HTML

Sevenhills Pvt. Ltd.,

Contents at a Glance
HTML 1 HTML BASICS................................................................................................................4 A QUICK LOOK AT NOTEPAD AND WEB BROWSERS......................................................................4 TAGS & ATTRIBUTES....................................................................................................7 HTML TAGS.....................................................................................................................7

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HTML: BASIC FORMAT..................................................................................................8 THE TEXT TAGS...........................................................................................................10 HOW TO USE HTML TAGS TO MANIPULATE YOUR TEXT...............................................................10 HEADINGS AND PARAGRAPHS.................................................................................12 USING HEADINGS, PARAGRAPHS, AND LINE BREAKS..................................................................12 MANIPULATING FONT SIZE AND COLOR..................................................................15 HOW TO CHANGE FONT SIZES AND COLORS ..............................................................................15 SPECIAL CHARACTERS..............................................................................................17 HOW TO USE SPECIAL CHARACTERS IN HTML..........................................................................17 LINKING TO OTHER PAGES.......................................................................................18 HOW TO LINK TO OTHER PAGES IN HTML ..............................................................................18 ADDING IMAGES TO YOUR PAGE..............................................................................20 HOW TO PLACE IMAGES ON YOUR PAGE ..................................................................................20 Image Alignment/Wrapping Text.....................................................21 USING AN IMAGE AS A LINK..................................................................................................22 USING IMAGE "ALT" COMMANDS............................................................................................24 An alternative to the picture ..........................................................24 SOME EXTRA TEXT TAGS....................................................................................................25 <SUB> and <SUP>......................................................................25 The <PRE> Tag............................................................................25 <NOBR> and <WBR>...................................................................26 The <BLINK> Tag.........................................................................26 ADDING HTML COMMENTS........................................................................................28 USING HTML LISTS......................................................................................................29 USING BODY TAG ATTRIBUTES................................................................................31 USING A BACKGROUND COLOR...............................................................................32 CHANGING THE DEFAULT TEXT COLOR..................................................................33 CHANGING THE LINK COLOR....................................................................................34 USING A BACKGROUND IMAGE................................................................................35 RESIZING IMAGES.......................................................................................................36 LINKING WITHIN A SINGLE PAGE..............................................................................38 THE E-MAIL LINK.........................................................................................................39 THE E-MAIL LINK: MORE............................................................................................40 HTML TABLE ...............................................................................................................41 <table>......................................................................................41 <tr>...........................................................................................41 <td>..........................................................................................41 HTML FRAME...............................................................................................................43

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HTML FORMS...............................................................................................................45 TEXT INPUT......................................................................................................................46 RADIO BUTTON.................................................................................................................47 CHECKBOX.......................................................................................................................48 DROP DOWN MENU...........................................................................................................49

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HTML Basics
Webpages are written in HTML - a simple scripting language. HTML is short for HyperText Markup Language. • Hypertext is simply a piece of text that works as a link. • Markup Language is a way of writing layout information within documents.

Basically an HTML document is a plain text file that contains text and nothing else. When a browser opens an HTML file, the browser will look for HTML codes in the text and use them to change the layout, insert images, or create links to other pages. Since HTML documents are just text files they can be written in even the simplest text editor. A more popular choice is to use a special HTML editor - maybe even one that puts focus on the visual result rather than the codes - a so-called WYSIWYG editor ("What You See Is What You Get"). Some of the most popular HTML editors, such as FrontPage or Dreamweaver will let you create pages more or less as you write documents in Word or whatever text editor you're using.

A quick look at Notepad and Web Browsers
Using HTML you will want to familiarize yourself with the software you will be using. So, to get started, open Notepad (or your text editor). You should see a completely blank page. Now, type in the text below. We will make use of it later with the web browser. Type the following: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Test Page</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Hi there, you have just written your first web page! </BODY> </HTML> Once you have finished, go to the "File" menu and click on "Save As”. This will prompt you to create a name for your file. In the box, type in test.htm. At the

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you will need to place quote marks around the filename. Now you may choose the drive and directory to save to. Now. If you have the file in a directory called "myfiles". you can cancel the connection and you will likely end up with a blank page. Now you will want to use your web browser to view the file you just created.*). Something similar to the methods above should work for you. Click on the down arrow on the right side of the input box. Be careful not to save it just yet though if you are using Windows. You may also see an error saying the browser could not connect to "http://somepage. You should be able to highlight All Files (*. and click on "Save". then select the plain text file type (usually shown as Text Documents. The text was enlarged so you could see the part we are interested in at this point. If you are given an option to connect to the internet. You should be able to hit OK and get a blank page. You can use this routine each time you create a new HTML file. You should see something similar to the picture below: This is an example using Windows 95. feel free to send it to me.htm.txt).htm. so you will need to change it. To get around this. Windows will save it as test. type in the path to your html file. the way to do this will depend on your text editor. start up your web browser. as shown in the image below: If you have a Mac. If you do not get the option to save the file as the type All Files (*. If the file is on a floppy disk. If someone with a Mac would like to write up something in more detail about this (as I don't have a Mac). The default is .txt. you would type the following: c:\myfiles\test.bottom of the prompt you should see a space that says "Save file as Type" or "Save as Type". Click on this to make the change.*).html" or something similar. Text Files (*. or something similar in the dialogue box). So. in the location box (where you manually type urls). you can type 5 .txt by default.

htm. To use this. or a similar phrase. you will see something like the following: Hi there. you have just written your first web page! 6 . "Open Local File". Another option you have. Look for an option that says "Open Page". Most browsers will display the page when you hit enter. especially if you hate typing paths all day.a:\test. provided you did not place it in another directory on the disk. go to the "File" menu in your web browser. The image below shows where this can be found in Internet Explorer: Once the page is displayed. ”Open File". is to use the "Open Page" option. Click this option and you will be able to browse for your file and open it from there.

