HTML

Sevenhills Pvt. Ltd.,

Contents at a Glance
HTML 1 HTML BASICS................................................................................................................4 A QUICK LOOK AT NOTEPAD AND WEB BROWSERS......................................................................4 TAGS & ATTRIBUTES....................................................................................................7 HTML TAGS.....................................................................................................................7

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HTML: BASIC FORMAT..................................................................................................8 THE TEXT TAGS...........................................................................................................10 HOW TO USE HTML TAGS TO MANIPULATE YOUR TEXT...............................................................10 HEADINGS AND PARAGRAPHS.................................................................................12 USING HEADINGS, PARAGRAPHS, AND LINE BREAKS..................................................................12 MANIPULATING FONT SIZE AND COLOR..................................................................15 HOW TO CHANGE FONT SIZES AND COLORS ..............................................................................15 SPECIAL CHARACTERS..............................................................................................17 HOW TO USE SPECIAL CHARACTERS IN HTML..........................................................................17 LINKING TO OTHER PAGES.......................................................................................18 HOW TO LINK TO OTHER PAGES IN HTML ..............................................................................18 ADDING IMAGES TO YOUR PAGE..............................................................................20 HOW TO PLACE IMAGES ON YOUR PAGE ..................................................................................20 Image Alignment/Wrapping Text.....................................................21 USING AN IMAGE AS A LINK..................................................................................................22 USING IMAGE "ALT" COMMANDS............................................................................................24 An alternative to the picture ..........................................................24 SOME EXTRA TEXT TAGS....................................................................................................25 <SUB> and <SUP>......................................................................25 The <PRE> Tag............................................................................25 <NOBR> and <WBR>...................................................................26 The <BLINK> Tag.........................................................................26 ADDING HTML COMMENTS........................................................................................28 USING HTML LISTS......................................................................................................29 USING BODY TAG ATTRIBUTES................................................................................31 USING A BACKGROUND COLOR...............................................................................32 CHANGING THE DEFAULT TEXT COLOR..................................................................33 CHANGING THE LINK COLOR....................................................................................34 USING A BACKGROUND IMAGE................................................................................35 RESIZING IMAGES.......................................................................................................36 LINKING WITHIN A SINGLE PAGE..............................................................................38 THE E-MAIL LINK.........................................................................................................39 THE E-MAIL LINK: MORE............................................................................................40 HTML TABLE ...............................................................................................................41 <table>......................................................................................41 <tr>...........................................................................................41 <td>..........................................................................................41 HTML FRAME...............................................................................................................43

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HTML FORMS...............................................................................................................45 TEXT INPUT......................................................................................................................46 RADIO BUTTON.................................................................................................................47 CHECKBOX.......................................................................................................................48 DROP DOWN MENU...........................................................................................................49

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HTML Basics
Webpages are written in HTML - a simple scripting language. HTML is short for HyperText Markup Language. • Hypertext is simply a piece of text that works as a link. • Markup Language is a way of writing layout information within documents.

Basically an HTML document is a plain text file that contains text and nothing else. When a browser opens an HTML file, the browser will look for HTML codes in the text and use them to change the layout, insert images, or create links to other pages. Since HTML documents are just text files they can be written in even the simplest text editor. A more popular choice is to use a special HTML editor - maybe even one that puts focus on the visual result rather than the codes - a so-called WYSIWYG editor ("What You See Is What You Get"). Some of the most popular HTML editors, such as FrontPage or Dreamweaver will let you create pages more or less as you write documents in Word or whatever text editor you're using.

A quick look at Notepad and Web Browsers
Using HTML you will want to familiarize yourself with the software you will be using. So, to get started, open Notepad (or your text editor). You should see a completely blank page. Now, type in the text below. We will make use of it later with the web browser. Type the following: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Test Page</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Hi there, you have just written your first web page! </BODY> </HTML> Once you have finished, go to the "File" menu and click on "Save As”. This will prompt you to create a name for your file. In the box, type in test.htm. At the

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you would type the following: c:\myfiles\test.*). If someone with a Mac would like to write up something in more detail about this (as I don't have a Mac).txt by default. Now you may choose the drive and directory to save to. you can cancel the connection and you will likely end up with a blank page.html" or something similar. The default is . feel free to send it to me. If you are given an option to connect to the internet. as shown in the image below: If you have a Mac.*). If you have the file in a directory called "myfiles". in the location box (where you manually type urls).bottom of the prompt you should see a space that says "Save file as Type" or "Save as Type". Now you will want to use your web browser to view the file you just created. You should be able to hit OK and get a blank page. To get around this. or something similar in the dialogue box).txt. you will need to place quote marks around the filename. Be careful not to save it just yet though if you are using Windows. Text Files (*. The text was enlarged so you could see the part we are interested in at this point. Windows will save it as test. the way to do this will depend on your text editor. Something similar to the methods above should work for you. you can type 5 . You should see something similar to the picture below: This is an example using Windows 95. Click on the down arrow on the right side of the input box.txt). You can use this routine each time you create a new HTML file. Click on this to make the change.htm. If you do not get the option to save the file as the type All Files (*. start up your web browser. If the file is on a floppy disk. You may also see an error saying the browser could not connect to "http://somepage. and click on "Save".htm. You should be able to highlight All Files (*. So. so you will need to change it. then select the plain text file type (usually shown as Text Documents. Now. type in the path to your html file.

”Open File". "Open Local File".a:\test.htm. Most browsers will display the page when you hit enter. especially if you hate typing paths all day. To use this. Click this option and you will be able to browse for your file and open it from there. Look for an option that says "Open Page". provided you did not place it in another directory on the disk. Another option you have. The image below shows where this can be found in Internet Explorer: Once the page is displayed. or a similar phrase. you have just written your first web page! 6 . is to use the "Open Page" option. go to the "File" menu in your web browser. you will see something like the following: Hi there.

