HTML

Sevenhills Pvt. Ltd.,

Contents at a Glance
HTML 1 HTML BASICS................................................................................................................4 A QUICK LOOK AT NOTEPAD AND WEB BROWSERS......................................................................4 TAGS & ATTRIBUTES....................................................................................................7 HTML TAGS.....................................................................................................................7

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HTML: BASIC FORMAT..................................................................................................8 THE TEXT TAGS...........................................................................................................10 HOW TO USE HTML TAGS TO MANIPULATE YOUR TEXT...............................................................10 HEADINGS AND PARAGRAPHS.................................................................................12 USING HEADINGS, PARAGRAPHS, AND LINE BREAKS..................................................................12 MANIPULATING FONT SIZE AND COLOR..................................................................15 HOW TO CHANGE FONT SIZES AND COLORS ..............................................................................15 SPECIAL CHARACTERS..............................................................................................17 HOW TO USE SPECIAL CHARACTERS IN HTML..........................................................................17 LINKING TO OTHER PAGES.......................................................................................18 HOW TO LINK TO OTHER PAGES IN HTML ..............................................................................18 ADDING IMAGES TO YOUR PAGE..............................................................................20 HOW TO PLACE IMAGES ON YOUR PAGE ..................................................................................20 Image Alignment/Wrapping Text.....................................................21 USING AN IMAGE AS A LINK..................................................................................................22 USING IMAGE "ALT" COMMANDS............................................................................................24 An alternative to the picture ..........................................................24 SOME EXTRA TEXT TAGS....................................................................................................25 <SUB> and <SUP>......................................................................25 The <PRE> Tag............................................................................25 <NOBR> and <WBR>...................................................................26 The <BLINK> Tag.........................................................................26 ADDING HTML COMMENTS........................................................................................28 USING HTML LISTS......................................................................................................29 USING BODY TAG ATTRIBUTES................................................................................31 USING A BACKGROUND COLOR...............................................................................32 CHANGING THE DEFAULT TEXT COLOR..................................................................33 CHANGING THE LINK COLOR....................................................................................34 USING A BACKGROUND IMAGE................................................................................35 RESIZING IMAGES.......................................................................................................36 LINKING WITHIN A SINGLE PAGE..............................................................................38 THE E-MAIL LINK.........................................................................................................39 THE E-MAIL LINK: MORE............................................................................................40 HTML TABLE ...............................................................................................................41 <table>......................................................................................41 <tr>...........................................................................................41 <td>..........................................................................................41 HTML FRAME...............................................................................................................43

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HTML FORMS...............................................................................................................45 TEXT INPUT......................................................................................................................46 RADIO BUTTON.................................................................................................................47 CHECKBOX.......................................................................................................................48 DROP DOWN MENU...........................................................................................................49

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HTML Basics
Webpages are written in HTML - a simple scripting language. HTML is short for HyperText Markup Language. • Hypertext is simply a piece of text that works as a link. • Markup Language is a way of writing layout information within documents.

Basically an HTML document is a plain text file that contains text and nothing else. When a browser opens an HTML file, the browser will look for HTML codes in the text and use them to change the layout, insert images, or create links to other pages. Since HTML documents are just text files they can be written in even the simplest text editor. A more popular choice is to use a special HTML editor - maybe even one that puts focus on the visual result rather than the codes - a so-called WYSIWYG editor ("What You See Is What You Get"). Some of the most popular HTML editors, such as FrontPage or Dreamweaver will let you create pages more or less as you write documents in Word or whatever text editor you're using.

A quick look at Notepad and Web Browsers
Using HTML you will want to familiarize yourself with the software you will be using. So, to get started, open Notepad (or your text editor). You should see a completely blank page. Now, type in the text below. We will make use of it later with the web browser. Type the following: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Test Page</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Hi there, you have just written your first web page! </BODY> </HTML> Once you have finished, go to the "File" menu and click on "Save As”. This will prompt you to create a name for your file. In the box, type in test.htm. At the

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or something similar in the dialogue box).txt). type in the path to your html file. Be careful not to save it just yet though if you are using Windows. If you do not get the option to save the file as the type All Files (*.bottom of the prompt you should see a space that says "Save file as Type" or "Save as Type". If you are given an option to connect to the internet. You may also see an error saying the browser could not connect to "http://somepage. and click on "Save". The text was enlarged so you could see the part we are interested in at this point. Click on the down arrow on the right side of the input box. Now. To get around this. Now you will want to use your web browser to view the file you just created. You can use this routine each time you create a new HTML file. You should be able to highlight All Files (*. Text Files (*. If the file is on a floppy disk.html" or something similar.htm. If someone with a Mac would like to write up something in more detail about this (as I don't have a Mac). Something similar to the methods above should work for you.*).htm. you can type 5 . feel free to send it to me. The default is . you will need to place quote marks around the filename. start up your web browser. then select the plain text file type (usually shown as Text Documents. Click on this to make the change. Now you may choose the drive and directory to save to. You should be able to hit OK and get a blank page. you would type the following: c:\myfiles\test. so you will need to change it.txt. You should see something similar to the picture below: This is an example using Windows 95. the way to do this will depend on your text editor. as shown in the image below: If you have a Mac.txt by default. Windows will save it as test. If you have the file in a directory called "myfiles". you can cancel the connection and you will likely end up with a blank page. So.*). in the location box (where you manually type urls).