It has certain tags and attributes defined. which is (in general) common across all different browsers.. we will introduce the notion of tags and attributes. Attributes Attributes are associated with each tag to further define the tags. > A couple of other notes before we dive into the tutorial: . it is often okay to have a tag without the corresponding closing tag.. 7 .Tags & Attributes HTML Tags HTML stands for (H)yper(T)ext (M)arkup (L)anguage. and is geared towards document display over the World Wide Web. . Mozilla. Tags Tags are elements of the HTML document used to specify how the document should be displayed by the browser.Many browsers will ignore badly-formed HTML documents. Opera. HTML documents can be viewed in browsers such as Internet Explorer. The general syntax is as follows: <tag attribute 1 = "value" attribute 2 = "value" . In HTML. On this page. you may think of this tutorial as an introduction to the tags that are commonly used in writing HTML.HTML tag codes are case-insensitive. In fact. and Safari. each tag has its own specific meaning. In other words.

but will have a forward slash before the command. and a paragraph: <P>. An HTML tag will always begin with a "less than" sign. like this: >.HTML: Basic Format Now we are able to start learning about HTML tags. Other examples would be a line break: <BR>. This signals the beginning of an HTML file. <P> is the same as <p>. A closing tag will always be the same as the opening tag. I'll explain them at the end of the example. which begins the operation you wish to perform. The tags will end with a "greater than" sign. you must use a closing tag. a horizontal line: <HR>. go through and find the pairs of opening and closing tags. An example would be the image tag. This is called an opening tag. So. Also. like this: <. You can also use as much space between things as you like. So: <U> Underline Me! </U> Is the same as: <U>Underline Me!</U> Is the same as: <U> Underline Me! </U> A basic HTML file will have the format below. 8 . <U>. In order to end the underlining.gif">.) <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>I Love HTML</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Everything displayed on your page will be in here. I will explain all the extra stuff later. you would write the following in your text editor: <U>HTML Rules!</U> The result of this would be: HTML Rules! Not all tags will require a closing tag. this is just an example of a tag that requires no closing tag to follow it. to make sense of this. An example would be the tag used to underline text. which will place an image on the page. Read through and see if you can guess what the different tags will do: (Don't worry. if you would like to underline the phrase "HTML Rules!". The first one we see is <HTML>. You would place this before the text you want to underline. </BODY> </HTML> Okay. It looks like this: <IMG SRC="myimage. you do not need to capitalize the tags. like this: </U>.

search engines. is at the very end of the document. use </BODY>. The browser would display this: Everything displayed on your page will be in here. the title is "I Love HTML" (That's not true all the time. though). as they are the beginning and end of your page. images) should be between these two tags. The section ends with the </HEAD> tag. At this time. and add other descriptive information to the page. which brings us to the next tag. All we have is a line of text aligned to the left of the screen. let's go to the next tutorial and see if we can add a little life to our page of text. To end the body section. The next tag we see is the <HEAD> tag. For instance. the only part of the HEAD section we will deal with is the TITLE. It will not show up on your web page unless you type it in the BODY section (explained below). This is where most of our work will be done. in the example. </HTML>. Well. Yuck. 9 . The title is only used for bookmarks. use keywords. text. The above example makes a rather boring web page (even worse than the one in the previous tutorial). The <BODY> tag opens the section that will be displayed in the web browser. The <TITLE> tag allows you to create a title for your page. it signals the end of the HTML document. As you might have guessed. and as the name of the browser window. Everything (tags. This opens a section in which you can title your page. To end your title. use the </TITLE> tag.The closing tag .

which makes me cool!</I></B> This will show up like this: I am bold AND Italic... Example: <B>Howdy</B> This will show up on your page like this: Howdy Here are a few more to start working with: <U></U> Underline text <U>Underline Me!</U> Underline Me! <I></I> Italics <I>Isn't this fun?</I> Isn't this fun? <STRIKE></STRIKE> <STRIKE>You're Out!</STRIKE> You're Out! <CENTER></CENTER> <CENTER>This centers text on the page</CENTER> This centers text on the page Having fun yet? You can also use more than one tag at a time. which makes me cool! Does the order of the tags make a difference? In this case. it wouldn't matter which way you opened and closed the tags. Let's say you wanted something in bold and italics. Let's start by giving you some tags to work with: <B></B> This is the tag for bold text. working from inside out will help you see your code better. just place both opening tags before the text.like this: <B><I>I am bold AND Italic. To do this. However.and remember to close both tags afterwards.....The Text Tags How to use HTML tags to manipulate your text To start making our text appear in different ways. and will help when the order does matter! (such as placing the 10 ..

Here is an example: <CENTER>I'm in the middle!</CENTER> This will give us the following: I'm in the middle! You can also use it with one or more of the other tags above. Use the <CENTER> tag. which makes me cool! </I> </B> This could get rather tedious. Here's another way to look at working inside out. Anything you place between the <CENTER> and </CENTER> tags will be centered on the page. like this: <CENTER><B><I>Look at me now!</I></B></CENTER> Look at me now! 11 . Italic. it's nice to have a way to place things in the center of the page. So let's do just that. So lets try three things: Bold. All you need to remember is that the text you have written is affected by every tag before it that has not been closed.but the underline remained open until the end of the exclamation. The effect ends when each one of those tags is closed by it's closing tag.. I could write the HTML this way: <B> <I> I am bold AND Italic. Since the default alignment of everything is to the left.</HTML> tag before the </BODY> tag). This caused the "tagging me!" portion to be underlined. while not being affected by the bold or italics tags! Now let's use the center tag from above... and underline! <B><I><U>Would you stop tagging me!</B></I></U> This will give us: Would you stop tagging me! But this: <U><I><B>Would you stop</B></I>tagging me!</U> would give us this! Would you stop tagging me! As you can see. the bold and italics were closed before the word "tagging".

