HTML

Sevenhills Pvt. Ltd.,

Contents at a Glance
HTML 1 HTML BASICS................................................................................................................4 A QUICK LOOK AT NOTEPAD AND WEB BROWSERS......................................................................4 TAGS & ATTRIBUTES....................................................................................................7 HTML TAGS.....................................................................................................................7

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HTML: BASIC FORMAT..................................................................................................8 THE TEXT TAGS...........................................................................................................10 HOW TO USE HTML TAGS TO MANIPULATE YOUR TEXT...............................................................10 HEADINGS AND PARAGRAPHS.................................................................................12 USING HEADINGS, PARAGRAPHS, AND LINE BREAKS..................................................................12 MANIPULATING FONT SIZE AND COLOR..................................................................15 HOW TO CHANGE FONT SIZES AND COLORS ..............................................................................15 SPECIAL CHARACTERS..............................................................................................17 HOW TO USE SPECIAL CHARACTERS IN HTML..........................................................................17 LINKING TO OTHER PAGES.......................................................................................18 HOW TO LINK TO OTHER PAGES IN HTML ..............................................................................18 ADDING IMAGES TO YOUR PAGE..............................................................................20 HOW TO PLACE IMAGES ON YOUR PAGE ..................................................................................20 Image Alignment/Wrapping Text.....................................................21 USING AN IMAGE AS A LINK..................................................................................................22 USING IMAGE "ALT" COMMANDS............................................................................................24 An alternative to the picture ..........................................................24 SOME EXTRA TEXT TAGS....................................................................................................25 <SUB> and <SUP>......................................................................25 The <PRE> Tag............................................................................25 <NOBR> and <WBR>...................................................................26 The <BLINK> Tag.........................................................................26 ADDING HTML COMMENTS........................................................................................28 USING HTML LISTS......................................................................................................29 USING BODY TAG ATTRIBUTES................................................................................31 USING A BACKGROUND COLOR...............................................................................32 CHANGING THE DEFAULT TEXT COLOR..................................................................33 CHANGING THE LINK COLOR....................................................................................34 USING A BACKGROUND IMAGE................................................................................35 RESIZING IMAGES.......................................................................................................36 LINKING WITHIN A SINGLE PAGE..............................................................................38 THE E-MAIL LINK.........................................................................................................39 THE E-MAIL LINK: MORE............................................................................................40 HTML TABLE ...............................................................................................................41 <table>......................................................................................41 <tr>...........................................................................................41 <td>..........................................................................................41 HTML FRAME...............................................................................................................43

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HTML FORMS...............................................................................................................45 TEXT INPUT......................................................................................................................46 RADIO BUTTON.................................................................................................................47 CHECKBOX.......................................................................................................................48 DROP DOWN MENU...........................................................................................................49

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HTML Basics
Webpages are written in HTML - a simple scripting language. HTML is short for HyperText Markup Language. • Hypertext is simply a piece of text that works as a link. • Markup Language is a way of writing layout information within documents.

Basically an HTML document is a plain text file that contains text and nothing else. When a browser opens an HTML file, the browser will look for HTML codes in the text and use them to change the layout, insert images, or create links to other pages. Since HTML documents are just text files they can be written in even the simplest text editor. A more popular choice is to use a special HTML editor - maybe even one that puts focus on the visual result rather than the codes - a so-called WYSIWYG editor ("What You See Is What You Get"). Some of the most popular HTML editors, such as FrontPage or Dreamweaver will let you create pages more or less as you write documents in Word or whatever text editor you're using.

A quick look at Notepad and Web Browsers
Using HTML you will want to familiarize yourself with the software you will be using. So, to get started, open Notepad (or your text editor). You should see a completely blank page. Now, type in the text below. We will make use of it later with the web browser. Type the following: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Test Page</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Hi there, you have just written your first web page! </BODY> </HTML> Once you have finished, go to the "File" menu and click on "Save As”. This will prompt you to create a name for your file. In the box, type in test.htm. At the

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html" or something similar. The default is . type in the path to your html file. the way to do this will depend on your text editor. feel free to send it to me.*). To get around this. You should be able to highlight All Files (*. The text was enlarged so you could see the part we are interested in at this point. If you do not get the option to save the file as the type All Files (*. Now you may choose the drive and directory to save to. You may also see an error saying the browser could not connect to "http://somepage.txt). You should see something similar to the picture below: This is an example using Windows 95.txt by default. you can cancel the connection and you will likely end up with a blank page. or something similar in the dialogue box).bottom of the prompt you should see a space that says "Save file as Type" or "Save as Type". If you are given an option to connect to the internet. start up your web browser. Now you will want to use your web browser to view the file you just created. If someone with a Mac would like to write up something in more detail about this (as I don't have a Mac). You should be able to hit OK and get a blank page. Text Files (*. Something similar to the methods above should work for you. and click on "Save". You can use this routine each time you create a new HTML file. you can type 5 . you would type the following: c:\myfiles\test. Now.htm. If the file is on a floppy disk. you will need to place quote marks around the filename. If you have the file in a directory called "myfiles". Click on this to make the change. Click on the down arrow on the right side of the input box. Be careful not to save it just yet though if you are using Windows. so you will need to change it.*). So. Windows will save it as test. in the location box (where you manually type urls).txt.htm. then select the plain text file type (usually shown as Text Documents. as shown in the image below: If you have a Mac.

