HTML

Sevenhills Pvt. Ltd.,

Contents at a Glance
HTML 1 HTML BASICS................................................................................................................4 A QUICK LOOK AT NOTEPAD AND WEB BROWSERS......................................................................4 TAGS & ATTRIBUTES....................................................................................................7 HTML TAGS.....................................................................................................................7

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HTML: BASIC FORMAT..................................................................................................8 THE TEXT TAGS...........................................................................................................10 HOW TO USE HTML TAGS TO MANIPULATE YOUR TEXT...............................................................10 HEADINGS AND PARAGRAPHS.................................................................................12 USING HEADINGS, PARAGRAPHS, AND LINE BREAKS..................................................................12 MANIPULATING FONT SIZE AND COLOR..................................................................15 HOW TO CHANGE FONT SIZES AND COLORS ..............................................................................15 SPECIAL CHARACTERS..............................................................................................17 HOW TO USE SPECIAL CHARACTERS IN HTML..........................................................................17 LINKING TO OTHER PAGES.......................................................................................18 HOW TO LINK TO OTHER PAGES IN HTML ..............................................................................18 ADDING IMAGES TO YOUR PAGE..............................................................................20 HOW TO PLACE IMAGES ON YOUR PAGE ..................................................................................20 Image Alignment/Wrapping Text.....................................................21 USING AN IMAGE AS A LINK..................................................................................................22 USING IMAGE "ALT" COMMANDS............................................................................................24 An alternative to the picture ..........................................................24 SOME EXTRA TEXT TAGS....................................................................................................25 <SUB> and <SUP>......................................................................25 The <PRE> Tag............................................................................25 <NOBR> and <WBR>...................................................................26 The <BLINK> Tag.........................................................................26 ADDING HTML COMMENTS........................................................................................28 USING HTML LISTS......................................................................................................29 USING BODY TAG ATTRIBUTES................................................................................31 USING A BACKGROUND COLOR...............................................................................32 CHANGING THE DEFAULT TEXT COLOR..................................................................33 CHANGING THE LINK COLOR....................................................................................34 USING A BACKGROUND IMAGE................................................................................35 RESIZING IMAGES.......................................................................................................36 LINKING WITHIN A SINGLE PAGE..............................................................................38 THE E-MAIL LINK.........................................................................................................39 THE E-MAIL LINK: MORE............................................................................................40 HTML TABLE ...............................................................................................................41 <table>......................................................................................41 <tr>...........................................................................................41 <td>..........................................................................................41 HTML FRAME...............................................................................................................43

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HTML FORMS...............................................................................................................45 TEXT INPUT......................................................................................................................46 RADIO BUTTON.................................................................................................................47 CHECKBOX.......................................................................................................................48 DROP DOWN MENU...........................................................................................................49

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HTML Basics
Webpages are written in HTML - a simple scripting language. HTML is short for HyperText Markup Language. • Hypertext is simply a piece of text that works as a link. • Markup Language is a way of writing layout information within documents.

Basically an HTML document is a plain text file that contains text and nothing else. When a browser opens an HTML file, the browser will look for HTML codes in the text and use them to change the layout, insert images, or create links to other pages. Since HTML documents are just text files they can be written in even the simplest text editor. A more popular choice is to use a special HTML editor - maybe even one that puts focus on the visual result rather than the codes - a so-called WYSIWYG editor ("What You See Is What You Get"). Some of the most popular HTML editors, such as FrontPage or Dreamweaver will let you create pages more or less as you write documents in Word or whatever text editor you're using.

A quick look at Notepad and Web Browsers
Using HTML you will want to familiarize yourself with the software you will be using. So, to get started, open Notepad (or your text editor). You should see a completely blank page. Now, type in the text below. We will make use of it later with the web browser. Type the following: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Test Page</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Hi there, you have just written your first web page! </BODY> </HTML> Once you have finished, go to the "File" menu and click on "Save As”. This will prompt you to create a name for your file. In the box, type in test.htm. At the

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or something similar in the dialogue box). If the file is on a floppy disk. If you are given an option to connect to the internet.htm. you can cancel the connection and you will likely end up with a blank page. You may also see an error saying the browser could not connect to "http://somepage. and click on "Save". type in the path to your html file. You should be able to hit OK and get a blank page. The default is . Now you may choose the drive and directory to save to. in the location box (where you manually type urls). If you have the file in a directory called "myfiles". then select the plain text file type (usually shown as Text Documents. You should be able to highlight All Files (*. as shown in the image below: If you have a Mac.html" or something similar.htm. so you will need to change it. Something similar to the methods above should work for you. the way to do this will depend on your text editor. start up your web browser. Click on the down arrow on the right side of the input box. You can use this routine each time you create a new HTML file. Text Files (*.txt). You should see something similar to the picture below: This is an example using Windows 95. If you do not get the option to save the file as the type All Files (*.txt.*).*). Now you will want to use your web browser to view the file you just created. The text was enlarged so you could see the part we are interested in at this point. you would type the following: c:\myfiles\test.bottom of the prompt you should see a space that says "Save file as Type" or "Save as Type". Windows will save it as test. If someone with a Mac would like to write up something in more detail about this (as I don't have a Mac). Click on this to make the change. Now. Be careful not to save it just yet though if you are using Windows. So.txt by default. To get around this. you will need to place quote marks around the filename. you can type 5 . feel free to send it to me.

Another option you have. ”Open File".htm. or a similar phrase. provided you did not place it in another directory on the disk.a:\test. Look for an option that says "Open Page". To use this. Click this option and you will be able to browse for your file and open it from there. especially if you hate typing paths all day. you have just written your first web page! 6 . "Open Local File". The image below shows where this can be found in Internet Explorer: Once the page is displayed. you will see something like the following: Hi there. go to the "File" menu in your web browser. Most browsers will display the page when you hit enter. is to use the "Open Page" option.