.. Now let's move on to a line break.. I think you get the idea here. Paragraphs. and Line Breaks These tags are good for creating titles or section headings. Here are some examples: <H1>Large Heading!</H1> will give us: Large Heading! <H2>Heading 2</H2> Heading 2 <H3>Heading 3</H3> Heading 3 <H4>Getting Small</H4> Getting Small <H5>Smaller Still. <H6>You must have good vision. or sees a tag that will 12 . a line break is like hitting the "enter" key when you are writing text.. Here is an example: End this line now!!<BR>Thanks! This will generate the following: End this line now!! Thanks! Basically.. The <BR> tag does not need a closing tag afterward. The browser will not go to the next line until it runs out of space. the contents will go to the next line.</H5> Smaller Still.</H6> You must have good vision. The tag for a line break is <BR>. Okay.... When you insert this tag in your document.Headings and Paragraphs Using Headings.

<P> This is a new paragraph. This is the next line. Is this cool or what? This will give us the following: This is some cool stuff. This tag will skip a vertical space after going to the next line. To make the text move to the next line. This gives us: Hello. as though you had typed <BR> twice. let's move on to the paragraph tag. I want a new line. I want a new line. use your <BR> tag from above: Hello.force it to the next line. <P>. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! </P> <P> 13 . So typing the following in your text editor will display only one line of text in the browser: Hello. This tag is good for skipping a line quickly and for knowing where you wanted a new paragraph to begin. O. I want a new line. Now.<BR> I want<BR> a new line. How about an example? Well. Is this cool or what? The paragraph tag does not require a closing tag. <BR> This is the next line.: This is some cool stuff. but if you'd like to add one for your own reference. you place a </P> where you would like the paragraph to end. This is a new paragraph. Now this will do what we wanted it to do: Hello.K.

.. 14 .. </P> This will give you the same thing as using just the opening <P> tags..Here is a new paragraph.<BR> and the end. and the end.... like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! <P> Here is a new paragraph...<BR> and the end. Both of these will give you this: This paragraph needs a visual ending! Here is a new paragraph.

you can make the font smaller in the same way.sign: <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey.sign in front of it. I'm Small! Here are some more size examples for you: <FONT SIZE="+4">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+3">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There 15 .Manipulating Color Font Size and How to change font sizes and colors now we want to see how to change the font size. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2">I'm a big sentence now!</FONT> This will give us the following: I'm a big sentence now! Likewise. You can use the tag with a +2. using the . This is done with the following tag: <FONT SIZE="x">text to change</FONT> "x" will be replaced by a number with a + or . So let's say you wanted to make the font larger. I'm Small!</FONT> Will give us this: Hey.

click here . This is done like this: <FONT SIZE="+2" COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT> I am gold! 16 .<FONT SIZE="-1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-3">Can you read this?</FONT> Can you read this? Now. and close only one tag. To do this. Here is the tag: <FONT COLOR="color"> We replace the word color with a color name or the hexidecimal color value. Let's do one using the color name to begin: <FONT COLOR="red">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! Now let's use the hexidecimal value for red. you can use the SIZE and COLOR declarations inside the same tag. Here is the example: <FONT COLOR="#FF0000">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! That is a # sign. The hexidecimal representation begins with a # sign and is followed by six letters and/or numbers. If you want to see a sample list of color names and hex codes. Now suppose you want to change the size AND the color. you can use two FONT tags and remember to close them both. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2"><FONT COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT></FONT> I am gold! Also. two F's and four zeros. suppose you want to change the font color. but you may want to have the hex code for more complicated colors. Usually it's easier to remeber the color names. This is done in much the same way.

There! This will create the first space.) . where you would like to add the extra space. and 4 additional spaces between the two words. by placing its reference where you would like to see the symbol on the page. You can add as many spaces as you would like by repeating the &nbsp.you will only see one space in the browser. like this: Hello there! The first space is added just using the "space" bar on the keyboard. 1999 by me! This page Copyright © 1999 by me! 17 .&nbsp. The web browser will see the first space. we forced the browser to add an extra space between the two words.&nbsp. You use it the same way as an extra space. reference. The reference will begin with an ampersand (&). and end with a semicolon (. So as an example. for a total of five spaces. Here is what you would do: Hello &nbsp. The reference for a copyright symbol is &copy. like this: Hello &nbsp. have you been wondering how to add an extra space on your page.&nbsp. To do this. reference. It will be displayed like this: Hello There! The other one we will discuss is the copyright symbol. but after that additional spaces will make no difference-. By adding the &nbsp.. or how to get a copyright symbol to show up? Then let's see how right now! Special characters are placed on your page by using a special reference to the character you want to use. will be followed by some text or numbers.there! This gives us two spaces between "Hello" and "there!". you place the reference &nbsp. Here's an example: This page Copyright &copy. let's say you wanted to place an extra space between two words.Special Characters How to use special characters in HTML So.

