HTML

Sevenhills Pvt. Ltd.,

Contents at a Glance
HTML 1 HTML BASICS................................................................................................................4 A QUICK LOOK AT NOTEPAD AND WEB BROWSERS......................................................................4 TAGS & ATTRIBUTES....................................................................................................7 HTML TAGS.....................................................................................................................7

1

HTML: BASIC FORMAT..................................................................................................8 THE TEXT TAGS...........................................................................................................10 HOW TO USE HTML TAGS TO MANIPULATE YOUR TEXT...............................................................10 HEADINGS AND PARAGRAPHS.................................................................................12 USING HEADINGS, PARAGRAPHS, AND LINE BREAKS..................................................................12 MANIPULATING FONT SIZE AND COLOR..................................................................15 HOW TO CHANGE FONT SIZES AND COLORS ..............................................................................15 SPECIAL CHARACTERS..............................................................................................17 HOW TO USE SPECIAL CHARACTERS IN HTML..........................................................................17 LINKING TO OTHER PAGES.......................................................................................18 HOW TO LINK TO OTHER PAGES IN HTML ..............................................................................18 ADDING IMAGES TO YOUR PAGE..............................................................................20 HOW TO PLACE IMAGES ON YOUR PAGE ..................................................................................20 Image Alignment/Wrapping Text.....................................................21 USING AN IMAGE AS A LINK..................................................................................................22 USING IMAGE "ALT" COMMANDS............................................................................................24 An alternative to the picture ..........................................................24 SOME EXTRA TEXT TAGS....................................................................................................25 <SUB> and <SUP>......................................................................25 The <PRE> Tag............................................................................25 <NOBR> and <WBR>...................................................................26 The <BLINK> Tag.........................................................................26 ADDING HTML COMMENTS........................................................................................28 USING HTML LISTS......................................................................................................29 USING BODY TAG ATTRIBUTES................................................................................31 USING A BACKGROUND COLOR...............................................................................32 CHANGING THE DEFAULT TEXT COLOR..................................................................33 CHANGING THE LINK COLOR....................................................................................34 USING A BACKGROUND IMAGE................................................................................35 RESIZING IMAGES.......................................................................................................36 LINKING WITHIN A SINGLE PAGE..............................................................................38 THE E-MAIL LINK.........................................................................................................39 THE E-MAIL LINK: MORE............................................................................................40 HTML TABLE ...............................................................................................................41 <table>......................................................................................41 <tr>...........................................................................................41 <td>..........................................................................................41 HTML FRAME...............................................................................................................43

2

HTML FORMS...............................................................................................................45 TEXT INPUT......................................................................................................................46 RADIO BUTTON.................................................................................................................47 CHECKBOX.......................................................................................................................48 DROP DOWN MENU...........................................................................................................49

3

HTML Basics
Webpages are written in HTML - a simple scripting language. HTML is short for HyperText Markup Language. • Hypertext is simply a piece of text that works as a link. • Markup Language is a way of writing layout information within documents.

Basically an HTML document is a plain text file that contains text and nothing else. When a browser opens an HTML file, the browser will look for HTML codes in the text and use them to change the layout, insert images, or create links to other pages. Since HTML documents are just text files they can be written in even the simplest text editor. A more popular choice is to use a special HTML editor - maybe even one that puts focus on the visual result rather than the codes - a so-called WYSIWYG editor ("What You See Is What You Get"). Some of the most popular HTML editors, such as FrontPage or Dreamweaver will let you create pages more or less as you write documents in Word or whatever text editor you're using.

A quick look at Notepad and Web Browsers
Using HTML you will want to familiarize yourself with the software you will be using. So, to get started, open Notepad (or your text editor). You should see a completely blank page. Now, type in the text below. We will make use of it later with the web browser. Type the following: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Test Page</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Hi there, you have just written your first web page! </BODY> </HTML> Once you have finished, go to the "File" menu and click on "Save As”. This will prompt you to create a name for your file. In the box, type in test.htm. At the

4

If you are given an option to connect to the internet.*). You should be able to highlight All Files (*. Click on this to make the change. or something similar in the dialogue box). The default is . in the location box (where you manually type urls). as shown in the image below: If you have a Mac. then select the plain text file type (usually shown as Text Documents. Now you will want to use your web browser to view the file you just created. To get around this. You should see something similar to the picture below: This is an example using Windows 95.htm. If someone with a Mac would like to write up something in more detail about this (as I don't have a Mac). the way to do this will depend on your text editor. Something similar to the methods above should work for you. If the file is on a floppy disk. you can cancel the connection and you will likely end up with a blank page. you can type 5 . You can use this routine each time you create a new HTML file. you would type the following: c:\myfiles\test. Now you may choose the drive and directory to save to.txt).*). feel free to send it to me. you will need to place quote marks around the filename. Windows will save it as test. so you will need to change it.txt. Be careful not to save it just yet though if you are using Windows. Click on the down arrow on the right side of the input box. start up your web browser. If you have the file in a directory called "myfiles".html" or something similar.txt by default. You should be able to hit OK and get a blank page. You may also see an error saying the browser could not connect to "http://somepage. If you do not get the option to save the file as the type All Files (*.htm.bottom of the prompt you should see a space that says "Save file as Type" or "Save as Type". and click on "Save". So. Now. The text was enlarged so you could see the part we are interested in at this point. type in the path to your html file. Text Files (*.

provided you did not place it in another directory on the disk. The image below shows where this can be found in Internet Explorer: Once the page is displayed. is to use the "Open Page" option. To use this. ”Open File". Look for an option that says "Open Page". especially if you hate typing paths all day. "Open Local File". Most browsers will display the page when you hit enter. you have just written your first web page! 6 . Click this option and you will be able to browse for your file and open it from there.a:\test. Another option you have.htm. you will see something like the following: Hi there. or a similar phrase. go to the "File" menu in your web browser.