Opera. It has certain tags and attributes defined. and Safari.Many browsers will ignore badly-formed HTML documents.. you may think of this tutorial as an introduction to the tags that are commonly used in writing HTML.. each tag has its own specific meaning. which is (in general) common across all different browsers. HTML documents can be viewed in browsers such as Internet Explorer. . it is often okay to have a tag without the corresponding closing tag. Tags Tags are elements of the HTML document used to specify how the document should be displayed by the browser. On this page. Attributes Attributes are associated with each tag to further define the tags. In other words.Tags & Attributes HTML Tags HTML stands for (H)yper(T)ext (M)arkup (L)anguage.HTML tag codes are case-insensitive. In HTML. we will introduce the notion of tags and attributes. > A couple of other notes before we dive into the tutorial: . 7 . In fact. Mozilla. and is geared towards document display over the World Wide Web. The general syntax is as follows: <tag attribute 1 = "value" attribute 2 = "value" .

You can also use as much space between things as you like. like this: >. </BODY> </HTML> Okay. if you would like to underline the phrase "HTML Rules!". go through and find the pairs of opening and closing tags. Read through and see if you can guess what the different tags will do: (Don't worry. A closing tag will always be the same as the opening tag. In order to end the underlining.gif">. So. to make sense of this. like this: <. and a paragraph: <P>. Other examples would be a line break: <BR>. You would place this before the text you want to underline. The tags will end with a "greater than" sign. I'll explain them at the end of the example. It looks like this: <IMG SRC="myimage. this is just an example of a tag that requires no closing tag to follow it.) <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>I Love HTML</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Everything displayed on your page will be in here. Also. An example would be the image tag. which will place an image on the page. but will have a forward slash before the command. <P> is the same as <p>. This signals the beginning of an HTML file. An HTML tag will always begin with a "less than" sign. So: <U> Underline Me! </U> Is the same as: <U>Underline Me!</U> Is the same as: <U> Underline Me! </U> A basic HTML file will have the format below. which begins the operation you wish to perform. This is called an opening tag. <U>. like this: </U>. you do not need to capitalize the tags. a horizontal line: <HR>. 8 . you must use a closing tag. The first one we see is <HTML>. I will explain all the extra stuff later. you would write the following in your text editor: <U>HTML Rules!</U> The result of this would be: HTML Rules! Not all tags will require a closing tag. An example would be the tag used to underline text.HTML: Basic Format Now we are able to start learning about HTML tags.

Everything (tags. Yuck. use keywords. The <BODY> tag opens the section that will be displayed in the web browser. text. the title is "I Love HTML" (That's not true all the time. and add other descriptive information to the page. The above example makes a rather boring web page (even worse than the one in the previous tutorial). All we have is a line of text aligned to the left of the screen. This opens a section in which you can title your page. search engines. </HTML>. use the </TITLE> tag. At this time. To end your title. though). For instance. use </BODY>. 9 . images) should be between these two tags. The section ends with the </HEAD> tag. The <TITLE> tag allows you to create a title for your page. The title is only used for bookmarks. and as the name of the browser window. is at the very end of the document. This is where most of our work will be done. To end the body section.The closing tag . The browser would display this: Everything displayed on your page will be in here. The next tag we see is the <HEAD> tag. It will not show up on your web page unless you type it in the BODY section (explained below). let's go to the next tutorial and see if we can add a little life to our page of text. Well. As you might have guessed. in the example. as they are the beginning and end of your page. the only part of the HEAD section we will deal with is the TITLE. it signals the end of the HTML document. which brings us to the next tag.

Example: <B>Howdy</B> This will show up on your page like this: Howdy Here are a few more to start working with: <U></U> Underline text <U>Underline Me!</U> Underline Me! <I></I> Italics <I>Isn't this fun?</I> Isn't this fun? <STRIKE></STRIKE> <STRIKE>You're Out!</STRIKE> You're Out! <CENTER></CENTER> <CENTER>This centers text on the page</CENTER> This centers text on the page Having fun yet? You can also use more than one tag at a time. Let's say you wanted something in bold and italics. Let's start by giving you some tags to work with: <B></B> This is the tag for bold text. it wouldn't matter which way you opened and closed the tags. which makes me cool!</I></B> This will show up like this: I am bold AND Italic..and remember to close both tags afterwards. working from inside out will help you see your code better. To do this.The Text Tags How to use HTML tags to manipulate your text To start making our text appear in different ways..like this: <B><I>I am bold AND Italic. However.. and will help when the order does matter! (such as placing the 10 .. which makes me cool! Does the order of the tags make a difference? In this case.. just place both opening tags before the text...

Here is an example: <CENTER>I'm in the middle!</CENTER> This will give us the following: I'm in the middle! You can also use it with one or more of the other tags above. Use the <CENTER> tag. it's nice to have a way to place things in the center of the page. Anything you place between the <CENTER> and </CENTER> tags will be centered on the page. Since the default alignment of everything is to the left. like this: <CENTER><B><I>Look at me now!</I></B></CENTER> Look at me now! 11 .. All you need to remember is that the text you have written is affected by every tag before it that has not been closed..</HTML> tag before the </BODY> tag). and underline! <B><I><U>Would you stop tagging me!</B></I></U> This will give us: Would you stop tagging me! But this: <U><I><B>Would you stop</B></I>tagging me!</U> would give us this! Would you stop tagging me! As you can see. I could write the HTML this way: <B> <I> I am bold AND Italic.but the underline remained open until the end of the exclamation.. Here's another way to look at working inside out. This caused the "tagging me!" portion to be underlined. the bold and italics were closed before the word "tagging". The effect ends when each one of those tags is closed by it's closing tag. So lets try three things: Bold. So let's do just that. Italic. which makes me cool! </I> </B> This could get rather tedious. while not being affected by the bold or italics tags! Now let's use the center tag from above.