The image below shows where this can be found in Internet Explorer: Once the page is displayed. or a similar phrase. "Open Local File". especially if you hate typing paths all day.htm. ”Open File". Another option you have. is to use the "Open Page" option. you have just written your first web page! 6 . provided you did not place it in another directory on the disk. go to the "File" menu in your web browser. you will see something like the following: Hi there. Click this option and you will be able to browse for your file and open it from there. Look for an option that says "Open Page". Most browsers will display the page when you hit enter. To use this.a:\test.

which is (in general) common across all different browsers.HTML tag codes are case-insensitive. Attributes Attributes are associated with each tag to further define the tags. In HTML.Tags & Attributes HTML Tags HTML stands for (H)yper(T)ext (M)arkup (L)anguage. In other words. The general syntax is as follows: <tag attribute 1 = "value" attribute 2 = "value" . it is often okay to have a tag without the corresponding closing tag. Tags Tags are elements of the HTML document used to specify how the document should be displayed by the browser. 7 .Many browsers will ignore badly-formed HTML documents. Mozilla. each tag has its own specific meaning. In fact. and is geared towards document display over the World Wide Web. On this page. and Safari. > A couple of other notes before we dive into the tutorial: .. we will introduce the notion of tags and attributes. Opera. you may think of this tutorial as an introduction to the tags that are commonly used in writing HTML. HTML documents can be viewed in browsers such as Internet Explorer. . It has certain tags and attributes defined..

) <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>I Love HTML</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Everything displayed on your page will be in here. but will have a forward slash before the command. you would write the following in your text editor: <U>HTML Rules!</U> The result of this would be: HTML Rules! Not all tags will require a closing tag. and a paragraph: <P>. So. A closing tag will always be the same as the opening tag. a horizontal line: <HR>. The tags will end with a "greater than" sign. The first one we see is <HTML>. An example would be the image tag.HTML: Basic Format Now we are able to start learning about HTML tags. this is just an example of a tag that requires no closing tag to follow it. So: <U> Underline Me! </U> Is the same as: <U>Underline Me!</U> Is the same as: <U> Underline Me! </U> A basic HTML file will have the format below. you must use a closing tag. Read through and see if you can guess what the different tags will do: (Don't worry. I'll explain them at the end of the example. I will explain all the extra stuff later. to make sense of this. It looks like this: <IMG SRC="myimage. You would place this before the text you want to underline. like this: </U>. This signals the beginning of an HTML file. You can also use as much space between things as you like. This is called an opening tag. go through and find the pairs of opening and closing tags. Other examples would be a line break: <BR>. 8 . you do not need to capitalize the tags. like this: >. </BODY> </HTML> Okay. like this: <. which will place an image on the page. which begins the operation you wish to perform. <P> is the same as <p>. An example would be the tag used to underline text. if you would like to underline the phrase "HTML Rules!". In order to end the underlining. An HTML tag will always begin with a "less than" sign.gif">. <U>. Also.

Well. To end your title. This opens a section in which you can title your page. use </BODY>. and as the name of the browser window. The section ends with the </HEAD> tag. use the </TITLE> tag.The closing tag . though). At this time. The next tag we see is the <HEAD> tag. All we have is a line of text aligned to the left of the screen. it signals the end of the HTML document. To end the body section. use keywords. Everything (tags. as they are the beginning and end of your page. search engines. The above example makes a rather boring web page (even worse than the one in the previous tutorial). </HTML>. The title is only used for bookmarks. let's go to the next tutorial and see if we can add a little life to our page of text. This is where most of our work will be done. is at the very end of the document. The <BODY> tag opens the section that will be displayed in the web browser. The browser would display this: Everything displayed on your page will be in here. and add other descriptive information to the page. As you might have guessed. text. 9 . It will not show up on your web page unless you type it in the BODY section (explained below). the title is "I Love HTML" (That's not true all the time. For instance. images) should be between these two tags. Yuck. which brings us to the next tag. the only part of the HEAD section we will deal with is the TITLE. The <TITLE> tag allows you to create a title for your page. in the example.

Let's say you wanted something in bold and italics...The Text Tags How to use HTML tags to manipulate your text To start making our text appear in different ways. Let's start by giving you some tags to work with: <B></B> This is the tag for bold text. Example: <B>Howdy</B> This will show up on your page like this: Howdy Here are a few more to start working with: <U></U> Underline text <U>Underline Me!</U> Underline Me! <I></I> Italics <I>Isn't this fun?</I> Isn't this fun? <STRIKE></STRIKE> <STRIKE>You're Out!</STRIKE> You're Out! <CENTER></CENTER> <CENTER>This centers text on the page</CENTER> This centers text on the page Having fun yet? You can also use more than one tag at a time. working from inside out will help you see your code better. which makes me cool!</I></B> This will show up like this: I am bold AND Italic... just place both opening tags before the text.. and will help when the order does matter! (such as placing the 10 . which makes me cool! Does the order of the tags make a difference? In this case. it wouldn't matter which way you opened and closed the tags.and remember to close both tags afterwards.. However. To do this.like this: <B><I>I am bold AND Italic..

which makes me cool! </I> </B> This could get rather tedious. it's nice to have a way to place things in the center of the page. Anything you place between the <CENTER> and </CENTER> tags will be centered on the page.. and underline! <B><I><U>Would you stop tagging me!</B></I></U> This will give us: Would you stop tagging me! But this: <U><I><B>Would you stop</B></I>tagging me!</U> would give us this! Would you stop tagging me! As you can see.but the underline remained open until the end of the exclamation. So let's do just that. The effect ends when each one of those tags is closed by it's closing tag. like this: <CENTER><B><I>Look at me now!</I></B></CENTER> Look at me now! 11 . All you need to remember is that the text you have written is affected by every tag before it that has not been closed..</HTML> tag before the </BODY> tag). I could write the HTML this way: <B> <I> I am bold AND Italic. while not being affected by the bold or italics tags! Now let's use the center tag from above.. the bold and italics were closed before the word "tagging". Here's another way to look at working inside out. So lets try three things: Bold. Since the default alignment of everything is to the left. Italic. Here is an example: <CENTER>I'm in the middle!</CENTER> This will give us the following: I'm in the middle! You can also use it with one or more of the other tags above. This caused the "tagging me!" portion to be underlined. Use the <CENTER> tag.

