HTML

Sevenhills Pvt. Ltd.,

Contents at a Glance
HTML 1 HTML BASICS................................................................................................................4 A QUICK LOOK AT NOTEPAD AND WEB BROWSERS......................................................................4 TAGS & ATTRIBUTES....................................................................................................7 HTML TAGS.....................................................................................................................7

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HTML: BASIC FORMAT..................................................................................................8 THE TEXT TAGS...........................................................................................................10 HOW TO USE HTML TAGS TO MANIPULATE YOUR TEXT...............................................................10 HEADINGS AND PARAGRAPHS.................................................................................12 USING HEADINGS, PARAGRAPHS, AND LINE BREAKS..................................................................12 MANIPULATING FONT SIZE AND COLOR..................................................................15 HOW TO CHANGE FONT SIZES AND COLORS ..............................................................................15 SPECIAL CHARACTERS..............................................................................................17 HOW TO USE SPECIAL CHARACTERS IN HTML..........................................................................17 LINKING TO OTHER PAGES.......................................................................................18 HOW TO LINK TO OTHER PAGES IN HTML ..............................................................................18 ADDING IMAGES TO YOUR PAGE..............................................................................20 HOW TO PLACE IMAGES ON YOUR PAGE ..................................................................................20 Image Alignment/Wrapping Text.....................................................21 USING AN IMAGE AS A LINK..................................................................................................22 USING IMAGE "ALT" COMMANDS............................................................................................24 An alternative to the picture ..........................................................24 SOME EXTRA TEXT TAGS....................................................................................................25 <SUB> and <SUP>......................................................................25 The <PRE> Tag............................................................................25 <NOBR> and <WBR>...................................................................26 The <BLINK> Tag.........................................................................26 ADDING HTML COMMENTS........................................................................................28 USING HTML LISTS......................................................................................................29 USING BODY TAG ATTRIBUTES................................................................................31 USING A BACKGROUND COLOR...............................................................................32 CHANGING THE DEFAULT TEXT COLOR..................................................................33 CHANGING THE LINK COLOR....................................................................................34 USING A BACKGROUND IMAGE................................................................................35 RESIZING IMAGES.......................................................................................................36 LINKING WITHIN A SINGLE PAGE..............................................................................38 THE E-MAIL LINK.........................................................................................................39 THE E-MAIL LINK: MORE............................................................................................40 HTML TABLE ...............................................................................................................41 <table>......................................................................................41 <tr>...........................................................................................41 <td>..........................................................................................41 HTML FRAME...............................................................................................................43

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HTML FORMS...............................................................................................................45 TEXT INPUT......................................................................................................................46 RADIO BUTTON.................................................................................................................47 CHECKBOX.......................................................................................................................48 DROP DOWN MENU...........................................................................................................49

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HTML Basics
Webpages are written in HTML - a simple scripting language. HTML is short for HyperText Markup Language. • Hypertext is simply a piece of text that works as a link. • Markup Language is a way of writing layout information within documents.

Basically an HTML document is a plain text file that contains text and nothing else. When a browser opens an HTML file, the browser will look for HTML codes in the text and use them to change the layout, insert images, or create links to other pages. Since HTML documents are just text files they can be written in even the simplest text editor. A more popular choice is to use a special HTML editor - maybe even one that puts focus on the visual result rather than the codes - a so-called WYSIWYG editor ("What You See Is What You Get"). Some of the most popular HTML editors, such as FrontPage or Dreamweaver will let you create pages more or less as you write documents in Word or whatever text editor you're using.

A quick look at Notepad and Web Browsers
Using HTML you will want to familiarize yourself with the software you will be using. So, to get started, open Notepad (or your text editor). You should see a completely blank page. Now, type in the text below. We will make use of it later with the web browser. Type the following: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Test Page</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Hi there, you have just written your first web page! </BODY> </HTML> Once you have finished, go to the "File" menu and click on "Save As”. This will prompt you to create a name for your file. In the box, type in test.htm. At the

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Click on the down arrow on the right side of the input box. If you do not get the option to save the file as the type All Files (*.htm. The default is . Windows will save it as test. you will need to place quote marks around the filename. Click on this to make the change. so you will need to change it.*). the way to do this will depend on your text editor. you can cancel the connection and you will likely end up with a blank page. So. You may also see an error saying the browser could not connect to "http://somepage.txt by default. start up your web browser. or something similar in the dialogue box).*). type in the path to your html file. feel free to send it to me. Text Files (*. then select the plain text file type (usually shown as Text Documents.htm. You should be able to highlight All Files (*. If you have the file in a directory called "myfiles". in the location box (where you manually type urls). To get around this. you would type the following: c:\myfiles\test. Now. and click on "Save". The text was enlarged so you could see the part we are interested in at this point. Now you will want to use your web browser to view the file you just created. Something similar to the methods above should work for you.html" or something similar.txt). You can use this routine each time you create a new HTML file. Now you may choose the drive and directory to save to.bottom of the prompt you should see a space that says "Save file as Type" or "Save as Type". You should be able to hit OK and get a blank page. you can type 5 . If you are given an option to connect to the internet.txt. You should see something similar to the picture below: This is an example using Windows 95. If someone with a Mac would like to write up something in more detail about this (as I don't have a Mac). Be careful not to save it just yet though if you are using Windows. as shown in the image below: If you have a Mac. If the file is on a floppy disk.

especially if you hate typing paths all day. Most browsers will display the page when you hit enter. or a similar phrase. go to the "File" menu in your web browser. you have just written your first web page! 6 . you will see something like the following: Hi there. Another option you have. Look for an option that says "Open Page".a:\test. Click this option and you will be able to browse for your file and open it from there. provided you did not place it in another directory on the disk. To use this. "Open Local File". ”Open File". is to use the "Open Page" option.htm. The image below shows where this can be found in Internet Explorer: Once the page is displayed.