On this page.. it is often okay to have a tag without the corresponding closing tag. Attributes Attributes are associated with each tag to further define the tags. and Safari. HTML documents can be viewed in browsers such as Internet Explorer. In fact. we will introduce the notion of tags and attributes.Many browsers will ignore badly-formed HTML documents. and is geared towards document display over the World Wide Web. 7 . you may think of this tutorial as an introduction to the tags that are commonly used in writing HTML.Tags & Attributes HTML Tags HTML stands for (H)yper(T)ext (M)arkup (L)anguage. Tags Tags are elements of the HTML document used to specify how the document should be displayed by the browser. The general syntax is as follows: <tag attribute 1 = "value" attribute 2 = "value" . It has certain tags and attributes defined. Opera.HTML tag codes are case-insensitive. . each tag has its own specific meaning. In HTML. In other words.. which is (in general) common across all different browsers. Mozilla. > A couple of other notes before we dive into the tutorial: .

like this: </U>. a horizontal line: <HR>. I will explain all the extra stuff later. you must use a closing tag. and a paragraph: <P>.gif">. Other examples would be a line break: <BR>. which begins the operation you wish to perform.HTML: Basic Format Now we are able to start learning about HTML tags. like this: <. this is just an example of a tag that requires no closing tag to follow it. <U>. It looks like this: <IMG SRC="myimage. like this: >. An example would be the image tag. Also. which will place an image on the page. The first one we see is <HTML>. The tags will end with a "greater than" sign. So: <U> Underline Me! </U> Is the same as: <U>Underline Me!</U> Is the same as: <U> Underline Me! </U> A basic HTML file will have the format below. A closing tag will always be the same as the opening tag. <P> is the same as <p>. to make sense of this. I'll explain them at the end of the example. if you would like to underline the phrase "HTML Rules!". This is called an opening tag. An HTML tag will always begin with a "less than" sign. go through and find the pairs of opening and closing tags.) <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>I Love HTML</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Everything displayed on your page will be in here. 8 . So. but will have a forward slash before the command. You would place this before the text you want to underline. In order to end the underlining. This signals the beginning of an HTML file. An example would be the tag used to underline text. Read through and see if you can guess what the different tags will do: (Don't worry. you do not need to capitalize the tags. You can also use as much space between things as you like. you would write the following in your text editor: <U>HTML Rules!</U> The result of this would be: HTML Rules! Not all tags will require a closing tag. </BODY> </HTML> Okay.

The closing tag . This opens a section in which you can title your page. search engines. The <TITLE> tag allows you to create a title for your page. The title is only used for bookmarks. though). as they are the beginning and end of your page. and as the name of the browser window. The above example makes a rather boring web page (even worse than the one in the previous tutorial). Yuck. text. and add other descriptive information to the page. it signals the end of the HTML document. is at the very end of the document. which brings us to the next tag. use </BODY>. At this time. The section ends with the </HEAD> tag. It will not show up on your web page unless you type it in the BODY section (explained below). The <BODY> tag opens the section that will be displayed in the web browser. To end your title. Everything (tags. 9 . This is where most of our work will be done. use keywords. in the example. The next tag we see is the <HEAD> tag. the title is "I Love HTML" (That's not true all the time. As you might have guessed. </HTML>. let's go to the next tutorial and see if we can add a little life to our page of text. images) should be between these two tags. To end the body section. For instance. Well. All we have is a line of text aligned to the left of the screen. The browser would display this: Everything displayed on your page will be in here. use the </TITLE> tag. the only part of the HEAD section we will deal with is the TITLE.

which makes me cool!</I></B> This will show up like this: I am bold AND Italic... To do this.. just place both opening tags before the text.. However.. it wouldn't matter which way you opened and closed the tags.and remember to close both tags afterwards. Let's start by giving you some tags to work with: <B></B> This is the tag for bold text. Let's say you wanted something in bold and italics... and will help when the order does matter! (such as placing the 10 .like this: <B><I>I am bold AND Italic.The Text Tags How to use HTML tags to manipulate your text To start making our text appear in different ways. which makes me cool! Does the order of the tags make a difference? In this case. Example: <B>Howdy</B> This will show up on your page like this: Howdy Here are a few more to start working with: <U></U> Underline text <U>Underline Me!</U> Underline Me! <I></I> Italics <I>Isn't this fun?</I> Isn't this fun? <STRIKE></STRIKE> <STRIKE>You're Out!</STRIKE> You're Out! <CENTER></CENTER> <CENTER>This centers text on the page</CENTER> This centers text on the page Having fun yet? You can also use more than one tag at a time. working from inside out will help you see your code better.

Italic. like this: <CENTER><B><I>Look at me now!</I></B></CENTER> Look at me now! 11 .but the underline remained open until the end of the exclamation. I could write the HTML this way: <B> <I> I am bold AND Italic. The effect ends when each one of those tags is closed by it's closing tag. and underline! <B><I><U>Would you stop tagging me!</B></I></U> This will give us: Would you stop tagging me! But this: <U><I><B>Would you stop</B></I>tagging me!</U> would give us this! Would you stop tagging me! As you can see. Here's another way to look at working inside out. it's nice to have a way to place things in the center of the page. Since the default alignment of everything is to the left. Anything you place between the <CENTER> and </CENTER> tags will be centered on the page.. the bold and italics were closed before the word "tagging". So let's do just that. This caused the "tagging me!" portion to be underlined..</HTML> tag before the </BODY> tag).. while not being affected by the bold or italics tags! Now let's use the center tag from above. All you need to remember is that the text you have written is affected by every tag before it that has not been closed. So lets try three things: Bold. Use the <CENTER> tag. Here is an example: <CENTER>I'm in the middle!</CENTER> This will give us the following: I'm in the middle! You can also use it with one or more of the other tags above. which makes me cool! </I> </B> This could get rather tedious.