. I think you get the idea here. When you insert this tag in your document. The tag for a line break is <BR>. the contents will go to the next line..... The <BR> tag does not need a closing tag afterward..</H6> You must have good vision. and Line Breaks These tags are good for creating titles or section headings. a line break is like hitting the "enter" key when you are writing text. The browser will not go to the next line until it runs out of space. Now let's move on to a line break. Here is an example: End this line now!!<BR>Thanks! This will generate the following: End this line now!! Thanks! Basically.Headings and Paragraphs Using Headings. Here are some examples: <H1>Large Heading!</H1> will give us: Large Heading! <H2>Heading 2</H2> Heading 2 <H3>Heading 3</H3> Heading 3 <H4>Getting Small</H4> Getting Small <H5>Smaller Still. or sees a tag that will 12 . <H6>You must have good vision.. Okay.</H5> Smaller Still. Paragraphs..

you place a </P> where you would like the paragraph to end. let's move on to the paragraph tag. I want a new line. Now. as though you had typed <BR> twice. So typing the following in your text editor will display only one line of text in the browser: Hello. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! </P> <P> 13 . Is this cool or what? The paragraph tag does not require a closing tag. How about an example? Well. <BR> This is the next line. use your <BR> tag from above: Hello. To make the text move to the next line. This is the next line. <P>. Is this cool or what? This will give us the following: This is some cool stuff. <P> This is a new paragraph. This gives us: Hello. This tag will skip a vertical space after going to the next line. Now this will do what we wanted it to do: Hello.<BR> I want<BR> a new line. O. I want a new line.K. but if you'd like to add one for your own reference. This is a new paragraph. I want a new line.force it to the next line.: This is some cool stuff. This tag is good for skipping a line quickly and for knowing where you wanted a new paragraph to begin.

.. </P> This will give you the same thing as using just the opening <P> tags. and the end. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! <P> Here is a new paragraph. Both of these will give you this: This paragraph needs a visual ending! Here is a new paragraph..Here is a new paragraph.. 14 .<BR> and the end...<BR> and the end....

you can make the font smaller in the same way. So let's say you wanted to make the font larger. using the .Manipulating Color Font Size and How to change font sizes and colors now we want to see how to change the font size. I'm Small! Here are some more size examples for you: <FONT SIZE="+4">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+3">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There 15 .sign: <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey. I'm Small!</FONT> Will give us this: Hey. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2">I'm a big sentence now!</FONT> This will give us the following: I'm a big sentence now! Likewise. This is done with the following tag: <FONT SIZE="x">text to change</FONT> "x" will be replaced by a number with a + or .sign in front of it. You can use the tag with a +2.

Let's do one using the color name to begin: <FONT COLOR="red">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! Now let's use the hexidecimal value for red. Here is the example: <FONT COLOR="#FF0000">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! That is a # sign. and close only one tag. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2"><FONT COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT></FONT> I am gold! Also. click here . suppose you want to change the font color. two F's and four zeros. To do this. Here is the tag: <FONT COLOR="color"> We replace the word color with a color name or the hexidecimal color value. If you want to see a sample list of color names and hex codes. you can use two FONT tags and remember to close them both. This is done like this: <FONT SIZE="+2" COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT> I am gold! 16 . you can use the SIZE and COLOR declarations inside the same tag. This is done in much the same way. Now suppose you want to change the size AND the color. The hexidecimal representation begins with a # sign and is followed by six letters and/or numbers.<FONT SIZE="-1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-3">Can you read this?</FONT> Can you read this? Now. Usually it's easier to remeber the color names. but you may want to have the hex code for more complicated colors.

and 4 additional spaces between the two words. You use it the same way as an extra space. but after that additional spaces will make no difference-. To do this. by placing its reference where you would like to see the symbol on the page. So as an example. By adding the &nbsp. we forced the browser to add an extra space between the two words. 1999 by me! This page Copyright © 1999 by me! 17 . for a total of five spaces. You can add as many spaces as you would like by repeating the &nbsp.&nbsp.) .&nbsp. The reference for a copyright symbol is &copy.there! This gives us two spaces between "Hello" and "there!".There! This will create the first space. or how to get a copyright symbol to show up? Then let's see how right now! Special characters are placed on your page by using a special reference to the character you want to use. The reference will begin with an ampersand (&). like this: Hello &nbsp.. It will be displayed like this: Hello There! The other one we will discuss is the copyright symbol. like this: Hello there! The first space is added just using the "space" bar on the keyboard. and end with a semicolon (. you place the reference &nbsp.you will only see one space in the browser. Here's an example: This page Copyright &copy. will be followed by some text or numbers. Here is what you would do: Hello &nbsp. have you been wondering how to add an extra space on your page. reference. where you would like to add the extra space.Special Characters How to use special characters in HTML So. The web browser will see the first space. let's say you wanted to place an extra space between two words. reference.&nbsp.