. . Opera. Attributes Attributes are associated with each tag to further define the tags. you may think of this tutorial as an introduction to the tags that are commonly used in writing HTML. In fact. > A couple of other notes before we dive into the tutorial: . It has certain tags and attributes defined. In other words. and is geared towards document display over the World Wide Web. 7 . Mozilla. The general syntax is as follows: <tag attribute 1 = "value" attribute 2 = "value" .HTML tag codes are case-insensitive. we will introduce the notion of tags and attributes. which is (in general) common across all different browsers. it is often okay to have a tag without the corresponding closing tag.. each tag has its own specific meaning. In HTML.Tags & Attributes HTML Tags HTML stands for (H)yper(T)ext (M)arkup (L)anguage. and Safari. Tags Tags are elements of the HTML document used to specify how the document should be displayed by the browser. HTML documents can be viewed in browsers such as Internet Explorer. On this page.Many browsers will ignore badly-formed HTML documents.

gif">. In order to end the underlining. <P> is the same as <p>. you would write the following in your text editor: <U>HTML Rules!</U> The result of this would be: HTML Rules! Not all tags will require a closing tag. but will have a forward slash before the command. 8 .HTML: Basic Format Now we are able to start learning about HTML tags. if you would like to underline the phrase "HTML Rules!". you must use a closing tag. you do not need to capitalize the tags. You can also use as much space between things as you like. You would place this before the text you want to underline. I will explain all the extra stuff later. An example would be the tag used to underline text. and a paragraph: <P>. which begins the operation you wish to perform. Also. An example would be the image tag. A closing tag will always be the same as the opening tag. So: <U> Underline Me! </U> Is the same as: <U>Underline Me!</U> Is the same as: <U> Underline Me! </U> A basic HTML file will have the format below. </BODY> </HTML> Okay. The first one we see is <HTML>. go through and find the pairs of opening and closing tags. to make sense of this. It looks like this: <IMG SRC="myimage. An HTML tag will always begin with a "less than" sign. which will place an image on the page. like this: <.) <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>I Love HTML</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Everything displayed on your page will be in here. This signals the beginning of an HTML file. this is just an example of a tag that requires no closing tag to follow it. So. I'll explain them at the end of the example. like this: >. This is called an opening tag. Other examples would be a line break: <BR>. <U>. Read through and see if you can guess what the different tags will do: (Don't worry. The tags will end with a "greater than" sign. like this: </U>. a horizontal line: <HR>.

Yuck. The title is only used for bookmarks. use the </TITLE> tag. and as the name of the browser window. This opens a section in which you can title your page. Well.The closing tag . text. 9 . The section ends with the </HEAD> tag. it signals the end of the HTML document. in the example. search engines. though). The <TITLE> tag allows you to create a title for your page. To end your title. as they are the beginning and end of your page. and add other descriptive information to the page. use </BODY>. is at the very end of the document. the only part of the HEAD section we will deal with is the TITLE. The next tag we see is the <HEAD> tag. This is where most of our work will be done. The above example makes a rather boring web page (even worse than the one in the previous tutorial). For instance. the title is "I Love HTML" (That's not true all the time. use keywords. It will not show up on your web page unless you type it in the BODY section (explained below). </HTML>. which brings us to the next tag. As you might have guessed. Everything (tags. The <BODY> tag opens the section that will be displayed in the web browser. To end the body section. At this time. The browser would display this: Everything displayed on your page will be in here. images) should be between these two tags. let's go to the next tutorial and see if we can add a little life to our page of text. All we have is a line of text aligned to the left of the screen.

Example: <B>Howdy</B> This will show up on your page like this: Howdy Here are a few more to start working with: <U></U> Underline text <U>Underline Me!</U> Underline Me! <I></I> Italics <I>Isn't this fun?</I> Isn't this fun? <STRIKE></STRIKE> <STRIKE>You're Out!</STRIKE> You're Out! <CENTER></CENTER> <CENTER>This centers text on the page</CENTER> This centers text on the page Having fun yet? You can also use more than one tag at a time. Let's start by giving you some tags to work with: <B></B> This is the tag for bold text. it wouldn't matter which way you opened and closed the tags.. and will help when the order does matter! (such as placing the 10 .The Text Tags How to use HTML tags to manipulate your text To start making our text appear in different ways. working from inside out will help you see your code better. which makes me cool!</I></B> This will show up like this: I am bold AND Italic. However....like this: <B><I>I am bold AND Italic..and remember to close both tags afterwards. just place both opening tags before the text.. which makes me cool! Does the order of the tags make a difference? In this case.. Let's say you wanted something in bold and italics. To do this.

Use the <CENTER> tag. Here's another way to look at working inside out. So let's do just that. All you need to remember is that the text you have written is affected by every tag before it that has not been closed.</HTML> tag before the </BODY> tag). and underline! <B><I><U>Would you stop tagging me!</B></I></U> This will give us: Would you stop tagging me! But this: <U><I><B>Would you stop</B></I>tagging me!</U> would give us this! Would you stop tagging me! As you can see. Italic. which makes me cool! </I> </B> This could get rather tedious. it's nice to have a way to place things in the center of the page..but the underline remained open until the end of the exclamation. Since the default alignment of everything is to the left. So lets try three things: Bold. The effect ends when each one of those tags is closed by it's closing tag.. I could write the HTML this way: <B> <I> I am bold AND Italic. while not being affected by the bold or italics tags! Now let's use the center tag from above. Anything you place between the <CENTER> and </CENTER> tags will be centered on the page.. like this: <CENTER><B><I>Look at me now!</I></B></CENTER> Look at me now! 11 . Here is an example: <CENTER>I'm in the middle!</CENTER> This will give us the following: I'm in the middle! You can also use it with one or more of the other tags above. This caused the "tagging me!" portion to be underlined. the bold and italics were closed before the word "tagging".

