HTML

Sevenhills Pvt. Ltd.,

Contents at a Glance
HTML 1 HTML BASICS................................................................................................................4 A QUICK LOOK AT NOTEPAD AND WEB BROWSERS......................................................................4 TAGS & ATTRIBUTES....................................................................................................7 HTML TAGS.....................................................................................................................7

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HTML: BASIC FORMAT..................................................................................................8 THE TEXT TAGS...........................................................................................................10 HOW TO USE HTML TAGS TO MANIPULATE YOUR TEXT...............................................................10 HEADINGS AND PARAGRAPHS.................................................................................12 USING HEADINGS, PARAGRAPHS, AND LINE BREAKS..................................................................12 MANIPULATING FONT SIZE AND COLOR..................................................................15 HOW TO CHANGE FONT SIZES AND COLORS ..............................................................................15 SPECIAL CHARACTERS..............................................................................................17 HOW TO USE SPECIAL CHARACTERS IN HTML..........................................................................17 LINKING TO OTHER PAGES.......................................................................................18 HOW TO LINK TO OTHER PAGES IN HTML ..............................................................................18 ADDING IMAGES TO YOUR PAGE..............................................................................20 HOW TO PLACE IMAGES ON YOUR PAGE ..................................................................................20 Image Alignment/Wrapping Text.....................................................21 USING AN IMAGE AS A LINK..................................................................................................22 USING IMAGE "ALT" COMMANDS............................................................................................24 An alternative to the picture ..........................................................24 SOME EXTRA TEXT TAGS....................................................................................................25 <SUB> and <SUP>......................................................................25 The <PRE> Tag............................................................................25 <NOBR> and <WBR>...................................................................26 The <BLINK> Tag.........................................................................26 ADDING HTML COMMENTS........................................................................................28 USING HTML LISTS......................................................................................................29 USING BODY TAG ATTRIBUTES................................................................................31 USING A BACKGROUND COLOR...............................................................................32 CHANGING THE DEFAULT TEXT COLOR..................................................................33 CHANGING THE LINK COLOR....................................................................................34 USING A BACKGROUND IMAGE................................................................................35 RESIZING IMAGES.......................................................................................................36 LINKING WITHIN A SINGLE PAGE..............................................................................38 THE E-MAIL LINK.........................................................................................................39 THE E-MAIL LINK: MORE............................................................................................40 HTML TABLE ...............................................................................................................41 <table>......................................................................................41 <tr>...........................................................................................41 <td>..........................................................................................41 HTML FRAME...............................................................................................................43

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HTML FORMS...............................................................................................................45 TEXT INPUT......................................................................................................................46 RADIO BUTTON.................................................................................................................47 CHECKBOX.......................................................................................................................48 DROP DOWN MENU...........................................................................................................49

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HTML Basics
Webpages are written in HTML - a simple scripting language. HTML is short for HyperText Markup Language. • Hypertext is simply a piece of text that works as a link. • Markup Language is a way of writing layout information within documents.

Basically an HTML document is a plain text file that contains text and nothing else. When a browser opens an HTML file, the browser will look for HTML codes in the text and use them to change the layout, insert images, or create links to other pages. Since HTML documents are just text files they can be written in even the simplest text editor. A more popular choice is to use a special HTML editor - maybe even one that puts focus on the visual result rather than the codes - a so-called WYSIWYG editor ("What You See Is What You Get"). Some of the most popular HTML editors, such as FrontPage or Dreamweaver will let you create pages more or less as you write documents in Word or whatever text editor you're using.

A quick look at Notepad and Web Browsers
Using HTML you will want to familiarize yourself with the software you will be using. So, to get started, open Notepad (or your text editor). You should see a completely blank page. Now, type in the text below. We will make use of it later with the web browser. Type the following: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Test Page</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Hi there, you have just written your first web page! </BODY> </HTML> Once you have finished, go to the "File" menu and click on "Save As”. This will prompt you to create a name for your file. In the box, type in test.htm. At the

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Click on the down arrow on the right side of the input box. in the location box (where you manually type urls). If someone with a Mac would like to write up something in more detail about this (as I don't have a Mac).bottom of the prompt you should see a space that says "Save file as Type" or "Save as Type". Be careful not to save it just yet though if you are using Windows. You can use this routine each time you create a new HTML file. as shown in the image below: If you have a Mac. You should be able to hit OK and get a blank page. start up your web browser. The text was enlarged so you could see the part we are interested in at this point. If you are given an option to connect to the internet. So. You may also see an error saying the browser could not connect to "http://somepage.htm. Now you will want to use your web browser to view the file you just created. Something similar to the methods above should work for you.*). then select the plain text file type (usually shown as Text Documents.txt). the way to do this will depend on your text editor.txt. If you do not get the option to save the file as the type All Files (*.html" or something similar. Windows will save it as test.txt by default. You should see something similar to the picture below: This is an example using Windows 95. you would type the following: c:\myfiles\test. To get around this. you will need to place quote marks around the filename. You should be able to highlight All Files (*. Now. type in the path to your html file. so you will need to change it. The default is . and click on "Save". Now you may choose the drive and directory to save to. feel free to send it to me. If the file is on a floppy disk. Text Files (*. you can cancel the connection and you will likely end up with a blank page. you can type 5 . or something similar in the dialogue box). If you have the file in a directory called "myfiles".*).htm. Click on this to make the change.

Most browsers will display the page when you hit enter. provided you did not place it in another directory on the disk. you have just written your first web page! 6 . To use this. Click this option and you will be able to browse for your file and open it from there. ”Open File". is to use the "Open Page" option. you will see something like the following: Hi there. go to the "File" menu in your web browser. or a similar phrase.a:\test. "Open Local File". especially if you hate typing paths all day. Another option you have.htm. The image below shows where this can be found in Internet Explorer: Once the page is displayed. Look for an option that says "Open Page".