. Here is an example: End this line now!!<BR>Thanks! This will generate the following: End this line now!! Thanks! Basically..</H6> You must have good vision.. a line break is like hitting the "enter" key when you are writing text.</H5> Smaller Still.. the contents will go to the next line. Here are some examples: <H1>Large Heading!</H1> will give us: Large Heading! <H2>Heading 2</H2> Heading 2 <H3>Heading 3</H3> Heading 3 <H4>Getting Small</H4> Getting Small <H5>Smaller Still.. The <BR> tag does not need a closing tag afterward.Headings and Paragraphs Using Headings. I think you get the idea here.. The browser will not go to the next line until it runs out of space. The tag for a line break is <BR>.. When you insert this tag in your document. and Line Breaks These tags are good for creating titles or section headings. Paragraphs.. or sees a tag that will 12 . <H6>You must have good vision. Now let's move on to a line break. Okay.

as though you had typed <BR> twice. Is this cool or what? This will give us the following: This is some cool stuff. <P>. This gives us: Hello. Now. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! </P> <P> 13 . Now this will do what we wanted it to do: Hello.force it to the next line. <BR> This is the next line. I want a new line. This tag is good for skipping a line quickly and for knowing where you wanted a new paragraph to begin. So typing the following in your text editor will display only one line of text in the browser: Hello.K. you place a </P> where you would like the paragraph to end. O. This tag will skip a vertical space after going to the next line. This is a new paragraph. I want a new line. Is this cool or what? The paragraph tag does not require a closing tag.: This is some cool stuff.<BR> I want<BR> a new line. How about an example? Well. I want a new line. let's move on to the paragraph tag. To make the text move to the next line. use your <BR> tag from above: Hello. but if you'd like to add one for your own reference. <P> This is a new paragraph. This is the next line.

Both of these will give you this: This paragraph needs a visual ending! Here is a new paragraph.. 14 . </P> This will give you the same thing as using just the opening <P> tags.....Here is a new paragraph..<BR> and the end.<BR> and the end. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! <P> Here is a new paragraph.. and the end...

Manipulating Color Font Size and How to change font sizes and colors now we want to see how to change the font size. This is done with the following tag: <FONT SIZE="x">text to change</FONT> "x" will be replaced by a number with a + or . I'm Small!</FONT> Will give us this: Hey. I'm Small! Here are some more size examples for you: <FONT SIZE="+4">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+3">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There 15 . you can make the font smaller in the same way. using the .sign in front of it.sign: <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey. So let's say you wanted to make the font larger. You can use the tag with a +2. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2">I'm a big sentence now!</FONT> This will give us the following: I'm a big sentence now! Likewise.

Here is the tag: <FONT COLOR="color"> We replace the word color with a color name or the hexidecimal color value. you can use two FONT tags and remember to close them both. click here . but you may want to have the hex code for more complicated colors. two F's and four zeros. Now suppose you want to change the size AND the color. This is done in much the same way. Let's do one using the color name to begin: <FONT COLOR="red">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! Now let's use the hexidecimal value for red. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2"><FONT COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT></FONT> I am gold! Also. The hexidecimal representation begins with a # sign and is followed by six letters and/or numbers. To do this. If you want to see a sample list of color names and hex codes. This is done like this: <FONT SIZE="+2" COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT> I am gold! 16 . you can use the SIZE and COLOR declarations inside the same tag. and close only one tag.<FONT SIZE="-1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-3">Can you read this?</FONT> Can you read this? Now. Here is the example: <FONT COLOR="#FF0000">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! That is a # sign. Usually it's easier to remeber the color names. suppose you want to change the font color.

have you been wondering how to add an extra space on your page.&nbsp. The reference for a copyright symbol is &copy. The reference will begin with an ampersand (&).&nbsp.There! This will create the first space.&nbsp. reference. Here's an example: This page Copyright &copy. and 4 additional spaces between the two words. by placing its reference where you would like to see the symbol on the page. and end with a semicolon (. So as an example. It will be displayed like this: Hello There! The other one we will discuss is the copyright symbol. or how to get a copyright symbol to show up? Then let's see how right now! Special characters are placed on your page by using a special reference to the character you want to use. The web browser will see the first space. like this: Hello &nbsp. Here is what you would do: Hello &nbsp. 1999 by me! This page Copyright © 1999 by me! 17 .) . let's say you wanted to place an extra space between two words. You can add as many spaces as you would like by repeating the &nbsp.there! This gives us two spaces between "Hello" and "there!". By adding the &nbsp. like this: Hello there! The first space is added just using the "space" bar on the keyboard.. To do this. we forced the browser to add an extra space between the two words. You use it the same way as an extra space.you will only see one space in the browser. reference. will be followed by some text or numbers. where you would like to add the extra space. you place the reference &nbsp.Special Characters How to use special characters in HTML So. but after that additional spaces will make no difference-. for a total of five spaces.