Now let's move on to a line break. <H6>You must have good vision.</H6> You must have good vision..</H5> Smaller Still.. I think you get the idea here.. the contents will go to the next line. When you insert this tag in your document. The browser will not go to the next line until it runs out of space. and Line Breaks These tags are good for creating titles or section headings. The <BR> tag does not need a closing tag afterward.. Okay.. a line break is like hitting the "enter" key when you are writing text. Here are some examples: <H1>Large Heading!</H1> will give us: Large Heading! <H2>Heading 2</H2> Heading 2 <H3>Heading 3</H3> Heading 3 <H4>Getting Small</H4> Getting Small <H5>Smaller Still... The tag for a line break is <BR>. Here is an example: End this line now!!<BR>Thanks! This will generate the following: End this line now!! Thanks! Basically. or sees a tag that will 12 .Headings and Paragraphs Using Headings. Paragraphs..

let's move on to the paragraph tag. This is a new paragraph. Is this cool or what? This will give us the following: This is some cool stuff. This tag will skip a vertical space after going to the next line. Now this will do what we wanted it to do: Hello.: This is some cool stuff. I want a new line. So typing the following in your text editor will display only one line of text in the browser: Hello. <BR> This is the next line. O. This tag is good for skipping a line quickly and for knowing where you wanted a new paragraph to begin.force it to the next line.<BR> I want<BR> a new line. This is the next line. <P> This is a new paragraph. I want a new line.K. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! </P> <P> 13 . Now. I want a new line. How about an example? Well. use your <BR> tag from above: Hello. as though you had typed <BR> twice. This gives us: Hello. you place a </P> where you would like the paragraph to end. <P>. but if you'd like to add one for your own reference. Is this cool or what? The paragraph tag does not require a closing tag. To make the text move to the next line.

.<BR> and the end.Here is a new paragraph. like this: <P> This paragraph needs a visual ending! <P> Here is a new paragraph.<BR> and the end.. </P> This will give you the same thing as using just the opening <P> tags.. Both of these will give you this: This paragraph needs a visual ending! Here is a new paragraph. 14 ....... and the end.

So let's say you wanted to make the font larger.Manipulating Color Font Size and How to change font sizes and colors now we want to see how to change the font size. You can use the tag with a +2.sign: <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey. I'm Small! Here are some more size examples for you: <FONT SIZE="+4">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+3">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="+1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There 15 . using the .sign in front of it. This is done with the following tag: <FONT SIZE="x">text to change</FONT> "x" will be replaced by a number with a + or . like this: <FONT SIZE="+2">I'm a big sentence now!</FONT> This will give us the following: I'm a big sentence now! Likewise. you can make the font smaller in the same way. I'm Small!</FONT> Will give us this: Hey.

To do this. Here is the tag: <FONT COLOR="color"> We replace the word color with a color name or the hexidecimal color value. Here is the example: <FONT COLOR="#FF0000">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! That is a # sign. but you may want to have the hex code for more complicated colors. click here . and close only one tag. Let's do one using the color name to begin: <FONT COLOR="red">I'm red!</FONT> I'm red! Now let's use the hexidecimal value for red. Now suppose you want to change the size AND the color. suppose you want to change the font color. you can use the SIZE and COLOR declarations inside the same tag. This is done in much the same way. you can use two FONT tags and remember to close them both. like this: <FONT SIZE="+2"><FONT COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT></FONT> I am gold! Also. Usually it's easier to remeber the color names. two F's and four zeros. The hexidecimal representation begins with a # sign and is followed by six letters and/or numbers. If you want to see a sample list of color names and hex codes.<FONT SIZE="-1">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-2">Hey There</FONT> Hey There <FONT SIZE="-3">Can you read this?</FONT> Can you read this? Now. This is done like this: <FONT SIZE="+2" COLOR="gold">I am gold!</FONT> I am gold! 16 .

have you been wondering how to add an extra space on your page. like this: Hello there! The first space is added just using the "space" bar on the keyboard. and end with a semicolon (. The reference will begin with an ampersand (&).&nbsp. but after that additional spaces will make no difference-. like this: Hello &nbsp.Special Characters How to use special characters in HTML So. reference. 1999 by me! This page Copyright © 1999 by me! 17 .There! This will create the first space. By adding the &nbsp. we forced the browser to add an extra space between the two words. you place the reference &nbsp. by placing its reference where you would like to see the symbol on the page. and 4 additional spaces between the two words. let's say you wanted to place an extra space between two words. The reference for a copyright symbol is &copy. Here's an example: This page Copyright &copy. where you would like to add the extra space. To do this. will be followed by some text or numbers.. You use it the same way as an extra space. So as an example. reference. or how to get a copyright symbol to show up? Then let's see how right now! Special characters are placed on your page by using a special reference to the character you want to use. You can add as many spaces as you would like by repeating the &nbsp.) .you will only see one space in the browser.&nbsp.&nbsp. It will be displayed like this: Hello There! The other one we will discuss is the copyright symbol. for a total of five spaces.there! This gives us two spaces between "Hello" and "there!". The web browser will see the first space. Here is what you would do: Hello &nbsp.