In HTML.. we will introduce the notion of tags and attributes.HTML tag codes are case-insensitive. Opera.. and is geared towards document display over the World Wide Web. In fact. Mozilla. HTML documents can be viewed in browsers such as Internet Explorer. Attributes Attributes are associated with each tag to further define the tags.Tags & Attributes HTML Tags HTML stands for (H)yper(T)ext (M)arkup (L)anguage. you may think of this tutorial as an introduction to the tags that are commonly used in writing HTML. > A couple of other notes before we dive into the tutorial: .Many browsers will ignore badly-formed HTML documents. and Safari. it is often okay to have a tag without the corresponding closing tag. On this page. each tag has its own specific meaning. . 7 . The general syntax is as follows: <tag attribute 1 = "value" attribute 2 = "value" . In other words. It has certain tags and attributes defined. which is (in general) common across all different browsers. Tags Tags are elements of the HTML document used to specify how the document should be displayed by the browser.

you must use a closing tag. This is called an opening tag. <U>. So: <U> Underline Me! </U> Is the same as: <U>Underline Me!</U> Is the same as: <U> Underline Me! </U> A basic HTML file will have the format below. which will place an image on the page. a horizontal line: <HR>. You would place this before the text you want to underline. Read through and see if you can guess what the different tags will do: (Don't worry. this is just an example of a tag that requires no closing tag to follow it. <P> is the same as <p>.HTML: Basic Format Now we are able to start learning about HTML tags. which begins the operation you wish to perform. An HTML tag will always begin with a "less than" sign. if you would like to underline the phrase "HTML Rules!". Other examples would be a line break: <BR>. I will explain all the extra stuff later. An example would be the image tag. and a paragraph: <P>. The tags will end with a "greater than" sign. like this: </U>. you would write the following in your text editor: <U>HTML Rules!</U> The result of this would be: HTML Rules! Not all tags will require a closing tag. you do not need to capitalize the tags. 8 . go through and find the pairs of opening and closing tags. but will have a forward slash before the command. to make sense of this. An example would be the tag used to underline text. In order to end the underlining. You can also use as much space between things as you like. So. It looks like this: <IMG SRC="myimage. This signals the beginning of an HTML file.) <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>I Love HTML</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Everything displayed on your page will be in here. like this: >. like this: <.gif">. I'll explain them at the end of the example. The first one we see is <HTML>. A closing tag will always be the same as the opening tag. Also. </BODY> </HTML> Okay.

The browser would display this: Everything displayed on your page will be in here. As you might have guessed. This opens a section in which you can title your page. To end your title. it signals the end of the HTML document. use </BODY>. the only part of the HEAD section we will deal with is the TITLE. The next tag we see is the <HEAD> tag. Yuck. The section ends with the </HEAD> tag. images) should be between these two tags. is at the very end of the document. The <BODY> tag opens the section that will be displayed in the web browser. in the example.The closing tag . as they are the beginning and end of your page. let's go to the next tutorial and see if we can add a little life to our page of text. Well. The title is only used for bookmarks. the title is "I Love HTML" (That's not true all the time. All we have is a line of text aligned to the left of the screen. 9 . and add other descriptive information to the page. To end the body section. Everything (tags. and as the name of the browser window. text. search engines. though). The <TITLE> tag allows you to create a title for your page. which brings us to the next tag. This is where most of our work will be done. It will not show up on your web page unless you type it in the BODY section (explained below). use keywords. At this time. The above example makes a rather boring web page (even worse than the one in the previous tutorial). </HTML>. For instance. use the </TITLE> tag.

The Text Tags How to use HTML tags to manipulate your text To start making our text appear in different ways. working from inside out will help you see your code better.like this: <B><I>I am bold AND Italic.and remember to close both tags afterwards.. just place both opening tags before the text.. Let's say you wanted something in bold and italics. Example: <B>Howdy</B> This will show up on your page like this: Howdy Here are a few more to start working with: <U></U> Underline text <U>Underline Me!</U> Underline Me! <I></I> Italics <I>Isn't this fun?</I> Isn't this fun? <STRIKE></STRIKE> <STRIKE>You're Out!</STRIKE> You're Out! <CENTER></CENTER> <CENTER>This centers text on the page</CENTER> This centers text on the page Having fun yet? You can also use more than one tag at a time. and will help when the order does matter! (such as placing the 10 . which makes me cool!</I></B> This will show up like this: I am bold AND Italic. which makes me cool! Does the order of the tags make a difference? In this case... To do this. Let's start by giving you some tags to work with: <B></B> This is the tag for bold text... it wouldn't matter which way you opened and closed the tags.. However.

Anything you place between the <CENTER> and </CENTER> tags will be centered on the page. Use the <CENTER> tag. while not being affected by the bold or italics tags! Now let's use the center tag from above. Since the default alignment of everything is to the left. So lets try three things: Bold. Here's another way to look at working inside out.but the underline remained open until the end of the exclamation. and underline! <B><I><U>Would you stop tagging me!</B></I></U> This will give us: Would you stop tagging me! But this: <U><I><B>Would you stop</B></I>tagging me!</U> would give us this! Would you stop tagging me! As you can see. Italic..</HTML> tag before the </BODY> tag). I could write the HTML this way: <B> <I> I am bold AND Italic. it's nice to have a way to place things in the center of the page. The effect ends when each one of those tags is closed by it's closing tag. So let's do just that.. the bold and italics were closed before the word "tagging". All you need to remember is that the text you have written is affected by every tag before it that has not been closed. Here is an example: <CENTER>I'm in the middle!</CENTER> This will give us the following: I'm in the middle! You can also use it with one or more of the other tags above.. like this: <CENTER><B><I>Look at me now!</I></B></CENTER> Look at me now! 11 . This caused the "tagging me!" portion to be underlined. which makes me cool! </I> </B> This could get rather tedious.

