listening for leak noise directly injection of a tracer gas inside the mains or non-intrusive on the network accessories or on the ground surface. These techniques include a combination of ground radar. combined with low operating pressure and lack of access The application of acoustic survey techniques must points. These are generally more intrusive and require the prior creation of specific conditions that permit their 6. the most common being based on true detection systems. such examples are the Sahara acoustic methodologies. if valves are not operated sufficiently slowly. There are various techniques applicable for the exact sound or video inspection technology.4 Techniques for precise leak location use. have conditioned the application of acoustic follow a methodology of successive approximation techniques to most distribution networks. ground microphone or listening stick.1 Acoustic Surveying used in networks. detecting the noise caused developed by WRC. especially with plastic mains. However. This reality to the origin of permanent noise caused by a leak. 84 acoustic inspection with a hydrophone. hence the survey aimed at locating leaks in harsh conditions.4. The results overcome the constraints mentioned above. in order to aim to along the alignment of supply infrastructure. often much greater than during the day. in change from zero to maximum pressure can lead to bursts particular larger diameter mains or softer plastic pipes. functioning as location of leaks.2. Active Water Loss Control valve operation. produced with this type of surveying are more effective Leak B Figure 6. Network pressure will be at its highest at The market has presented innovative solutions acoustic night. suppliers to invent new technical solutions to enable correlators. has challenged utilities and leak detection equipment using specific equipment.12  Leak Noise Propagation A . including acoustic loggers. Smart Ball or JD7 Bullet.

In these cases. the existence of a minimum possible supply will be greater when the number of listening points to be pressure is significant for leakage noise detection. specific limitations on their potential application. detection work without the need for supply suspension. However. defined by a particular range of frequencies (see a tracer gas. adapting the mains diameters or soil type. the following may be highlighted: 85 Figure 6. The noise is distributed use of different acoustic detection equipment to analyse along the pipe at a speed dependent on the particular each case. utilities is specific to that leak and dependent upon such factors should also examine network characteristics and the as the type and size of the orifice.12). This sounded is highest. a pipeline under pressure emits a permanent specific other techniques can be applied such as the injection of noise. thus allowing analysis of the intensity of the leak this technique is the possibility of undertaking the noise in different accessories of the network. material and experience and ability of each operator. continuous supply because at certain times of the day the minimum conditions necessary for the application Acoustic methods are based on the fact that a leak in of acoustic techniques are not available. The distribution of noise frequencies generated by a leak Alongside the inherent supply conditions. pressure. noting that all of these new techniques have Figure 6. Active Water Loss Control if they are applied directly on to mains network access One of the main advantages of the application of points. acoustic surveying.13  Installation of acoustic noise loggers . the time allocated to such activities of exact leak location Moreover. hence utilities must make a balance premise assumes utmost importance in systems without between available resources and expected results. characteristics of the material with a smaller noise trail dissipating with the greater the distance between the Amongst the equipment most commonly used for leak and the listening point.

5 bar. performed in dense or complicated urban and therefore require a minimum allowable pressure for use of 1. Its size and configuration allow this type of equipment to be installed in tight spaces. with data collected the next day by technicians and subsequently analyzed In the planning the installation process. patrols distances if they are placed in plastic pipes such as HDPE may be conducted. equipment can be A leak detected by a set of noise loggers is closest to transferred successively between locations. reducing to less than 80 meters of leakage). This unique feature negates the need for leak detection teams on permanent night work. two important in the field or in the office environment (see Figure 6. recording the noise propagated night. The results of acoustic measurements are collected as noise propagation is greatly influenced by these two through a patrol unit. in the case of permanently installed to 200 meters. In general current devices on the market. until all the unit which has registered the highest noise intensity the network is inspected for leakage in an operation over a regular sampling period. aspects must be considered.m. In the case of non-resident equipment. as this is not its function. The distance between units installed may be up radio or via GSM / GPRS. which connects with each logger via factors. as they can operate autonomously after its programming. so as to be able to use all available points of contact in the water supply network. In parallel. if they are installed in metal mains with units (usually installed in places with frequent reappearance a high service pressure. or on foot when and PVC. Active Water Loss Control a) Acoustic Loggers An acoustic logger is a compact unit comprising an acoustic sensor (accelerometer) and a programmable datalogger. The exact leak location is not usually detected by caused by traffic or movement of people. large areas with little effort and effective inspection of areas where there may be noise during the daytime. given that there is only minor interference from ambient noise and consumption is minimal. including the distribution network mains material and existing pressure service. 86 this type of equipment also allows that problematic leak The loggers should be programmed correctly and detection intervention areas can be inspected during the installed during the day. Installation of this usually identified by a high decibel level and little scatter equipment in the supply network enables a "sweep" of in the respective frequency range observed. not requiring the presence of a technician to make noise recordings. with a schedule to monitor noise leakage at night time. The equipment is installed during the day.14  Acoustic Patrol Loggers costs associated with water loss control. When scanning large areas. this type of equipment. greater difficulty with communication (see Figure 6. when the best conditions for leak detection works are met.. using a patrol car.13). The proximity to a leak is frequently referred to as “Lift & Shift”. which has a magnet for ensuring contact between the sensor and valves. without risking staff safety and security. regardless of the mains material. This . Acoustic loggers achieved a great popularity amongst operators. usually between 2:00 and 4:00a. reducing Figure 6. along infrastructure during the night.14). fire hydrants or metal pipe section itself.