you should see the cursor change into a pointing hand. (In most cases.. like this: 18 .sevenhills. The </A> is the closing tag. you would place our url..sevenhills. Look in your location box near the top of your web browser. if you want to link to your own pages from your home page.htm . To create the link.com. this will indicate the text is a link. which is http://www. If you click on the link from the first example. The text between the tags is what will show up on your web page as a link. insert this url into the link tag: <A HREF="http://www.com/index1..sevenhills. you can just use the filename. you will end up at our home page.sevenhills.com">goto Sevenhills</A> It will show up on your page like this: goto Sevenhills See how the text was colorized and underlined? In most cases. You should see the url for this page. The mouse attribute comes in handy when a page has a whole lot of underlined text. and the HREF=" " is asking for a location to link to. Our url is http://www. So.com/index1. inside the quote marks.. rather than typing the full url inside the tag. you may use a shortcut called a "local url". Great isn't it? Now. or net address. which means we are using the complete address to every page we are creating a link to. If you move your mouse over the link. just type in the address for your page inside the link tag. if you would like to link to our site. so to create a link to us.com">Display Text</A> The A stands for anchor. be certain any file you want to create a local url link to is in the same directory as the page you are editing.Linking to Other Pages How to link to other pages in HTML let's start out by seeing what tag we use for linking: <A HREF="http://www.sevenhills. place this command on the page where you would like the link to show up: <A HREF="http://www.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> Which gives us this link: Linking to Other Pages If you click on this link right now. If you have all of your files in the same directory. As another example. it will be) Now. your browser will simply display this page again. This will work for any page because we are using the absolute url. let's create a link to this particular page. Before you try this.

If you would like to see some related tutorials. Linking to Other Pages If you aren't sure or have doubts.htm">Linking to Other Pages</A> This will create the same link we just did.<A HREF="linking. but we didn't have to write as much. try one of these: Changing the Link Color Using an Image as a Link Linking Within the Same Page 19 . Typing in the full address will allow the link to work no matter where it is located on the internet. always use the absolute url.

jpg"> If you aren't sure. So. One image I have on this site is called "next. Now let's work with a real example.sevenhills. you will be able to just type the filename of the image here.jpg"> Either option would display the image on the page. You could also use a .disney. This can be done with most image editing programs. let's take a look at the image tag: <IMG SRC="image. go ahead and use the full address just to be sure it will work correctly.com/pictures/image. If you have images in other file formats. you will probably want to convert them to . These are the two most common image file extensions used on the internet.gif or . you would use this url as the image source: <IMG SRC="http://www.com/images/next.gif"> The IMG stands for image. If my image and html file were in the same directory.jpg .jpg .sevenhills.jpg file as well. like this: <IMG SRC="image.gif"> The filename does not have to end with . aligned to the left.gif. Now. I would type: <IMG SRC="next. The SRC stands for source.com/pictures/image. The source of the image is going to be the net address of the image. like this: 20 . have you been wondering how to add an image to your page? Well. you will want to link to it using the full address of the image. if your images are in a directory other than the one your html document is in.jpg"> Otherwise. if your image is located at http://www. Most often.com/images/next. like this: <IMG SRC="http://www.disney.Adding Images to Your Page How to place images on your page So. The address for the image is: http://www.jpg". I would use the full internet address.jpg .

Be sure to use the correct case in your image tags.com/images/next.jpg" align="left"> Now just type in your text and it will wrap around the image.JPG" are considered two different images to the web browser. Now. so "image. and that's no fun./images/next.. but it will allow you to add an image to your page on its own line. you just need to add one of these commands to the image tag: align="left" align="right" So.. rather than jumping to the bottom of the image.jpg" align="left"> Hello.. this doesn't give us everything we could possibly want. this text should wrap around<br> this image like this.I think this image is in the way..jpg"> </CENTER> This will place the image in the center of the screen: Keep in mind. If you want to see more on using images.. you would place the CENTER tag around the image tag. or the image may not show up. like this: <CENTER> <IMG SRC="http://www.If you want to center the image on the page. check out one of these related tutorials: Aligning Images and Wrapping Text Using an Image as a Link Using a Background Image Resizing an Image Using Image "alt" Commands Image Alignment/Wrapping Text How to wrap text around an image To allow text to wrap around an image.jpg" and "IMAGE. the image tag would look like this: <IMG SRC="next.. Here is an example. the filename or address of the image IS case sensitive.<br> 21 . Hmmm.<br> <IMG SRC=".sevenhills.

I think this image is in the way.com"> <IMG SRC="next. you would go ahead and type the opening link tag. like this: <A HREF="http://www.sevenhills. So. this text should wrap around this image like this.com"> Now.sevenhills. so that the image tag is between the opening and closing link tags. The image we are using here is "next... you would type the following: <A HREF="http://www. 1.. remember my trusty old picture. now we are going to close the link tag at the end of the image tag. So. I'll just keep on writing and writing and writing and writing until I'm tired of writing.I'll just keep on writing and<br> writing and writing and writing<br> until I'm tired of writing.. don't type any text. Here is what the above code would produce: 22 . first. but now it is a visual image.com"> <IMG SRC="next. "next.sevenhills. How to create a link. what did I do? Well.jpg"? I have been using it at the bottom of each page as a link to the next section. Hello... you must create a link to the place you want people to go when they click on the picture.. So. it will operate the same way as a normal link. 2. Using an Image as a Link How to link an image To use an image as a link.jpg"..jpg"> </A> Now that the image is between the link tags. you will have to use two things you have already learned. How to add an image to the page.. Now. if you wanted to link to our main page..<br> This will give you the following: Hmmm. What we are going to do is place the image tag right after the opening link tag. like this: <A HREF="http://www.jpg"> OK. and don't close the tag just yet..

the picture will be a link. the border just seems to be added by default on most browsers. The only way I know around it is to edit the actual image to where it has the border you want.jpg" border="0"> </A> Now. that's good. and it will turn into the little pointing hand. If you click on the image. for instance: Border="5" The drawback to the border is that it insists on being the color of your link color. just use a larger number in there. and you won't have the extra border around the sides: You can also make the border larger in the same way. and then set the border="0" in your image tag. add this command to the image tag: border="0" Here is an example: <A HREF="http://www. 23 .Move the mouse over the image. and sometimes this isn't the color you want to use. but what's with the border around the image? Well. you will end up all the way back at our main page.com"> <IMG SRC="next.sevenhills. Well. To get rid of it.

gif" alt="something you want to write"> You place this command inside the image tag for the image you want to display alternate text for. this is a handy way to let people know what the image was supposed to do. you can move your mouse over the image and it will display the alt text right there for you. and that is what will be seen if someone sees the page with no images. One image I do this with is my "next. 24 . Of course. you will probably have to disable image loading and reload this page. You can then scroll down to the bottom right and see the word "next" where the image used to be. Here is the example: <IMG SRC="next. This is the alt command: alt="something you want to write" Place this inside the image tag: <IMG SRC="image. if you have a really new browser.jpg" image at the bottom of these pages. If you have images as links.jpg" alt="next"> To see this work. or in the case they have image loading turned off to so pages will load faster. the image alt command is used to display text in the case someone visits your page with a browser that can't show images.Using Image "alt" Commands An alternative to the picture Okay. I place the text "next" in the alt command.