To use this. you have just written your first web page! 6 . ”Open File". The image below shows where this can be found in Internet Explorer: Once the page is displayed. Most browsers will display the page when you hit enter. is to use the "Open Page" option.htm. Another option you have. especially if you hate typing paths all day. provided you did not place it in another directory on the disk. Click this option and you will be able to browse for your file and open it from there.a:\test. you will see something like the following: Hi there. "Open Local File". Look for an option that says "Open Page". go to the "File" menu in your web browser. or a similar phrase.

we will introduce the notion of tags and attributes.. Attributes Attributes are associated with each tag to further define the tags. and Safari.Many browsers will ignore badly-formed HTML documents. . It has certain tags and attributes defined.HTML tag codes are case-insensitive. On this page. Mozilla.Tags & Attributes HTML Tags HTML stands for (H)yper(T)ext (M)arkup (L)anguage. 7 . you may think of this tutorial as an introduction to the tags that are commonly used in writing HTML. In fact. and is geared towards document display over the World Wide Web. > A couple of other notes before we dive into the tutorial: . In HTML. HTML documents can be viewed in browsers such as Internet Explorer. each tag has its own specific meaning. which is (in general) common across all different browsers. In other words. The general syntax is as follows: <tag attribute 1 = "value" attribute 2 = "value" . Opera. it is often okay to have a tag without the corresponding closing tag. Tags Tags are elements of the HTML document used to specify how the document should be displayed by the browser..

this is just an example of a tag that requires no closing tag to follow it. if you would like to underline the phrase "HTML Rules!". I'll explain them at the end of the example. It looks like this: <IMG SRC="myimage. The tags will end with a "greater than" sign. In order to end the underlining. you do not need to capitalize the tags. and a paragraph: <P>. An example would be the image tag. An example would be the tag used to underline text.HTML: Basic Format Now we are able to start learning about HTML tags. like this: <. You can also use as much space between things as you like. <U>. like this: </U>.gif">. </BODY> </HTML> Okay. to make sense of this. you would write the following in your text editor: <U>HTML Rules!</U> The result of this would be: HTML Rules! Not all tags will require a closing tag. So. An HTML tag will always begin with a "less than" sign. I will explain all the extra stuff later. you must use a closing tag. 8 . a horizontal line: <HR>. This is called an opening tag. You would place this before the text you want to underline. The first one we see is <HTML>.) <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>I Love HTML</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Everything displayed on your page will be in here. like this: >. but will have a forward slash before the command. which will place an image on the page. Other examples would be a line break: <BR>. Read through and see if you can guess what the different tags will do: (Don't worry. <P> is the same as <p>. So: <U> Underline Me! </U> Is the same as: <U>Underline Me!</U> Is the same as: <U> Underline Me! </U> A basic HTML file will have the format below. which begins the operation you wish to perform. Also. go through and find the pairs of opening and closing tags. A closing tag will always be the same as the opening tag. This signals the beginning of an HTML file.

The <TITLE> tag allows you to create a title for your page. The next tag we see is the <HEAD> tag. the only part of the HEAD section we will deal with is the TITLE. At this time. The above example makes a rather boring web page (even worse than the one in the previous tutorial). Yuck. The title is only used for bookmarks. use </BODY>. Well. </HTML>. in the example. the title is "I Love HTML" (That's not true all the time. use keywords. search engines. text. This opens a section in which you can title your page. which brings us to the next tag. images) should be between these two tags. The <BODY> tag opens the section that will be displayed in the web browser. it signals the end of the HTML document. Everything (tags. though). The browser would display this: Everything displayed on your page will be in here. This is where most of our work will be done. 9 . It will not show up on your web page unless you type it in the BODY section (explained below). as they are the beginning and end of your page. let's go to the next tutorial and see if we can add a little life to our page of text. and as the name of the browser window. and add other descriptive information to the page.The closing tag . To end your title. To end the body section. As you might have guessed. For instance. is at the very end of the document. The section ends with the </HEAD> tag. All we have is a line of text aligned to the left of the screen. use the </TITLE> tag.

working from inside out will help you see your code better. However. it wouldn't matter which way you opened and closed the tags. just place both opening tags before the text. which makes me cool! Does the order of the tags make a difference? In this case. and will help when the order does matter! (such as placing the 10 .... To do this. Let's start by giving you some tags to work with: <B></B> This is the tag for bold text... Let's say you wanted something in bold and italics.The Text Tags How to use HTML tags to manipulate your text To start making our text appear in different ways. which makes me cool!</I></B> This will show up like this: I am bold AND Italic. Example: <B>Howdy</B> This will show up on your page like this: Howdy Here are a few more to start working with: <U></U> Underline text <U>Underline Me!</U> Underline Me! <I></I> Italics <I>Isn't this fun?</I> Isn't this fun? <STRIKE></STRIKE> <STRIKE>You're Out!</STRIKE> You're Out! <CENTER></CENTER> <CENTER>This centers text on the page</CENTER> This centers text on the page Having fun yet? You can also use more than one tag at a time...like this: <B><I>I am bold AND Italic.and remember to close both tags afterwards.

Anything you place between the <CENTER> and </CENTER> tags will be centered on the page. Here's another way to look at working inside out. I could write the HTML this way: <B> <I> I am bold AND Italic. Use the <CENTER> tag.. the bold and italics were closed before the word "tagging". So lets try three things: Bold. it's nice to have a way to place things in the center of the page. This caused the "tagging me!" portion to be underlined. All you need to remember is that the text you have written is affected by every tag before it that has not been closed.. which makes me cool! </I> </B> This could get rather tedious.. So let's do just that. while not being affected by the bold or italics tags! Now let's use the center tag from above.but the underline remained open until the end of the exclamation. Here is an example: <CENTER>I'm in the middle!</CENTER> This will give us the following: I'm in the middle! You can also use it with one or more of the other tags above. The effect ends when each one of those tags is closed by it's closing tag. like this: <CENTER><B><I>Look at me now!</I></B></CENTER> Look at me now! 11 .</HTML> tag before the </BODY> tag). Since the default alignment of everything is to the left. and underline! <B><I><U>Would you stop tagging me!</B></I></U> This will give us: Would you stop tagging me! But this: <U><I><B>Would you stop</B></I>tagging me!</U> would give us this! Would you stop tagging me! As you can see. Italic.