this will indicate the text is a link.com/index1.sevenhills.com. insert this url into the link tag: <A HREF="http://www. So.. To create the link. place this command on the page where you would like the link to show up: <A HREF="http://www..com">Display Text</A> The A stands for anchor. If you move your mouse over the link. or net address. just type in the address for your page inside the link tag. The mouse attribute comes in handy when a page has a whole lot of underlined text. which is http://www. The text between the tags is what will show up on your web page as a link. The </A> is the closing tag. As another example. and the HREF=" " is asking for a location to link to.Linking to Other Pages How to link to other pages in HTML let's start out by seeing what tag we use for linking: <A HREF="http://www. inside the quote marks.sevenhills.. like this: 18 . if you want to link to your own pages from your home page. Before you try this. you should see the cursor change into a pointing hand. if you would like to link to our site. be certain any file you want to create a local url link to is in the same directory as the page you are editing. your browser will simply display this page again. you would place our url. You should see the url for this page. (In most cases. you will end up at our home page.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> Which gives us this link: Linking to Other Pages If you click on this link right now. If you have all of your files in the same directory. let's create a link to this particular page.sevenhills. If you click on the link from the first example.sevenhills. Look in your location box near the top of your web browser. Great isn't it? Now. it will be) Now. you can just use the filename. Our url is http://www. which means we are using the complete address to every page we are creating a link to.sevenhills.htm .. you may use a shortcut called a "local url".com/index1. so to create a link to us. rather than typing the full url inside the tag. This will work for any page because we are using the absolute url.com">goto Sevenhills</A> It will show up on your page like this: goto Sevenhills See how the text was colorized and underlined? In most cases.

Typing in the full address will allow the link to work no matter where it is located on the internet. always use the absolute url.<A HREF="linking. but we didn't have to write as much. If you would like to see some related tutorials. Linking to Other Pages If you aren't sure or have doubts.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> This will create the same link we just did. try one of these: Changing the Link Color Using an Image as a Link Linking Within the Same Page 19 .

you will probably want to convert them to . This can be done with most image editing programs. I would type: <IMG SRC="next.com/images/next.disney.disney. like this: 20 .gif"> The filename does not have to end with .jpg . have you been wondering how to add an image to your page? Well. You could also use a .jpg"> If you aren't sure.jpg"> Otherwise.gif"> The IMG stands for image.com/images/next.jpg".jpg file as well. like this: <IMG SRC="http://www. If you have images in other file formats.jpg . you would use this url as the image source: <IMG SRC="http://www.Adding Images to Your Page How to place images on your page So. Most often. Now. if your image is located at http://www. aligned to the left.gif or . go ahead and use the full address just to be sure it will work correctly. The address for the image is: http://www.gif. The SRC stands for source. These are the two most common image file extensions used on the internet.com/pictures/image.sevenhills. One image I have on this site is called "next. like this: <IMG SRC="image.sevenhills.jpg"> Either option would display the image on the page. So. Now let's work with a real example. I would use the full internet address. The source of the image is going to be the net address of the image.jpg . if your images are in a directory other than the one your html document is in.com/pictures/image. let's take a look at the image tag: <IMG SRC="image. If my image and html file were in the same directory. you will want to link to it using the full address of the image. you will be able to just type the filename of the image here.

Here is an example. check out one of these related tutorials: Aligning Images and Wrapping Text Using an Image as a Link Using a Background Image Resizing an Image Using Image "alt" Commands Image Alignment/Wrapping Text How to wrap text around an image To allow text to wrap around an image.. or the image may not show up./images/next. Now. this doesn't give us everything we could possibly want..If you want to center the image on the page. rather than jumping to the bottom of the image. Hmmm. this text should wrap around<br> this image like this.. Be sure to use the correct case in your image tags.jpg" and "IMAGE...I think this image is in the way.JPG" are considered two different images to the web browser.sevenhills. the filename or address of the image IS case sensitive.com/images/next. so "image.<br> 21 . you just need to add one of these commands to the image tag: align="left" align="right" So. like this: <CENTER> <IMG SRC="http://www.jpg"> </CENTER> This will place the image in the center of the screen: Keep in mind.jpg" align="left"> Hello.<br> <IMG SRC=".. and that's no fun. but it will allow you to add an image to your page on its own line. you would place the CENTER tag around the image tag. the image tag would look like this: <IMG SRC="next. If you want to see more on using images.jpg" align="left"> Now just type in your text and it will wrap around the image.

but now it is a visual image.. you would go ahead and type the opening link tag. "next. what did I do? Well. 1. Using an Image as a Link How to link an image To use an image as a link.sevenhills.I'll just keep on writing and<br> writing and writing and writing<br> until I'm tired of writing. if you wanted to link to our main page. The image we are using here is "next.I think this image is in the way.. remember my trusty old picture.com"> <IMG SRC="next. first. it will operate the same way as a normal link.. so that the image tag is between the opening and closing link tags. now we are going to close the link tag at the end of the image tag. Hello. How to add an image to the page. like this: <A HREF="http://www. this text should wrap around this image like this..sevenhills.jpg"> </A> Now that the image is between the link tags. like this: <A HREF="http://www..jpg"? I have been using it at the bottom of each page as a link to the next section. So.jpg". How to create a link. 2. you would type the following: <A HREF="http://www. Now. So. So. and don't close the tag just yet.. you will have to use two things you have already learned..jpg"> OK. don't type any text.... What we are going to do is place the image tag right after the opening link tag. I'll just keep on writing and writing and writing and writing until I'm tired of writing..com"> <IMG SRC="next. Here is what the above code would produce: 22 .com"> Now.<br> This will give you the following: Hmmm. you must create a link to the place you want people to go when they click on the picture.sevenhills.

the border just seems to be added by default on most browsers.Move the mouse over the image. you will end up all the way back at our main page.com"> <IMG SRC="next. but what's with the border around the image? Well. that's good. If you click on the image. add this command to the image tag: border="0" Here is an example: <A HREF="http://www. just use a larger number in there. To get rid of it. and you won't have the extra border around the sides: You can also make the border larger in the same way. and sometimes this isn't the color you want to use.jpg" border="0"> </A> Now. Well.sevenhills. the picture will be a link. 23 . and it will turn into the little pointing hand. for instance: Border="5" The drawback to the border is that it insists on being the color of your link color. and then set the border="0" in your image tag. The only way I know around it is to edit the actual image to where it has the border you want.