7 . HTML documents can be viewed in browsers such as Internet Explorer.. In fact. > A couple of other notes before we dive into the tutorial: . In other words.Many browsers will ignore badly-formed HTML documents. Attributes Attributes are associated with each tag to further define the tags. On this page. It has certain tags and attributes defined.HTML tag codes are case-insensitive. In HTML. each tag has its own specific meaning. and is geared towards document display over the World Wide Web.Tags & Attributes HTML Tags HTML stands for (H)yper(T)ext (M)arkup (L)anguage. it is often okay to have a tag without the corresponding closing tag.. we will introduce the notion of tags and attributes. and Safari. you may think of this tutorial as an introduction to the tags that are commonly used in writing HTML. which is (in general) common across all different browsers. Mozilla. The general syntax is as follows: <tag attribute 1 = "value" attribute 2 = "value" . Tags Tags are elements of the HTML document used to specify how the document should be displayed by the browser. . Opera.

I'll explain them at the end of the example. Read through and see if you can guess what the different tags will do: (Don't worry. this is just an example of a tag that requires no closing tag to follow it. In order to end the underlining. Also. Other examples would be a line break: <BR>. It looks like this: <IMG SRC="myimage. The first one we see is <HTML>. like this: >. you must use a closing tag. You can also use as much space between things as you like. This is called an opening tag. You would place this before the text you want to underline. So. you do not need to capitalize the tags. The tags will end with a "greater than" sign. and a paragraph: <P>. to make sense of this. A closing tag will always be the same as the opening tag. An example would be the tag used to underline text.gif">. if you would like to underline the phrase "HTML Rules!". like this: </U>. This signals the beginning of an HTML file. I will explain all the extra stuff later. An example would be the image tag. go through and find the pairs of opening and closing tags. 8 . but will have a forward slash before the command. you would write the following in your text editor: <U>HTML Rules!</U> The result of this would be: HTML Rules! Not all tags will require a closing tag.) <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>I Love HTML</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Everything displayed on your page will be in here. a horizontal line: <HR>. <U>.HTML: Basic Format Now we are able to start learning about HTML tags. <P> is the same as <p>. So: <U> Underline Me! </U> Is the same as: <U>Underline Me!</U> Is the same as: <U> Underline Me! </U> A basic HTML file will have the format below. which begins the operation you wish to perform. which will place an image on the page. like this: <. An HTML tag will always begin with a "less than" sign. </BODY> </HTML> Okay.

images) should be between these two tags. To end your title. the title is "I Love HTML" (That's not true all the time.The closing tag . The browser would display this: Everything displayed on your page will be in here. though). 9 . All we have is a line of text aligned to the left of the screen. and as the name of the browser window. it signals the end of the HTML document. the only part of the HEAD section we will deal with is the TITLE. use the </TITLE> tag. Everything (tags. and add other descriptive information to the page. The above example makes a rather boring web page (even worse than the one in the previous tutorial). The next tag we see is the <HEAD> tag. is at the very end of the document. in the example. let's go to the next tutorial and see if we can add a little life to our page of text. </HTML>. which brings us to the next tag. The title is only used for bookmarks. use </BODY>. At this time. As you might have guessed. It will not show up on your web page unless you type it in the BODY section (explained below). This is where most of our work will be done. This opens a section in which you can title your page. The section ends with the </HEAD> tag. use keywords. text. as they are the beginning and end of your page. The <TITLE> tag allows you to create a title for your page. The <BODY> tag opens the section that will be displayed in the web browser. Yuck. Well. search engines. To end the body section. For instance.

However. which makes me cool! Does the order of the tags make a difference? In this case.and remember to close both tags afterwards. Let's start by giving you some tags to work with: <B></B> This is the tag for bold text..like this: <B><I>I am bold AND Italic. which makes me cool!</I></B> This will show up like this: I am bold AND Italic. it wouldn't matter which way you opened and closed the tags. and will help when the order does matter! (such as placing the 10 . Let's say you wanted something in bold and italics.... To do this.The Text Tags How to use HTML tags to manipulate your text To start making our text appear in different ways.. Example: <B>Howdy</B> This will show up on your page like this: Howdy Here are a few more to start working with: <U></U> Underline text <U>Underline Me!</U> Underline Me! <I></I> Italics <I>Isn't this fun?</I> Isn't this fun? <STRIKE></STRIKE> <STRIKE>You're Out!</STRIKE> You're Out! <CENTER></CENTER> <CENTER>This centers text on the page</CENTER> This centers text on the page Having fun yet? You can also use more than one tag at a time.. working from inside out will help you see your code better.. just place both opening tags before the text.

So let's do just that. The effect ends when each one of those tags is closed by it's closing tag. while not being affected by the bold or italics tags! Now let's use the center tag from above. it's nice to have a way to place things in the center of the page. Italic. and underline! <B><I><U>Would you stop tagging me!</B></I></U> This will give us: Would you stop tagging me! But this: <U><I><B>Would you stop</B></I>tagging me!</U> would give us this! Would you stop tagging me! As you can see. Here's another way to look at working inside out. Use the <CENTER> tag.. So lets try three things: Bold. Here is an example: <CENTER>I'm in the middle!</CENTER> This will give us the following: I'm in the middle! You can also use it with one or more of the other tags above. This caused the "tagging me!" portion to be underlined. Anything you place between the <CENTER> and </CENTER> tags will be centered on the page.but the underline remained open until the end of the exclamation. like this: <CENTER><B><I>Look at me now!</I></B></CENTER> Look at me now! 11 . Since the default alignment of everything is to the left. All you need to remember is that the text you have written is affected by every tag before it that has not been closed. the bold and italics were closed before the word "tagging".</HTML> tag before the </BODY> tag). I could write the HTML this way: <B> <I> I am bold AND Italic... which makes me cool! </I> </B> This could get rather tedious.