..</H5> Smaller Still... a line break is like hitting the "enter" key when you are writing text... The browser will not go to the next line until it runs out of space. Here is an example: End this line now!!<BR>Thanks! This will generate the following: End this line now!! Thanks! Basically. Here are some examples: <H1>Large Heading!</H1> will give us: Large Heading! <H2>Heading 2</H2> Heading 2 <H3>Heading 3</H3> Heading 3 <H4>Getting Small</H4> Getting Small <H5>Smaller Still.</H6> You must have good vision.. or sees a tag that will 12 . <H6>You must have good vision. The <BR> tag does not need a closing tag afterward. Now let's move on to a line break. I think you get the idea here. Okay. Paragraphs. The tag for a line break is <BR>. the contents will go to the next line.Headings and Paragraphs Using Headings. and Line Breaks These tags are good for creating titles or section headings.. When you insert this tag in your document.

O. This tag is good for skipping a line quickly and for knowing where you wanted a new paragraph to begin. This is the next line. This gives us: Hello. Now. Is this cool or what? This will give us the following: This is some cool stuff. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! </P> <P> 13 .: This is some cool stuff. I want a new line.force it to the next line. <BR> This is the next line. use your <BR> tag from above: Hello. you place a </P> where you would like the paragraph to end. let's move on to the paragraph tag.<BR> I want<BR> a new line. I want a new line. This is a new paragraph. To make the text move to the next line. as though you had typed <BR> twice. but if you'd like to add one for your own reference. This tag will skip a vertical space after going to the next line. I want a new line. So typing the following in your text editor will display only one line of text in the browser: Hello. <P>. Now this will do what we wanted it to do: Hello.K. <P> This is a new paragraph. Is this cool or what? The paragraph tag does not require a closing tag. How about an example? Well.

.<BR> and the end.. 14 . like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! <P> Here is a new paragraph...<BR> and the end. Both of these will give you this: This paragraph needs a visual ending! Here is a new paragraph.Here is a new paragraph... </P> This will give you the same thing as using just the opening <P> tags. and the end....

Manipulating Color Font Size and How to change font sizes and colors now we want to see how to change the font size.sign: <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2">I'm a big sentence now!</FONT> This will give us the following: I'm a big sentence now! Likewise. you can make the font smaller in the same way. So let's say you wanted to make the font larger. You can use the tag with a +2. I'm Small! Here are some more size examples for you: <FONT SIZE="+4">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+3">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There 15 . This is done with the following tag: <FONT SIZE="x">text to change</FONT> "x" will be replaced by a number with a + or . I'm Small!</FONT> Will give us this: Hey.sign in front of it. using the .

Now suppose you want to change the size AND the color. The hexidecimal representation begins with a # sign and is followed by six letters and/or numbers. you can use two FONT tags and remember to close them both. This is done in much the same way. To do this. you can use the SIZE and COLOR declarations inside the same tag. click here . two F's and four zeros. If you want to see a sample list of color names and hex codes. suppose you want to change the font color. but you may want to have the hex code for more complicated colors. Let's do one using the color name to begin: <FONT COLOR="red">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! Now let's use the hexidecimal value for red. This is done like this: <FONT SIZE="+2" COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT> I am gold! 16 . Here is the tag: <FONT COLOR="color"> We replace the word color with a color name or the hexidecimal color value. Here is the example: <FONT COLOR="#FF0000">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! That is a # sign.<FONT SIZE="-1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-3">Can you read this?</FONT> Can you read this? Now. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2"><FONT COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT></FONT> I am gold! Also. Usually it's easier to remeber the color names. and close only one tag.

have you been wondering how to add an extra space on your page. 1999 by me! This page Copyright © 1999 by me! 17 . reference. The reference for a copyright symbol is &copy. you place the reference &nbsp. Here's an example: This page Copyright &copy.&nbsp. By adding the &nbsp. by placing its reference where you would like to see the symbol on the page.there! This gives us two spaces between "Hello" and "there!". for a total of five spaces. The web browser will see the first space.&nbsp. where you would like to add the extra space. and 4 additional spaces between the two words. You use it the same way as an extra space.&nbsp. Here is what you would do: Hello &nbsp.There! This will create the first space. The reference will begin with an ampersand (&)..Special Characters How to use special characters in HTML So. So as an example. will be followed by some text or numbers.) . let's say you wanted to place an extra space between two words. but after that additional spaces will make no difference-. like this: Hello &nbsp. like this: Hello there! The first space is added just using the "space" bar on the keyboard. To do this. we forced the browser to add an extra space between the two words. or how to get a copyright symbol to show up? Then let's see how right now! Special characters are placed on your page by using a special reference to the character you want to use. You can add as many spaces as you would like by repeating the &nbsp.you will only see one space in the browser. reference. and end with a semicolon (. It will be displayed like this: Hello There! The other one we will discuss is the copyright symbol.