. Now let's move on to a line break. I think you get the idea here.. The tag for a line break is <BR>. Here is an example: End this line now!!<BR>Thanks! This will generate the following: End this line now!! Thanks! Basically. <H6>You must have good vision.</H5> Smaller Still.</H6> You must have good vision. The <BR> tag does not need a closing tag afterward. and Line Breaks These tags are good for creating titles or section headings.. the contents will go to the next line. When you insert this tag in your document.. The browser will not go to the next line until it runs out of space.... or sees a tag that will 12 .. a line break is like hitting the "enter" key when you are writing text.Headings and Paragraphs Using Headings. Paragraphs. Here are some examples: <H1>Large Heading!</H1> will give us: Large Heading! <H2>Heading 2</H2> Heading 2 <H3>Heading 3</H3> Heading 3 <H4>Getting Small</H4> Getting Small <H5>Smaller Still. Okay.

let's move on to the paragraph tag.<BR> I want<BR> a new line. Now this will do what we wanted it to do: Hello. I want a new line. This tag will skip a vertical space after going to the next line. but if you'd like to add one for your own reference.K. Is this cool or what? The paragraph tag does not require a closing tag. Now. as though you had typed <BR> twice. I want a new line.force it to the next line. So typing the following in your text editor will display only one line of text in the browser: Hello. <P>. Is this cool or what? This will give us the following: This is some cool stuff. use your <BR> tag from above: Hello. To make the text move to the next line. This is the next line. This gives us: Hello. This tag is good for skipping a line quickly and for knowing where you wanted a new paragraph to begin. This is a new paragraph. I want a new line. <BR> This is the next line. you place a </P> where you would like the paragraph to end. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! </P> <P> 13 . <P> This is a new paragraph. How about an example? Well. O.: This is some cool stuff.

.. Both of these will give you this: This paragraph needs a visual ending! Here is a new paragraph... 14 ..<BR> and the end... </P> This will give you the same thing as using just the opening <P> tags. and the end..Here is a new paragraph. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! <P> Here is a new paragraph.<BR> and the end..

You can use the tag with a +2. I'm Small!</FONT> Will give us this: Hey.sign: <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey. This is done with the following tag: <FONT SIZE="x">text to change</FONT> "x" will be replaced by a number with a + or . So let's say you wanted to make the font larger. you can make the font smaller in the same way. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2">I'm a big sentence now!</FONT> This will give us the following: I'm a big sentence now! Likewise. I'm Small! Here are some more size examples for you: <FONT SIZE="+4">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+3">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There 15 . using the .Manipulating Color Font Size and How to change font sizes and colors now we want to see how to change the font size.sign in front of it.

Usually it's easier to remeber the color names. but you may want to have the hex code for more complicated colors. This is done in much the same way. Here is the example: <FONT COLOR="#FF0000">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! That is a # sign.<FONT SIZE="-1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-3">Can you read this?</FONT> Can you read this? Now. and close only one tag. click here . Now suppose you want to change the size AND the color. Let's do one using the color name to begin: <FONT COLOR="red">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! Now let's use the hexidecimal value for red. If you want to see a sample list of color names and hex codes. Here is the tag: <FONT COLOR="color"> We replace the word color with a color name or the hexidecimal color value. two F's and four zeros. The hexidecimal representation begins with a # sign and is followed by six letters and/or numbers. This is done like this: <FONT SIZE="+2" COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT> I am gold! 16 . you can use the SIZE and COLOR declarations inside the same tag. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2"><FONT COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT></FONT> I am gold! Also. To do this. suppose you want to change the font color. you can use two FONT tags and remember to close them both.

have you been wondering how to add an extra space on your page.you will only see one space in the browser. So as an example. but after that additional spaces will make no difference-. By adding the &nbsp. Here's an example: This page Copyright &copy. and end with a semicolon (. reference. and 4 additional spaces between the two words. by placing its reference where you would like to see the symbol on the page.There! This will create the first space. let's say you wanted to place an extra space between two words. 1999 by me! This page Copyright © 1999 by me! 17 . You use it the same way as an extra space.&nbsp. we forced the browser to add an extra space between the two words.. for a total of five spaces. or how to get a copyright symbol to show up? Then let's see how right now! Special characters are placed on your page by using a special reference to the character you want to use. will be followed by some text or numbers. Here is what you would do: Hello &nbsp. You can add as many spaces as you would like by repeating the &nbsp. you place the reference &nbsp.there! This gives us two spaces between "Hello" and "there!". like this: Hello there! The first space is added just using the "space" bar on the keyboard. It will be displayed like this: Hello There! The other one we will discuss is the copyright symbol.) . The reference will begin with an ampersand (&). The reference for a copyright symbol is &copy. like this: Hello &nbsp.&nbsp. where you would like to add the extra space.Special Characters How to use special characters in HTML So. To do this. reference. The web browser will see the first space.&nbsp.