Okay...Headings and Paragraphs Using Headings. The browser will not go to the next line until it runs out of space...</H6> You must have good vision. When you insert this tag in your document..</H5> Smaller Still. and Line Breaks These tags are good for creating titles or section headings.. Now let's move on to a line break. or sees a tag that will 12 . <H6>You must have good vision. Here are some examples: <H1>Large Heading!</H1> will give us: Large Heading! <H2>Heading 2</H2> Heading 2 <H3>Heading 3</H3> Heading 3 <H4>Getting Small</H4> Getting Small <H5>Smaller Still. a line break is like hitting the "enter" key when you are writing text.. Paragraphs. the contents will go to the next line.. Here is an example: End this line now!!<BR>Thanks! This will generate the following: End this line now!! Thanks! Basically. I think you get the idea here. The <BR> tag does not need a closing tag afterward. The tag for a line break is <BR>.

I want a new line. <BR> This is the next line. as though you had typed <BR> twice. but if you'd like to add one for your own reference.: This is some cool stuff. So typing the following in your text editor will display only one line of text in the browser: Hello. let's move on to the paragraph tag. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! </P> <P> 13 . Is this cool or what? The paragraph tag does not require a closing tag. <P> This is a new paragraph. use your <BR> tag from above: Hello. Now this will do what we wanted it to do: Hello. This tag will skip a vertical space after going to the next line. Is this cool or what? This will give us the following: This is some cool stuff. I want a new line. Now. you place a </P> where you would like the paragraph to end. This tag is good for skipping a line quickly and for knowing where you wanted a new paragraph to begin. I want a new line. To make the text move to the next line.<BR> I want<BR> a new line. <P>.force it to the next line. This is the next line. This is a new paragraph. O.K. How about an example? Well. This gives us: Hello.

.. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! <P> Here is a new paragraph..Here is a new paragraph....<BR> and the end. </P> This will give you the same thing as using just the opening <P> tags... Both of these will give you this: This paragraph needs a visual ending! Here is a new paragraph.<BR> and the end.. 14 . and the end.

I'm Small! Here are some more size examples for you: <FONT SIZE="+4">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+3">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There 15 . you can make the font smaller in the same way. This is done with the following tag: <FONT SIZE="x">text to change</FONT> "x" will be replaced by a number with a + or . You can use the tag with a +2. So let's say you wanted to make the font larger.Manipulating Color Font Size and How to change font sizes and colors now we want to see how to change the font size. using the .sign: <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey.sign in front of it. I'm Small!</FONT> Will give us this: Hey. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2">I'm a big sentence now!</FONT> This will give us the following: I'm a big sentence now! Likewise.

If you want to see a sample list of color names and hex codes. and close only one tag. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2"><FONT COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT></FONT> I am gold! Also. The hexidecimal representation begins with a # sign and is followed by six letters and/or numbers. Here is the tag: <FONT COLOR="color"> We replace the word color with a color name or the hexidecimal color value. To do this.<FONT SIZE="-1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-3">Can you read this?</FONT> Can you read this? Now. Now suppose you want to change the size AND the color. Let's do one using the color name to begin: <FONT COLOR="red">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! Now let's use the hexidecimal value for red. This is done in much the same way. Here is the example: <FONT COLOR="#FF0000">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! That is a # sign. but you may want to have the hex code for more complicated colors. suppose you want to change the font color. click here . you can use the SIZE and COLOR declarations inside the same tag. This is done like this: <FONT SIZE="+2" COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT> I am gold! 16 . two F's and four zeros. Usually it's easier to remeber the color names. you can use two FONT tags and remember to close them both.

or how to get a copyright symbol to show up? Then let's see how right now! Special characters are placed on your page by using a special reference to the character you want to use. like this: Hello there! The first space is added just using the "space" bar on the keyboard. The reference will begin with an ampersand (&). let's say you wanted to place an extra space between two words. will be followed by some text or numbers. and 4 additional spaces between the two words. by placing its reference where you would like to see the symbol on the page. for a total of five spaces. The reference for a copyright symbol is &copy. The web browser will see the first space. and end with a semicolon (. have you been wondering how to add an extra space on your page. reference. Here's an example: This page Copyright &copy. Here is what you would do: Hello &nbsp. You use it the same way as an extra space. reference. By adding the &nbsp.There! This will create the first space. you place the reference &nbsp.you will only see one space in the browser. So as an example.&nbsp. To do this..there! This gives us two spaces between "Hello" and "there!". 1999 by me! This page Copyright © 1999 by me! 17 . but after that additional spaces will make no difference-. like this: Hello &nbsp. we forced the browser to add an extra space between the two words. where you would like to add the extra space. It will be displayed like this: Hello There! The other one we will discuss is the copyright symbol.Special Characters How to use special characters in HTML So.) . You can add as many spaces as you would like by repeating the &nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.