As another example.Linking to Other Pages How to link to other pages in HTML let's start out by seeing what tag we use for linking: <A HREF="http://www. If you click on the link from the first example. Before you try this. The mouse attribute comes in handy when a page has a whole lot of underlined text. and the HREF=" " is asking for a location to link to. (In most cases. if you would like to link to our site. like this: 18 . if you want to link to your own pages from your home page.sevenhills.. this will indicate the text is a link. To create the link. The text between the tags is what will show up on your web page as a link. just type in the address for your page inside the link tag.com">goto Sevenhills</A> It will show up on your page like this: goto Sevenhills See how the text was colorized and underlined? In most cases. Look in your location box near the top of your web browser. which means we are using the complete address to every page we are creating a link to. If you move your mouse over the link. You should see the url for this page.htm . If you have all of your files in the same directory. insert this url into the link tag: <A HREF="http://www. be certain any file you want to create a local url link to is in the same directory as the page you are editing..sevenhills. let's create a link to this particular page. your browser will simply display this page again. it will be) Now.com/index1.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> Which gives us this link: Linking to Other Pages If you click on this link right now. or net address. you would place our url. rather than typing the full url inside the tag. you should see the cursor change into a pointing hand. Our url is http://www. Great isn't it? Now. you may use a shortcut called a "local url".com">Display Text</A> The A stands for anchor. you can just use the filename..sevenhills. So. which is http://www..com. inside the quote marks. This will work for any page because we are using the absolute url. The </A> is the closing tag.sevenhills. you will end up at our home page. place this command on the page where you would like the link to show up: <A HREF="http://www. so to create a link to us.com/index1.sevenhills.

<A HREF="linking. Typing in the full address will allow the link to work no matter where it is located on the internet.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> This will create the same link we just did. always use the absolute url. Linking to Other Pages If you aren't sure or have doubts. but we didn't have to write as much. try one of these: Changing the Link Color Using an Image as a Link Linking Within the Same Page 19 . If you would like to see some related tutorials.

Adding Images to Your Page How to place images on your page So. you will probably want to convert them to . This can be done with most image editing programs. The source of the image is going to be the net address of the image.jpg . go ahead and use the full address just to be sure it will work correctly.jpg".sevenhills.gif or . I would use the full internet address. So. One image I have on this site is called "next.gif"> The IMG stands for image. The SRC stands for source.jpg"> If you aren't sure. If you have images in other file formats. Now. You could also use a .jpg"> Either option would display the image on the page. if your image is located at http://www.com/pictures/image. I would type: <IMG SRC="next. Now let's work with a real example. have you been wondering how to add an image to your page? Well. like this: <IMG SRC="http://www.jpg . The address for the image is: http://www. you will want to link to it using the full address of the image.com/images/next. aligned to the left. Most often. like this: 20 . If my image and html file were in the same directory.sevenhills.disney. you will be able to just type the filename of the image here.jpg .com/pictures/image. if your images are in a directory other than the one your html document is in. like this: <IMG SRC="image.jpg"> Otherwise. These are the two most common image file extensions used on the internet. let's take a look at the image tag: <IMG SRC="image.jpg file as well.com/images/next.disney.gif.gif"> The filename does not have to end with . you would use this url as the image source: <IMG SRC="http://www.

so "image. check out one of these related tutorials: Aligning Images and Wrapping Text Using an Image as a Link Using a Background Image Resizing an Image Using Image "alt" Commands Image Alignment/Wrapping Text How to wrap text around an image To allow text to wrap around an image.com/images/next. rather than jumping to the bottom of the image.. Hmmm. like this: <CENTER> <IMG SRC="http://www. you would place the CENTER tag around the image tag.jpg"> </CENTER> This will place the image in the center of the screen: Keep in mind.If you want to center the image on the page.sevenhills..<br> <IMG SRC=". Here is an example.<br> 21 . and that's no fun. If you want to see more on using images.. Be sure to use the correct case in your image tags. but it will allow you to add an image to your page on its own line.jpg" align="left"> Now just type in your text and it will wrap around the image. the filename or address of the image IS case sensitive. or the image may not show up. this text should wrap around<br> this image like this.I think this image is in the way. this doesn't give us everything we could possibly want../images/next.jpg" and "IMAGE. Now.jpg" align="left"> Hello...JPG" are considered two different images to the web browser. you just need to add one of these commands to the image tag: align="left" align="right" So. the image tag would look like this: <IMG SRC="next.

. you will have to use two things you have already learned. if you wanted to link to our main page.com"> <IMG SRC="next. it will operate the same way as a normal link. this text should wrap around this image like this. don't type any text.I'll just keep on writing and<br> writing and writing and writing<br> until I'm tired of writing. Now. Using an Image as a Link How to link an image To use an image as a link. first. So.jpg"> </A> Now that the image is between the link tags. So. I'll just keep on writing and writing and writing and writing until I'm tired of writing. like this: <A HREF="http://www. Hello.I think this image is in the way. So. What we are going to do is place the image tag right after the opening link tag. you must create a link to the place you want people to go when they click on the picture.. 1.sevenhills. and don't close the tag just yet.jpg"? I have been using it at the bottom of each page as a link to the next section... How to add an image to the page. so that the image tag is between the opening and closing link tags. what did I do? Well... Here is what the above code would produce: 22 .com"> Now. now we are going to close the link tag at the end of the image tag. you would type the following: <A HREF="http://www.jpg". remember my trusty old picture. you would go ahead and type the opening link tag. How to create a link.sevenhills. like this: <A HREF="http://www.com"> <IMG SRC="next. "next... 2.. but now it is a visual image..<br> This will give you the following: Hmmm.jpg"> OK.sevenhills.. The image we are using here is "next.

that's good. add this command to the image tag: border="0" Here is an example: <A HREF="http://www. To get rid of it. Well.Move the mouse over the image. and it will turn into the little pointing hand.jpg" border="0"> </A> Now. just use a larger number in there. the border just seems to be added by default on most browsers. but what's with the border around the image? Well. and you won't have the extra border around the sides: You can also make the border larger in the same way. the picture will be a link. The only way I know around it is to edit the actual image to where it has the border you want. you will end up all the way back at our main page. 23 . and sometimes this isn't the color you want to use.com"> <IMG SRC="next. for instance: Border="5" The drawback to the border is that it insists on being the color of your link color.sevenhills. and then set the border="0" in your image tag. If you click on the image.