Great isn't it? Now.htm .sevenhills. you should see the cursor change into a pointing hand.. insert this url into the link tag: <A HREF="http://www.. just type in the address for your page inside the link tag.sevenhills. rather than typing the full url inside the tag.com/index1.com">Display Text</A> The A stands for anchor. you may use a shortcut called a "local url". like this: 18 . if you would like to link to our site. or net address..Linking to Other Pages How to link to other pages in HTML let's start out by seeing what tag we use for linking: <A HREF="http://www. and the HREF=" " is asking for a location to link to. So. be certain any file you want to create a local url link to is in the same directory as the page you are editing. (In most cases. let's create a link to this particular page..com. your browser will simply display this page again.sevenhills. you will end up at our home page. if you want to link to your own pages from your home page. This will work for any page because we are using the absolute url. which is http://www.com/index1. If you click on the link from the first example. inside the quote marks. place this command on the page where you would like the link to show up: <A HREF="http://www.sevenhills. Our url is http://www. The </A> is the closing tag. The text between the tags is what will show up on your web page as a link. If you move your mouse over the link. which means we are using the complete address to every page we are creating a link to. To create the link. so to create a link to us. it will be) Now. you would place our url. As another example. You should see the url for this page. Before you try this. this will indicate the text is a link.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> Which gives us this link: Linking to Other Pages If you click on this link right now.com">goto Sevenhills</A> It will show up on your page like this: goto Sevenhills See how the text was colorized and underlined? In most cases.sevenhills. The mouse attribute comes in handy when a page has a whole lot of underlined text. If you have all of your files in the same directory. Look in your location box near the top of your web browser. you can just use the filename.

htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> This will create the same link we just did. always use the absolute url.<A HREF="linking. Typing in the full address will allow the link to work no matter where it is located on the internet. If you would like to see some related tutorials. Linking to Other Pages If you aren't sure or have doubts. try one of these: Changing the Link Color Using an Image as a Link Linking Within the Same Page 19 . but we didn't have to write as much.

jpg .sevenhills.com/pictures/image. So. like this: 20 . One image I have on this site is called "next. have you been wondering how to add an image to your page? Well. Most often. The source of the image is going to be the net address of the image. You could also use a . The SRC stands for source. you will want to link to it using the full address of the image. you will probably want to convert them to . These are the two most common image file extensions used on the internet.jpg". if your image is located at http://www. if your images are in a directory other than the one your html document is in.jpg file as well. aligned to the left. The address for the image is: http://www. go ahead and use the full address just to be sure it will work correctly.Adding Images to Your Page How to place images on your page So.jpg"> If you aren't sure.gif. I would use the full internet address. let's take a look at the image tag: <IMG SRC="image.gif"> The IMG stands for image.disney. If my image and html file were in the same directory.com/pictures/image. you will be able to just type the filename of the image here. Now let's work with a real example.disney. I would type: <IMG SRC="next.sevenhills. This can be done with most image editing programs.gif"> The filename does not have to end with .jpg"> Either option would display the image on the page.jpg"> Otherwise.jpg . you would use this url as the image source: <IMG SRC="http://www. If you have images in other file formats. like this: <IMG SRC="http://www.gif or . like this: <IMG SRC="image.com/images/next. Now.jpg .com/images/next.

jpg" and "IMAGE.<br> 21 . like this: <CENTER> <IMG SRC="http://www. Hmmm. and that's no fun.JPG" are considered two different images to the web browser. this doesn't give us everything we could possibly want. If you want to see more on using images. but it will allow you to add an image to your page on its own line. Be sure to use the correct case in your image tags.. the filename or address of the image IS case sensitive.sevenhills. rather than jumping to the bottom of the image.<br> <IMG SRC=". you just need to add one of these commands to the image tag: align="left" align="right" So. Here is an example. you would place the CENTER tag around the image tag.jpg" align="left"> Hello..I think this image is in the way.com/images/next./images/next. the image tag would look like this: <IMG SRC="next.. so "image..If you want to center the image on the page.jpg" align="left"> Now just type in your text and it will wrap around the image. this text should wrap around<br> this image like this. check out one of these related tutorials: Aligning Images and Wrapping Text Using an Image as a Link Using a Background Image Resizing an Image Using Image "alt" Commands Image Alignment/Wrapping Text How to wrap text around an image To allow text to wrap around an image.jpg"> </CENTER> This will place the image in the center of the screen: Keep in mind... or the image may not show up. Now.

I'll just keep on writing and writing and writing and writing until I'm tired of writing. like this: <A HREF="http://www.com"> Now.. so that the image tag is between the opening and closing link tags.. this text should wrap around this image like this. How to add an image to the page. So. and don't close the tag just yet. if you wanted to link to our main page. you will have to use two things you have already learned. The image we are using here is "next.I think this image is in the way. but now it is a visual image. you would go ahead and type the opening link tag.. Here is what the above code would produce: 22 . what did I do? Well.jpg"> </A> Now that the image is between the link tags.sevenhills. like this: <A HREF="http://www.sevenhills..com"> <IMG SRC="next. it will operate the same way as a normal link. don't type any text.jpg". "next. What we are going to do is place the image tag right after the opening link tag.. Now. Hello. 2.com"> <IMG SRC="next.I'll just keep on writing and<br> writing and writing and writing<br> until I'm tired of writing. How to create a link..<br> This will give you the following: Hmmm. you must create a link to the place you want people to go when they click on the picture. remember my trusty old picture. you would type the following: <A HREF="http://www.jpg"? I have been using it at the bottom of each page as a link to the next section.sevenhills.. So.. first.. So. 1. now we are going to close the link tag at the end of the image tag.jpg"> OK... Using an Image as a Link How to link an image To use an image as a link.

com"> <IMG SRC="next. but what's with the border around the image? Well. Well. If you click on the image. To get rid of it. for instance: Border="5" The drawback to the border is that it insists on being the color of your link color. 23 . that's good. the picture will be a link. and it will turn into the little pointing hand. The only way I know around it is to edit the actual image to where it has the border you want. and you won't have the extra border around the sides: You can also make the border larger in the same way. just use a larger number in there. the border just seems to be added by default on most browsers.Move the mouse over the image. and sometimes this isn't the color you want to use. and then set the border="0" in your image tag.jpg" border="0"> </A> Now.sevenhills. you will end up all the way back at our main page. add this command to the image tag: border="0" Here is an example: <A HREF="http://www.