</H5> Smaller Still.</H6> You must have good vision.Headings and Paragraphs Using Headings.. When you insert this tag in your document... Now let's move on to a line break. Here is an example: End this line now!!<BR>Thanks! This will generate the following: End this line now!! Thanks! Basically. a line break is like hitting the "enter" key when you are writing text. the contents will go to the next line. The <BR> tag does not need a closing tag afterward. and Line Breaks These tags are good for creating titles or section headings. Paragraphs. <H6>You must have good vision.. The tag for a line break is <BR>. or sees a tag that will 12 .. Here are some examples: <H1>Large Heading!</H1> will give us: Large Heading! <H2>Heading 2</H2> Heading 2 <H3>Heading 3</H3> Heading 3 <H4>Getting Small</H4> Getting Small <H5>Smaller Still. I think you get the idea here.... The browser will not go to the next line until it runs out of space. Okay.

I want a new line. To make the text move to the next line. Now.K. Is this cool or what? The paragraph tag does not require a closing tag. This tag is good for skipping a line quickly and for knowing where you wanted a new paragraph to begin. but if you'd like to add one for your own reference. I want a new line. <P> This is a new paragraph. <BR> This is the next line. This gives us: Hello. So typing the following in your text editor will display only one line of text in the browser: Hello. This tag will skip a vertical space after going to the next line. This is the next line. Is this cool or what? This will give us the following: This is some cool stuff. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! </P> <P> 13 . you place a </P> where you would like the paragraph to end. I want a new line. as though you had typed <BR> twice. How about an example? Well.: This is some cool stuff. use your <BR> tag from above: Hello. <P>. let's move on to the paragraph tag.force it to the next line. Now this will do what we wanted it to do: Hello. O.<BR> I want<BR> a new line. This is a new paragraph.

.<BR> and the end.. Both of these will give you this: This paragraph needs a visual ending! Here is a new paragraph. 14 .. </P> This will give you the same thing as using just the opening <P> tags.<BR> and the end....Here is a new paragraph.. and the end. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! <P> Here is a new paragraph...

sign in front of it. you can make the font smaller in the same way. You can use the tag with a +2.Manipulating Color Font Size and How to change font sizes and colors now we want to see how to change the font size. I'm Small!</FONT> Will give us this: Hey. using the . like this: <FONT SIZE="+2">I'm a big sentence now!</FONT> This will give us the following: I'm a big sentence now! Likewise. So let's say you wanted to make the font larger.sign: <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey. I'm Small! Here are some more size examples for you: <FONT SIZE="+4">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+3">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There 15 . This is done with the following tag: <FONT SIZE="x">text to change</FONT> "x" will be replaced by a number with a + or .

you can use the SIZE and COLOR declarations inside the same tag.<FONT SIZE="-1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-3">Can you read this?</FONT> Can you read this? Now. two F's and four zeros. Now suppose you want to change the size AND the color. This is done in much the same way. Usually it's easier to remeber the color names. click here . The hexidecimal representation begins with a # sign and is followed by six letters and/or numbers. you can use two FONT tags and remember to close them both. Here is the tag: <FONT COLOR="color"> We replace the word color with a color name or the hexidecimal color value. To do this. Here is the example: <FONT COLOR="#FF0000">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! That is a # sign. This is done like this: <FONT SIZE="+2" COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT> I am gold! 16 . suppose you want to change the font color. If you want to see a sample list of color names and hex codes. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2"><FONT COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT></FONT> I am gold! Also. and close only one tag. Let's do one using the color name to begin: <FONT COLOR="red">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! Now let's use the hexidecimal value for red. but you may want to have the hex code for more complicated colors.

and 4 additional spaces between the two words. let's say you wanted to place an extra space between two words. Here is what you would do: Hello &nbsp. have you been wondering how to add an extra space on your page. like this: Hello &nbsp. reference.&nbsp.&nbsp. but after that additional spaces will make no difference-.you will only see one space in the browser. and end with a semicolon (.. The reference for a copyright symbol is &copy. You use it the same way as an extra space. will be followed by some text or numbers. like this: Hello there! The first space is added just using the "space" bar on the keyboard. It will be displayed like this: Hello There! The other one we will discuss is the copyright symbol. for a total of five spaces.&nbsp.there! This gives us two spaces between "Hello" and "there!". reference. by placing its reference where you would like to see the symbol on the page. You can add as many spaces as you would like by repeating the &nbsp.Special Characters How to use special characters in HTML So. The web browser will see the first space. where you would like to add the extra space. or how to get a copyright symbol to show up? Then let's see how right now! Special characters are placed on your page by using a special reference to the character you want to use.There! This will create the first space. By adding the &nbsp. you place the reference &nbsp. Here's an example: This page Copyright &copy. So as an example. The reference will begin with an ampersand (&). we forced the browser to add an extra space between the two words. To do this.) . 1999 by me! This page Copyright © 1999 by me! 17 .