com">goto Sevenhills</A> It will show up on your page like this: goto Sevenhills See how the text was colorized and underlined? In most cases... like this: 18 . To create the link.Linking to Other Pages How to link to other pages in HTML let's start out by seeing what tag we use for linking: <A HREF="http://www. so to create a link to us.sevenhills. The text between the tags is what will show up on your web page as a link. The </A> is the closing tag.sevenhills. Look in your location box near the top of your web browser.com/index1. and the HREF=" " is asking for a location to link to. This will work for any page because we are using the absolute url. inside the quote marks. Our url is http://www. Great isn't it? Now. if you would like to link to our site. let's create a link to this particular page.htm . If you have all of your files in the same directory. So. insert this url into the link tag: <A HREF="http://www. Before you try this. your browser will simply display this page again.. just type in the address for your page inside the link tag. rather than typing the full url inside the tag.sevenhills. if you want to link to your own pages from your home page.com/index1. you can just use the filename. be certain any file you want to create a local url link to is in the same directory as the page you are editing. which means we are using the complete address to every page we are creating a link to. you may use a shortcut called a "local url".. or net address. you will end up at our home page. If you click on the link from the first example.sevenhills.com. As another example. this will indicate the text is a link.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> Which gives us this link: Linking to Other Pages If you click on this link right now. which is http://www. (In most cases. If you move your mouse over the link.com">Display Text</A> The A stands for anchor. You should see the url for this page. place this command on the page where you would like the link to show up: <A HREF="http://www. The mouse attribute comes in handy when a page has a whole lot of underlined text. you should see the cursor change into a pointing hand. it will be) Now. you would place our url.sevenhills.

If you would like to see some related tutorials. but we didn't have to write as much. try one of these: Changing the Link Color Using an Image as a Link Linking Within the Same Page 19 .<A HREF="linking. Linking to Other Pages If you aren't sure or have doubts. always use the absolute url.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> This will create the same link we just did. Typing in the full address will allow the link to work no matter where it is located on the internet.

The address for the image is: http://www.com/pictures/image. Now.com/pictures/image. you would use this url as the image source: <IMG SRC="http://www. The source of the image is going to be the net address of the image. Most often. like this: <IMG SRC="image.jpg"> Otherwise.jpg"> Either option would display the image on the page. If you have images in other file formats. let's take a look at the image tag: <IMG SRC="image.jpg"> If you aren't sure.Adding Images to Your Page How to place images on your page So. So. These are the two most common image file extensions used on the internet. if your images are in a directory other than the one your html document is in. if your image is located at http://www. One image I have on this site is called "next. you will be able to just type the filename of the image here. go ahead and use the full address just to be sure it will work correctly. You could also use a .gif"> The filename does not have to end with .gif or .disney. Now let's work with a real example. you will probably want to convert them to .com/images/next. like this: 20 .gif. I would type: <IMG SRC="next. have you been wondering how to add an image to your page? Well.jpg .jpg .sevenhills. The SRC stands for source. you will want to link to it using the full address of the image. I would use the full internet address. If my image and html file were in the same directory.jpg file as well.jpg .disney. This can be done with most image editing programs. aligned to the left. like this: <IMG SRC="http://www.sevenhills.com/images/next.gif"> The IMG stands for image.jpg".

If you want to center the image on the page.jpg" and "IMAGE. the image tag would look like this: <IMG SRC="next.. Here is an example..sevenhills. check out one of these related tutorials: Aligning Images and Wrapping Text Using an Image as a Link Using a Background Image Resizing an Image Using Image "alt" Commands Image Alignment/Wrapping Text How to wrap text around an image To allow text to wrap around an image. but it will allow you to add an image to your page on its own line../images/next. the filename or address of the image IS case sensitive.jpg" align="left"> Hello. you just need to add one of these commands to the image tag: align="left" align="right" So.com/images/next.JPG" are considered two different images to the web browser. Now. this text should wrap around<br> this image like this. like this: <CENTER> <IMG SRC="http://www. or the image may not show up. If you want to see more on using images. Hmmm.<br> <IMG SRC=". this doesn't give us everything we could possibly want.<br> 21 .. Be sure to use the correct case in your image tags.. so "image.jpg" align="left"> Now just type in your text and it will wrap around the image.jpg"> </CENTER> This will place the image in the center of the screen: Keep in mind. you would place the CENTER tag around the image tag.I think this image is in the way. and that's no fun. rather than jumping to the bottom of the image..

you will have to use two things you have already learned. Here is what the above code would produce: 22 . 2. you must create a link to the place you want people to go when they click on the picture.. 1. Hello.com"> <IMG SRC="next.. and don't close the tag just yet. don't type any text. "next. you would go ahead and type the opening link tag. So. what did I do? Well...com"> Now.sevenhills.com"> <IMG SRC="next.jpg"? I have been using it at the bottom of each page as a link to the next section. How to add an image to the page. remember my trusty old picture. like this: <A HREF="http://www. so that the image tag is between the opening and closing link tags... first..I'll just keep on writing and<br> writing and writing and writing<br> until I'm tired of writing... So.. How to create a link. Using an Image as a Link How to link an image To use an image as a link. What we are going to do is place the image tag right after the opening link tag.sevenhills. now we are going to close the link tag at the end of the image tag.jpg"> OK. So.jpg"..sevenhills.I think this image is in the way. this text should wrap around this image like this.jpg"> </A> Now that the image is between the link tags. The image we are using here is "next. it will operate the same way as a normal link. but now it is a visual image. if you wanted to link to our main page. I'll just keep on writing and writing and writing and writing until I'm tired of writing. Now. like this: <A HREF="http://www. you would type the following: <A HREF="http://www.<br> This will give you the following: Hmmm.