Here is the example: <IMG SRC="next. you can move your mouse over the image and it will display the alt text right there for you. if you have a really new browser.Using Image "alt" Commands An alternative to the picture Okay.jpg" alt="next"> To see this work. the image alt command is used to display text in the case someone visits your page with a browser that can't show images.jpg" image at the bottom of these pages. you will probably have to disable image loading and reload this page. One image I do this with is my "next. If you have images as links. this is a handy way to let people know what the image was supposed to do.gif" alt="something you want to write"> You place this command inside the image tag for the image you want to display alternate text for. This is the alt command: alt="something you want to write" Place this inside the image tag: <IMG SRC="image. 24 . You can then scroll down to the bottom right and see the word "next" where the image used to be. I place the text "next" in the alt command. or in the case they have image loading turned off to so pages will load faster. Of course. and that is what will be seen if someone sees the page with no images.

<SUP>.Some Extra Text Tags There are a few more tags you might like to try while you are creating your pages. Here is an example: <PRE> x=1. The tags I will be talking about in this section are <SUB>. and the Netscape only <BLINK> tag. </PRE> And this somewhat redundant code gives you this: x=1. but there are other times you may wish to use them. The <PRE> Tag The <PRE> tag is used when you want to keep the same amount of whitespace on your web page as you have in your html code in your text editor. y=2. if (x==1) y=2. <NOBR>. if (x==1) y=2. <SUB> and <SUP> These tags are used to place a number or words slightly above or below your normal text. y=2. The <SUB> tag works like this: Area<SUB>1</SUB> The result is this: Area1 And the <SUP> tag allows you to use exponents if you need to: X<SUP>2</SUP> + Y<SUP>2</SUP> = 0 And this gives you: X2 + Y2 = 0 These two tags are most useful if you are writing mathematical equations and such on your page. <WBR>. This is useful when you have to post programming code. <PRE>. 25 .

<NOBR> and <WBR> Any text you place between the <NOBR> and the </NOBR> tags will not break to the next line. When viewed on your web page. even after reaching the end of someone's browser window. If you are using Netscape you can see the following reason why viewers get annoyed by this tag: 26 . long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long Unless you had a monitor with some pretty high resolution. this is the tag everyone has been complaining about. this will be one really long line. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long The <BLINK> Tag Yes. Here is an example: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long </NOBR> this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. </NOBR> Now you will have two lines that are not quite as long (though still pretty long in 640x480): I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. This can save you some headaches from writing in line breaks and spaces manually so often. you probably had to scroll to the right to see the end of that line. inside the <PRE> tags. like this: I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. like this: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long <WBR> long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time.Notice how we didn't need to use <BR> or &nbsp. You can use the <WBR> tag inside the NOBR tags to force a line break if you want or need to do so.

Here is an example: This rule is <BLINK>very</BLINK> important! This gives you the following: This rule is very important! 27 . Just avoid the +10 font size.. but you can get the general idea.. you won't see the text blink.LOOK AT ME NOW!!!!!! If you have IE. if the tag is used in a better way. it can help point out important things you want people to see.. Actually.

Adding HTML Comments Using comments in your html code Comments can be a nice way to help yourself when you are coding your web page. So. and have alt text --> <IMG SRC="mypet. --> To look at something more useful. To end the comment. --> You can comment on multiple lines. how is it done? To write a comment... unless you look at the page source code. you could use a comment to remind yourself that a section of code is supposed to perform a certain task: <!-. you begin with a less than sign (<) followed directly by an exclaimation point (!) and two dashes (--). you type in your coments. you use two dashes (--) followed directly by a greater than sign (>). <!-. The only way to view comments is to look at the source (html) code of the web page.. I feel invisible though.I am a comment. Comments are invisible to a web browser when it displays your web page. just be sure you remember to end the comment! <!-You can't see me. In this way. you can leave yourself notes so that you don't forget something when you come back later to redesign the page. After this.gif" align="right" alt="Look at my Kitty Cat!"> 28 .This image should be aligned to the right.

29 .Using HTML Lists How to add an HTML list to your page Have you been wanting to add lists to your page? Well. to set off each item in your list. Also. Now. as long as you remember to close every one of them.. you will get more of a mess than a straight list: • • • This is item one... If each list item is not the same length. we need a tag to begin and end the entire list. Item two is much shorter! Item three is somewhere in between.. how nice it is to be number one. the list is indented somewhat from the rest of the text.. The opening tag is <UL>. This will create a list with bullets next to the list items.yep.. followed by your text. Here is a sample of indenting further into the page: <UL> <UL> <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> </UL> </UL> This will give us the following indented list:   I am item one I am item two Be careful about using the <CENTER> tag around your lists.</UL>. let's use an unordered list. For starters. Here is a sample list with two list items: <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> This will give us the bulleted list below: • • I am item one I am item two Notice the <LI> tags do not require a closing tag. and the closing tag is. To begin. here is the way to add those html lists to your web pages. You can indent further by adding more <UL> tags.. you use the <LI> tag. you guessed it.

or you can try using a Table to align the text instead. Item 3 30 . You can also use an ordered list in the same way you use the unordered list. use the indention method above until it hits the center of the screen (this can mess up in different screen resolutions. like this: <OL> <LI>Item 1 <LI>Item 2 <LI>Item 3 </OL> This gives you a numbered list rather than the bulleted list: 1. Item 2 3.If you really need the list further in on the page. Item 1 2. you would use <OL> </OL>. Instead of using <UL> </UL>. though).