16  Use of Geophone or Ground Microphone . service another type of leak detection equipment. is placed in the soil above the are usually detected on the ground surface in the 200 to main at regular intervals of one or two metres.15  Use of Listening Stick Figure 6. located (see Figure 6. Active Water Loss Control indicates the existence of leakage in the vicinity around In applying acoustic survey inspection methods.000 Hz. the ground microphone or geophone. in order to reduce effort and investment surface above the main. which can be perceived at different In this context. hydrants. a geophone or ground associated with excavations. b) Listening sticks and Geophone/Ground Microphones Having identified the peak noise leakage in a section of pipe between two points. connections or other network accessories. network mains between 600 and 2. with this equipment following the same principle of detection using an amplified electro- It should be emphasized that the pressure caused acoustic signal (see Figure 6. 87 Leak Leak Figure 6. the leak can be virtually Once the search area for a leak has been reduced. by use of leakage by direct contact with valves. in order 600 Hz frequency range and directly on the distribution to detect the exact leak location. through a listening stick with an amplified electro-acoustic signal. by water leakage causes vibration in the pipe and surrounding ground. These vibrations vehicle traffic and wind. microphone is utilized. approximation techniques to pin-point the exact leak location should be applied with an approximate error When this method is applied to listen to the ground of one metre.16). frequencies and heard through a device similar in which must be protected with filters against noise from operation to an amplified stethoscope. the installation site which is considered to be suspect interventions are undertaken by listening to the noise and thus subject to a more detailed inspection.15).

Active Water Loss Control

c) Acoustic Correlation In cases where the distance between sensors, which
are of the magnetic accelerometer type, do not allow
The acoustic correlator is one of the most effective tools simultaneous listening of the same noise at both ends of
for locating water leaks. The method of operation allows the section under scrutiny, then the method cannot be
determination of the exact leak location, functioning by applied. However, hydrophone sensors may be applied
using mathematic calculation of the time delay between on to the main or installed directly in contact with water,
two signals (frequency curves) from the same noise with these having a higher noise reception range. This
source – namely, the potential leak (see Figure 6.17). variant is very common for application on plastic pipes
or where there are few accessories for sensor installation.
Therefore, the instrument does not seek the point of
greatest noise, but instead proceeds to listen using two The signal from each of the two installed sensors
different points on buried mains and determine the relative are typically use radio communication to a central
leak position, by cross-correlation for each of these points. processing console, where the data application will
The latest versions of this type of instrument allow leak be parameterized, in particular the distance between
location with a high degree of precision, usually with errors sensors, mains material and diameter. When using a
of less than one metre, using the following calculation: correlator as an inspection tool, peak in the correlation


d1 = L - ( v * ∆t )


d1 - leak distance from sensor 1;
L - leak distance between sensors;
v - noise velocity propagation for the relevant diameter and
material type;
Δt - delay in noise reception between sensors.

Note that any error relating to the distance between the
sensors may result in an error in the leak location equal
to half the initial error. The same will happen if there is
an inaccuracy in the noise velocity propagation, resulting
from an error in defining the material and diameter of the
mains. Note that where there is a change in the mains
material along the section being analysed and thus
behaviour, the material and diameter of each section
should be considered, although this is likely to introduce
inaccuracies in the noise velocity propagation.

Figure 6.17  Deploying a Correlator

Active Water Loss Control

graph leads to the suggestion that it is a leak is present In the latter case, the process begins with the installation
(Figure 6.18). of a pressure data logger at the lowest elevation point, to
be followed by the suspension of all connections to the
The correlation equipment is portable and simple to main and finally closing of the remaining water inlet valve.
install and can be operated by one person. For refinement After this procedure, there should be a drop in the water
and analysis results, the equipment usually has the column pressure to the elevation of the leak. Knowing
option of selecting multiple frequency filters. However, the layout of the mains elevation, the location of the leak
there are some leaks which are very difficult to locate can thus be identified with accuracy depending on the
even with a correlator, particularly for low pressure, large accuracy of the pressure logger (see Figure 6.19).
diameter mains of non-metallic materials and infrequent
contact points for microphone installation. Tracer Gas Injection

Before conducting a correlation inspection, a program This method of detection involves the supply suspension
of leak detection plan should be created, including a site of the mains section where a leak is suspected, where a
plan with all valves and hydrants to be used in inspection tracer gas is then injected and subsequently detected on
indicated and which must be numbered and ordered, the surface above the mains alignment.
along with a table indicating the total length of pipes and
the estimated distance between the test points. This method is very effective, although costly because it
involves consumables, including the tracer gas itself and Static Pressure Decay Test should be applied only as a last resort. It is estimated that
about 20% of water leaks do not produce enough noise
This method, potentially also referred to as a water for application of acoustic methods, in particular due to
tightness test, is currently used for the detection of leaks reduced pressure or low noise propagation by plastic
in reservoirs and can also be applied to testing of pipes materials; hence these cases should be considered for
with an ascending longitudinal profile. this method.