<SUB> and <SUP> These tags are used to place a number or words slightly above or below your normal text. but there are other times you may wish to use them. </PRE> And this somewhat redundant code gives you this: x=1. <PRE>. The <PRE> Tag The <PRE> tag is used when you want to keep the same amount of whitespace on your web page as you have in your html code in your text editor. if (x==1) y=2. <SUP>. This is useful when you have to post programming code.Some Extra Text Tags There are a few more tags you might like to try while you are creating your pages. 25 . y=2. The tags I will be talking about in this section are <SUB>. Here is an example: <PRE> x=1. <NOBR>. The <SUB> tag works like this: Area<SUB>1</SUB> The result is this: Area1 And the <SUP> tag allows you to use exponents if you need to: X<SUP>2</SUP> + Y<SUP>2</SUP> = 0 And this gives you: X2 + Y2 = 0 These two tags are most useful if you are writing mathematical equations and such on your page. y=2. <WBR>. if (x==1) y=2. and the Netscape only <BLINK> tag.

you probably had to scroll to the right to see the end of that line. <NOBR> and <WBR> Any text you place between the <NOBR> and the </NOBR> tags will not break to the next line. even after reaching the end of someone's browser window. like this: I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long The <BLINK> Tag Yes.Notice how we didn't need to use <BR> or &nbsp. You can use the <WBR> tag inside the NOBR tags to force a line break if you want or need to do so. When viewed on your web page. long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long Unless you had a monitor with some pretty high resolution. Here is an example: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long </NOBR> this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. this will be one really long line. this is the tag everyone has been complaining about. </NOBR> Now you will have two lines that are not quite as long (though still pretty long in 640x480): I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time. This can save you some headaches from writing in line breaks and spaces manually so often. If you are using Netscape you can see the following reason why viewers get annoyed by this tag: 26 . inside the <PRE> tags. like this: <NOBR> I'll just keep writing like this for a long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long <WBR> long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long time.

Actually. Just avoid the +10 font size. it can help point out important things you want people to see.LOOK AT ME NOW!!!!!! If you have IE..Here is an example: This rule is <BLINK>very</BLINK> important! This gives you the following: This rule is very important! 27 .. if the tag is used in a better way. but you can get the general idea. you won't see the text blink..

I am a comment. Comments are invisible to a web browser when it displays your web page... just be sure you remember to end the comment! <!-You can't see me.This image should be aligned to the right. So. you can leave yourself notes so that you don't forget something when you come back later to redesign the page. and have alt text --> <IMG SRC="mypet. you type in your coments. you use two dashes (--) followed directly by a greater than sign (>). unless you look at the page source code. To end the comment. you could use a comment to remind yourself that a section of code is supposed to perform a certain task: <!-. The only way to view comments is to look at the source (html) code of the web page.gif" align="right" alt="Look at my Kitty Cat!"> 28 . you begin with a less than sign (<) followed directly by an exclaimation point (!) and two dashes (--). After this. --> To look at something more useful.. <!-. I feel invisible though. In this way.Adding HTML Comments Using comments in your html code Comments can be a nice way to help yourself when you are coding your web page. how is it done? To write a comment. --> You can comment on multiple lines.

Here is a sample of indenting further into the page: <UL> <UL> <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> </UL> </UL> This will give us the following indented list:   I am item one I am item two Be careful about using the <CENTER> tag around your lists. how nice it is to be number one. you guessed it..</UL>.Using HTML Lists How to add an HTML list to your page Have you been wanting to add lists to your page? Well. as long as you remember to close every one of them. and the closing tag is. to set off each item in your list... followed by your text. The opening tag is <UL>. You can indent further by adding more <UL> tags. you will get more of a mess than a straight list: • • • This is item one. 29 .. Here is a sample list with two list items: <UL> <LI>I am item one <LI>I am item two </UL> This will give us the bulleted list below: • • I am item one I am item two Notice the <LI> tags do not require a closing tag.. To begin. For starters. This will create a list with bullets next to the list items. Also. we need a tag to begin and end the entire list. let's use an unordered list.yep.. you use the <LI> tag. Item two is much shorter! Item three is somewhere in between. Now.. If each list item is not the same length. the list is indented somewhat from the rest of the text. here is the way to add those html lists to your web pages.