Using BODY Tag Attributes How to use body tag attributes to enhance your page When you create a web page. The default setting for text color is black. vlink="color" 31 . The options you don't use will be set to the web browser's default values. The default setting varies with your browser. you can change serveral things in the body of your document by adding extra commands to the <BODY> tag. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. Here is what a body tag with serveral additions would look like: <BODY bgcolor="black" text="red" link="yellow" alink="orange" vlink="white" background="image. bgcolor="color" This changes the background color of your page. Below is a brief explaination of each attribute.) So here we go. (If you are moving through the tutorials in order. text="color" This changes the default text color the browser will display on your page. You can set this to any color you would like to use. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. we will eventually get to each one of these. link="color" This changes the color of all of the non-visited links on your page. For a list of common colors and hex codes. you can use as many or as few of these add-ons as you wish.gif"> Pretty long tag. For a list of common colors and hex codes. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. For a list of common colors and hex codes. with a link to the tutorial for each one. isn't it? Well... click here. You can set this to any color you would like to use. which is a link that has just been clicked on by a user's mouse. For a list of common colors and hex codes. click here. You can set this to any color you would like to use. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. click here. You can set this to any color you would like to use. The default setting for a non-visited link is usually blue. click here. but is usually gray or white. alink="color" This changes the color of an active link on your page..

look for a command after the word BODY that says bgcolor="color" . If you use this attribute. click here. So. It may look like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> Or the tag may have more commands inside and use hex codes. For a list of common colors and hex codes.This changes the color of a visited link on your page. add it by placing a space after the word BODY and then type the command. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. the command may not be there at all. Using a Background Color Add or change the background color on your page If you want to use a background color on your page. and add color your pages! 32 . If this is the case. Once you have found the tag. like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray" text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0"> Or if you don't have any other commands. The default setting for a visited link is usually violet.gif" This adds a background image to your page. Beautiful! Now just use any color you like in the command. you would type: <BODY bgcolor="green"> Or you could use the hex code for green: <BODY bgcolor="#008000"> After doing this. the background image will take the place of any background color you may have specified. like this: <BODY text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0" bgcolor="#808080"> And of course. If you don't use a background image. You can set this to any color you would like to use. just add it in like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> To change the background color. the browser will use your background color or its default background color. your page will have a green background. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. click here. if you wanted to change the background color to green. background="image. replace the word gray inside the quote marks with a color name or a color hex code.

or you may be creating the page from scratch.Changing the Default Text Color How to change the default font color on your page Okay. leaving a space after the previous command. like this: <BODY bgcolor="blue" text="black"> Now. look for the phrase text="" somewhere after the word BODY. click here. to change your default text color in your HTML page. if you'd like to change the color. You may have something like this: <BODY text="black"> You may also see a weird number/letter combination. you may not see either of these. Now. If you have other commands. add it to your BODY tag like one of the examples above. if you want to change the text color to red. If you don't have the extra command yet. replace the black between the quote marks with a color name or hex code. you will need to find your body tag. you could use one of the following: Using a color name: <BODY text="red"> Or using a hex code: <BODY text="#FF0000"> 33 . like this: <BODY text="#000000"> Of course. add this one onto the end. So. For a list of some common color names and hex codes.

you replace the word blue inside the quotes with a different color name or hex code. If you need to add the commands. Just place a space between each command. and add your colors! 34 . The commands are: alink="color" vlink="color" For the active link color For the visited link color You might have: <BODY link="blue" alink="blue" vlink="violet"> To change the other colors. add the command after the word BODY. You can also do the same things for active and visited links by adding or editing their commands.Changing the Link Color How to change the link color on your page If you want to change the link color on your page. If so. with a space between the two. It would look like this: <BODY link="blue"> Or the tag might have some other commands as well: <BODY bgcolor="#000000" text="#FFFFFF" link="#0000FF"> You may also just have the word BODY with nothing else there. to change the link color. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. do the same as you did for the link color. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. if you would like to change the link color to red. click here. So. like this: <BODY link="blue"> Now. Now look for a command after the word BODY that says link="color". go ahead. all the links on your page will be colored red rather than blue. you would type the following: <BODY link="red"> Or using the hex code: <BODY link="#FF0000"> Now.

sevenhills. we can type the command this way: <BODY background="image2.gif or .sevenhills.gif . to use this as a background. or you may see a string of commands afterward. I would type in this: <BODY background="http://www.Using a Background Image How to add a background image to your page To add a background image to your page.com/image1.mysite.com/images/next. if I put an html file in my "images" directory. as a real example. if your image file is located in the same directory as your html file. So. I would insert this into the command. if the image I want to use is at http://www.gif"> Now. So.gif"> Your image should have the file extension .gif to be the background image. I could use the image by typing in just the filename. The name of the image is "next. we are going to place the url of the image inside the quotation marks. So. go to the end of the word BODY.mysite.jpg". like this: <BODY background="http://www. you may see just the word BODY.jpg"> Now. like this: <BODY background="next. and it is in the same directory as the page we are editing. you will want to covert it to one of these file types. When you have found it. skip a space.com/images/next. which is available as shareware from JASC. The url for the image is http://www. I will use an image from my server as a background on a page. One program that will do this is Paint Shop Pro. It may look something like this: <BODY bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000"> What we are going to do is add a command after the word BODY.jpg . you can just type the filename of the image rather than the full url. So. you will need to locate the <BODY> tag in your document. and type the following: background=" " Now your body tag should look something like this (and may have more commands): <BODY background=" "> Now. Now.jpg .com/image1.jpg"> 35 . if we want image2. If not.