I place the text "next" in the alt command. you will probably have to disable image loading and reload this page. You can then scroll down to the bottom right and see the word "next" where the image used to be. One image I do this with is my "next. Here is the example: <IMG SRC="next. this is a handy way to let people know what the image was supposed to do. 24 . or in the case they have image loading turned off to so pages will load faster. Of course. This is the alt command: alt="something you want to write" Place this inside the image tag: <IMG SRC="image. and that is what will be seen if someone sees the page with no images.gif" alt="something you want to write"> You place this command inside the image tag for the image you want to display alternate text for. if you have a really new browser.Using Image "alt" Commands An alternative to the picture Okay. If you have images as links. you can move your mouse over the image and it will display the alt text right there for you.jpg" alt="next"> To see this work. the image alt command is used to display text in the case someone visits your page with a browser that can't show images.jpg" image at the bottom of these pages.

Here is an example: <PRE> x=1. This is useful when you have to post programming code. but there are other times you may wish to use them. </PRE> And this somewhat redundant code gives you this: x=1. if (x==1) y=2. and the Netscape only <BLINK> tag. The <PRE> Tag The <PRE> tag is used when you want to keep the same amount of whitespace on your web page as you have in your html code in your text editor. <NOBR>. <PRE>. y=2. y=2. <SUB> and <SUP> These tags are used to place a number or words slightly above or below your normal text. 25 . The <SUB> tag works like this: Area<SUB>1</SUB> The result is this: Area1 And the <SUP> tag allows you to use exponents if you need to: X<SUP>2</SUP> + Y<SUP>2</SUP> = 0 And this gives you: X2 + Y2 = 0 These two tags are most useful if you are writing mathematical equations and such on your page.Some Extra Text Tags There are a few more tags you might like to try while you are creating your pages. The tags I will be talking about in this section are <SUB>. <WBR>. <SUP>. if (x==1) y=2.

If you are using Netscape you can see the following reason why viewers get annoyed by this tag: 26 . This can save you some headaches from writing in line breaks and spaces manually so often. even after reaching the end of someone's browser window. this is the tag everyone has been complaining about. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long The <BLINK> Tag Yes. like this: I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. When viewed on your web page. inside the <PRE> tags. You can use the <WBR> tag inside the NOBR tags to force a line break if you want or need to do so. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long Unless you had a monitor with some pretty high resolution. this will be one really long line. you probably had to scroll to the right to see the end of that line. like this: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long <WBR> long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. </NOBR> Now you will have two lines that are not quite as long (though still pretty long in 640x480): I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. <NOBR> and <WBR> Any text you place between the <NOBR> and the </NOBR> tags will not break to the next line.Notice how we didn't need to use <BR> or &nbsp. Here is an example: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long </NOBR> this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time.

.. Just avoid the +10 font size.LOOK AT ME NOW!!!!!! If you have IE.Here is an example: This rule is <BLINK>very</BLINK> important! This gives you the following: This rule is very important! 27 . you won't see the text blink. it can help point out important things you want people to see. but you can get the general idea. if the tag is used in a better way. Actually..

.. unless you look at the page source code. you can leave yourself notes so that you don't forget something when you come back later to redesign the page. you begin with a less than sign (<) followed directly by an exclaimation point (!) and two dashes (--). how is it done? To write a comment. In this way.I am a comment. --> You can comment on multiple lines. To end the comment. So. The only way to view comments is to look at the source (html) code of the web page. you use two dashes (--) followed directly by a greater than sign (>).Adding HTML Comments Using comments in your html code Comments can be a nice way to help yourself when you are coding your web page. After this.gif" align="right" alt="Look at my Kitty Cat!"> 28 . I feel invisible though. you type in your coments. and have alt text --> <IMG SRC="mypet. --> To look at something more useful. Comments are invisible to a web browser when it displays your web page. you could use a comment to remind yourself that a section of code is supposed to perform a certain task: <!-.This image should be aligned to the right. just be sure you remember to end the comment! <!-You can't see me. <!-..

Also.Using HTML Lists How to add an HTML list to your page Have you been wanting to add lists to your page? Well. Now. Here is a sample of indenting further into the page: <UL> <UL> <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> </UL> </UL> This will give us the following indented list:   I am item one I am item two Be careful about using the <CENTER> tag around your lists. 29 .. let's use an unordered list. If each list item is not the same length. followed by your text.yep. The opening tag is <UL>. This will create a list with bullets next to the list items. you use the <LI> tag... as long as you remember to close every one of them.</UL>. you guessed it. Item two is much shorter! Item three is somewhere in between. to set off each item in your list. For starters. here is the way to add those html lists to your web pages. the list is indented somewhat from the rest of the text. You can indent further by adding more <UL> tags.. you will get more of a mess than a straight list: • • • This is item one.. how nice it is to be number one. and the closing tag is. To begin. we need a tag to begin and end the entire list. Here is a sample list with two list items: <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> This will give us the bulleted list below: • • I am item one I am item two Notice the <LI> tags do not require a closing tag...

If you really need the list further in on the page. You can also use an ordered list in the same way you use the unordered list. Item 1 2. or you can try using a Table to align the text instead. use the indention method above until it hits the center of the screen (this can mess up in different screen resolutions. you would use <OL> </OL>. Item 2 3. like this: <OL> <LI>Item 1 <LI>Item 2 <LI>Item 3 </OL> This gives you a numbered list rather than the bulleted list: 1. though). Instead of using <UL> </UL>. Item 3 30 .