To create the link. If you click on the link from the first example. Before you try this. you can just use the filename. (In most cases.com/index1. This will work for any page because we are using the absolute url..htm . Great isn't it? Now.Linking to Other Pages How to link to other pages in HTML let's start out by seeing what tag we use for linking: <A HREF="http://www. As another example. So. rather than typing the full url inside the tag.com. like this: 18 . Our url is http://www.com">Display Text</A> The A stands for anchor. your browser will simply display this page again. Look in your location box near the top of your web browser. let's create a link to this particular page. The mouse attribute comes in handy when a page has a whole lot of underlined text. If you have all of your files in the same directory. so to create a link to us. The text between the tags is what will show up on your web page as a link. and the HREF=" " is asking for a location to link to. The </A> is the closing tag.com/index1. if you would like to link to our site.sevenhills. You should see the url for this page. or net address. you would place our url. this will indicate the text is a link.com">goto Sevenhills</A> It will show up on your page like this: goto Sevenhills See how the text was colorized and underlined? In most cases.. it will be) Now. If you move your mouse over the link.. insert this url into the link tag: <A HREF="http://www. be certain any file you want to create a local url link to is in the same directory as the page you are editing.sevenhills. place this command on the page where you would like the link to show up: <A HREF="http://www. you will end up at our home page. which is http://www.. if you want to link to your own pages from your home page.sevenhills. which means we are using the complete address to every page we are creating a link to. you should see the cursor change into a pointing hand. inside the quote marks.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> Which gives us this link: Linking to Other Pages If you click on this link right now. just type in the address for your page inside the link tag.sevenhills.sevenhills. you may use a shortcut called a "local url".

but we didn't have to write as much. try one of these: Changing the Link Color Using an Image as a Link Linking Within the Same Page 19 . Linking to Other Pages If you aren't sure or have doubts.<A HREF="linking. always use the absolute url. Typing in the full address will allow the link to work no matter where it is located on the internet. If you would like to see some related tutorials.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> This will create the same link we just did.

The address for the image is: http://www.disney.com/images/next. This can be done with most image editing programs. Most often.sevenhills.gif"> The IMG stands for image. If you have images in other file formats. let's take a look at the image tag: <IMG SRC="image.gif or .jpg .jpg"> Otherwise.jpg"> Either option would display the image on the page. These are the two most common image file extensions used on the internet.disney.com/pictures/image.jpg . I would use the full internet address. Now. have you been wondering how to add an image to your page? Well.gif. you will want to link to it using the full address of the image. like this: 20 .com/pictures/image. One image I have on this site is called "next. go ahead and use the full address just to be sure it will work correctly.jpg . you will probably want to convert them to . I would type: <IMG SRC="next.jpg file as well. like this: <IMG SRC="image.jpg"> If you aren't sure. The source of the image is going to be the net address of the image.jpg". you would use this url as the image source: <IMG SRC="http://www. if your image is located at http://www. The SRC stands for source. if your images are in a directory other than the one your html document is in.com/images/next.Adding Images to Your Page How to place images on your page So. aligned to the left. If my image and html file were in the same directory. You could also use a . Now let's work with a real example.gif"> The filename does not have to end with . you will be able to just type the filename of the image here. like this: <IMG SRC="http://www. So.sevenhills.

you would place the CENTER tag around the image tag.jpg" align="left"> Now just type in your text and it will wrap around the image. If you want to see more on using images.jpg" and "IMAGE.JPG" are considered two different images to the web browser. the filename or address of the image IS case sensitive.jpg" align="left"> Hello./images/next.sevenhills.. this text should wrap around<br> this image like this. Now.<br> <IMG SRC=". Be sure to use the correct case in your image tags.I think this image is in the way. the image tag would look like this: <IMG SRC="next.. Hmmm. or the image may not show up. like this: <CENTER> <IMG SRC="http://www. but it will allow you to add an image to your page on its own line.<br> 21 .If you want to center the image on the page.jpg"> </CENTER> This will place the image in the center of the screen: Keep in mind.. so "image.. check out one of these related tutorials: Aligning Images and Wrapping Text Using an Image as a Link Using a Background Image Resizing an Image Using Image "alt" Commands Image Alignment/Wrapping Text How to wrap text around an image To allow text to wrap around an image. and that's no fun. this doesn't give us everything we could possibly want...com/images/next. Here is an example. rather than jumping to the bottom of the image. you just need to add one of these commands to the image tag: align="left" align="right" So.

you must create a link to the place you want people to go when they click on the picture..I'll just keep on writing and<br> writing and writing and writing<br> until I'm tired of writing... like this: <A HREF="http://www. Hello. first. but now it is a visual image. this text should wrap around this image like this.com"> <IMG SRC="next.. it will operate the same way as a normal link. so that the image tag is between the opening and closing link tags. Using an Image as a Link How to link an image To use an image as a link. remember my trusty old picture. you would type the following: <A HREF="http://www. How to create a link. what did I do? Well. I'll just keep on writing and writing and writing and writing until I'm tired of writing. and don't close the tag just yet. if you wanted to link to our main page. you would go ahead and type the opening link tag.. So. you will have to use two things you have already learned.. don't type any text.<br> This will give you the following: Hmmm. So.. Here is what the above code would produce: 22 .jpg". now we are going to close the link tag at the end of the image tag.jpg"> </A> Now that the image is between the link tags..I think this image is in the way. "next.. like this: <A HREF="http://www. What we are going to do is place the image tag right after the opening link tag. The image we are using here is "next.jpg"> OK.com"> <IMG SRC="next.jpg"? I have been using it at the bottom of each page as a link to the next section.sevenhills.sevenhills.sevenhills. 2. So. How to add an image to the page... 1.com"> Now. Now.