Great isn't it? Now. just type in the address for your page inside the link tag. like this: 18 . which is http://www.com/index1. you can just use the filename. Before you try this. be certain any file you want to create a local url link to is in the same directory as the page you are editing.sevenhills. The </A> is the closing tag. if you would like to link to our site.htm . You should see the url for this page.sevenhills. As another example.sevenhills.com">Display Text</A> The A stands for anchor. insert this url into the link tag: <A HREF="http://www..sevenhills. Our url is http://www..sevenhills.Linking to Other Pages How to link to other pages in HTML let's start out by seeing what tag we use for linking: <A HREF="http://www. or net address.com">goto Sevenhills</A> It will show up on your page like this: goto Sevenhills See how the text was colorized and underlined? In most cases. inside the quote marks.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> Which gives us this link: Linking to Other Pages If you click on this link right now. you should see the cursor change into a pointing hand.. you may use a shortcut called a "local url". this will indicate the text is a link. let's create a link to this particular page. place this command on the page where you would like the link to show up: <A HREF="http://www. The text between the tags is what will show up on your web page as a link. So. If you click on the link from the first example.com/index1. If you move your mouse over the link. and the HREF=" " is asking for a location to link to. so to create a link to us. your browser will simply display this page again. Look in your location box near the top of your web browser. you will end up at our home page. To create the link. it will be) Now. if you want to link to your own pages from your home page. rather than typing the full url inside the tag. This will work for any page because we are using the absolute url..com. (In most cases. which means we are using the complete address to every page we are creating a link to. you would place our url. If you have all of your files in the same directory. The mouse attribute comes in handy when a page has a whole lot of underlined text.

Typing in the full address will allow the link to work no matter where it is located on the internet. but we didn't have to write as much. If you would like to see some related tutorials. always use the absolute url. try one of these: Changing the Link Color Using an Image as a Link Linking Within the Same Page 19 .htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> This will create the same link we just did. Linking to Other Pages If you aren't sure or have doubts.<A HREF="linking.

you will probably want to convert them to . I would use the full internet address.com/pictures/image. So. like this: <IMG SRC="image. you would use this url as the image source: <IMG SRC="http://www.Adding Images to Your Page How to place images on your page So. if your image is located at http://www. let's take a look at the image tag: <IMG SRC="image.gif. If my image and html file were in the same directory.com/images/next. These are the two most common image file extensions used on the internet. if your images are in a directory other than the one your html document is in. I would type: <IMG SRC="next. have you been wondering how to add an image to your page? Well. go ahead and use the full address just to be sure it will work correctly.com/images/next.jpg"> Either option would display the image on the page.jpg"> Otherwise.jpg . You could also use a .gif"> The IMG stands for image. This can be done with most image editing programs. aligned to the left. If you have images in other file formats.jpg . like this: 20 . The source of the image is going to be the net address of the image.sevenhills.disney.jpg .gif"> The filename does not have to end with . Now let's work with a real example.jpg". Now. The address for the image is: http://www. Most often. One image I have on this site is called "next. like this: <IMG SRC="http://www. The SRC stands for source.gif or . you will want to link to it using the full address of the image.sevenhills. you will be able to just type the filename of the image here.com/pictures/image.jpg file as well.jpg"> If you aren't sure.disney.

check out one of these related tutorials: Aligning Images and Wrapping Text Using an Image as a Link Using a Background Image Resizing an Image Using Image "alt" Commands Image Alignment/Wrapping Text How to wrap text around an image To allow text to wrap around an image. but it will allow you to add an image to your page on its own line. this text should wrap around<br> this image like this.JPG" are considered two different images to the web browser..com/images/next. Hmmm. or the image may not show up.... Here is an example. you would place the CENTER tag around the image tag.sevenhills. rather than jumping to the bottom of the image.jpg"> </CENTER> This will place the image in the center of the screen: Keep in mind../images/next. so "image.I think this image is in the way. the image tag would look like this: <IMG SRC="next. you just need to add one of these commands to the image tag: align="left" align="right" So. If you want to see more on using images. Now..jpg" and "IMAGE.If you want to center the image on the page. Be sure to use the correct case in your image tags. like this: <CENTER> <IMG SRC="http://www. the filename or address of the image IS case sensitive. and that's no fun. this doesn't give us everything we could possibly want.jpg" align="left"> Hello.<br> 21 .<br> <IMG SRC=".jpg" align="left"> Now just type in your text and it will wrap around the image.

"next. How to create a link.<br> This will give you the following: Hmmm..com"> <IMG SRC="next.com"> <IMG SRC="next. you would type the following: <A HREF="http://www. if you wanted to link to our main page. what did I do? Well. So.. like this: <A HREF="http://www. so that the image tag is between the opening and closing link tags.. you will have to use two things you have already learned. Using an Image as a Link How to link an image To use an image as a link. What we are going to do is place the image tag right after the opening link tag.I'll just keep on writing and<br> writing and writing and writing<br> until I'm tired of writing.sevenhills. Hello..I think this image is in the way. The image we are using here is "next.jpg".jpg"> </A> Now that the image is between the link tags. How to add an image to the page. and don't close the tag just yet. now we are going to close the link tag at the end of the image tag. you would go ahead and type the opening link tag. don't type any text.. first. 2. So. 1.. it will operate the same way as a normal link.jpg"? I have been using it at the bottom of each page as a link to the next section...com"> Now. remember my trusty old picture.. I'll just keep on writing and writing and writing and writing until I'm tired of writing. So. this text should wrap around this image like this. Now.sevenhills. Here is what the above code would produce: 22 .sevenhills. you must create a link to the place you want people to go when they click on the picture.jpg"> OK.. but now it is a visual image.. like this: <A HREF="http://www.