Here is the example: <IMG SRC="next. if you have a really new browser. this is a handy way to let people know what the image was supposed to do. 24 .jpg" image at the bottom of these pages. the image alt command is used to display text in the case someone visits your page with a browser that can't show images. One image I do this with is my "next. Of course. you can move your mouse over the image and it will display the alt text right there for you. and that is what will be seen if someone sees the page with no images. you will probably have to disable image loading and reload this page. If you have images as links. You can then scroll down to the bottom right and see the word "next" where the image used to be. This is the alt command: alt="something you want to write" Place this inside the image tag: <IMG SRC="image.Using Image "alt" Commands An alternative to the picture Okay. or in the case they have image loading turned off to so pages will load faster.gif" alt="something you want to write"> You place this command inside the image tag for the image you want to display alternate text for.jpg" alt="next"> To see this work. I place the text "next" in the alt command.

The tags I will be talking about in this section are <SUB>. if (x==1) y=2. <SUP>. This is useful when you have to post programming code. y=2. but there are other times you may wish to use them. y=2. <WBR>.Some Extra Text Tags There are a few more tags you might like to try while you are creating your pages. The <PRE> Tag The <PRE> tag is used when you want to keep the same amount of whitespace on your web page as you have in your html code in your text editor. if (x==1) y=2. <NOBR>. 25 . The <SUB> tag works like this: Area<SUB>1</SUB> The result is this: Area1 And the <SUP> tag allows you to use exponents if you need to: X<SUP>2</SUP> + Y<SUP>2</SUP> = 0 And this gives you: X2 + Y2 = 0 These two tags are most useful if you are writing mathematical equations and such on your page. </PRE> And this somewhat redundant code gives you this: x=1. <SUB> and <SUP> These tags are used to place a number or words slightly above or below your normal text. and the Netscape only <BLINK> tag. <PRE>. Here is an example: <PRE> x=1.

Notice how we didn't need to use <BR> or &nbsp. like this: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long <WBR> long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. this is the tag everyone has been complaining about. This can save you some headaches from writing in line breaks and spaces manually so often. you probably had to scroll to the right to see the end of that line. <NOBR> and <WBR> Any text you place between the <NOBR> and the </NOBR> tags will not break to the next line. like this: I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. When viewed on your web page. Here is an example: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long </NOBR> this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. If you are using Netscape you can see the following reason why viewers get annoyed by this tag: 26 . </NOBR> Now you will have two lines that are not quite as long (though still pretty long in 640x480): I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. this will be one really long line. inside the <PRE> tags. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long The <BLINK> Tag Yes. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long Unless you had a monitor with some pretty high resolution. even after reaching the end of someone's browser window. You can use the <WBR> tag inside the NOBR tags to force a line break if you want or need to do so.

you won't see the text blink. Just avoid the +10 font size. Actually.. but you can get the general idea. if the tag is used in a better way.LOOK AT ME NOW!!!!!! If you have IE. it can help point out important things you want people to see...Here is an example: This rule is <BLINK>very</BLINK> important! This gives you the following: This rule is very important! 27 .

The only way to view comments is to look at the source (html) code of the web page. you use two dashes (--) followed directly by a greater than sign (>). To end the comment.. just be sure you remember to end the comment! <!-You can't see me. you begin with a less than sign (<) followed directly by an exclaimation point (!) and two dashes (--). you can leave yourself notes so that you don't forget something when you come back later to redesign the page. you could use a comment to remind yourself that a section of code is supposed to perform a certain task: <!-. So. and have alt text --> <IMG SRC="mypet.. After this.I am a comment. --> You can comment on multiple lines.. I feel invisible though. In this way. you type in your coments.This image should be aligned to the right. --> To look at something more useful. unless you look at the page source code.Adding HTML Comments Using comments in your html code Comments can be a nice way to help yourself when you are coding your web page. Comments are invisible to a web browser when it displays your web page. <!-.gif" align="right" alt="Look at my Kitty Cat!"> 28 . how is it done? To write a comment.

as long as you remember to close every one of them. you will get more of a mess than a straight list: • • • This is item one. to set off each item in your list. Also... followed by your text.. For starters. The opening tag is <UL>. You can indent further by adding more <UL> tags.. here is the way to add those html lists to your web pages. let's use an unordered list.. Here is a sample of indenting further into the page: <UL> <UL> <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> </UL> </UL> This will give us the following indented list:   I am item one I am item two Be careful about using the <CENTER> tag around your lists. This will create a list with bullets next to the list items. the list is indented somewhat from the rest of the text. you use the <LI> tag. how nice it is to be number one.yep.Using HTML Lists How to add an HTML list to your page Have you been wanting to add lists to your page? Well.. 29 . To begin. Now. Item two is much shorter! Item three is somewhere in between..</UL>. you guessed it. If each list item is not the same length. and the closing tag is. we need a tag to begin and end the entire list. Here is a sample list with two list items: <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> This will give us the bulleted list below: • • I am item one I am item two Notice the <LI> tags do not require a closing tag.

Instead of using <UL> </UL>. Item 2 3. Item 3 30 . or you can try using a Table to align the text instead. You can also use an ordered list in the same way you use the unordered list. you would use <OL> </OL>. use the indention method above until it hits the center of the screen (this can mess up in different screen resolutions. though). Item 1 2. like this: <OL> <LI>Item 1 <LI>Item 2 <LI>Item 3 </OL> This gives you a numbered list rather than the bulleted list: 1.If you really need the list further in on the page.