sevenhills. 23 . and it will turn into the little pointing hand. and then set the border="0" in your image tag. just use a larger number in there. add this command to the image tag: border="0" Here is an example: <A HREF="http://www. that's good.com"> <IMG SRC="next.jpg" border="0"> </A> Now. To get rid of it. the border just seems to be added by default on most browsers.Move the mouse over the image. and sometimes this isn't the color you want to use. you will end up all the way back at our main page. but what's with the border around the image? Well. Well. for instance: Border="5" The drawback to the border is that it insists on being the color of your link color. The only way I know around it is to edit the actual image to where it has the border you want. the picture will be a link. and you won't have the extra border around the sides: You can also make the border larger in the same way. If you click on the image.

jpg" image at the bottom of these pages. you can move your mouse over the image and it will display the alt text right there for you. and that is what will be seen if someone sees the page with no images. this is a handy way to let people know what the image was supposed to do.jpg" alt="next"> To see this work. Here is the example: <IMG SRC="next. One image I do this with is my "next. You can then scroll down to the bottom right and see the word "next" where the image used to be. you will probably have to disable image loading and reload this page. the image alt command is used to display text in the case someone visits your page with a browser that can't show images. or in the case they have image loading turned off to so pages will load faster. This is the alt command: alt="something you want to write" Place this inside the image tag: <IMG SRC="image. 24 . Of course. I place the text "next" in the alt command. If you have images as links.Using Image "alt" Commands An alternative to the picture Okay.gif" alt="something you want to write"> You place this command inside the image tag for the image you want to display alternate text for. if you have a really new browser.

<WBR>. Here is an example: <PRE> x=1. <SUB> and <SUP> These tags are used to place a number or words slightly above or below your normal text.Some Extra Text Tags There are a few more tags you might like to try while you are creating your pages. 25 . if (x==1) y=2. The tags I will be talking about in this section are <SUB>. but there are other times you may wish to use them. and the Netscape only <BLINK> tag. <SUP>. <PRE>. </PRE> And this somewhat redundant code gives you this: x=1. if (x==1) y=2. The <SUB> tag works like this: Area<SUB>1</SUB> The result is this: Area1 And the <SUP> tag allows you to use exponents if you need to: X<SUP>2</SUP> + Y<SUP>2</SUP> = 0 And this gives you: X2 + Y2 = 0 These two tags are most useful if you are writing mathematical equations and such on your page. The <PRE> Tag The <PRE> tag is used when you want to keep the same amount of whitespace on your web page as you have in your html code in your text editor. y=2. y=2. <NOBR>. This is useful when you have to post programming code.

<NOBR> and <WBR> Any text you place between the <NOBR> and the </NOBR> tags will not break to the next line. this is the tag everyone has been complaining about. You can use the <WBR> tag inside the NOBR tags to force a line break if you want or need to do so. like this: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long <WBR> long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. If you are using Netscape you can see the following reason why viewers get annoyed by this tag: 26 . </NOBR> Now you will have two lines that are not quite as long (though still pretty long in 640x480): I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. inside the <PRE> tags. you probably had to scroll to the right to see the end of that line. When viewed on your web page. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long The <BLINK> Tag Yes. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long Unless you had a monitor with some pretty high resolution. Here is an example: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long </NOBR> this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. even after reaching the end of someone's browser window. this will be one really long line. like this: I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. This can save you some headaches from writing in line breaks and spaces manually so often.Notice how we didn't need to use <BR> or &nbsp.

but you can get the general idea... Just avoid the +10 font size. you won't see the text blink.Here is an example: This rule is <BLINK>very</BLINK> important! This gives you the following: This rule is very important! 27 . Actually. if the tag is used in a better way. it can help point out important things you want people to see.LOOK AT ME NOW!!!!!! If you have IE..

Adding HTML Comments Using comments in your html code Comments can be a nice way to help yourself when you are coding your web page. --> To look at something more useful. --> You can comment on multiple lines.. I feel invisible though. <!-.. you type in your coments. The only way to view comments is to look at the source (html) code of the web page.I am a comment. In this way. So. how is it done? To write a comment.This image should be aligned to the right. you can leave yourself notes so that you don't forget something when you come back later to redesign the page. To end the comment. you use two dashes (--) followed directly by a greater than sign (>). just be sure you remember to end the comment! <!-You can't see me. After this. unless you look at the page source code.. Comments are invisible to a web browser when it displays your web page. you could use a comment to remind yourself that a section of code is supposed to perform a certain task: <!-. and have alt text --> <IMG SRC="mypet. you begin with a less than sign (<) followed directly by an exclaimation point (!) and two dashes (--).gif" align="right" alt="Look at my Kitty Cat!"> 28 .

. The opening tag is <UL>. followed by your text. Also. to set off each item in your list. here is the way to add those html lists to your web pages. how nice it is to be number one.. If each list item is not the same length. Here is a sample list with two list items: <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> This will give us the bulleted list below: • • I am item one I am item two Notice the <LI> tags do not require a closing tag.. 29 . let's use an unordered list. For starters... you will get more of a mess than a straight list: • • • This is item one.. To begin. you use the <LI> tag.Using HTML Lists How to add an HTML list to your page Have you been wanting to add lists to your page? Well. You can indent further by adding more <UL> tags. Here is a sample of indenting further into the page: <UL> <UL> <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> </UL> </UL> This will give us the following indented list:   I am item one I am item two Be careful about using the <CENTER> tag around your lists.. we need a tag to begin and end the entire list.yep. This will create a list with bullets next to the list items. as long as you remember to close every one of them. you guessed it. the list is indented somewhat from the rest of the text. and the closing tag is. Item two is much shorter! Item three is somewhere in between.</UL>. Now.

use the indention method above until it hits the center of the screen (this can mess up in different screen resolutions. Item 2 3. Item 3 30 . though). You can also use an ordered list in the same way you use the unordered list. Item 1 2. you would use <OL> </OL>. like this: <OL> <LI>Item 1 <LI>Item 2 <LI>Item 3 </OL> This gives you a numbered list rather than the bulleted list: 1. or you can try using a Table to align the text instead. Instead of using <UL> </UL>.If you really need the list further in on the page.