sevenhills. the border just seems to be added by default on most browsers. 23 . and it will turn into the little pointing hand. for instance: Border="5" The drawback to the border is that it insists on being the color of your link color. that's good.com"> <IMG SRC="next. add this command to the image tag: border="0" Here is an example: <A HREF="http://www. the picture will be a link.jpg" border="0"> </A> Now. just use a larger number in there. To get rid of it.Move the mouse over the image. and sometimes this isn't the color you want to use. you will end up all the way back at our main page. Well. and you won't have the extra border around the sides: You can also make the border larger in the same way. but what's with the border around the image? Well. If you click on the image. and then set the border="0" in your image tag. The only way I know around it is to edit the actual image to where it has the border you want.

you can move your mouse over the image and it will display the alt text right there for you. 24 . or in the case they have image loading turned off to so pages will load faster. and that is what will be seen if someone sees the page with no images. the image alt command is used to display text in the case someone visits your page with a browser that can't show images. Of course. One image I do this with is my "next. Here is the example: <IMG SRC="next. you will probably have to disable image loading and reload this page. This is the alt command: alt="something you want to write" Place this inside the image tag: <IMG SRC="image. You can then scroll down to the bottom right and see the word "next" where the image used to be.jpg" alt="next"> To see this work. If you have images as links.jpg" image at the bottom of these pages. this is a handy way to let people know what the image was supposed to do.Using Image "alt" Commands An alternative to the picture Okay. if you have a really new browser.gif" alt="something you want to write"> You place this command inside the image tag for the image you want to display alternate text for. I place the text "next" in the alt command.

and the Netscape only <BLINK> tag. <SUB> and <SUP> These tags are used to place a number or words slightly above or below your normal text. The tags I will be talking about in this section are <SUB>. y=2. This is useful when you have to post programming code. </PRE> And this somewhat redundant code gives you this: x=1. Here is an example: <PRE> x=1. <PRE>. if (x==1) y=2. <NOBR>. The <PRE> Tag The <PRE> tag is used when you want to keep the same amount of whitespace on your web page as you have in your html code in your text editor. if (x==1) y=2. <WBR>. 25 .Some Extra Text Tags There are a few more tags you might like to try while you are creating your pages. The <SUB> tag works like this: Area<SUB>1</SUB> The result is this: Area1 And the <SUP> tag allows you to use exponents if you need to: X<SUP>2</SUP> + Y<SUP>2</SUP> = 0 And this gives you: X2 + Y2 = 0 These two tags are most useful if you are writing mathematical equations and such on your page. but there are other times you may wish to use them. y=2. <SUP>.

like this: I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. Here is an example: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long </NOBR> this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long The <BLINK> Tag Yes. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long Unless you had a monitor with some pretty high resolution. If you are using Netscape you can see the following reason why viewers get annoyed by this tag: 26 . This can save you some headaches from writing in line breaks and spaces manually so often. When viewed on your web page. </NOBR> Now you will have two lines that are not quite as long (though still pretty long in 640x480): I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time.Notice how we didn't need to use <BR> or &nbsp. even after reaching the end of someone's browser window. <NOBR> and <WBR> Any text you place between the <NOBR> and the </NOBR> tags will not break to the next line. this will be one really long line. You can use the <WBR> tag inside the NOBR tags to force a line break if you want or need to do so. you probably had to scroll to the right to see the end of that line. inside the <PRE> tags. this is the tag everyone has been complaining about. like this: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long <WBR> long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time.

but you can get the general idea. Just avoid the +10 font size. Actually.. you won't see the text blink. if the tag is used in a better way.Here is an example: This rule is <BLINK>very</BLINK> important! This gives you the following: This rule is very important! 27 ..LOOK AT ME NOW!!!!!! If you have IE. it can help point out important things you want people to see..

gif" align="right" alt="Look at my Kitty Cat!"> 28 . how is it done? To write a comment.. you use two dashes (--) followed directly by a greater than sign (>). Comments are invisible to a web browser when it displays your web page. just be sure you remember to end the comment! <!-You can't see me. --> You can comment on multiple lines. you type in your coments. unless you look at the page source code. After this. The only way to view comments is to look at the source (html) code of the web page.This image should be aligned to the right.. I feel invisible though. you begin with a less than sign (<) followed directly by an exclaimation point (!) and two dashes (--). <!-. you could use a comment to remind yourself that a section of code is supposed to perform a certain task: <!-. you can leave yourself notes so that you don't forget something when you come back later to redesign the page. To end the comment. and have alt text --> <IMG SRC="mypet. So.Adding HTML Comments Using comments in your html code Comments can be a nice way to help yourself when you are coding your web page. --> To look at something more useful..I am a comment. In this way.

Now.. To begin.Using HTML Lists How to add an HTML list to your page Have you been wanting to add lists to your page? Well. the list is indented somewhat from the rest of the text. For starters. The opening tag is <UL>.</UL>. you guessed it. If each list item is not the same length. as long as you remember to close every one of them. This will create a list with bullets next to the list items. 29 . you use the <LI> tag. Here is a sample list with two list items: <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> This will give us the bulleted list below: • • I am item one I am item two Notice the <LI> tags do not require a closing tag. followed by your text.yep.. Item two is much shorter! Item three is somewhere in between.. we need a tag to begin and end the entire list.. let's use an unordered list. you will get more of a mess than a straight list: • • • This is item one. Also... here is the way to add those html lists to your web pages. and the closing tag is. You can indent further by adding more <UL> tags. Here is a sample of indenting further into the page: <UL> <UL> <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> </UL> </UL> This will give us the following indented list:   I am item one I am item two Be careful about using the <CENTER> tag around your lists. to set off each item in your list. how nice it is to be number one..

use the indention method above until it hits the center of the screen (this can mess up in different screen resolutions. though). Item 2 3. like this: <OL> <LI>Item 1 <LI>Item 2 <LI>Item 3 </OL> This gives you a numbered list rather than the bulleted list: 1. or you can try using a Table to align the text instead. you would use <OL> </OL>. Item 3 30 . Item 1 2.If you really need the list further in on the page. You can also use an ordered list in the same way you use the unordered list. Instead of using <UL> </UL>.