you can resize the image by adding width and height commands to your image tag. The width and height are usually written in pixels.Resizing Images How to resize your images Okay. but it's just not the right size to go where you want it to go. Well. we will just insert larger numbers for the width and height: <IMG SRC="next. Here's what it would look like: Now.jpg". The tag will now look like this: <IMG SRC="next. A typical screen is about 800 pixels wide and 600 pixels in height (though this varies with different video cards and moniters). like this: <IMG SRC="next. Well. Let's take a look at an example.jpg" width="75" height="40"> Now. Maybe the image takes up the whole screen. when I reload my page. I would then place these numbers into the commands. I'm going to add these two commands inside the image tag: width=" " and height=" " I'm going to place the commands after the initial command.jpg". I have an image called "next. let's say I wanted it to be 75 pixels wide and 40 pixels high. My image turns out to be 106 pixels wide and 65 pixels in height. Well. you have an image you want to use. to change the size of the image. I'm going to place numbers inside those quotation marks. the picture will be the new height and width I specified.jpg" width="300" height="200"> 36 .jpg" width=" " height=" "> Now. IMG SRC="next. All I need to do is know the original width and height of my image. suppose I want to make it smaller. The picture looks like this: So. to make the image larger. to make the image smaller. or maybe you wanted a larger version of the image on the screen.

you need to find the height that will make the ratio as close as possible to 1. So.63 .0123 . it comes out to about 46. if I'm making the image smaller. You can guess at it for awhile. In this case. I usually use my image program to do this. if you want to make the width 75. So. I would use 46 as the height: <IMG SRC="next. the images became somewhat distorted when I resized them.63 .63 Now take the answer and round up or down. When you calculate 106/65.Now the image looks like this: As you can see. you can also resize it with a paint or image program (which will do the calculations for you) and upload the new version of the picture to your server.jpg" width="75" height="46"> Now it looks like this: If you don't want to deal with math all the time (like me). the paint program will make the file size smaller 37 . here it is: 75/height = 1. Besides. and then find a height that would keep the aspect ratio of 106/65. or if you like solving equations. Since the image was originally 106x65. One reason for this is that I didn't keep the aspect ratio the same. just for the ease of use. you get about 1. I would have to decide on a width.

the top. 38 . Now. Maybe you would like to give someone a way back to the top of the page when they are at the bottom. This just makes it easy to see where we are going to end up. or any other place Okay. go anywhere between the body tags and type this link: <A HREF="#top">Back to the Top</A> If you click on this link. You can link to it from any other part of the page. let's say you want to create a link to the top of your page... which is a specific area of your page you want to make a link to. You can try one I made on this page by clicking on the link below: Back to top The # sign is there to let the browser know the destination is a named anchor within this page. but for now.Linking Within a Single Page Jump to the top. To do this. you will be sent back to the top of the page. Now type the following tag: <A NAME="top"></A> You can place any name you wish inside the quotes. You could link to any part of the page. Well. you link to that anchor by using "#cool". lets say you have one page that is pretty long. the way to do this is to use a named anchor. the 500th word. go to the top of the body section (right after the body tag). So. You can place one at the third paragraph. if you create an anchor named "cool". middle.. Or maybe you want to divide it into sections and use a table of contents at the top. It can make navigating some pages a whole lot easier.. like this: <A NAME="cool"></A> -----The anchor name <A HREF="#cool">To the Cool Section of this page</A> section -----Linking to the named You can place a named anchor anyplace on your page. the bottom.

Send me whatever you want. You do this by adding a "?" at the end of your e-mail address and then your subject. notice that when you click it. To force the browser to read it as an e-mail link. After the "mailto:". like this: <A HREF="mailto:your_email_address">E-mail Me!</A> Yes. all you need to do is replace the your_email_address with ..com in that space... you will use your e-mail address rather than a web address. your browser will bring up a window for you to send me email. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills.com">Give me some mail!</A> Here is the resulting link: Give me some mail! If you click on the link.com?subject=Enquiry">Mail Me!</A> The example link is below. all you need to do is use the standard link tag. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills. The trick is in what you use as the address of the link.The E-mail Link How to create an email link To create an e-mail link on your page.your e-mail address. with my e-mail address already filled in. to create an email link to myself. the subject field of your email message is already filled in with "Enquiry".. Mail Me! 39 . Here is an example. I would place info@sevenhills. you use "mailto:" rather than "http://" to begin the address.maybe your joke of the day or something! You can also create the subject of the message so the viewer doesn't have to fill in something in the subject line.

The E-mail Link: More More tricks for the email link we saw how to add the subject to a message through the e-mail link.com"> Mail Me</A> If you want all three. or use a combination of the subject with either or both of these. you add them in using an "&" sign at the end of the first command. a blind carbon copy recipient.com?bcc=friend@friend. there are a couple of extras you can also add. For instance.com?bcc=friend@friend.com"> Mail Me</A> With that.com?subject=Hi">Mail Me</A> On top of adding the subject. 40 . To send a carbon copy. you can send the copies to multiple addresses by separating them with commas: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com"> Mail Me</A> The same goes for a blind carbon copy.com?subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend. You can add a carbon copy recipient. it would look like this: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com"> Mail Me</A> Now. other@other. It was done using a "question mark" followed by subject= and then the subject: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com"> Mail Me</A> With either of these.com. you can have some more fun with your e-mail links-. followed by the e-mail address of the person you want to send the carbon copy to: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com&cc=other@other.and if you run a site with a partner you can both get an e-mail when someone uses that link. if you want to combine more than one of these commands after the question mark. except you use the bcc= command instead: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com? subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend. use the "&" sign again: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. you add the cc= command after the question mark.com?cc=friend@friend. if you want a subject and a blind carbon copy.