If you click on the image. the border just seems to be added by default on most browsers. for instance: Border="5" The drawback to the border is that it insists on being the color of your link color.com"> <IMG SRC="next.jpg" border="0"> </A> Now.sevenhills. and it will turn into the little pointing hand. and you won't have the extra border around the sides: You can also make the border larger in the same way. that's good. and sometimes this isn't the color you want to use. add this command to the image tag: border="0" Here is an example: <A HREF="http://www. The only way I know around it is to edit the actual image to where it has the border you want. but what's with the border around the image? Well.Move the mouse over the image. the picture will be a link. Well. 23 . you will end up all the way back at our main page. and then set the border="0" in your image tag. just use a larger number in there. To get rid of it.

gif" alt="something you want to write"> You place this command inside the image tag for the image you want to display alternate text for. You can then scroll down to the bottom right and see the word "next" where the image used to be. Here is the example: <IMG SRC="next. This is the alt command: alt="something you want to write" Place this inside the image tag: <IMG SRC="image. you can move your mouse over the image and it will display the alt text right there for you. or in the case they have image loading turned off to so pages will load faster.jpg" alt="next"> To see this work. if you have a really new browser. this is a handy way to let people know what the image was supposed to do. you will probably have to disable image loading and reload this page.Using Image "alt" Commands An alternative to the picture Okay.jpg" image at the bottom of these pages. If you have images as links. the image alt command is used to display text in the case someone visits your page with a browser that can't show images. Of course. and that is what will be seen if someone sees the page with no images. 24 . One image I do this with is my "next. I place the text "next" in the alt command.

if (x==1) y=2. This is useful when you have to post programming code. <SUP>. <SUB> and <SUP> These tags are used to place a number or words slightly above or below your normal text. <PRE>. Here is an example: <PRE> x=1. y=2. and the Netscape only <BLINK> tag. if (x==1) y=2. y=2.Some Extra Text Tags There are a few more tags you might like to try while you are creating your pages. <WBR>. 25 . </PRE> And this somewhat redundant code gives you this: x=1. but there are other times you may wish to use them. <NOBR>. The <SUB> tag works like this: Area<SUB>1</SUB> The result is this: Area1 And the <SUP> tag allows you to use exponents if you need to: X<SUP>2</SUP> + Y<SUP>2</SUP> = 0 And this gives you: X2 + Y2 = 0 These two tags are most useful if you are writing mathematical equations and such on your page. The <PRE> Tag The <PRE> tag is used when you want to keep the same amount of whitespace on your web page as you have in your html code in your text editor. The tags I will be talking about in this section are <SUB>.

</NOBR> Now you will have two lines that are not quite as long (though still pretty long in 640x480): I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. like this: I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. even after reaching the end of someone's browser window. <NOBR> and <WBR> Any text you place between the <NOBR> and the </NOBR> tags will not break to the next line. You can use the <WBR> tag inside the NOBR tags to force a line break if you want or need to do so. you probably had to scroll to the right to see the end of that line. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long Unless you had a monitor with some pretty high resolution. When viewed on your web page. like this: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long <WBR> long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. inside the <PRE> tags. Here is an example: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long </NOBR> this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long The <BLINK> Tag Yes. this will be one really long line. this is the tag everyone has been complaining about. If you are using Netscape you can see the following reason why viewers get annoyed by this tag: 26 . This can save you some headaches from writing in line breaks and spaces manually so often.Notice how we didn't need to use <BR> or &nbsp.

.. if the tag is used in a better way. Just avoid the +10 font size.LOOK AT ME NOW!!!!!! If you have IE. it can help point out important things you want people to see.. but you can get the general idea.Here is an example: This rule is <BLINK>very</BLINK> important! This gives you the following: This rule is very important! 27 . you won't see the text blink. Actually.

just be sure you remember to end the comment! <!-You can't see me. you use two dashes (--) followed directly by a greater than sign (>). you can leave yourself notes so that you don't forget something when you come back later to redesign the page. and have alt text --> <IMG SRC="mypet. I feel invisible though. you could use a comment to remind yourself that a section of code is supposed to perform a certain task: <!-. you begin with a less than sign (<) followed directly by an exclaimation point (!) and two dashes (--).. you type in your coments. unless you look at the page source code.gif" align="right" alt="Look at my Kitty Cat!"> 28 ..Adding HTML Comments Using comments in your html code Comments can be a nice way to help yourself when you are coding your web page. To end the comment.This image should be aligned to the right. --> You can comment on multiple lines. <!-. The only way to view comments is to look at the source (html) code of the web page. --> To look at something more useful. After this. In this way.. Comments are invisible to a web browser when it displays your web page.I am a comment. how is it done? To write a comment. So.

The opening tag is <UL>. let's use an unordered list. here is the way to add those html lists to your web pages. followed by your text. you use the <LI> tag. to set off each item in your list... the list is indented somewhat from the rest of the text.. To begin. If each list item is not the same length.. Here is a sample of indenting further into the page: <UL> <UL> <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> </UL> </UL> This will give us the following indented list:   I am item one I am item two Be careful about using the <CENTER> tag around your lists. we need a tag to begin and end the entire list. you guessed it. as long as you remember to close every one of them. You can indent further by adding more <UL> tags. This will create a list with bullets next to the list items. Also. and the closing tag is. For starters.</UL>. how nice it is to be number one. you will get more of a mess than a straight list: • • • This is item one. 29 .. Here is a sample list with two list items: <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> This will give us the bulleted list below: • • I am item one I am item two Notice the <LI> tags do not require a closing tag..Using HTML Lists How to add an HTML list to your page Have you been wanting to add lists to your page? Well. Item two is much shorter! Item three is somewhere in between.. Now.yep.

like this: <OL> <LI>Item 1 <LI>Item 2 <LI>Item 3 </OL> This gives you a numbered list rather than the bulleted list: 1. use the indention method above until it hits the center of the screen (this can mess up in different screen resolutions. You can also use an ordered list in the same way you use the unordered list. or you can try using a Table to align the text instead. you would use <OL> </OL>. Instead of using <UL> </UL>. Item 1 2. Item 3 30 .If you really need the list further in on the page. Item 2 3. though).