You can set this to any color you would like to use. click here. alink="color" This changes the color of an active link on your page. which is a link that has just been clicked on by a user's mouse. The default setting for text color is black.. You can set this to any color you would like to use. The options you don't use will be set to the web browser's default values. you can use as many or as few of these add-ons as you wish.gif"> Pretty long tag.) So here we go. For a list of common colors and hex codes. with a link to the tutorial for each one. The default setting for a non-visited link is usually blue. text="color" This changes the default text color the browser will display on your page. isn't it? Well.. you can change serveral things in the body of your document by adding extra commands to the <BODY> tag.Using BODY Tag Attributes How to use body tag attributes to enhance your page When you create a web page. click here. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. The default setting varies with your browser. (If you are moving through the tutorials in order. vlink="color" 31 . You can set this to any color you would like to use. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. bgcolor="color" This changes the background color of your page. click here.. Below is a brief explaination of each attribute. You can set this to any color you would like to use. but is usually gray or white. For a list of common colors and hex codes. For a list of common colors and hex codes. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. link="color" This changes the color of all of the non-visited links on your page. Here is what a body tag with serveral additions would look like: <BODY bgcolor="black" text="red" link="yellow" alink="orange" vlink="white" background="image. For a list of common colors and hex codes. click here. we will eventually get to each one of these. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code.

the browser will use your background color or its default background color. your page will have a green background. You can set this to any color you would like to use. add it by placing a space after the word BODY and then type the command. Once you have found the tag. you would type: <BODY bgcolor="green"> Or you could use the hex code for green: <BODY bgcolor="#008000"> After doing this. So. If this is the case.gif" This adds a background image to your page. just add it in like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> To change the background color. Using a Background Color Add or change the background color on your page If you want to use a background color on your page. background="image. and add color your pages! 32 . If you don't use a background image. replace the word gray inside the quote marks with a color name or a color hex code. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. click here. like this: <BODY text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0" bgcolor="#808080"> And of course.This changes the color of a visited link on your page. click here. The default setting for a visited link is usually violet. the background image will take the place of any background color you may have specified. like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray" text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0"> Or if you don't have any other commands. if you wanted to change the background color to green. look for a command after the word BODY that says bgcolor="color" . It may look like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> Or the tag may have more commands inside and use hex codes. For a list of common colors and hex codes. Beautiful! Now just use any color you like in the command. If you use this attribute. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. the command may not be there at all.

add it to your BODY tag like one of the examples above. leaving a space after the previous command. So. Now. You may have something like this: <BODY text="black"> You may also see a weird number/letter combination. like this: <BODY bgcolor="blue" text="black"> Now. add this one onto the end. if you want to change the text color to red. or you may be creating the page from scratch. you could use one of the following: Using a color name: <BODY text="red"> Or using a hex code: <BODY text="#FF0000"> 33 . you may not see either of these.Changing the Default Text Color How to change the default font color on your page Okay. if you'd like to change the color. If you don't have the extra command yet. to change your default text color in your HTML page. If you have other commands. look for the phrase text="" somewhere after the word BODY. click here. you will need to find your body tag. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. like this: <BODY text="#000000"> Of course. replace the black between the quote marks with a color name or hex code.

and add your colors! 34 . you replace the word blue inside the quotes with a different color name or hex code. If you need to add the commands. to change the link color. click here. So. You can also do the same things for active and visited links by adding or editing their commands. add the command after the word BODY. if you would like to change the link color to red. Just place a space between each command. The commands are: alink="color" vlink="color" For the active link color For the visited link color You might have: <BODY link="blue" alink="blue" vlink="violet"> To change the other colors. you would type the following: <BODY link="red"> Or using the hex code: <BODY link="#FF0000"> Now. like this: <BODY link="blue"> Now.Changing the Link Color How to change the link color on your page If you want to change the link color on your page. go ahead. It would look like this: <BODY link="blue"> Or the tag might have some other commands as well: <BODY bgcolor="#000000" text="#FFFFFF" link="#0000FF"> You may also just have the word BODY with nothing else there. Now look for a command after the word BODY that says link="color". with a space between the two. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. If so. do the same as you did for the link color. all the links on your page will be colored red rather than blue.

gif or .gif .sevenhills. I would insert this into the command. and it is in the same directory as the page we are editing. if your image file is located in the same directory as your html file.com/image1. and type the following: background=" " Now your body tag should look something like this (and may have more commands): <BODY background=" "> Now. One program that will do this is Paint Shop Pro. like this: <BODY background="next.jpg"> 35 . you can just type the filename of the image rather than the full url. as a real example. which is available as shareware from JASC.com/images/next. I would type in this: <BODY background="http://www.jpg". go to the end of the word BODY.gif to be the background image.jpg .mysite. I could use the image by typing in just the filename. If not.jpg .Using a Background Image How to add a background image to your page To add a background image to your page. skip a space. you will need to locate the <BODY> tag in your document.com/image1. like this: <BODY background="http://www. So. we are going to place the url of the image inside the quotation marks. The name of the image is "next. you may see just the word BODY. if we want image2. we can type the command this way: <BODY background="image2.mysite.gif"> Now. Now.jpg"> Now. So.com/images/next.sevenhills. you will want to covert it to one of these file types. if the image I want to use is at http://www. I will use an image from my server as a background on a page.gif"> Your image should have the file extension . The url for the image is http://www. So. or you may see a string of commands afterward. When you have found it. So. if I put an html file in my "images" directory. It may look something like this: <BODY bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000"> What we are going to do is add a command after the word BODY. to use this as a background.