The default setting varies with your browser. The default setting for text color is black. bgcolor="color" This changes the background color of your page. Below is a brief explaination of each attribute. Here is what a body tag with serveral additions would look like: <BODY bgcolor="black" text="red" link="yellow" alink="orange" vlink="white" background="image. click here. You can set this to any color you would like to use..) So here we go. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. (If you are moving through the tutorials in order.. You can set this to any color you would like to use. The options you don't use will be set to the web browser's default values. click here. For a list of common colors and hex codes. isn't it? Well.gif"> Pretty long tag. For a list of common colors and hex codes. You can set this to any color you would like to use. click here. we will eventually get to each one of these. text="color" This changes the default text color the browser will display on your page. For a list of common colors and hex codes. link="color" This changes the color of all of the non-visited links on your page. you can use as many or as few of these add-ons as you wish. but is usually gray or white. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. click here. with a link to the tutorial for each one. vlink="color" 31 . The default setting for a non-visited link is usually blue. alink="color" This changes the color of an active link on your page.. For a list of common colors and hex codes. which is a link that has just been clicked on by a user's mouse. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code.Using BODY Tag Attributes How to use body tag attributes to enhance your page When you create a web page. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. You can set this to any color you would like to use. you can change serveral things in the body of your document by adding extra commands to the <BODY> tag.

The default setting for a visited link is usually violet. It may look like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> Or the tag may have more commands inside and use hex codes. If you don't use a background image.gif" This adds a background image to your page. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. and add color your pages! 32 .This changes the color of a visited link on your page. the command may not be there at all. your page will have a green background. the browser will use your background color or its default background color. Using a Background Color Add or change the background color on your page If you want to use a background color on your page. add it by placing a space after the word BODY and then type the command. look for a command after the word BODY that says bgcolor="color" . If this is the case. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. background="image. like this: <BODY text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0" bgcolor="#808080"> And of course. click here. Once you have found the tag. You can set this to any color you would like to use. if you wanted to change the background color to green. you would type: <BODY bgcolor="green"> Or you could use the hex code for green: <BODY bgcolor="#008000"> After doing this. click here. Beautiful! Now just use any color you like in the command. just add it in like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> To change the background color. the background image will take the place of any background color you may have specified. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. For a list of common colors and hex codes. like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray" text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0"> Or if you don't have any other commands. replace the word gray inside the quote marks with a color name or a color hex code. If you use this attribute. So.

you may not see either of these. like this: <BODY bgcolor="blue" text="black"> Now. add it to your BODY tag like one of the examples above. add this one onto the end. Now. leaving a space after the previous command. if you'd like to change the color. If you don't have the extra command yet. So. you could use one of the following: Using a color name: <BODY text="red"> Or using a hex code: <BODY text="#FF0000"> 33 . For a list of some common color names and hex codes. look for the phrase text="" somewhere after the word BODY. like this: <BODY text="#000000"> Of course.Changing the Default Text Color How to change the default font color on your page Okay. to change your default text color in your HTML page. you will need to find your body tag. If you have other commands. click here. or you may be creating the page from scratch. You may have something like this: <BODY text="black"> You may also see a weird number/letter combination. replace the black between the quote marks with a color name or hex code. if you want to change the text color to red.

Now look for a command after the word BODY that says link="color". to change the link color. If so. click here. add the command after the word BODY. It would look like this: <BODY link="blue"> Or the tag might have some other commands as well: <BODY bgcolor="#000000" text="#FFFFFF" link="#0000FF"> You may also just have the word BODY with nothing else there. So. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. If you need to add the commands. you would type the following: <BODY link="red"> Or using the hex code: <BODY link="#FF0000"> Now. do the same as you did for the link color. if you would like to change the link color to red. you replace the word blue inside the quotes with a different color name or hex code. You can also do the same things for active and visited links by adding or editing their commands. like this: <BODY link="blue"> Now. Just place a space between each command. with a space between the two. The commands are: alink="color" vlink="color" For the active link color For the visited link color You might have: <BODY link="blue" alink="blue" vlink="violet"> To change the other colors. and add your colors! 34 . all the links on your page will be colored red rather than blue.Changing the Link Color How to change the link color on your page If you want to change the link color on your page. go ahead.

So.jpg"> 35 .sevenhills.com/image1. if we want image2. you will want to covert it to one of these file types. or you may see a string of commands afterward. if the image I want to use is at http://www. I could use the image by typing in just the filename. we are going to place the url of the image inside the quotation marks.gif"> Your image should have the file extension . The url for the image is http://www.Using a Background Image How to add a background image to your page To add a background image to your page. The name of the image is "next. If not. So.mysite. skip a space. I would type in this: <BODY background="http://www. It may look something like this: <BODY bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000"> What we are going to do is add a command after the word BODY. to use this as a background. we can type the command this way: <BODY background="image2.jpg"> Now. you can just type the filename of the image rather than the full url. One program that will do this is Paint Shop Pro. you may see just the word BODY.jpg". you will need to locate the <BODY> tag in your document.com/image1. So. and type the following: background=" " Now your body tag should look something like this (and may have more commands): <BODY background=" "> Now. So. I would insert this into the command.gif or .jpg .com/images/next.mysite. like this: <BODY background="http://www. I will use an image from my server as a background on a page.gif to be the background image.sevenhills.com/images/next. Now. like this: <BODY background="next.jpg . if I put an html file in my "images" directory.gif . if your image file is located in the same directory as your html file. as a real example. go to the end of the word BODY.gif"> Now. When you have found it. and it is in the same directory as the page we are editing. which is available as shareware from JASC.