The number indicates the thickness of the border. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. <table> The <table> tag specifies the presence of a table. cellpadding: The amount padding between cells and the each cell wall in a table. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this row: • • • bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this row. <tr>. <td> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a column. colspan: This specifies the number of columns this particular column occupies. rowspan: This specifies the number of rows this particular row occupies. Height: This specifies the height of the row. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this table.HTML Table This section lists the tags often used with HTML tables: <table>. The areas enclosed by the cell walls are the maximum amount of area that text can be displayed in a cell. 100%). Border: This specifies whether the table will have a border. This is very often used in conjunction with the <tr> and the <td> tags. Example 1 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> 41 . and <td>. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. cellspacing: The amount spacing between the cell wall and the cell border. <tr> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a row. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this column: • • • • valign: Width: This specifies the width of the column. Columns are specified within each row. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this column. 50%). The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this table: • • • • • Width: This specifies the width of the table.

<tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 2 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr><td width=200>Element 1</td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 3 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr bgcolor=red><td width=200><b>Element 1</b></td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td bgcolor=55ff55>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td><i>Element 6</i></td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 4 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td colspan=2>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 2 Element 3 Element 4 Element 5 42 .

HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 HTML Frame This section introduces the tags related to HTML frames: <frameset> and <frame>.Example 5: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 7: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. 43 . HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=0> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 6: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes.

Therefore.70%" means that there will be two columns. marginwidth: The margin on the left and right side of the frame. Note that you may embed a frameset within another frameset. while the second row occupies 60% of the available space. as well as the width of each column. Rows: Specifies the number of rows. The attributes include: • • • • • src: This attribute specifies the HTML document source. noresize: This attribute specifies whether users may resize the frame. the first row occupies 40% of the available space. The attributes include: • Cols: Specifies the number of columns.50%"> <frame src="frame2. while the second column occupies 70% of the available space. cols="30%. the first column occupies 30% of the available space. rows="40%.<frameset> The <frameset> tag specifies the number of columns/rows on a frame. marginheight: The margin on the top and bottom of the frame. 60%" means that there will be two rows.50%"> <frameset rows="100%"> <frame src="frame1. The possible values are {yes|no|auto}. Note that search engines typically do not like the use of the frames. please consider using the frame feature carefully. For example. Scrolling: This attribute specifies whether users may scroll up and down within this frame.html"> </frameset> </frameset> 44 . Example 1 HTML: <frameset cols="50%.html"> </frameset> <frameset rows="50%. For example.html"> <frame src="frame3. • <frame> The <frame> tag specifies the properties within a particular frame. as well as the width of each row.

separated by '&'.com/example?c=1&d=title has two separate key-value pairs.. For example. in this case 'Go'. <input type=submit> gives a button that the user clicks when she is ready to submit the information. The key for the first key-value pair is 'c'. data is typically passed as a keyvalue pair. <input type=submit value=Go> </form> The text after action= specifies the script to be executed after the user submits the information.HTML Forms Forms are used in HTML to pass data. and its value is 'title'.. This is shown below: The following list gives the most common ways for users to specify the value: • • • • Text input Radio button Checkbox Drop-down menu 45 . How are key-value pair specified? They are specified by the <form> tag. the following URL: http://www.. On the web. [section specifying the value for each key] . The key for the second key-value pair is 'd'. and the value is '1'.. The general format is as follows: <form action=xxx> . The value=Go piece specifies the text appearing on the button.xyz.

Text Input One way users can enter data into a HTML document is via text. the key for this text input value is 'c'. There are three common types of text input: • Text: In this type of input. The syntax is <input type=text name=c>. The key for this textarea input is 'area'. The texts typed appear directly on the web page. with [row height] = 2: Text area example: 46 . Here. The most common scenario is when users have to enter a username and password to enter a site. Below is an example: Text example: • þÿ Password: In this type of input. The texts typed appear directly on the web page. we get a single-line text box to enter data. Below is an example. the key for this password input is 'pwd'. The texts typed do not appear directly on the web page. Here. The syntax is <input type=password name=pwd>. The syntax is <textarea rows= [row height] name=area>. Below is an example: Text example: • Textbox: In this type of input. we get a multi-lin text book to enter data. we get a single-line text box to enter data.

and the values can be either red. depending on the radio button selected. or blue. Below is an example: Code: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag. the key is color. Radio buttons are used when you want users to be able to select one and only one of the options. If we want to pre-select a radio button. green.Radio Button A second type of input is the radio button. such as follows: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> 47 .

If multiple check boxes are checked. depending on the check box(es) selected. the key is color. If we want to pre-select a check box. Below is an example: Code: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case. the "color" key will then have multiple values. Check boxes are used when you want users to be able to select more than one of the options. we'll specify "checked" at the end of the <input> tag.Checkbox Another type of input is the check box. and the values can be either red. green. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" checked>Red<br> 48 . or blue.

depending on the item selected.Drop Down Menu Drop down menu is another common way to specify input data. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag. or blue.e. green. the key is color. i. and the values can be either red. Users can select one or more items in a drop-down menu. Below is an example for a single-selection drop down menu: Code: <select name=color> <option value="red">Red</option> <option value="green">Green</option> <option value="blue">Blue</option> þÿ In this case. If we want to pre-select a check box. selecting a state is often done via a drop down menu. For example. <select name=color multiple> þÿ 49 . we specify "multiple" at the end of the <select> tag. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> If we want to select multiple items..