you can use as many or as few of these add-ons as you wish. You can set this to any color you would like to use. we will eventually get to each one of these. For a list of common colors and hex codes. You can set this to any color you would like to use. link="color" This changes the color of all of the non-visited links on your page.. click here.. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. click here. which is a link that has just been clicked on by a user's mouse. The default setting for text color is black. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code.Using BODY Tag Attributes How to use body tag attributes to enhance your page When you create a web page. alink="color" This changes the color of an active link on your page.gif"> Pretty long tag. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. For a list of common colors and hex codes. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. You can set this to any color you would like to use. For a list of common colors and hex codes. The default setting for a non-visited link is usually blue. but is usually gray or white. Here is what a body tag with serveral additions would look like: <BODY bgcolor="black" text="red" link="yellow" alink="orange" vlink="white" background="image. with a link to the tutorial for each one. isn't it? Well. The default setting varies with your browser. you can change serveral things in the body of your document by adding extra commands to the <BODY> tag. vlink="color" 31 .. For a list of common colors and hex codes. click here. Below is a brief explaination of each attribute. The options you don't use will be set to the web browser's default values. You can set this to any color you would like to use. text="color" This changes the default text color the browser will display on your page.) So here we go. click here. bgcolor="color" This changes the background color of your page. (If you are moving through the tutorials in order.

your page will have a green background. The default setting for a visited link is usually violet. click here. Beautiful! Now just use any color you like in the command. You can set this to any color you would like to use. just add it in like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> To change the background color. the background image will take the place of any background color you may have specified. the command may not be there at all. like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray" text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0"> Or if you don't have any other commands. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. If you use this attribute. if you wanted to change the background color to green. It may look like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> Or the tag may have more commands inside and use hex codes. the browser will use your background color or its default background color.gif" This adds a background image to your page. Once you have found the tag. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. like this: <BODY text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0" bgcolor="#808080"> And of course. If you don't use a background image. Using a Background Color Add or change the background color on your page If you want to use a background color on your page. replace the word gray inside the quote marks with a color name or a color hex code. If this is the case. and add color your pages! 32 . background="image. you would type: <BODY bgcolor="green"> Or you could use the hex code for green: <BODY bgcolor="#008000"> After doing this. click here. So. For a list of common colors and hex codes. look for a command after the word BODY that says bgcolor="color" . For a list of some common color names and hex codes.This changes the color of a visited link on your page. add it by placing a space after the word BODY and then type the command.

you may not see either of these. You may have something like this: <BODY text="black"> You may also see a weird number/letter combination. click here.Changing the Default Text Color How to change the default font color on your page Okay. look for the phrase text="" somewhere after the word BODY. Now. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. If you have other commands. if you want to change the text color to red. add this one onto the end. If you don't have the extra command yet. to change your default text color in your HTML page. you will need to find your body tag. replace the black between the quote marks with a color name or hex code. or you may be creating the page from scratch. add it to your BODY tag like one of the examples above. if you'd like to change the color. like this: <BODY text="#000000"> Of course. like this: <BODY bgcolor="blue" text="black"> Now. leaving a space after the previous command. you could use one of the following: Using a color name: <BODY text="red"> Or using a hex code: <BODY text="#FF0000"> 33 . So.

Now look for a command after the word BODY that says link="color". do the same as you did for the link color. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. add the command after the word BODY. you would type the following: <BODY link="red"> Or using the hex code: <BODY link="#FF0000"> Now. It would look like this: <BODY link="blue"> Or the tag might have some other commands as well: <BODY bgcolor="#000000" text="#FFFFFF" link="#0000FF"> You may also just have the word BODY with nothing else there. go ahead. you replace the word blue inside the quotes with a different color name or hex code. click here. Just place a space between each command. If you need to add the commands. like this: <BODY link="blue"> Now. If so. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. with a space between the two. and add your colors! 34 . all the links on your page will be colored red rather than blue. You can also do the same things for active and visited links by adding or editing their commands. if you would like to change the link color to red. The commands are: alink="color" vlink="color" For the active link color For the visited link color You might have: <BODY link="blue" alink="blue" vlink="violet"> To change the other colors. So.Changing the Link Color How to change the link color on your page If you want to change the link color on your page. to change the link color.

com/images/next.gif to be the background image. I will use an image from my server as a background on a page.gif or .jpg"> 35 .mysite. I would insert this into the command.com/image1. I would type in this: <BODY background="http://www. and type the following: background=" " Now your body tag should look something like this (and may have more commands): <BODY background=" "> Now. we can type the command this way: <BODY background="image2. So. So.com/images/next. So.sevenhills. skip a space. like this: <BODY background="http://www. you can just type the filename of the image rather than the full url. we are going to place the url of the image inside the quotation marks. if the image I want to use is at http://www. One program that will do this is Paint Shop Pro. if I put an html file in my "images" directory. or you may see a string of commands afterward. The url for the image is http://www. So. you will want to covert it to one of these file types.com/image1.sevenhills. as a real example.mysite.jpg". and it is in the same directory as the page we are editing. It may look something like this: <BODY bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000"> What we are going to do is add a command after the word BODY. I could use the image by typing in just the filename. you will need to locate the <BODY> tag in your document. go to the end of the word BODY.gif"> Your image should have the file extension . Now.jpg"> Now. if we want image2. you may see just the word BODY. If not.Using a Background Image How to add a background image to your page To add a background image to your page.gif"> Now.jpg .gif . The name of the image is "next.jpg . like this: <BODY background="next. When you have found it. which is available as shareware from JASC. to use this as a background. if your image file is located in the same directory as your html file.