Well. All I need to do is know the original width and height of my image.jpg" width="75" height="40"> Now. the picture will be the new height and width I specified. IMG SRC="next. to change the size of the image.jpg". Maybe the image takes up the whole screen. when I reload my page. The tag will now look like this: <IMG SRC="next. but it's just not the right size to go where you want it to go.jpg" width="300" height="200"> 36 . Let's take a look at an example. My image turns out to be 106 pixels wide and 65 pixels in height. I would then place these numbers into the commands. we will just insert larger numbers for the width and height: <IMG SRC="next. Well. to make the image larger.Resizing Images How to resize your images Okay. or maybe you wanted a larger version of the image on the screen. I have an image called "next. I'm going to place numbers inside those quotation marks.jpg" width=" " height=" "> Now. The width and height are usually written in pixels. let's say I wanted it to be 75 pixels wide and 40 pixels high. like this: <IMG SRC="next. suppose I want to make it smaller. A typical screen is about 800 pixels wide and 600 pixels in height (though this varies with different video cards and moniters). Here's what it would look like: Now.jpg". you can resize the image by adding width and height commands to your image tag. to make the image smaller. Well. I'm going to add these two commands inside the image tag: width=" " and height=" " I'm going to place the commands after the initial command. The picture looks like this: So. you have an image you want to use.

jpg" width="75" height="46"> Now it looks like this: If you don't want to deal with math all the time (like me). In this case. One reason for this is that I didn't keep the aspect ratio the same. you need to find the height that will make the ratio as close as possible to 1. or if you like solving equations. if I'm making the image smaller.0123 . you get about 1. if you want to make the width 75. You can guess at it for awhile.Now the image looks like this: As you can see. I would use 46 as the height: <IMG SRC="next. the images became somewhat distorted when I resized them. I usually use my image program to do this. When you calculate 106/65. here it is: 75/height = 1. So. I would have to decide on a width. the paint program will make the file size smaller 37 .63 Now take the answer and round up or down. Since the image was originally 106x65. and then find a height that would keep the aspect ratio of 106/65. you can also resize it with a paint or image program (which will do the calculations for you) and upload the new version of the picture to your server.63 . it comes out to about 46. So. just for the ease of use.63 . Besides.

... You can place one at the third paragraph.. or any other place Okay. go anywhere between the body tags and type this link: <A HREF="#top">Back to the Top</A> If you click on this link. the top. the bottom. middle. the way to do this is to use a named anchor. You can link to it from any other part of the page. Now. It can make navigating some pages a whole lot easier. Or maybe you want to divide it into sections and use a table of contents at the top. lets say you have one page that is pretty long. You can try one I made on this page by clicking on the link below: Back to top The # sign is there to let the browser know the destination is a named anchor within this page. Maybe you would like to give someone a way back to the top of the page when they are at the bottom. like this: <A NAME="cool"></A> -----The anchor name <A HREF="#cool">To the Cool Section of this page</A> section -----Linking to the named You can place a named anchor anyplace on your page. you will be sent back to the top of the page.Linking Within a Single Page Jump to the top. This just makes it easy to see where we are going to end up. you link to that anchor by using "#cool". 38 . but for now. the 500th word. You could link to any part of the page. let's say you want to create a link to the top of your page. To do this. Now type the following tag: <A NAME="top"></A> You can place any name you wish inside the quotes. go to the top of the body section (right after the body tag). if you create an anchor named "cool". which is a specific area of your page you want to make a link to. So. Well.

with my e-mail address already filled in. your browser will bring up a window for you to send me email. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills. Mail Me! 39 . You do this by adding a "?" at the end of your e-mail address and then your subject. you will use your e-mail address rather than a web address... I would place info@sevenhills. To force the browser to read it as an e-mail link. notice that when you click it. After the "mailto:".The E-mail Link How to create an email link To create an e-mail link on your page.your e-mail address.com?subject=Enquiry">Mail Me!</A> The example link is below.com">Give me some mail!</A> Here is the resulting link: Give me some mail! If you click on the link.. like this: <A HREF="mailto:your_email_address">E-mail Me!</A> Yes.maybe your joke of the day or something! You can also create the subject of the message so the viewer doesn't have to fill in something in the subject line. the subject field of your email message is already filled in with "Enquiry". Send me whatever you want. Here is an example. all you need to do is use the standard link tag. to create an email link to myself. all you need to do is replace the your_email_address with .com in that space.. The trick is in what you use as the address of the link. you use "mailto:" rather than "http://" to begin the address. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills.

com. you add them in using an "&" sign at the end of the first command.com"> Mail Me</A> If you want all three.com"> Mail Me</A> Now. you can send the copies to multiple addresses by separating them with commas: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com"> Mail Me</A> With either of these.com"> Mail Me</A> The same goes for a blind carbon copy.com? subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend.The E-mail Link: More More tricks for the email link we saw how to add the subject to a message through the e-mail link.and if you run a site with a partner you can both get an e-mail when someone uses that link. there are a couple of extras you can also add. or use a combination of the subject with either or both of these.com?bcc=friend@friend. It was done using a "question mark" followed by subject= and then the subject: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. if you want a subject and a blind carbon copy. a blind carbon copy recipient.com?bcc=friend@friend.com?cc=friend@friend. other@other. you can have some more fun with your e-mail links-.com?subject=Hi">Mail Me</A> On top of adding the subject.com"> Mail Me</A> With that. it would look like this: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. if you want to combine more than one of these commands after the question mark.com?subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend. use the "&" sign again: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. For instance. You can add a carbon copy recipient. 40 . followed by the e-mail address of the person you want to send the carbon copy to: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com&cc=other@other. To send a carbon copy. you add the cc= command after the question mark. except you use the bcc= command instead: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.