. you can change serveral things in the body of your document by adding extra commands to the <BODY> tag. You can set this to any color you would like to use. alink="color" This changes the color of an active link on your page. The default setting varies with your browser. The default setting for a non-visited link is usually blue. link="color" This changes the color of all of the non-visited links on your page. isn't it? Well. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. bgcolor="color" This changes the background color of your page. click here. You can set this to any color you would like to use. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. Here is what a body tag with serveral additions would look like: <BODY bgcolor="black" text="red" link="yellow" alink="orange" vlink="white" background="image. For a list of common colors and hex codes. You can set this to any color you would like to use.Using BODY Tag Attributes How to use body tag attributes to enhance your page When you create a web page. with a link to the tutorial for each one... text="color" This changes the default text color the browser will display on your page. click here. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. vlink="color" 31 . you can use as many or as few of these add-ons as you wish. The default setting for text color is black. The options you don't use will be set to the web browser's default values. which is a link that has just been clicked on by a user's mouse.) So here we go. (If you are moving through the tutorials in order. but is usually gray or white. click here. Below is a brief explaination of each attribute. we will eventually get to each one of these. You can set this to any color you would like to use. For a list of common colors and hex codes. For a list of common colors and hex codes. click here.gif"> Pretty long tag. For a list of common colors and hex codes.

the command may not be there at all. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. click here. You can set this to any color you would like to use. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. just add it in like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> To change the background color. If you use this attribute.This changes the color of a visited link on your page. and add color your pages! 32 . click here. if you wanted to change the background color to green. It may look like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> Or the tag may have more commands inside and use hex codes. like this: <BODY text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0" bgcolor="#808080"> And of course. add it by placing a space after the word BODY and then type the command. So.gif" This adds a background image to your page. look for a command after the word BODY that says bgcolor="color" . Using a Background Color Add or change the background color on your page If you want to use a background color on your page. Beautiful! Now just use any color you like in the command. background="image. Once you have found the tag. If you don't use a background image. the browser will use your background color or its default background color. For a list of common colors and hex codes. the background image will take the place of any background color you may have specified. If this is the case. The default setting for a visited link is usually violet. like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray" text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0"> Or if you don't have any other commands. you would type: <BODY bgcolor="green"> Or you could use the hex code for green: <BODY bgcolor="#008000"> After doing this. replace the word gray inside the quote marks with a color name or a color hex code. your page will have a green background.

If you don't have the extra command yet. or you may be creating the page from scratch. like this: <BODY bgcolor="blue" text="black"> Now. you may not see either of these. like this: <BODY text="#000000"> Of course. add it to your BODY tag like one of the examples above. if you'd like to change the color. You may have something like this: <BODY text="black"> You may also see a weird number/letter combination. look for the phrase text="" somewhere after the word BODY. Now. you could use one of the following: Using a color name: <BODY text="red"> Or using a hex code: <BODY text="#FF0000"> 33 . For a list of some common color names and hex codes. if you want to change the text color to red. If you have other commands. replace the black between the quote marks with a color name or hex code. So. leaving a space after the previous command. click here. to change your default text color in your HTML page.Changing the Default Text Color How to change the default font color on your page Okay. you will need to find your body tag. add this one onto the end.

you would type the following: <BODY link="red"> Or using the hex code: <BODY link="#FF0000"> Now. You can also do the same things for active and visited links by adding or editing their commands. If you need to add the commands. and add your colors! 34 .Changing the Link Color How to change the link color on your page If you want to change the link color on your page. all the links on your page will be colored red rather than blue. if you would like to change the link color to red. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. go ahead. add the command after the word BODY. click here. It would look like this: <BODY link="blue"> Or the tag might have some other commands as well: <BODY bgcolor="#000000" text="#FFFFFF" link="#0000FF"> You may also just have the word BODY with nothing else there. So. If so. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. do the same as you did for the link color. you replace the word blue inside the quotes with a different color name or hex code. like this: <BODY link="blue"> Now. The commands are: alink="color" vlink="color" For the active link color For the visited link color You might have: <BODY link="blue" alink="blue" vlink="violet"> To change the other colors. to change the link color. Just place a space between each command. Now look for a command after the word BODY that says link="color". with a space between the two.

I would type in this: <BODY background="http://www. When you have found it. skip a space.gif"> Now. if we want image2.jpg"> Now. It may look something like this: <BODY bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000"> What we are going to do is add a command after the word BODY.jpg . So. like this: <BODY background="http://www.com/image1. we are going to place the url of the image inside the quotation marks.com/image1. to use this as a background. and it is in the same directory as the page we are editing.gif . The url for the image is http://www.jpg"> 35 . like this: <BODY background="next. So. The name of the image is "next. we can type the command this way: <BODY background="image2. you will need to locate the <BODY> tag in your document. you will want to covert it to one of these file types.mysite. if the image I want to use is at http://www. I will use an image from my server as a background on a page.Using a Background Image How to add a background image to your page To add a background image to your page. If not.com/images/next. or you may see a string of commands afterward. One program that will do this is Paint Shop Pro.mysite. Now. you may see just the word BODY. I could use the image by typing in just the filename. So. go to the end of the word BODY.sevenhills.jpg". I would insert this into the command. if your image file is located in the same directory as your html file. you can just type the filename of the image rather than the full url.jpg .com/images/next. So.gif to be the background image.gif"> Your image should have the file extension .gif or . and type the following: background=" " Now your body tag should look something like this (and may have more commands): <BODY background=" "> Now. which is available as shareware from JASC. if I put an html file in my "images" directory. as a real example.sevenhills.