you may use a shortcut called a "local url". so to create a link to us. Look in your location box near the top of your web browser. like this: 18 .sevenhills.. let's create a link to this particular page. inside the quote marks. As another example. To create the link. The </A> is the closing tag. You should see the url for this page.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> Which gives us this link: Linking to Other Pages If you click on this link right now. If you move your mouse over the link.com">goto Sevenhills</A> It will show up on your page like this: goto Sevenhills See how the text was colorized and underlined? In most cases. you can just use the filename. Great isn't it? Now. Our url is http://www. rather than typing the full url inside the tag. which means we are using the complete address to every page we are creating a link to. The mouse attribute comes in handy when a page has a whole lot of underlined text. it will be) Now. your browser will simply display this page again. If you have all of your files in the same directory. which is http://www.com..sevenhills.sevenhills. just type in the address for your page inside the link tag. So.com/index1. if you want to link to your own pages from your home page. Before you try this. you will end up at our home page. insert this url into the link tag: <A HREF="http://www. The text between the tags is what will show up on your web page as a link. This will work for any page because we are using the absolute url. if you would like to link to our site. (In most cases. If you click on the link from the first example. or net address. be certain any file you want to create a local url link to is in the same directory as the page you are editing. place this command on the page where you would like the link to show up: <A HREF="http://www. you should see the cursor change into a pointing hand.. you would place our url.com">Display Text</A> The A stands for anchor..htm . this will indicate the text is a link. and the HREF=" " is asking for a location to link to.com/index1.sevenhills.sevenhills.Linking to Other Pages How to link to other pages in HTML let's start out by seeing what tag we use for linking: <A HREF="http://www.

Typing in the full address will allow the link to work no matter where it is located on the internet. Linking to Other Pages If you aren't sure or have doubts. but we didn't have to write as much.<A HREF="linking. If you would like to see some related tutorials.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> This will create the same link we just did. try one of these: Changing the Link Color Using an Image as a Link Linking Within the Same Page 19 . always use the absolute url.

If my image and html file were in the same directory. The SRC stands for source. you will be able to just type the filename of the image here. like this: 20 . The source of the image is going to be the net address of the image.com/images/next.jpg"> If you aren't sure. Most often. like this: <IMG SRC="http://www.com/pictures/image.sevenhills.jpg"> Otherwise. let's take a look at the image tag: <IMG SRC="image.Adding Images to Your Page How to place images on your page So.jpg . I would type: <IMG SRC="next. aligned to the left. If you have images in other file formats.jpg". You could also use a .sevenhills.gif or . These are the two most common image file extensions used on the internet.disney. you will probably want to convert them to . have you been wondering how to add an image to your page? Well. like this: <IMG SRC="image.jpg .gif. you would use this url as the image source: <IMG SRC="http://www.gif"> The IMG stands for image. if your image is located at http://www. Now let's work with a real example. you will want to link to it using the full address of the image.com/pictures/image. So.disney. I would use the full internet address.jpg"> Either option would display the image on the page. One image I have on this site is called "next. This can be done with most image editing programs. if your images are in a directory other than the one your html document is in.gif"> The filename does not have to end with . Now. The address for the image is: http://www.com/images/next.jpg file as well. go ahead and use the full address just to be sure it will work correctly.jpg .

com/images/next.jpg" and "IMAGE. Be sure to use the correct case in your image tags.jpg" align="left"> Now just type in your text and it will wrap around the image. but it will allow you to add an image to your page on its own line.. Here is an example.. you would place the CENTER tag around the image tag.sevenhills.JPG" are considered two different images to the web browser. Now. rather than jumping to the bottom of the image.. this doesn't give us everything we could possibly want.. and that's no fun. you just need to add one of these commands to the image tag: align="left" align="right" So.<br> <IMG SRC=".jpg"> </CENTER> This will place the image in the center of the screen: Keep in mind..If you want to center the image on the page. check out one of these related tutorials: Aligning Images and Wrapping Text Using an Image as a Link Using a Background Image Resizing an Image Using Image "alt" Commands Image Alignment/Wrapping Text How to wrap text around an image To allow text to wrap around an image. or the image may not show up.jpg" align="left"> Hello.I think this image is in the way. If you want to see more on using images./images/next.. the image tag would look like this: <IMG SRC="next. like this: <CENTER> <IMG SRC="http://www.<br> 21 . Hmmm. the filename or address of the image IS case sensitive. so "image. this text should wrap around<br> this image like this.

this text should wrap around this image like this. if you wanted to link to our main page. "next. but now it is a visual image. you will have to use two things you have already learned. I'll just keep on writing and writing and writing and writing until I'm tired of writing... it will operate the same way as a normal link.. Now.jpg"? I have been using it at the bottom of each page as a link to the next section. How to add an image to the page..<br> This will give you the following: Hmmm. 1. you would type the following: <A HREF="http://www. don't type any text. like this: <A HREF="http://www.. How to create a link. you must create a link to the place you want people to go when they click on the picture.jpg"> </A> Now that the image is between the link tags. you would go ahead and type the opening link tag. first.I'll just keep on writing and<br> writing and writing and writing<br> until I'm tired of writing.com"> Now. remember my trusty old picture.. So.sevenhills..com"> <IMG SRC="next.. 2.jpg"> OK.. The image we are using here is "next. So.com"> <IMG SRC="next.sevenhills. like this: <A HREF="http://www.I think this image is in the way. So.sevenhills.. Using an Image as a Link How to link an image To use an image as a link. what did I do? Well. now we are going to close the link tag at the end of the image tag. What we are going to do is place the image tag right after the opening link tag. so that the image tag is between the opening and closing link tags. Here is what the above code would produce: 22 . and don't close the tag just yet.jpg". Hello..