colspan: This specifies the number of columns this particular column occupies. <td> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a column. and <td>. cellpadding: The amount padding between cells and the each cell wall in a table. Columns are specified within each row. Example 1 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> 41 . Border: This specifies whether the table will have a border. 100%). rowspan: This specifies the number of rows this particular row occupies. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this table. <tr>.HTML Table This section lists the tags often used with HTML tables: <table>. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this row: • • • bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this row. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. 50%). The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this table: • • • • • Width: This specifies the width of the table. The number indicates the thickness of the border. <table> The <table> tag specifies the presence of a table. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. The areas enclosed by the cell walls are the maximum amount of area that text can be displayed in a cell. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this column: • • • • valign: Width: This specifies the width of the column. <tr> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a row. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this column. This is very often used in conjunction with the <tr> and the <td> tags. cellspacing: The amount spacing between the cell wall and the cell border. Height: This specifies the height of the row. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code.

<tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 2 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr><td width=200>Element 1</td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 3 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr bgcolor=red><td width=200><b>Element 1</b></td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td bgcolor=55ff55>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td><i>Element 6</i></td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 4 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td colspan=2>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 2 Element 3 Element 4 Element 5 42 .

43 . HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 7: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=0> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 6: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes.Example 5: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 HTML Frame This section introduces the tags related to HTML frames: <frameset> and <frame>.

rows="40%.html"> <frame src="frame3. The attributes include: • Cols: Specifies the number of columns. as well as the width of each column. For example. marginheight: The margin on the top and bottom of the frame. the first row occupies 40% of the available space. the first column occupies 30% of the available space. Note that search engines typically do not like the use of the frames. Note that you may embed a frameset within another frameset.html"> </frameset> <frameset rows="50%. • <frame> The <frame> tag specifies the properties within a particular frame. Therefore. Rows: Specifies the number of rows.50%"> <frameset rows="100%"> <frame src="frame1. while the second column occupies 70% of the available space. while the second row occupies 60% of the available space.50%"> <frame src="frame2. Scrolling: This attribute specifies whether users may scroll up and down within this frame. please consider using the frame feature carefully. marginwidth: The margin on the left and right side of the frame.html"> </frameset> </frameset> 44 . For example. The possible values are {yes|no|auto}. as well as the width of each row. Example 1 HTML: <frameset cols="50%.70%" means that there will be two columns. noresize: This attribute specifies whether users may resize the frame.<frameset> The <frameset> tag specifies the number of columns/rows on a frame. The attributes include: • • • • • src: This attribute specifies the HTML document source. cols="30%. 60%" means that there will be two rows.

data is typically passed as a keyvalue pair. separated by '&'.xyz. and its value is 'title'. How are key-value pair specified? They are specified by the <form> tag.. This is shown below: The following list gives the most common ways for users to specify the value: • • • • Text input Radio button Checkbox Drop-down menu 45 . On the web. <input type=submit> gives a button that the user clicks when she is ready to submit the information..HTML Forms Forms are used in HTML to pass data.. [section specifying the value for each key] . The key for the second key-value pair is 'd'.. and the value is '1'. the following URL: http://www. The key for the first key-value pair is 'c'. For example. <input type=submit value=Go> </form> The text after action= specifies the script to be executed after the user submits the information. The general format is as follows: <form action=xxx> . in this case 'Go'.com/example?c=1&d=title has two separate key-value pairs. The value=Go piece specifies the text appearing on the button.

The texts typed do not appear directly on the web page. The syntax is <textarea rows= [row height] name=area>. the key for this password input is 'pwd'. we get a multi-lin text book to enter data. with [row height] = 2: Text area example: 46 . There are three common types of text input: • Text: In this type of input. Below is an example. Here. The syntax is <input type=text name=c>. Below is an example: Text example: • þÿ Password: In this type of input. The key for this textarea input is 'area'. Here. we get a single-line text box to enter data. The syntax is <input type=password name=pwd>. the key for this text input value is 'c'. The texts typed appear directly on the web page. we get a single-line text box to enter data. The texts typed appear directly on the web page. Below is an example: Text example: • Textbox: In this type of input.Text Input One way users can enter data into a HTML document is via text. The most common scenario is when users have to enter a username and password to enter a site.

or blue. Radio buttons are used when you want users to be able to select one and only one of the options. green. depending on the radio button selected. If we want to pre-select a radio button. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag. Below is an example: Code: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case. such as follows: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> 47 . and the values can be either red.Radio Button A second type of input is the radio button. the key is color.

depending on the check box(es) selected.Checkbox Another type of input is the check box. If we want to pre-select a check box. the key is color. the "color" key will then have multiple values. and the values can be either red. or blue. green. we'll specify "checked" at the end of the <input> tag. If multiple check boxes are checked. Check boxes are used when you want users to be able to select more than one of the options. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" checked>Red<br> 48 . Below is an example: Code: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case.

depending on the item selected. <select name=color multiple> þÿ 49 .. i. the key is color.Drop Down Menu Drop down menu is another common way to specify input data. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag.e. For example. selecting a state is often done via a drop down menu. green. Users can select one or more items in a drop-down menu. Below is an example for a single-selection drop down menu: Code: <select name=color> <option value="red">Red</option> <option value="green">Green</option> <option value="blue">Blue</option> þÿ In this case. or blue. If we want to pre-select a check box. and the values can be either red. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> If we want to select multiple items. we specify "multiple" at the end of the <select> tag.

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