I'm going to place numbers inside those quotation marks. The picture looks like this: So. or maybe you wanted a larger version of the image on the screen. A typical screen is about 800 pixels wide and 600 pixels in height (though this varies with different video cards and moniters). The width and height are usually written in pixels. The tag will now look like this: <IMG SRC="next. My image turns out to be 106 pixels wide and 65 pixels in height. Well.jpg" width=" " height=" "> Now. Maybe the image takes up the whole screen. Well. the picture will be the new height and width I specified. suppose I want to make it smaller. let's say I wanted it to be 75 pixels wide and 40 pixels high. like this: <IMG SRC="next.jpg" width="75" height="40"> Now. Well. Let's take a look at an example. you can resize the image by adding width and height commands to your image tag.Resizing Images How to resize your images Okay. to make the image smaller. I would then place these numbers into the commands. I have an image called "next.jpg". you have an image you want to use.jpg". to change the size of the image. IMG SRC="next. to make the image larger. but it's just not the right size to go where you want it to go. All I need to do is know the original width and height of my image. I'm going to add these two commands inside the image tag: width=" " and height=" " I'm going to place the commands after the initial command. we will just insert larger numbers for the width and height: <IMG SRC="next. when I reload my page.jpg" width="300" height="200"> 36 . Here's what it would look like: Now.

I usually use my image program to do this. One reason for this is that I didn't keep the aspect ratio the same. I would use 46 as the height: <IMG SRC="next. You can guess at it for awhile.63 .63 Now take the answer and round up or down. or if you like solving equations.63 .jpg" width="75" height="46"> Now it looks like this: If you don't want to deal with math all the time (like me). When you calculate 106/65. just for the ease of use. you get about 1. the paint program will make the file size smaller 37 . Since the image was originally 106x65. if I'm making the image smaller.0123 . the images became somewhat distorted when I resized them. you need to find the height that will make the ratio as close as possible to 1. if you want to make the width 75. So. it comes out to about 46. In this case. you can also resize it with a paint or image program (which will do the calculations for you) and upload the new version of the picture to your server. and then find a height that would keep the aspect ratio of 106/65.Now the image looks like this: As you can see. So. I would have to decide on a width. here it is: 75/height = 1. Besides.

To do this. you will be sent back to the top of the page. but for now. You can link to it from any other part of the page. You can place one at the third paragraph. which is a specific area of your page you want to make a link to.. So. go anywhere between the body tags and type this link: <A HREF="#top">Back to the Top</A> If you click on this link. the way to do this is to use a named anchor. middle.. Or maybe you want to divide it into sections and use a table of contents at the top.. You can try one I made on this page by clicking on the link below: Back to top The # sign is there to let the browser know the destination is a named anchor within this page. or any other place Okay. You could link to any part of the page. let's say you want to create a link to the top of your page. Now type the following tag: <A NAME="top"></A> You can place any name you wish inside the quotes. if you create an anchor named "cool". It can make navigating some pages a whole lot easier.. the top. lets say you have one page that is pretty long. go to the top of the body section (right after the body tag). the bottom. Maybe you would like to give someone a way back to the top of the page when they are at the bottom. like this: <A NAME="cool"></A> -----The anchor name <A HREF="#cool">To the Cool Section of this page</A> section -----Linking to the named You can place a named anchor anyplace on your page. This just makes it easy to see where we are going to end up. 38 .Linking Within a Single Page Jump to the top. the 500th word. Well. Now. you link to that anchor by using "#cool".

like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills. to create an email link to myself. all you need to do is use the standard link tag. To force the browser to read it as an e-mail link. you use "mailto:" rather than "http://" to begin the address.com in that space.your e-mail address. all you need to do is replace the your_email_address with . like this: <A HREF="mailto:your_email_address">E-mail Me!</A> Yes...com?subject=Enquiry">Mail Me!</A> The example link is below. Mail Me! 39 . After the "mailto:". notice that when you click it. you will use your e-mail address rather than a web address.maybe your joke of the day or something! You can also create the subject of the message so the viewer doesn't have to fill in something in the subject line. the subject field of your email message is already filled in with "Enquiry".com">Give me some mail!</A> Here is the resulting link: Give me some mail! If you click on the link. your browser will bring up a window for you to send me email.The E-mail Link How to create an email link To create an e-mail link on your page. The trick is in what you use as the address of the link. Send me whatever you want.. You do this by adding a "?" at the end of your e-mail address and then your subject. I would place info@sevenhills.. with my e-mail address already filled in. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills. Here is an example.

it would look like this: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. To send a carbon copy.com&cc=other@other.com"> Mail Me</A> With that.com"> Mail Me</A> With either of these. you add the cc= command after the question mark.com"> Mail Me</A> If you want all three. 40 . you can send the copies to multiple addresses by separating them with commas: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com?bcc=friend@friend. there are a couple of extras you can also add.com"> Mail Me</A> Now. you can have some more fun with your e-mail links-. use the "&" sign again: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. you add them in using an "&" sign at the end of the first command. other@other. a blind carbon copy recipient. You can add a carbon copy recipient. followed by the e-mail address of the person you want to send the carbon copy to: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. except you use the bcc= command instead: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. For instance.and if you run a site with a partner you can both get an e-mail when someone uses that link. It was done using a "question mark" followed by subject= and then the subject: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com"> Mail Me</A> The same goes for a blind carbon copy.com?subject=Hi">Mail Me</A> On top of adding the subject. if you want to combine more than one of these commands after the question mark.com?subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend.The E-mail Link: More More tricks for the email link we saw how to add the subject to a message through the e-mail link. if you want a subject and a blind carbon copy.com.com? subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend.com?cc=friend@friend.com?bcc=friend@friend. or use a combination of the subject with either or both of these.