jpg" border="0"> </A> Now. and sometimes this isn't the color you want to use. 23 . Well. that's good. and it will turn into the little pointing hand. The only way I know around it is to edit the actual image to where it has the border you want. If you click on the image.sevenhills. and then set the border="0" in your image tag. you will end up all the way back at our main page. for instance: Border="5" The drawback to the border is that it insists on being the color of your link color. add this command to the image tag: border="0" Here is an example: <A HREF="http://www. but what's with the border around the image? Well.Move the mouse over the image. just use a larger number in there. the border just seems to be added by default on most browsers. and you won't have the extra border around the sides: You can also make the border larger in the same way. the picture will be a link.com"> <IMG SRC="next. To get rid of it.

you will probably have to disable image loading and reload this page. I place the text "next" in the alt command.jpg" alt="next"> To see this work. this is a handy way to let people know what the image was supposed to do. If you have images as links.Using Image "alt" Commands An alternative to the picture Okay. you can move your mouse over the image and it will display the alt text right there for you. Of course. One image I do this with is my "next. You can then scroll down to the bottom right and see the word "next" where the image used to be. This is the alt command: alt="something you want to write" Place this inside the image tag: <IMG SRC="image.jpg" image at the bottom of these pages. or in the case they have image loading turned off to so pages will load faster. Here is the example: <IMG SRC="next. the image alt command is used to display text in the case someone visits your page with a browser that can't show images. if you have a really new browser. and that is what will be seen if someone sees the page with no images. 24 .gif" alt="something you want to write"> You place this command inside the image tag for the image you want to display alternate text for.

Here is an example: <PRE> x=1. if (x==1) y=2. <SUB> and <SUP> These tags are used to place a number or words slightly above or below your normal text. y=2.Some Extra Text Tags There are a few more tags you might like to try while you are creating your pages. but there are other times you may wish to use them. The <PRE> Tag The <PRE> tag is used when you want to keep the same amount of whitespace on your web page as you have in your html code in your text editor. This is useful when you have to post programming code. and the Netscape only <BLINK> tag. if (x==1) y=2. <SUP>. </PRE> And this somewhat redundant code gives you this: x=1. 25 . <WBR>. The <SUB> tag works like this: Area<SUB>1</SUB> The result is this: Area1 And the <SUP> tag allows you to use exponents if you need to: X<SUP>2</SUP> + Y<SUP>2</SUP> = 0 And this gives you: X2 + Y2 = 0 These two tags are most useful if you are writing mathematical equations and such on your page. <PRE>. The tags I will be talking about in this section are <SUB>. <NOBR>. y=2.

long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long Unless you had a monitor with some pretty high resolution. <NOBR> and <WBR> Any text you place between the <NOBR> and the </NOBR> tags will not break to the next line.Notice how we didn't need to use <BR> or &nbsp. this is the tag everyone has been complaining about. like this: I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. Here is an example: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long </NOBR> this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. you probably had to scroll to the right to see the end of that line. even after reaching the end of someone's browser window. If you are using Netscape you can see the following reason why viewers get annoyed by this tag: 26 . This can save you some headaches from writing in line breaks and spaces manually so often. inside the <PRE> tags. like this: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long <WBR> long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. You can use the <WBR> tag inside the NOBR tags to force a line break if you want or need to do so. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long The <BLINK> Tag Yes. </NOBR> Now you will have two lines that are not quite as long (though still pretty long in 640x480): I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. this will be one really long line. When viewed on your web page.

if the tag is used in a better way. you won't see the text blink. but you can get the general idea..LOOK AT ME NOW!!!!!! If you have IE..Here is an example: This rule is <BLINK>very</BLINK> important! This gives you the following: This rule is very important! 27 . Actually. Just avoid the +10 font size. it can help point out important things you want people to see..

After this. you could use a comment to remind yourself that a section of code is supposed to perform a certain task: <!-. So.gif" align="right" alt="Look at my Kitty Cat!"> 28 . In this way. and have alt text --> <IMG SRC="mypet. you type in your coments. --> You can comment on multiple lines. just be sure you remember to end the comment! <!-You can't see me. unless you look at the page source code.. how is it done? To write a comment. Comments are invisible to a web browser when it displays your web page.I am a comment. you can leave yourself notes so that you don't forget something when you come back later to redesign the page. --> To look at something more useful. The only way to view comments is to look at the source (html) code of the web page.Adding HTML Comments Using comments in your html code Comments can be a nice way to help yourself when you are coding your web page...This image should be aligned to the right. you begin with a less than sign (<) followed directly by an exclaimation point (!) and two dashes (--). To end the comment. <!-. I feel invisible though. you use two dashes (--) followed directly by a greater than sign (>).

. Now. You can indent further by adding more <UL> tags. we need a tag to begin and end the entire list... Here is a sample list with two list items: <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> This will give us the bulleted list below: • • I am item one I am item two Notice the <LI> tags do not require a closing tag.. you will get more of a mess than a straight list: • • • This is item one... how nice it is to be number one.Using HTML Lists How to add an HTML list to your page Have you been wanting to add lists to your page? Well. as long as you remember to close every one of them. Item two is much shorter! Item three is somewhere in between. To begin. If each list item is not the same length. and the closing tag is. here is the way to add those html lists to your web pages.</UL>. Also. Here is a sample of indenting further into the page: <UL> <UL> <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> </UL> </UL> This will give us the following indented list:   I am item one I am item two Be careful about using the <CENTER> tag around your lists. 29 .yep. followed by your text. This will create a list with bullets next to the list items. The opening tag is <UL>. the list is indented somewhat from the rest of the text. let's use an unordered list. you use the <LI> tag. to set off each item in your list. you guessed it. For starters..

Item 3 30 . though). you would use <OL> </OL>. Item 2 3. like this: <OL> <LI>Item 1 <LI>Item 2 <LI>Item 3 </OL> This gives you a numbered list rather than the bulleted list: 1.If you really need the list further in on the page. You can also use an ordered list in the same way you use the unordered list. use the indention method above until it hits the center of the screen (this can mess up in different screen resolutions. Item 1 2. or you can try using a Table to align the text instead. Instead of using <UL> </UL>.