) So here we go. You can set this to any color you would like to use. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code.. You can set this to any color you would like to use. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. The default setting for a non-visited link is usually blue. but is usually gray or white. (If you are moving through the tutorials in order. text="color" This changes the default text color the browser will display on your page. The default setting varies with your browser. click here. Here is what a body tag with serveral additions would look like: <BODY bgcolor="black" text="red" link="yellow" alink="orange" vlink="white" background="image. You can set this to any color you would like to use. you can use as many or as few of these add-ons as you wish. click here. alink="color" This changes the color of an active link on your page. The default setting for text color is black. click here. which is a link that has just been clicked on by a user's mouse. click here. For a list of common colors and hex codes. bgcolor="color" This changes the background color of your page. link="color" This changes the color of all of the non-visited links on your page. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. you can change serveral things in the body of your document by adding extra commands to the <BODY> tag. You can set this to any color you would like to use.gif"> Pretty long tag. For a list of common colors and hex codes. we will eventually get to each one of these... with a link to the tutorial for each one. isn't it? Well. The options you don't use will be set to the web browser's default values. For a list of common colors and hex codes.Using BODY Tag Attributes How to use body tag attributes to enhance your page When you create a web page. vlink="color" 31 . For a list of common colors and hex codes. Below is a brief explaination of each attribute. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code.

For a list of some common color names and hex codes. Beautiful! Now just use any color you like in the command. like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray" text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0"> Or if you don't have any other commands.This changes the color of a visited link on your page.gif" This adds a background image to your page. the background image will take the place of any background color you may have specified. and add color your pages! 32 . If you use this attribute. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. the command may not be there at all. just add it in like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> To change the background color. look for a command after the word BODY that says bgcolor="color" . Once you have found the tag. If you don't use a background image. So. add it by placing a space after the word BODY and then type the command. It may look like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> Or the tag may have more commands inside and use hex codes. the browser will use your background color or its default background color. The default setting for a visited link is usually violet. like this: <BODY text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0" bgcolor="#808080"> And of course. click here. your page will have a green background. click here. you would type: <BODY bgcolor="green"> Or you could use the hex code for green: <BODY bgcolor="#008000"> After doing this. Using a Background Color Add or change the background color on your page If you want to use a background color on your page. background="image. You can set this to any color you would like to use. If this is the case. For a list of common colors and hex codes. if you wanted to change the background color to green. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. replace the word gray inside the quote marks with a color name or a color hex code.

If you don't have the extra command yet. you will need to find your body tag. add it to your BODY tag like one of the examples above. If you have other commands. if you want to change the text color to red. like this: <BODY text="#000000"> Of course. like this: <BODY bgcolor="blue" text="black"> Now. You may have something like this: <BODY text="black"> You may also see a weird number/letter combination. or you may be creating the page from scratch. So. leaving a space after the previous command. you could use one of the following: Using a color name: <BODY text="red"> Or using a hex code: <BODY text="#FF0000"> 33 . look for the phrase text="" somewhere after the word BODY. replace the black between the quote marks with a color name or hex code. Now. For a list of some common color names and hex codes.Changing the Default Text Color How to change the default font color on your page Okay. to change your default text color in your HTML page. add this one onto the end. click here. you may not see either of these. if you'd like to change the color.

Now look for a command after the word BODY that says link="color". The commands are: alink="color" vlink="color" For the active link color For the visited link color You might have: <BODY link="blue" alink="blue" vlink="violet"> To change the other colors. you replace the word blue inside the quotes with a different color name or hex code. like this: <BODY link="blue"> Now. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. all the links on your page will be colored red rather than blue. click here. You can also do the same things for active and visited links by adding or editing their commands. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. go ahead. if you would like to change the link color to red. If so. So. Just place a space between each command.Changing the Link Color How to change the link color on your page If you want to change the link color on your page. add the command after the word BODY. to change the link color. It would look like this: <BODY link="blue"> Or the tag might have some other commands as well: <BODY bgcolor="#000000" text="#FFFFFF" link="#0000FF"> You may also just have the word BODY with nothing else there. and add your colors! 34 . do the same as you did for the link color. you would type the following: <BODY link="red"> Or using the hex code: <BODY link="#FF0000"> Now. with a space between the two. If you need to add the commands.

If not. It may look something like this: <BODY bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000"> What we are going to do is add a command after the word BODY.Using a Background Image How to add a background image to your page To add a background image to your page.com/image1. you will want to covert it to one of these file types. go to the end of the word BODY.sevenhills.jpg"> Now.gif . One program that will do this is Paint Shop Pro.jpg"> 35 .gif"> Your image should have the file extension . When you have found it. So. So.jpg . to use this as a background.com/images/next. if the image I want to use is at http://www. I would insert this into the command.com/image1. Now. The url for the image is http://www. we are going to place the url of the image inside the quotation marks. So. like this: <BODY background="http://www.mysite. I would type in this: <BODY background="http://www. if we want image2. you can just type the filename of the image rather than the full url. I will use an image from my server as a background on a page. which is available as shareware from JASC.mysite.gif or . you may see just the word BODY. The name of the image is "next.jpg".jpg .gif"> Now. as a real example. So. if your image file is located in the same directory as your html file. and type the following: background=" " Now your body tag should look something like this (and may have more commands): <BODY background=" "> Now.sevenhills. if I put an html file in my "images" directory. and it is in the same directory as the page we are editing. we can type the command this way: <BODY background="image2. you will need to locate the <BODY> tag in your document.com/images/next.gif to be the background image. I could use the image by typing in just the filename. or you may see a string of commands afterward. like this: <BODY background="next. skip a space.