Example 1 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> 41 . Border: This specifies whether the table will have a border. cellspacing: The amount spacing between the cell wall and the cell border. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. <table> The <table> tag specifies the presence of a table. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this column. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. This is very often used in conjunction with the <tr> and the <td> tags. cellpadding: The amount padding between cells and the each cell wall in a table. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this table. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this table: • • • • • Width: This specifies the width of the table. Height: This specifies the height of the row. The areas enclosed by the cell walls are the maximum amount of area that text can be displayed in a cell. 100%). 50%). <td> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a column. and <td>. <tr>.HTML Table This section lists the tags often used with HTML tables: <table>. rowspan: This specifies the number of rows this particular row occupies. Columns are specified within each row. <tr> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a row. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. colspan: This specifies the number of columns this particular column occupies. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. The number indicates the thickness of the border. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this row: • • • bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this row. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this column: • • • • valign: Width: This specifies the width of the column.

<tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 2 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr><td width=200>Element 1</td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 3 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr bgcolor=red><td width=200><b>Element 1</b></td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td bgcolor=55ff55>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td><i>Element 6</i></td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 4 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td colspan=2>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 2 Element 3 Element 4 Element 5 42 .

Example 5: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 HTML Frame This section introduces the tags related to HTML frames: <frameset> and <frame>. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 7: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. 43 . HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=0> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 6: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes.

please consider using the frame feature carefully.html"> </frameset> <frameset rows="50%. Therefore.50%"> <frameset rows="100%"> <frame src="frame1. The possible values are {yes|no|auto}. For example. as well as the width of each column.html"> </frameset> </frameset> 44 . the first column occupies 30% of the available space. Note that you may embed a frameset within another frameset. as well as the width of each row. while the second row occupies 60% of the available space. The attributes include: • • • • • src: This attribute specifies the HTML document source. The attributes include: • Cols: Specifies the number of columns. while the second column occupies 70% of the available space. cols="30%. Scrolling: This attribute specifies whether users may scroll up and down within this frame.50%"> <frame src="frame2. rows="40%. marginwidth: The margin on the left and right side of the frame. Example 1 HTML: <frameset cols="50%. 60%" means that there will be two rows. noresize: This attribute specifies whether users may resize the frame. the first row occupies 40% of the available space. Rows: Specifies the number of rows. marginheight: The margin on the top and bottom of the frame. For example.<frameset> The <frameset> tag specifies the number of columns/rows on a frame.html"> <frame src="frame3. Note that search engines typically do not like the use of the frames.70%" means that there will be two columns. • <frame> The <frame> tag specifies the properties within a particular frame.

The general format is as follows: <form action=xxx> . The key for the second key-value pair is 'd'.. This is shown below: The following list gives the most common ways for users to specify the value: • • • • Text input Radio button Checkbox Drop-down menu 45 . How are key-value pair specified? They are specified by the <form> tag.. <input type=submit value=Go> </form> The text after action= specifies the script to be executed after the user submits the information.com/example?c=1&d=title has two separate key-value pairs..HTML Forms Forms are used in HTML to pass data. separated by '&'. and its value is 'title'. data is typically passed as a keyvalue pair.. and the value is '1'. the following URL: http://www. <input type=submit> gives a button that the user clicks when she is ready to submit the information. The key for the first key-value pair is 'c'. For example. On the web. [section specifying the value for each key] . in this case 'Go'.xyz. The value=Go piece specifies the text appearing on the button.

The texts typed appear directly on the web page. we get a single-line text box to enter data. The most common scenario is when users have to enter a username and password to enter a site. The texts typed do not appear directly on the web page.Text Input One way users can enter data into a HTML document is via text. Below is an example: Text example: • þÿ Password: In this type of input. Below is an example: Text example: • Textbox: In this type of input. we get a single-line text box to enter data. the key for this password input is 'pwd'. Below is an example. the key for this text input value is 'c'. The syntax is <input type=password name=pwd>. with [row height] = 2: Text area example: 46 . Here. The key for this textarea input is 'area'. The syntax is <textarea rows= [row height] name=area>. Here. There are three common types of text input: • Text: In this type of input. The syntax is <input type=text name=c>. we get a multi-lin text book to enter data. The texts typed appear directly on the web page.

the key is color. If we want to pre-select a radio button. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag. and the values can be either red. such as follows: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> 47 . green. depending on the radio button selected. Radio buttons are used when you want users to be able to select one and only one of the options.Radio Button A second type of input is the radio button. Below is an example: Code: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case. or blue.

depending on the check box(es) selected. Check boxes are used when you want users to be able to select more than one of the options. or blue. Below is an example: Code: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case. we'll specify "checked" at the end of the <input> tag. the key is color. green.Checkbox Another type of input is the check box. If multiple check boxes are checked. If we want to pre-select a check box. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" checked>Red<br> 48 . the "color" key will then have multiple values. and the values can be either red.

we specify "multiple" at the end of the <select> tag. and the values can be either red. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag. the key is color. Users can select one or more items in a drop-down menu. or blue.e. <select name=color multiple> þÿ 49 . For example. Below is an example for a single-selection drop down menu: Code: <select name=color> <option value="red">Red</option> <option value="green">Green</option> <option value="blue">Blue</option> þÿ In this case. green. If we want to pre-select a check box. depending on the item selected.. selecting a state is often done via a drop down menu.Drop Down Menu Drop down menu is another common way to specify input data. i. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> If we want to select multiple items.