The default setting for a non-visited link is usually blue. (If you are moving through the tutorials in order. text="color" This changes the default text color the browser will display on your page.. click here. click here. bgcolor="color" This changes the background color of your page. vlink="color" 31 . The options you don't use will be set to the web browser's default values. For a list of common colors and hex codes. The default setting varies with your browser. with a link to the tutorial for each one. which is a link that has just been clicked on by a user's mouse. For a list of common colors and hex codes.. alink="color" This changes the color of an active link on your page. click here. but is usually gray or white. we will eventually get to each one of these.. isn't it? Well. For a list of common colors and hex codes. you can use as many or as few of these add-ons as you wish. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. For a list of common colors and hex codes. You can set this to any color you would like to use. you can change serveral things in the body of your document by adding extra commands to the <BODY> tag. The default setting for text color is black. link="color" This changes the color of all of the non-visited links on your page. Here is what a body tag with serveral additions would look like: <BODY bgcolor="black" text="red" link="yellow" alink="orange" vlink="white" background="image. You can set this to any color you would like to use. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code.Using BODY Tag Attributes How to use body tag attributes to enhance your page When you create a web page.gif"> Pretty long tag. Below is a brief explaination of each attribute. You can set this to any color you would like to use. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. click here. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code.) So here we go. You can set this to any color you would like to use.

Once you have found the tag. just add it in like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> To change the background color. For a list of common colors and hex codes. background="image. replace the word gray inside the quote marks with a color name or a color hex code. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. It may look like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> Or the tag may have more commands inside and use hex codes. You can set this to any color you would like to use. If you use this attribute. So. like this: <BODY text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0" bgcolor="#808080"> And of course. Using a Background Color Add or change the background color on your page If you want to use a background color on your page. If this is the case. If you don't use a background image. the command may not be there at all. and add color your pages! 32 . look for a command after the word BODY that says bgcolor="color" . your page will have a green background. click here. the background image will take the place of any background color you may have specified. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. Beautiful! Now just use any color you like in the command. click here. the browser will use your background color or its default background color. you would type: <BODY bgcolor="green"> Or you could use the hex code for green: <BODY bgcolor="#008000"> After doing this. add it by placing a space after the word BODY and then type the command.gif" This adds a background image to your page.This changes the color of a visited link on your page. like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray" text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0"> Or if you don't have any other commands. The default setting for a visited link is usually violet. if you wanted to change the background color to green. For a list of some common color names and hex codes.

you will need to find your body tag. like this: <BODY text="#000000"> Of course. You may have something like this: <BODY text="black"> You may also see a weird number/letter combination. leaving a space after the previous command. like this: <BODY bgcolor="blue" text="black"> Now. click here. you may not see either of these. Now. if you'd like to change the color. you could use one of the following: Using a color name: <BODY text="red"> Or using a hex code: <BODY text="#FF0000"> 33 . If you don't have the extra command yet. add it to your BODY tag like one of the examples above.Changing the Default Text Color How to change the default font color on your page Okay. look for the phrase text="" somewhere after the word BODY. if you want to change the text color to red. So. add this one onto the end. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. If you have other commands. or you may be creating the page from scratch. replace the black between the quote marks with a color name or hex code. to change your default text color in your HTML page.

So. It would look like this: <BODY link="blue"> Or the tag might have some other commands as well: <BODY bgcolor="#000000" text="#FFFFFF" link="#0000FF"> You may also just have the word BODY with nothing else there. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. If so. The commands are: alink="color" vlink="color" For the active link color For the visited link color You might have: <BODY link="blue" alink="blue" vlink="violet"> To change the other colors. go ahead. add the command after the word BODY. you replace the word blue inside the quotes with a different color name or hex code.Changing the Link Color How to change the link color on your page If you want to change the link color on your page. to change the link color. do the same as you did for the link color. You can also do the same things for active and visited links by adding or editing their commands. you would type the following: <BODY link="red"> Or using the hex code: <BODY link="#FF0000"> Now. and add your colors! 34 . like this: <BODY link="blue"> Now. Just place a space between each command. click here. all the links on your page will be colored red rather than blue. with a space between the two. If you need to add the commands. Now look for a command after the word BODY that says link="color". you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. if you would like to change the link color to red.

jpg"> 35 . So.jpg . I could use the image by typing in just the filename. One program that will do this is Paint Shop Pro. you may see just the word BODY. skip a space. we are going to place the url of the image inside the quotation marks. So. and type the following: background=" " Now your body tag should look something like this (and may have more commands): <BODY background=" "> Now.jpg". like this: <BODY background="next. I would type in this: <BODY background="http://www. So. if the image I want to use is at http://www. you will need to locate the <BODY> tag in your document. I would insert this into the command. or you may see a string of commands afterward. like this: <BODY background="http://www. as a real example.com/image1. if we want image2. we can type the command this way: <BODY background="image2.jpg . and it is in the same directory as the page we are editing. if I put an html file in my "images" directory.mysite.gif or .sevenhills. When you have found it. you can just type the filename of the image rather than the full url.mysite.sevenhills. If not. go to the end of the word BODY. The url for the image is http://www. So. It may look something like this: <BODY bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000"> What we are going to do is add a command after the word BODY. if your image file is located in the same directory as your html file. you will want to covert it to one of these file types.gif"> Your image should have the file extension .gif to be the background image.gif"> Now. which is available as shareware from JASC.gif .com/images/next. to use this as a background. Now. The name of the image is "next.Using a Background Image How to add a background image to your page To add a background image to your page.com/image1. I will use an image from my server as a background on a page.com/images/next.jpg"> Now.