Figure 6.18  Acoustic Correlation and correlation graph

Active Water Loss Control

Registered pressure Pressure [mca]
Leak 60
30m 40



Figure 6.19   Static Pressure Decay Test

The process starts with supply suspension of the test most common for use in mains with water for human
section, as well as all service connections, prior to injecting consumption. In both cases, the gas has a very small and
a tracer gas through a hydrant or similar accessory, with volatile molecule allowing it to easily escape through a
sufficient pressure so as to be released through the leak leak hole and allow subsequent detection on the surface.
hole in the main (see Figure 6.20). Once stabilized, a gas
detector device is used to trace along the surface above To implement this method, it first necessary to ensure
the mains being analysed. Once the gas is detected on the availability of a sufficient volume of gas to fill the full
surface, concentration values are observed, with higher extent of the main under test, whilst it is important to
values corresponding to greatest leak proximity. suspend all service connections or other connecting
mains, around the suspected leak location section. The
Various tracer gases may be used for these tests, with injection process must be as slow as possible to avoid
helium or a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen being the damage to the pipe.

Active Water Loss Control 91 Figura 6.20  Tracer Gas Injection Method .


the fact that when utilities change from a campaigns or by including financial incentives in the relatively passive attitude towards the problem of water client tariff in order to reward better economy. Technical areas and type of information conveyed to them. made available from monitoring. pressing that. there is a release of resources. but also tends to be a catalyst for a profound industrial clients in order to adopt measures that would behavioural change within the organisation. gives rise to new developments. Organisational changes for Active Leakage Control Implementation of an integrated monitoring and active utility managers may include the theme of conservation leakage control strategy by a utility. creating the so-called "snowball effect" that. This permits the various teams to start looking levels. well as better use of water by utilities. and reagent consumption. Later. the existence of valuable information activities and which are equally important for any utility. provides improved thus contributing to improving overall performance. considering efficiency and cost reduction . clients will be more sensitive to into the problem of water losses as a key objective for the these issues and demand faster repair of visible leaks. this tends to promote an increase in motivation habits. lead to the elimination or reduction of unnecessary consumption. knowledge of the supply system and more efficient risk management. initially gives rise to a new dynamism across the utility management to maintain or further increase efficiency structure. better analysis and increasing standards requirement. increased significantly since active clients resulting from interventions in the network. Information available in the WONE application guarantees the sustainable management of EPAL assets. the implementation of energy efficiency WONE also gave rise to a cultural change at different policies can also have an impact on client service and the levels and areas of the company. usually leads not only and efficient water use in its commercial marketing. In parallel. in terms of redundancy and possible replacement. to increased operational. assessing the performance of operational infrastructure. both human and financial. in conjunction with when these actions create positive benefits and the the emergence of positive results arising from the new majority of clients have adopted improved consumption strategy. It is expected that commercial department have adopted the concept. financial and environmental raising awareness among domestic. This can be done by launching awareness Indeed. that can be channelled into other 93 Alternatively. there is a new type of social judgment. In this sense. as operator. losses to a proactive approach. leakage control activities started to be based on DMA ranking and targeting of the worst performing areas. efficiency increases. Active Water Loss Control 7. in turn. productivity of technical teams. particularly in terms of energy optimization In the case of EPAL. commercial and efficiency. whilst minimizing impacts to as regards leakage. contributing to No less important is the fact that when operational performance improvement at different levels.

Client Management System. namely water. considering In short. This and evaluation and also as a tool for distribution network implementation can be undertaken with more or less monitoring. in terms of redundancy and possible replacement. Importantly. there is a clear interest in these approaches that in utility efficiency management. Currently. contributing to the overall improvement Thus. safeguarding their performance. tools such as GIS. performance of operational infrastructure. gradual or phased. allowing an increase in their sustainable management of EPAL assets. assessing the contribution throughout the project. who undertake to a fundamental start should be made as soon as possible safeguard an essential resource for life. 94 . Active Water Loss Control whilst the application is used daily as a management tool on the processes leading to project implementation. but should be guided by an WONE has enabled the optimization of client service overall objective. which can information available in the application guarantees the also be iteratively improved. speed. implementation of an integrated monitoring efficiency and cost reduction. strategy and active leakage control is a worthy option at all levels. taking into account the need to create levels and it was thus possible to detect leaks in private favourable conditions for essential information and basic networks hitherto unknown by the owners.

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