suppose I want to make it smaller. to make the image smaller. IMG SRC="next. but it's just not the right size to go where you want it to go. All I need to do is know the original width and height of my image. when I reload my page. to change the size of the image. I'm going to add these two commands inside the image tag: width=" " and height=" " I'm going to place the commands after the initial command. like this: <IMG SRC="next. the picture will be the new height and width I specified. or maybe you wanted a larger version of the image on the screen. Well. The width and height are usually written in pixels. My image turns out to be 106 pixels wide and 65 pixels in height.jpg" width=" " height=" "> Now. you have an image you want to use. A typical screen is about 800 pixels wide and 600 pixels in height (though this varies with different video cards and moniters). Maybe the image takes up the whole screen.jpg" width="300" height="200"> 36 . Here's what it would look like: Now.jpg". you can resize the image by adding width and height commands to your image tag.jpg". Well. The picture looks like this: So.Resizing Images How to resize your images Okay. I'm going to place numbers inside those quotation marks. we will just insert larger numbers for the width and height: <IMG SRC="next. to make the image larger. let's say I wanted it to be 75 pixels wide and 40 pixels high. The tag will now look like this: <IMG SRC="next. Let's take a look at an example. I would then place these numbers into the commands.jpg" width="75" height="40"> Now. I have an image called "next. Well.

I would use 46 as the height: <IMG SRC="next.Now the image looks like this: As you can see. So. You can guess at it for awhile.jpg" width="75" height="46"> Now it looks like this: If you don't want to deal with math all the time (like me). Since the image was originally 106x65. if you want to make the width 75. So. the paint program will make the file size smaller 37 . it comes out to about 46. When you calculate 106/65. the images became somewhat distorted when I resized them. I usually use my image program to do this. here it is: 75/height = 1. or if you like solving equations. you need to find the height that will make the ratio as close as possible to 1. just for the ease of use. I would have to decide on a width.0123 .63 . Besides. you get about 1. One reason for this is that I didn't keep the aspect ratio the same.63 Now take the answer and round up or down. and then find a height that would keep the aspect ratio of 106/65. In this case. you can also resize it with a paint or image program (which will do the calculations for you) and upload the new version of the picture to your server. if I'm making the image smaller.63 .

This just makes it easy to see where we are going to end up. lets say you have one page that is pretty long. You can place one at the third paragraph. if you create an anchor named "cool". go to the top of the body section (right after the body tag). the way to do this is to use a named anchor. You can link to it from any other part of the page. Now. Well. or any other place Okay. 38 . but for now. go anywhere between the body tags and type this link: <A HREF="#top">Back to the Top</A> If you click on this link.. you will be sent back to the top of the page. the 500th word. let's say you want to create a link to the top of your page. Or maybe you want to divide it into sections and use a table of contents at the top. middle. Now type the following tag: <A NAME="top"></A> You can place any name you wish inside the quotes. So. which is a specific area of your page you want to make a link to. like this: <A NAME="cool"></A> -----The anchor name <A HREF="#cool">To the Cool Section of this page</A> section -----Linking to the named You can place a named anchor anyplace on your page. You can try one I made on this page by clicking on the link below: Back to top The # sign is there to let the browser know the destination is a named anchor within this page. the top. You could link to any part of the page.. It can make navigating some pages a whole lot easier. Maybe you would like to give someone a way back to the top of the page when they are at the bottom.. To do this. the bottom.Linking Within a Single Page Jump to the top.. you link to that anchor by using "#cool".

. You do this by adding a "?" at the end of your e-mail address and then your subject. I would place info@sevenhills.com in that space. you use "mailto:" rather than "http://" to begin the address. The trick is in what you use as the address of the link.your e-mail address..com?subject=Enquiry">Mail Me!</A> The example link is below. all you need to do is use the standard link tag.. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills. After the "mailto:".. notice that when you click it.maybe your joke of the day or something! You can also create the subject of the message so the viewer doesn't have to fill in something in the subject line. Send me whatever you want. the subject field of your email message is already filled in with "Enquiry". you will use your e-mail address rather than a web address. with my e-mail address already filled in. all you need to do is replace the your_email_address with . like this: <A HREF="mailto:your_email_address">E-mail Me!</A> Yes. to create an email link to myself. Mail Me! 39 .com">Give me some mail!</A> Here is the resulting link: Give me some mail! If you click on the link. Here is an example. To force the browser to read it as an e-mail link.The E-mail Link How to create an email link To create an e-mail link on your page. your browser will bring up a window for you to send me email.

com"> Mail Me</A> If you want all three. You can add a carbon copy recipient. you can have some more fun with your e-mail links-.The E-mail Link: More More tricks for the email link we saw how to add the subject to a message through the e-mail link. other@other. use the "&" sign again: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. followed by the e-mail address of the person you want to send the carbon copy to: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com"> Mail Me</A> With that. or use a combination of the subject with either or both of these. you can send the copies to multiple addresses by separating them with commas: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com? subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend. if you want a subject and a blind carbon copy. except you use the bcc= command instead: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. you add them in using an "&" sign at the end of the first command. For instance.com&cc=other@other.com?subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend.com"> Mail Me</A> The same goes for a blind carbon copy.com?bcc=friend@friend. if you want to combine more than one of these commands after the question mark.com?bcc=friend@friend. It was done using a "question mark" followed by subject= and then the subject: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. there are a couple of extras you can also add.com"> Mail Me</A> Now.com. To send a carbon copy. 40 .com?subject=Hi">Mail Me</A> On top of adding the subject.and if you run a site with a partner you can both get an e-mail when someone uses that link. a blind carbon copy recipient. it would look like this: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. you add the cc= command after the question mark.com?cc=friend@friend.com"> Mail Me</A> With either of these.