All I need to do is know the original width and height of my image. Well. you have an image you want to use.Resizing Images How to resize your images Okay. The width and height are usually written in pixels. Maybe the image takes up the whole screen. or maybe you wanted a larger version of the image on the screen. The tag will now look like this: <IMG SRC="next. we will just insert larger numbers for the width and height: <IMG SRC="next.jpg". to make the image smaller. the picture will be the new height and width I specified. when I reload my page.jpg" width="75" height="40"> Now. IMG SRC="next. My image turns out to be 106 pixels wide and 65 pixels in height. Let's take a look at an example. you can resize the image by adding width and height commands to your image tag. to make the image larger. A typical screen is about 800 pixels wide and 600 pixels in height (though this varies with different video cards and moniters). like this: <IMG SRC="next. I would then place these numbers into the commands.jpg" width="300" height="200"> 36 . but it's just not the right size to go where you want it to go. suppose I want to make it smaller. I'm going to add these two commands inside the image tag: width=" " and height=" " I'm going to place the commands after the initial command. Well. Well. let's say I wanted it to be 75 pixels wide and 40 pixels high. The picture looks like this: So. to change the size of the image. I'm going to place numbers inside those quotation marks. I have an image called "next.jpg".jpg" width=" " height=" "> Now. Here's what it would look like: Now.

I usually use my image program to do this.jpg" width="75" height="46"> Now it looks like this: If you don't want to deal with math all the time (like me). you can also resize it with a paint or image program (which will do the calculations for you) and upload the new version of the picture to your server. the images became somewhat distorted when I resized them.Now the image looks like this: As you can see. I would have to decide on a width.63 .63 . Besides. So. One reason for this is that I didn't keep the aspect ratio the same. When you calculate 106/65. if I'm making the image smaller. I would use 46 as the height: <IMG SRC="next. You can guess at it for awhile.0123 . just for the ease of use. and then find a height that would keep the aspect ratio of 106/65. or if you like solving equations. here it is: 75/height = 1. So. the paint program will make the file size smaller 37 . it comes out to about 46. you get about 1. In this case.63 Now take the answer and round up or down. if you want to make the width 75. Since the image was originally 106x65. you need to find the height that will make the ratio as close as possible to 1.

You can place one at the third paragraph.. the top. 38 . You could link to any part of the page. Or maybe you want to divide it into sections and use a table of contents at the top. Now. you link to that anchor by using "#cool". go anywhere between the body tags and type this link: <A HREF="#top">Back to the Top</A> If you click on this link. the way to do this is to use a named anchor. like this: <A NAME="cool"></A> -----The anchor name <A HREF="#cool">To the Cool Section of this page</A> section -----Linking to the named You can place a named anchor anyplace on your page. if you create an anchor named "cool". Now type the following tag: <A NAME="top"></A> You can place any name you wish inside the quotes. or any other place Okay. You can link to it from any other part of the page. the bottom. lets say you have one page that is pretty long. the 500th word.Linking Within a Single Page Jump to the top. So. To do this. This just makes it easy to see where we are going to end up. go to the top of the body section (right after the body tag). let's say you want to create a link to the top of your page. It can make navigating some pages a whole lot easier. which is a specific area of your page you want to make a link to. Maybe you would like to give someone a way back to the top of the page when they are at the bottom... Well.. you will be sent back to the top of the page. but for now. middle. You can try one I made on this page by clicking on the link below: Back to top The # sign is there to let the browser know the destination is a named anchor within this page.

com?subject=Enquiry">Mail Me!</A> The example link is below.. with my e-mail address already filled in.your e-mail address. you use "mailto:" rather than "http://" to begin the address.. Mail Me! 39 . You do this by adding a "?" at the end of your e-mail address and then your subject. After the "mailto:". The trick is in what you use as the address of the link.The E-mail Link How to create an email link To create an e-mail link on your page. I would place info@sevenhills.com in that space. Here is an example. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills. the subject field of your email message is already filled in with "Enquiry". you will use your e-mail address rather than a web address. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills.. your browser will bring up a window for you to send me email. Send me whatever you want. like this: <A HREF="mailto:your_email_address">E-mail Me!</A> Yes. all you need to do is replace the your_email_address with .com">Give me some mail!</A> Here is the resulting link: Give me some mail! If you click on the link. all you need to do is use the standard link tag. notice that when you click it.. to create an email link to myself.maybe your joke of the day or something! You can also create the subject of the message so the viewer doesn't have to fill in something in the subject line. To force the browser to read it as an e-mail link.

com"> Mail Me</A> If you want all three.com? subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend. a blind carbon copy recipient. For instance. you can have some more fun with your e-mail links-.com. 40 .com"> Mail Me</A> The same goes for a blind carbon copy. if you want a subject and a blind carbon copy. followed by the e-mail address of the person you want to send the carbon copy to: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. if you want to combine more than one of these commands after the question mark. you can send the copies to multiple addresses by separating them with commas: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com?subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend. other@other.com?subject=Hi">Mail Me</A> On top of adding the subject.com?bcc=friend@friend. It was done using a "question mark" followed by subject= and then the subject: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. it would look like this: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. To send a carbon copy. you add them in using an "&" sign at the end of the first command. you add the cc= command after the question mark. except you use the bcc= command instead: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.The E-mail Link: More More tricks for the email link we saw how to add the subject to a message through the e-mail link.com"> Mail Me</A> Now.com"> Mail Me</A> With either of these. there are a couple of extras you can also add. use the "&" sign again: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com&cc=other@other.com?cc=friend@friend. You can add a carbon copy recipient.com?bcc=friend@friend. or use a combination of the subject with either or both of these.com"> Mail Me</A> With that.and if you run a site with a partner you can both get an e-mail when someone uses that link.