we will just insert larger numbers for the width and height: <IMG SRC="next.jpg" width=" " height=" "> Now.jpg". The picture looks like this: So. Well. when I reload my page. to change the size of the image. Well.Resizing Images How to resize your images Okay. Maybe the image takes up the whole screen. to make the image larger. suppose I want to make it smaller. the picture will be the new height and width I specified. Here's what it would look like: Now. or maybe you wanted a larger version of the image on the screen. Well. you have an image you want to use. IMG SRC="next. I'm going to place numbers inside those quotation marks. The width and height are usually written in pixels. let's say I wanted it to be 75 pixels wide and 40 pixels high. All I need to do is know the original width and height of my image. you can resize the image by adding width and height commands to your image tag. Let's take a look at an example.jpg" width="75" height="40"> Now. I have an image called "next. The tag will now look like this: <IMG SRC="next.jpg" width="300" height="200"> 36 . I would then place these numbers into the commands.jpg". but it's just not the right size to go where you want it to go. My image turns out to be 106 pixels wide and 65 pixels in height. A typical screen is about 800 pixels wide and 600 pixels in height (though this varies with different video cards and moniters). like this: <IMG SRC="next. to make the image smaller. I'm going to add these two commands inside the image tag: width=" " and height=" " I'm going to place the commands after the initial command.

So. So. I would have to decide on a width. if I'm making the image smaller.jpg" width="75" height="46"> Now it looks like this: If you don't want to deal with math all the time (like me).0123 . just for the ease of use. if you want to make the width 75. When you calculate 106/65. you need to find the height that will make the ratio as close as possible to 1. you get about 1. the images became somewhat distorted when I resized them. One reason for this is that I didn't keep the aspect ratio the same. In this case.63 . it comes out to about 46. here it is: 75/height = 1. Since the image was originally 106x65. the paint program will make the file size smaller 37 . you can also resize it with a paint or image program (which will do the calculations for you) and upload the new version of the picture to your server.63 Now take the answer and round up or down. or if you like solving equations. I would use 46 as the height: <IMG SRC="next. I usually use my image program to do this. Besides. and then find a height that would keep the aspect ratio of 106/65.63 .Now the image looks like this: As you can see. You can guess at it for awhile.

You can try one I made on this page by clicking on the link below: Back to top The # sign is there to let the browser know the destination is a named anchor within this page. which is a specific area of your page you want to make a link to. You could link to any part of the page.. It can make navigating some pages a whole lot easier. Now. if you create an anchor named "cool". So.. This just makes it easy to see where we are going to end up. lets say you have one page that is pretty long. Now type the following tag: <A NAME="top"></A> You can place any name you wish inside the quotes. let's say you want to create a link to the top of your page. Or maybe you want to divide it into sections and use a table of contents at the top. Maybe you would like to give someone a way back to the top of the page when they are at the bottom. but for now. 38 . To do this. you link to that anchor by using "#cool". or any other place Okay. like this: <A NAME="cool"></A> -----The anchor name <A HREF="#cool">To the Cool Section of this page</A> section -----Linking to the named You can place a named anchor anyplace on your page. go anywhere between the body tags and type this link: <A HREF="#top">Back to the Top</A> If you click on this link. the bottom. the top. you will be sent back to the top of the page. the 500th word.Linking Within a Single Page Jump to the top. middle. Well. You can place one at the third paragraph... the way to do this is to use a named anchor. go to the top of the body section (right after the body tag). You can link to it from any other part of the page.

notice that when you click it. the subject field of your email message is already filled in with "Enquiry".com in that space. You do this by adding a "?" at the end of your e-mail address and then your subject. To force the browser to read it as an e-mail link. you use "mailto:" rather than "http://" to begin the address. Here is an example. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills.maybe your joke of the day or something! You can also create the subject of the message so the viewer doesn't have to fill in something in the subject line.com?subject=Enquiry">Mail Me!</A> The example link is below.. all you need to do is use the standard link tag.your e-mail address. After the "mailto:". The trick is in what you use as the address of the link. with my e-mail address already filled in.. I would place info@sevenhills. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills.com">Give me some mail!</A> Here is the resulting link: Give me some mail! If you click on the link.The E-mail Link How to create an email link To create an e-mail link on your page. you will use your e-mail address rather than a web address. Send me whatever you want. all you need to do is replace the your_email_address with . your browser will bring up a window for you to send me email.. Mail Me! 39 . like this: <A HREF="mailto:your_email_address">E-mail Me!</A> Yes. to create an email link to myself..

com? subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend. there are a couple of extras you can also add. For instance.The E-mail Link: More More tricks for the email link we saw how to add the subject to a message through the e-mail link.com"> Mail Me</A> Now.com"> Mail Me</A> With either of these. you add the cc= command after the question mark. if you want a subject and a blind carbon copy. other@other. or use a combination of the subject with either or both of these.com?subject=Hi">Mail Me</A> On top of adding the subject. if you want to combine more than one of these commands after the question mark. it would look like this: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. a blind carbon copy recipient.com"> Mail Me</A> If you want all three. You can add a carbon copy recipient. you can send the copies to multiple addresses by separating them with commas: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com?bcc=friend@friend. It was done using a "question mark" followed by subject= and then the subject: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com?cc=friend@friend.com&cc=other@other.com?subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend. use the "&" sign again: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. 40 . except you use the bcc= command instead: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com?bcc=friend@friend.com"> Mail Me</A> With that. you can have some more fun with your e-mail links-. To send a carbon copy.and if you run a site with a partner you can both get an e-mail when someone uses that link. followed by the e-mail address of the person you want to send the carbon copy to: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com"> Mail Me</A> The same goes for a blind carbon copy. you add them in using an "&" sign at the end of the first command.com.