Item 1 2. or you can try using a Table to align the text instead. Item 3 30 . use the indention method above until it hits the center of the screen (this can mess up in different screen resolutions. Item 2 3. like this: <OL> <LI>Item 1 <LI>Item 2 <LI>Item 3 </OL> This gives you a numbered list rather than the bulleted list: 1.If you really need the list further in on the page. though). Instead of using <UL> </UL>. You can also use an ordered list in the same way you use the unordered list. you would use <OL> </OL>.

click here. For a list of common colors and hex codes. Below is a brief explaination of each attribute.Using BODY Tag Attributes How to use body tag attributes to enhance your page When you create a web page. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. The default setting varies with your browser. but is usually gray or white. The default setting for text color is black. which is a link that has just been clicked on by a user's mouse. The options you don't use will be set to the web browser's default values. you can use as many or as few of these add-ons as you wish. For a list of common colors and hex codes.) So here we go. we will eventually get to each one of these. with a link to the tutorial for each one. For a list of common colors and hex codes. (If you are moving through the tutorials in order. You can set this to any color you would like to use. click here... For a list of common colors and hex codes.. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. bgcolor="color" This changes the background color of your page. The default setting for a non-visited link is usually blue. alink="color" This changes the color of an active link on your page. You can set this to any color you would like to use. click here. click here. you can change serveral things in the body of your document by adding extra commands to the <BODY> tag. link="color" This changes the color of all of the non-visited links on your page. vlink="color" 31 . You can set this to any color you would like to use. Here is what a body tag with serveral additions would look like: <BODY bgcolor="black" text="red" link="yellow" alink="orange" vlink="white" background="image. isn't it? Well. text="color" This changes the default text color the browser will display on your page. You can set this to any color you would like to use.gif"> Pretty long tag.

background="image. click here. look for a command after the word BODY that says bgcolor="color" . So. add it by placing a space after the word BODY and then type the command.This changes the color of a visited link on your page. click here. the browser will use your background color or its default background color. you would type: <BODY bgcolor="green"> Or you could use the hex code for green: <BODY bgcolor="#008000"> After doing this. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag. just add it in like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> To change the background color. Just replace color above with a color name or hex code. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. Once you have found the tag. If this is the case. If you don't use a background image. your page will have a green background. and add color your pages! 32 . It may look like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray"> Or the tag may have more commands inside and use hex codes. the background image will take the place of any background color you may have specified.gif" This adds a background image to your page. the command may not be there at all. if you wanted to change the background color to green. You can set this to any color you would like to use. Beautiful! Now just use any color you like in the command. If you use this attribute. like this: <BODY text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0" bgcolor="#808080"> And of course. For a list of common colors and hex codes. The default setting for a visited link is usually violet. like this: <BODY bgcolor="gray" text="#000000" link="#A6CAF0"> Or if you don't have any other commands. replace the word gray inside the quote marks with a color name or a color hex code. Using a Background Color Add or change the background color on your page If you want to use a background color on your page.

if you want to change the text color to red.Changing the Default Text Color How to change the default font color on your page Okay. replace the black between the quote marks with a color name or hex code. click here. to change your default text color in your HTML page. like this: <BODY text="#000000"> Of course. add this one onto the end. you may not see either of these. like this: <BODY bgcolor="blue" text="black"> Now. leaving a space after the previous command. So. if you'd like to change the color. If you have other commands. Now. add it to your BODY tag like one of the examples above. or you may be creating the page from scratch. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. you will need to find your body tag. You may have something like this: <BODY text="black"> You may also see a weird number/letter combination. If you don't have the extra command yet. you could use one of the following: Using a color name: <BODY text="red"> Or using a hex code: <BODY text="#FF0000"> 33 . look for the phrase text="" somewhere after the word BODY.

You can also do the same things for active and visited links by adding or editing their commands. you would type the following: <BODY link="red"> Or using the hex code: <BODY link="#FF0000"> Now.Changing the Link Color How to change the link color on your page If you want to change the link color on your page. If you need to add the commands. If so. like this: <BODY link="blue"> Now. For a list of some common color names and hex codes. Now look for a command after the word BODY that says link="color". It would look like this: <BODY link="blue"> Or the tag might have some other commands as well: <BODY bgcolor="#000000" text="#FFFFFF" link="#0000FF"> You may also just have the word BODY with nothing else there. if you would like to change the link color to red. to change the link color. you replace the word blue inside the quotes with a different color name or hex code. and add your colors! 34 . go ahead. click here. The commands are: alink="color" vlink="color" For the active link color For the visited link color You might have: <BODY link="blue" alink="blue" vlink="violet"> To change the other colors. So. all the links on your page will be colored red rather than blue. add the command after the word BODY. Just place a space between each command. do the same as you did for the link color. with a space between the two. you will need to begin by finding the <BODY> tag.

gif or .gif . which is available as shareware from JASC.sevenhills. you will need to locate the <BODY> tag in your document.com/images/next.com/image1.com/image1.mysite.jpg"> Now.gif"> Now. I would insert this into the command. you can just type the filename of the image rather than the full url. One program that will do this is Paint Shop Pro. or you may see a string of commands afterward.jpg . I would type in this: <BODY background="http://www. Now. like this: <BODY background="http://www. If not.com/images/next. and type the following: background=" " Now your body tag should look something like this (and may have more commands): <BODY background=" "> Now. and it is in the same directory as the page we are editing. skip a space. go to the end of the word BODY. So. So. as a real example. we are going to place the url of the image inside the quotation marks. we can type the command this way: <BODY background="image2.gif"> Your image should have the file extension . So.Using a Background Image How to add a background image to your page To add a background image to your page.jpg". you may see just the word BODY.sevenhills. When you have found it.gif to be the background image. if the image I want to use is at http://www. The url for the image is http://www. I will use an image from my server as a background on a page. if your image file is located in the same directory as your html file. It may look something like this: <BODY bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000"> What we are going to do is add a command after the word BODY. to use this as a background.jpg"> 35 . I could use the image by typing in just the filename.mysite. The name of the image is "next. So.jpg . if we want image2. you will want to covert it to one of these file types. if I put an html file in my "images" directory. like this: <BODY background="next.