100%). The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. Height: This specifies the height of the row. cellspacing: The amount spacing between the cell wall and the cell border. This is very often used in conjunction with the <tr> and the <td> tags. The areas enclosed by the cell walls are the maximum amount of area that text can be displayed in a cell. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this table: • • • • • Width: This specifies the width of the table. Example 1 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> 41 . Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. and <td>. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this table. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. <tr> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a row. Columns are specified within each row. Border: This specifies whether the table will have a border. <table> The <table> tag specifies the presence of a table. <tr>.HTML Table This section lists the tags often used with HTML tables: <table>. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this column: • • • • valign: Width: This specifies the width of the column. cellpadding: The amount padding between cells and the each cell wall in a table. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this row: • • • bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this row. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this column. 50%). The number indicates the thickness of the border. <td> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a column. rowspan: This specifies the number of rows this particular row occupies. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. colspan: This specifies the number of columns this particular column occupies.

<tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 2 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr><td width=200>Element 1</td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 3 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr bgcolor=red><td width=200><b>Element 1</b></td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td bgcolor=55ff55>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td><i>Element 6</i></td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 4 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td colspan=2>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 2 Element 3 Element 4 Element 5 42 .

HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 HTML Frame This section introduces the tags related to HTML frames: <frameset> and <frame>. 43 .Example 5: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 7: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=0> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 6: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes.

Note that search engines typically do not like the use of the frames. Example 1 HTML: <frameset cols="50%. For example. noresize: This attribute specifies whether users may resize the frame. the first column occupies 30% of the available space. Rows: Specifies the number of rows.html"> </frameset> </frameset> 44 . The attributes include: • • • • • src: This attribute specifies the HTML document source. the first row occupies 40% of the available space.<frameset> The <frameset> tag specifies the number of columns/rows on a frame. The possible values are {yes|no|auto}.50%"> <frameset rows="100%"> <frame src="frame1. while the second row occupies 60% of the available space. as well as the width of each column. The attributes include: • Cols: Specifies the number of columns. 60%" means that there will be two rows. rows="40%. marginwidth: The margin on the left and right side of the frame.html"> </frameset> <frameset rows="50%. cols="30%. while the second column occupies 70% of the available space.html"> <frame src="frame3. Scrolling: This attribute specifies whether users may scroll up and down within this frame. • <frame> The <frame> tag specifies the properties within a particular frame. marginheight: The margin on the top and bottom of the frame. Note that you may embed a frameset within another frameset. Therefore. For example. please consider using the frame feature carefully.50%"> <frame src="frame2. as well as the width of each row.70%" means that there will be two columns.

The key for the first key-value pair is 'c'. How are key-value pair specified? They are specified by the <form> tag. separated by '&'. The key for the second key-value pair is 'd'. <input type=submit value=Go> </form> The text after action= specifies the script to be executed after the user submits the information.HTML Forms Forms are used in HTML to pass data..xyz. the following URL: http://www.. and its value is 'title'. This is shown below: The following list gives the most common ways for users to specify the value: • • • • Text input Radio button Checkbox Drop-down menu 45 . The general format is as follows: <form action=xxx> . and the value is '1'. For example. On the web. in this case 'Go'... [section specifying the value for each key] . <input type=submit> gives a button that the user clicks when she is ready to submit the information. data is typically passed as a keyvalue pair. The value=Go piece specifies the text appearing on the button.com/example?c=1&d=title has two separate key-value pairs.

Here. The syntax is <input type=password name=pwd>. There are three common types of text input: • Text: In this type of input. with [row height] = 2: Text area example: 46 . Here. we get a multi-lin text book to enter data. the key for this password input is 'pwd'. the key for this text input value is 'c'. The texts typed do not appear directly on the web page. Below is an example: Text example: • þÿ Password: In this type of input. we get a single-line text box to enter data. Below is an example: Text example: • Textbox: In this type of input. The texts typed appear directly on the web page. we get a single-line text box to enter data. Below is an example. The most common scenario is when users have to enter a username and password to enter a site. The syntax is <input type=text name=c>. The texts typed appear directly on the web page.Text Input One way users can enter data into a HTML document is via text. The key for this textarea input is 'area'. The syntax is <textarea rows= [row height] name=area>.

Radio buttons are used when you want users to be able to select one and only one of the options. and the values can be either red. the key is color. depending on the radio button selected. such as follows: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> 47 . we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag.Radio Button A second type of input is the radio button. or blue. If we want to pre-select a radio button. green. Below is an example: Code: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case.

and the values can be either red. If we want to pre-select a check box. we'll specify "checked" at the end of the <input> tag. depending on the check box(es) selected. the key is color. Below is an example: Code: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case. Check boxes are used when you want users to be able to select more than one of the options. or blue. the "color" key will then have multiple values. green. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" checked>Red<br> 48 .Checkbox Another type of input is the check box. If multiple check boxes are checked.

depending on the item selected. Users can select one or more items in a drop-down menu. For example. or blue.. If we want to pre-select a check box. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag. and the values can be either red. <select name=color multiple> þÿ 49 .Drop Down Menu Drop down menu is another common way to specify input data. Below is an example for a single-selection drop down menu: Code: <select name=color> <option value="red">Red</option> <option value="green">Green</option> <option value="blue">Blue</option> þÿ In this case. selecting a state is often done via a drop down menu.e. green. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> If we want to select multiple items. we specify "multiple" at the end of the <select> tag. the key is color. i.