<tr> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a row. Height: This specifies the height of the row. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this row: • • • bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this row. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this table: • • • • • Width: This specifies the width of the table. cellspacing: The amount spacing between the cell wall and the cell border. 50%). and <td>. This is very often used in conjunction with the <tr> and the <td> tags.HTML Table This section lists the tags often used with HTML tables: <table>. 100%). The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this column: • • • • valign: Width: This specifies the width of the column. Border: This specifies whether the table will have a border. <table> The <table> tag specifies the presence of a table. Columns are specified within each row. The areas enclosed by the cell walls are the maximum amount of area that text can be displayed in a cell. rowspan: This specifies the number of rows this particular row occupies. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this table. <td> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a column. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. <tr>. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. Example 1 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> 41 . colspan: This specifies the number of columns this particular column occupies. cellpadding: The amount padding between cells and the each cell wall in a table. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this column. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. The number indicates the thickness of the border. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code.

<tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 2 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr><td width=200>Element 1</td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 3 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr bgcolor=red><td width=200><b>Element 1</b></td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td bgcolor=55ff55>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td><i>Element 6</i></td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 4 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td colspan=2>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 2 Element 3 Element 4 Element 5 42 .

Example 5: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. 43 . HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 7: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 HTML Frame This section introduces the tags related to HTML frames: <frameset> and <frame>. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=0> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 6: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes.

as well as the width of each row. cols="30%. the first column occupies 30% of the available space.70%" means that there will be two columns. For example. marginheight: The margin on the top and bottom of the frame. marginwidth: The margin on the left and right side of the frame. The possible values are {yes|no|auto}. Rows: Specifies the number of rows. please consider using the frame feature carefully.html"> </frameset> </frameset> 44 .50%"> <frameset rows="100%"> <frame src="frame1. while the second row occupies 60% of the available space. Note that search engines typically do not like the use of the frames.html"> </frameset> <frameset rows="50%. as well as the width of each column. 60%" means that there will be two rows. Example 1 HTML: <frameset cols="50%. rows="40%. The attributes include: • • • • • src: This attribute specifies the HTML document source. Therefore. For example. The attributes include: • Cols: Specifies the number of columns. while the second column occupies 70% of the available space.50%"> <frame src="frame2. noresize: This attribute specifies whether users may resize the frame. Scrolling: This attribute specifies whether users may scroll up and down within this frame.<frameset> The <frameset> tag specifies the number of columns/rows on a frame. Note that you may embed a frameset within another frameset. • <frame> The <frame> tag specifies the properties within a particular frame.html"> <frame src="frame3. the first row occupies 40% of the available space.

For example. the following URL: http://www. and its value is 'title'..HTML Forms Forms are used in HTML to pass data. The general format is as follows: <form action=xxx> . This is shown below: The following list gives the most common ways for users to specify the value: • • • • Text input Radio button Checkbox Drop-down menu 45 . <input type=submit value=Go> </form> The text after action= specifies the script to be executed after the user submits the information. and the value is '1'... On the web.com/example?c=1&d=title has two separate key-value pairs. separated by '&'. The key for the second key-value pair is 'd'. How are key-value pair specified? They are specified by the <form> tag. [section specifying the value for each key] . <input type=submit> gives a button that the user clicks when she is ready to submit the information. in this case 'Go'. The value=Go piece specifies the text appearing on the button. The key for the first key-value pair is 'c'. data is typically passed as a keyvalue pair.xyz..

we get a single-line text box to enter data. Below is an example. we get a single-line text box to enter data. with [row height] = 2: Text area example: 46 . Below is an example: Text example: • þÿ Password: In this type of input. The syntax is <input type=password name=pwd>. Here. Below is an example: Text example: • Textbox: In this type of input. The most common scenario is when users have to enter a username and password to enter a site. The syntax is <textarea rows= [row height] name=area>.Text Input One way users can enter data into a HTML document is via text. The texts typed do not appear directly on the web page. Here. the key for this text input value is 'c'. The syntax is <input type=text name=c>. The texts typed appear directly on the web page. There are three common types of text input: • Text: In this type of input. we get a multi-lin text book to enter data. The texts typed appear directly on the web page. The key for this textarea input is 'area'. the key for this password input is 'pwd'.

Radio Button A second type of input is the radio button. If we want to pre-select a radio button. the key is color. Radio buttons are used when you want users to be able to select one and only one of the options. depending on the radio button selected. green. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag. Below is an example: Code: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case. or blue. and the values can be either red. such as follows: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> 47 .

If multiple check boxes are checked. the "color" key will then have multiple values.Checkbox Another type of input is the check box. Below is an example: Code: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case. Check boxes are used when you want users to be able to select more than one of the options. depending on the check box(es) selected. If we want to pre-select a check box. and the values can be either red. green. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" checked>Red<br> 48 . or blue. we'll specify "checked" at the end of the <input> tag. the key is color.

we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag.Drop Down Menu Drop down menu is another common way to specify input data. selecting a state is often done via a drop down menu. i. If we want to pre-select a check box. or blue.. Below is an example for a single-selection drop down menu: Code: <select name=color> <option value="red">Red</option> <option value="green">Green</option> <option value="blue">Blue</option> þÿ In this case. green. For example. <select name=color multiple> þÿ 49 . Users can select one or more items in a drop-down menu. depending on the item selected. we specify "multiple" at the end of the <select> tag. the key is color. and the values can be either red. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> If we want to select multiple items.e.

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