Well. I'm going to place numbers inside those quotation marks. to make the image larger. Well. or maybe you wanted a larger version of the image on the screen. Well. Let's take a look at an example. I have an image called "next.jpg" width="300" height="200"> 36 . to change the size of the image. A typical screen is about 800 pixels wide and 600 pixels in height (though this varies with different video cards and moniters). I would then place these numbers into the commands. Maybe the image takes up the whole screen. you can resize the image by adding width and height commands to your image tag. the picture will be the new height and width I specified.jpg". The tag will now look like this: <IMG SRC="next. The picture looks like this: So. I'm going to add these two commands inside the image tag: width=" " and height=" " I'm going to place the commands after the initial command.jpg". you have an image you want to use. Here's what it would look like: Now. when I reload my page. IMG SRC="next. we will just insert larger numbers for the width and height: <IMG SRC="next.jpg" width=" " height=" "> Now. to make the image smaller.jpg" width="75" height="40"> Now. but it's just not the right size to go where you want it to go. suppose I want to make it smaller. let's say I wanted it to be 75 pixels wide and 40 pixels high. like this: <IMG SRC="next. The width and height are usually written in pixels.Resizing Images How to resize your images Okay. My image turns out to be 106 pixels wide and 65 pixels in height. All I need to do is know the original width and height of my image.

63 .63 Now take the answer and round up or down. it comes out to about 46. One reason for this is that I didn't keep the aspect ratio the same.jpg" width="75" height="46"> Now it looks like this: If you don't want to deal with math all the time (like me). and then find a height that would keep the aspect ratio of 106/65. if you want to make the width 75. just for the ease of use. Besides. I would use 46 as the height: <IMG SRC="next. here it is: 75/height = 1. you need to find the height that will make the ratio as close as possible to 1.Now the image looks like this: As you can see. In this case. I usually use my image program to do this.63 . Since the image was originally 106x65. When you calculate 106/65. I would have to decide on a width. So. or if you like solving equations. if I'm making the image smaller. You can guess at it for awhile. you can also resize it with a paint or image program (which will do the calculations for you) and upload the new version of the picture to your server. So.0123 . the paint program will make the file size smaller 37 . you get about 1. the images became somewhat distorted when I resized them.

Well. like this: <A NAME="cool"></A> -----The anchor name <A HREF="#cool">To the Cool Section of this page</A> section -----Linking to the named You can place a named anchor anyplace on your page. if you create an anchor named "cool". It can make navigating some pages a whole lot easier. you will be sent back to the top of the page. To do this. go anywhere between the body tags and type this link: <A HREF="#top">Back to the Top</A> If you click on this link. Now type the following tag: <A NAME="top"></A> You can place any name you wish inside the quotes. middle. This just makes it easy to see where we are going to end up. 38 . the way to do this is to use a named anchor. Or maybe you want to divide it into sections and use a table of contents at the top. the bottom. let's say you want to create a link to the top of your page. Maybe you would like to give someone a way back to the top of the page when they are at the bottom. or any other place Okay. go to the top of the body section (right after the body tag). Now. You can link to it from any other part of the page. you link to that anchor by using "#cool". the 500th word. You could link to any part of the page. lets say you have one page that is pretty long.. the top.Linking Within a Single Page Jump to the top. You can try one I made on this page by clicking on the link below: Back to top The # sign is there to let the browser know the destination is a named anchor within this page.. but for now. which is a specific area of your page you want to make a link to. So. You can place one at the third paragraph...

Here is an example. like this: <A HREF="mailto:your_email_address">E-mail Me!</A> Yes. all you need to do is replace the your_email_address with . notice that when you click it. you use "mailto:" rather than "http://" to begin the address.The E-mail Link How to create an email link To create an e-mail link on your page. to create an email link to myself.your e-mail address. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills... all you need to do is use the standard link tag.. Mail Me! 39 . You do this by adding a "?" at the end of your e-mail address and then your subject.com in that space.com?subject=Enquiry">Mail Me!</A> The example link is below. To force the browser to read it as an e-mail link.. like this: <A HREF="mailto:info@sevenhills. you will use your e-mail address rather than a web address. The trick is in what you use as the address of the link. I would place info@sevenhills. the subject field of your email message is already filled in with "Enquiry". with my e-mail address already filled in. Send me whatever you want. After the "mailto:".maybe your joke of the day or something! You can also create the subject of the message so the viewer doesn't have to fill in something in the subject line. your browser will bring up a window for you to send me email.com">Give me some mail!</A> Here is the resulting link: Give me some mail! If you click on the link.

It was done using a "question mark" followed by subject= and then the subject: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com. For instance. To send a carbon copy.com"> Mail Me</A> If you want all three. if you want to combine more than one of these commands after the question mark.com?bcc=friend@friend. there are a couple of extras you can also add.com?cc=friend@friend.com? subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend.com?bcc=friend@friend.The E-mail Link: More More tricks for the email link we saw how to add the subject to a message through the e-mail link. you add the cc= command after the question mark.com"> Mail Me</A> Now. other@other. if you want a subject and a blind carbon copy.com?subject=Hi&bcc=friend@friend. a blind carbon copy recipient.com"> Mail Me</A> With that. You can add a carbon copy recipient. or use a combination of the subject with either or both of these. except you use the bcc= command instead: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.and if you run a site with a partner you can both get an e-mail when someone uses that link. it would look like this: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com"> Mail Me</A> The same goes for a blind carbon copy. 40 .com"> Mail Me</A> With either of these. followed by the e-mail address of the person you want to send the carbon copy to: <A HREF="mailto:you@you. use the "&" sign again: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com&cc=other@other. you add them in using an "&" sign at the end of the first command. you can have some more fun with your e-mail links-. you can send the copies to multiple addresses by separating them with commas: <A HREF="mailto:you@you.com?subject=Hi">Mail Me</A> On top of adding the subject.

cellpadding: The amount padding between cells and the each cell wall in a table. <table> The <table> tag specifies the presence of a table. and <td>. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. 100%). The number indicates the thickness of the border. <tr> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a row.HTML Table This section lists the tags often used with HTML tables: <table>. cellspacing: The amount spacing between the cell wall and the cell border. rowspan: This specifies the number of rows this particular row occupies. <tr>. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this table: • • • • • Width: This specifies the width of the table. Example 1 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> 41 . Height: This specifies the height of the row. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this row: • • • bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this row. Border: This specifies whether the table will have a border. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this table. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. Can be specified in pixels or in relative terms (for example. colspan: This specifies the number of columns this particular column occupies. The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. 50%). The color value may be specified as the color name or the six-character color code. This is very often used in conjunction with the <tr> and the <td> tags. The following attributes are commonly used to define the properties of this column: • • • • valign: Width: This specifies the width of the column. The areas enclosed by the cell walls are the maximum amount of area that text can be displayed in a cell. <td> The <tr> tag specifies the presence of a column. Columns are specified within each row. bgcolor: This specifies the background color for this column.

<tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 2 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr><td width=200>Element 1</td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 3 HTML: <table border=1 width=500> <tr bgcolor=red><td width=200><b>Element 1</b></td><td width=150>Element 2</td><td width=150>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td bgcolor=55ff55>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td><i>Element 6</i></td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 4 HTML: <table border=1> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td colspan=2>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 2 Element 3 Element 4 Element 5 42 .

HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 HTML Frame This section introduces the tags related to HTML frames: <frameset> and <frame>. 43 . HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=10> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 7: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes. HTML: <table border=1 cellspacing=10 cellpadding=0> <tr><td>Element 1</td><td>Element 2</td><td>Element 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Element 4</td><td>Element 5</td><td>Element 6</td></tr> </table> Display: Element 1 Element 4 Element 2 Element 5 Element 3 Element 6 Example 6: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes.Example 5: cellspacing and cellpadding attributes.

Note that you may embed a frameset within another frameset. Therefore.<frameset> The <frameset> tag specifies the number of columns/rows on a frame. The attributes include: • Cols: Specifies the number of columns. 60%" means that there will be two rows. please consider using the frame feature carefully. the first column occupies 30% of the available space. rows="40%. while the second column occupies 70% of the available space. • <frame> The <frame> tag specifies the properties within a particular frame. as well as the width of each row. Scrolling: This attribute specifies whether users may scroll up and down within this frame.50%"> <frameset rows="100%"> <frame src="frame1.html"> <frame src="frame3. while the second row occupies 60% of the available space. For example. For example. noresize: This attribute specifies whether users may resize the frame. Note that search engines typically do not like the use of the frames. Rows: Specifies the number of rows. the first row occupies 40% of the available space.70%" means that there will be two columns. The attributes include: • • • • • src: This attribute specifies the HTML document source.50%"> <frame src="frame2. marginheight: The margin on the top and bottom of the frame. cols="30%. marginwidth: The margin on the left and right side of the frame. Example 1 HTML: <frameset cols="50%.html"> </frameset> </frameset> 44 . as well as the width of each column. The possible values are {yes|no|auto}.html"> </frameset> <frameset rows="50%.

the following URL: http://www. [section specifying the value for each key] .. <input type=submit> gives a button that the user clicks when she is ready to submit the information. separated by '&'. The key for the first key-value pair is 'c'. How are key-value pair specified? They are specified by the <form> tag. data is typically passed as a keyvalue pair. <input type=submit value=Go> </form> The text after action= specifies the script to be executed after the user submits the information. For example. in this case 'Go'.xyz. This is shown below: The following list gives the most common ways for users to specify the value: • • • • Text input Radio button Checkbox Drop-down menu 45 .com/example?c=1&d=title has two separate key-value pairs. The key for the second key-value pair is 'd'. and the value is '1'. On the web. The value=Go piece specifies the text appearing on the button. The general format is as follows: <form action=xxx> .HTML Forms Forms are used in HTML to pass data.. and its value is 'title'...

There are three common types of text input: • Text: In this type of input. Here. The key for this textarea input is 'area'. Below is an example. The texts typed do not appear directly on the web page. Below is an example: Text example: • Textbox: In this type of input. the key for this text input value is 'c'. Here. The most common scenario is when users have to enter a username and password to enter a site. we get a multi-lin text book to enter data. The syntax is <input type=text name=c>. the key for this password input is 'pwd'. we get a single-line text box to enter data. Below is an example: Text example: • þÿ Password: In this type of input. The texts typed appear directly on the web page. with [row height] = 2: Text area example: 46 .Text Input One way users can enter data into a HTML document is via text. The texts typed appear directly on the web page. we get a single-line text box to enter data. The syntax is <textarea rows= [row height] name=area>. The syntax is <input type=password name=pwd>.

and the values can be either red. green. such as follows: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> 47 .Radio Button A second type of input is the radio button. Radio buttons are used when you want users to be able to select one and only one of the options. If we want to pre-select a radio button. depending on the radio button selected. or blue. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag. the key is color. Below is an example: Code: <input type="radio" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="radio" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case.

the key is color. we'll specify "checked" at the end of the <input> tag. green. depending on the check box(es) selected. or blue.Checkbox Another type of input is the check box. the "color" key will then have multiple values. Check boxes are used when you want users to be able to select more than one of the options. and the values can be either red. Below is an example: Code: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red">Red<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="green">Green<br> <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="blue">Blue<br> Red Green Blue In this case. If multiple check boxes are checked. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" checked>Red<br> 48 . If we want to pre-select a check box.

If we want to pre-select a check box. i.. or blue. we'll specify "selected" at the end of the <input> tag. and the values can be either red. Users can select one or more items in a drop-down menu. such as follows: <input type="checkbox" name="color" value="red" selected>Red<br> If we want to select multiple items. depending on the item selected. For example. Below is an example for a single-selection drop down menu: Code: <select name=color> <option value="red">Red</option> <option value="green">Green</option> <option value="blue">Blue</option> þÿ In this case. selecting a state is often done via a drop down menu. green. <select name=color multiple> þÿ 49 .e.Drop Down Menu Drop down menu is another common way to specify input data. we specify "multiple" at the end of the <select> tag. the key is color.

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