Resizing Images How to resize your images Okay. but it's just not the right size to go where you want it to go. A typical screen is about 800 pixels wide and 600 pixels in height (though this varies with different video cards and moniters). The width and height are usually written in pixels. The picture looks like this: So. Here's what it would look like: Now.jpg".jpg" width="75" height="40"> Now. I'm going to place numbers inside those quotation marks. let's say I wanted it to be 75 pixels wide and 40 pixels high. Maybe the image takes up the whole screen. to make the image smaller.jpg" width="300" height="200"> 36 . The tag will now look like this: <IMG SRC="next. or maybe you wanted a larger version of the image on the screen. I would then place these numbers into the commands. the picture will be the new height and width I specified. we will just insert larger numbers for the width and height: <IMG SRC="next. you can resize the image by adding width and height commands to your image tag. Well. Well. to make the image larger. IMG SRC="next.jpg" width=" " height=" "> Now. to change the size of the image.jpg". like this: <IMG SRC="next. I'm going to add these two commands inside the image tag: width=" " and height=" " I'm going to place the commands after the initial command. Well. suppose I want to make it smaller. All I need to do is know the original width and height of my image. you have an image you want to use. Let's take a look at an example. when I reload my page. My image turns out to be 106 pixels wide and 65 pixels in height. I have an image called "next.

So. In this case. you get about 1. When you calculate 106/65. it comes out to about 46.jpg" width="75" height="46"> Now it looks like this: If you don't want to deal with math all the time (like me).63 Now take the answer and round up or down.63 . you need to find the height that will make the ratio as close as possible to 1. Since the image was originally 106x65. just for the ease of use. if you want to make the width 75. or if you like solving equations. you can also resize it with a paint or image program (which will do the calculations for you) and upload the new version of the picture to your server. if I'm making the image smaller. I would use 46 as the height: <IMG SRC="next.Now the image looks like this: As you can see. Besides. You can guess at it for awhile. the paint program will make the file size smaller 37 . the images became somewhat distorted when I resized them. here it is: 75/height = 1. I would have to decide on a width. and then find a height that would keep the aspect ratio of 106/65. One reason for this is that I didn't keep the aspect ratio the same.63 . So.0123 . I usually use my image program to do this.

This just makes it easy to see where we are going to end up. Now.Linking Within a Single Page Jump to the top. or any other place Okay. lets say you have one page that is pretty long. you will be sent back to the top of the page. Or maybe you want to divide it into sections and use a table of contents at the top. go to the top of the body section (right after the body tag)... You can try one I made on this page by clicking on the link below: Back to top The # sign is there to let the browser know the destination is a named anchor within this page. if you create an anchor named "cool". You can link to it from any other part of the page. You could link to any part of the page. 38 . the bottom.. middle.. you link to that anchor by using "#cool". So. the 500th word. Now type the following tag: <A NAME="top"></A> You can place any name you wish inside the quotes. It can make navigating some pages a whole lot easier. Maybe you would like to give someone a way back to the top of the page when they are at the bottom. You can place one at the third paragraph. but for now. like this: <A NAME="cool"></A> -----The anchor name <A HREF="#cool">To the Cool Section of this page</A> section -----Linking to the named You can place a named anchor anyplace on your page. Well. let's say you want to create a link to the top of your page. To do this. go anywhere between the body tags and type this link: <A HREF="#top">Back to the Top</A> If you click on this link. the way to do this is to use a named anchor. the top. which is a specific area of your page you want to make a link to.

notice that when you click it. Here is an example.. Mail Me! 39 .. all you need to do is replace the your_email_address with . The trick is in what you use as the address of the link. with my e-mail address already filled in.your e-mail address. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills.com">Give me some mail!</A> Here is the resulting link: Give me some mail! If you click on the link. To force the browser to read it as an e-mail link. You do this by adding a "?" at the end of your e-mail address and then your subject.com?subject=Enquiry">Mail Me!</A> The example link is below..maybe your joke of the day or something! You can also create the subject of the message so the viewer doesn't have to fill in something in the subject line.com in that space. all you need to do is use the standard link tag. the subject field of your email message is already filled in with "Enquiry". like this: <A HREF="mailto:your_email_address">E-mail Me!</A> Yes. you use "mailto:" rather than "http://" to begin the address. Send me whatever you want. After the "mailto:". to create an email link to myself. you will use your e-mail address rather than a web address.The E-mail Link How to create an email link To create an e-mail link on your page.. your browser will bring up a window for you to send me email. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills. I would place info@sevenhills.

com"> Mail Me</A> The same goes for a blind carbon copy. you add them in using an "&" sign at the end of the first command.com?bcc=friend@friend. except you use the bcc= command instead: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. you add the cc= command after the question mark. 40 .com"> Mail Me</A> If you want all three. there are a couple of extras you can also add. it would look like this: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com? subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend. use the "&" sign again: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. To send a carbon copy.com?subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend. It was done using a "question mark" followed by subject= and then the subject: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. other@other. you can have some more fun with your e-mail links-.com?bcc=friend@friend.The E-mail Link: More More tricks for the email link we saw how to add the subject to a message through the e-mail link.com"> Mail Me</A> Now.com"> Mail Me</A> With either of these.com?subject=Hi">Mail Me</A> On top of adding the subject.com?cc=friend@friend.com&cc=other@other.and if you run a site with a partner you can both get an e-mail when someone uses that link. if you want a subject and a blind carbon copy. or use a combination of the subject with either or both of these. if you want to combine more than one of these commands after the question mark. a blind carbon copy recipient. For instance. You can add a carbon copy recipient. you can send the copies to multiple addresses by separating them with commas: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. followed by the e-mail address of the person you want to send the carbon copy to: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com.com"> Mail Me</A> With that.