rowspan: This specifies the number of rows this particular row occupies. 50%). Border: This specifies whether the table will have a border.HTML Table This section lists the tags often used with HTML tables: <table>. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this table: • • • • • Width: This specifies the width of the table. <tr> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a row. and <td>. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. Columns are specified within each row. cellspacing: The amount spacing between the cell wall and the cell border. Example 1 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> 41 . The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. cellpadding: The amount padding between cells and the each cell wall in a table. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this row: • • • bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this row. <tr>. <td> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a column. 100%). The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this column: • • • • valign: Width: This specifies the width of the column. The number indicates the thickness of the border. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this column. The areas enclosed by the cell walls are the maximum amount of area that text can be displayed in a cell. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. This is very often used in conjunction with the <tr> and the <td> tags. colspan: This specifies the number of columns this particular column occupies. Height: This specifies the height of the row. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this table. <table> The <table> tag specifies the presence of a table. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code.

<tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 2 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr><td width=200>Element 1</td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 3 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr bgcolor=red><td width=200><b>Element 1</b></td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td bgcolor=55ff55>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td><i>Element 6</i></td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 4 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td colspan=2>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 2 Element 3 Element 4 Element 5 42 .

HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 7: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. 43 .Example 5: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=0> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 6: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 HTML Frame This section introduces the tags related to HTML frames: <frameset> and <frame>.

the first row occupies 40% of the available space. 60%" means that there will be two rows. The possible values are {yes|no|auto}. Example 1 HTML: <frameset cols="50%.<frameset> The <frameset> tag specifies the number of columns/rows on a frame. Note that search engines typically do not like the use of the frames. Note that you may embed a frameset within another frameset. please consider using the frame feature carefully. Scrolling: This attribute specifies whether users may scroll up and down within this frame.70%" means that there will be two columns. as well as the width of each row. For example. rows="40%. noresize: This attribute specifies whether users may resize the frame.html"> <frame src="frame3. while the second column occupies 70% of the available space. marginwidth: The margin on the left and right side of the frame. The attributes include: • Cols: Specifies the number of columns. cols="30%. • <frame> The <frame> tag specifies the properties within a particular frame. For example. while the second row occupies 60% of the available space. as well as the width of each column.html"> </frameset> </frameset> 44 .50%"> <frame src="frame2. the first column occupies 30% of the available space. Rows: Specifies the number of rows. Therefore. The attributes include: • • • • • src: This attribute specifies the HTML document source.50%"> <frameset rows="100%"> <frame src="frame1. marginheight: The margin on the top and bottom of the frame.html"> </frameset> <frameset rows="50%.

xyz. <input type=submit> gives a button that the user clicks when she is ready to submit the information.com/example?c=1&d=title has two separate key-value pairs. <input type=submit value=Go> </form> The text after action= specifies the script to be executed after the user submits the information. separated by '&'. For example.HTML Forms Forms are used in HTML to pass data. the following URL: http://www... [section specifying the value for each key] .. in this case 'Go'. The key for the first key-value pair is 'c'. The value=Go piece specifies the text appearing on the button. How are key-value pair specified? They are specified by the <form> tag. The general format is as follows: <form action=xxx> . and the value is '1'. This is shown below: The following list gives the most common ways for users to specify the value: • • • • Text input Radio button Checkbox Drop-down menu 45 . data is typically passed as a keyvalue pair. The key for the second key-value pair is 'd'. and its value is 'title'. On the web..

Below is an example. The syntax is <textarea rows= [row height] name=area>. The texts typed do not appear directly on the web page. Here. the key for this text input value is 'c'.Text Input One way users can enter data into a HTML document is via text. There are three common types of text input: • Text: In this type of input. Below is an example: Text example: • þÿ Password: In this type of input. Below is an example: Text example: • Textbox: In this type of input. we get a multi-lin text book to enter data. with [row height] = 2: Text area example: 46 . Here. The key for this textarea input is 'area'. The syntax is <input type=password name=pwd>. the key for this password input is 'pwd'. The most common scenario is when users have to enter a username and password to enter a site. The texts typed appear directly on the web page. The texts typed appear directly on the web page. we get a single-line text box to enter data. we get a single-line text box to enter data. The syntax is <input type=text name=c>.

Below is an example: Code: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case. depending on the radio button selected. If we want to pre-select a radio button. green. Radio buttons are used when you want users to be able to select one and only one of the options. the key is color. and the values can be either red. such as follows: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> 47 .Radio Button A second type of input is the radio button. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag. or blue.

the "color" key will then have multiple values. If we want to pre-select a check box. or blue. Below is an example: Code: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case. we'll specify "checked" at the end of the <input> tag. If multiple check boxes are checked. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" checked>Red<br> 48 .Checkbox Another type of input is the check box. the key is color. Check boxes are used when you want users to be able to select more than one of the options. and the values can be either red. green. depending on the check box(es) selected.

and the values can be either red. selecting a state is often done via a drop down menu. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> If we want to select multiple items. Below is an example for a single-selection drop down menu: Code: <select name=color> <option value="red">Red</option> <option value="green">Green</option> <option value="blue">Blue</option> þÿ In this case. If we want to pre-select a check box.Drop Down Menu Drop down menu is another common way to specify input data. the key is color. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag. Users can select one or more items in a drop-down menu. For example. or blue. i.. green. we specify "multiple" at the end of the <select> tag.e. <select name=color multiple> þÿ 49 . depending on the item selected.