The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this table: • • • • • Width: This specifies the width of the table. <table> The <table> tag specifies the presence of a table. The number indicates the thickness of the border. Example 1 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> 41 . Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this table. cellpadding: The amount padding between cells and the each cell wall in a table. Border: This specifies whether the table will have a border. cellspacing: The amount spacing between the cell wall and the cell border. 50%). <td> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a column. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. colspan: This specifies the number of columns this particular column occupies. <tr>. Height: This specifies the height of the row. Columns are specified within each row. 100%). bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this column. The areas enclosed by the cell walls are the maximum amount of area that text can be displayed in a cell. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this column: • • • • valign: Width: This specifies the width of the column. <tr> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a row.HTML Table This section lists the tags often used with HTML tables: <table>. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. rowspan: This specifies the number of rows this particular row occupies. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this row: • • • bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this row. This is very often used in conjunction with the <tr> and the <td> tags. and <td>.

<tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 2 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr><td width=200>Element 1</td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 3 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr bgcolor=red><td width=200><b>Element 1</b></td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td bgcolor=55ff55>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td><i>Element 6</i></td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 4 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td colspan=2>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 2 Element 3 Element 4 Element 5 42 .

Example 5: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. 43 . HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=0> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 6: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 7: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 HTML Frame This section introduces the tags related to HTML frames: <frameset> and <frame>.

For example. The attributes include: • Cols: Specifies the number of columns. Note that you may embed a frameset within another frameset. • <frame> The <frame> tag specifies the properties within a particular frame. the first column occupies 30% of the available space. Note that search engines typically do not like the use of the frames.html"> </frameset> </frameset> 44 . Rows: Specifies the number of rows. while the second row occupies 60% of the available space. Example 1 HTML: <frameset cols="50%. Therefore.70%" means that there will be two columns.50%"> <frame src="frame2. The attributes include: • • • • • src: This attribute specifies the HTML document source.html"> </frameset> <frameset rows="50%. marginwidth: The margin on the left and right side of the frame. as well as the width of each column. For example. while the second column occupies 70% of the available space. cols="30%. rows="40%.50%"> <frameset rows="100%"> <frame src="frame1. noresize: This attribute specifies whether users may resize the frame.html"> <frame src="frame3. 60%" means that there will be two rows. as well as the width of each row. Scrolling: This attribute specifies whether users may scroll up and down within this frame. the first row occupies 40% of the available space.<frameset> The <frameset> tag specifies the number of columns/rows on a frame. please consider using the frame feature carefully. The possible values are {yes|no|auto}. marginheight: The margin on the top and bottom of the frame.

The value=Go piece specifies the text appearing on the button. <input type=submit value=Go> </form> The text after action= specifies the script to be executed after the user submits the information. in this case 'Go'.. How are key-value pair specified? They are specified by the <form> tag. data is typically passed as a keyvalue pair. The key for the second key-value pair is 'd'.. This is shown below: The following list gives the most common ways for users to specify the value: • • • • Text input Radio button Checkbox Drop-down menu 45 . and its value is 'title'. and the value is '1'. The general format is as follows: <form action=xxx> . <input type=submit> gives a button that the user clicks when she is ready to submit the information. [section specifying the value for each key] .xyz.com/example?c=1&d=title has two separate key-value pairs.. The key for the first key-value pair is 'c'. On the web..HTML Forms Forms are used in HTML to pass data. For example. the following URL: http://www. separated by '&'.

Below is an example: Text example: • þÿ Password: In this type of input. Here. the key for this password input is 'pwd'. The texts typed appear directly on the web page. The most common scenario is when users have to enter a username and password to enter a site. we get a single-line text box to enter data. The syntax is <input type=password name=pwd>. the key for this text input value is 'c'.Text Input One way users can enter data into a HTML document is via text. There are three common types of text input: • Text: In this type of input. Below is an example: Text example: • Textbox: In this type of input. with [row height] = 2: Text area example: 46 . The syntax is <textarea rows= [row height] name=area>. Here. we get a multi-lin text book to enter data. The key for this textarea input is 'area'. The texts typed do not appear directly on the web page. Below is an example. we get a single-line text box to enter data. The texts typed appear directly on the web page. The syntax is <input type=text name=c>.

If we want to pre-select a radio button. depending on the radio button selected. such as follows: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> 47 . or blue. green. and the values can be either red. Radio buttons are used when you want users to be able to select one and only one of the options. the key is color.Radio Button A second type of input is the radio button. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag. Below is an example: Code: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case.

we'll specify "checked" at the end of the <input> tag. If we want to pre-select a check box. and the values can be either red. the "color" key will then have multiple values.Checkbox Another type of input is the check box. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" checked>Red<br> 48 . If multiple check boxes are checked. the key is color. green. Check boxes are used when you want users to be able to select more than one of the options. depending on the check box(es) selected. or blue. Below is an example: Code: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case.

and the values can be either red. i.Drop Down Menu Drop down menu is another common way to specify input data. <select name=color multiple> þÿ 49 . we specify "multiple" at the end of the <select> tag. Users can select one or more items in a drop-down menu. the key is color. For example. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag. Below is an example for a single-selection drop down menu: Code: <select name=color> <option value="red">Red</option> <option value="green">Green</option> <option value="blue">Blue</option> þÿ In this case. depending on the item selected.e. selecting a state is often done via a drop down menu. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> If we want to select multiple items. or blue. If we want to pre-select a check box.. green.

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