You are on page 1of 26

LORE OF RUNNING

FOURTH EDITION, 2002

TIM NOAKES, MD

Brief Contents
Foreword v
Preface to the Fourth Edition vi
Acknowledgements vii
Introductions: Some Reflections on Running ix

Part I Physiology and Biochemistry of Running 1


Chapter 1 Muscle Structure and Function 3
Chapter 2 Oxygen Transport and Running Economy 23
Chapter 3 Energy Systems and Running Performance 92
Chapter 4 Temperature Regulation During Exercise 175

Part II Training Basics 257


Chapter 5 Developing a Training Foundation 258
Chapter 6 Learning From the Experts 361
Chapter 7 Avoiding Overtraining 484
Chapter 8 Training the Mind 514

Part III Transferring Training to Racing 563


Chapter 9 10k to Half-Marathon 566
Chapter 10 Marathon 596
Chapter 11 Ultramarathon 641
Chapter 12 Pushing the Limits of Performance 670

Part IV Running Health 697


Chapter 13 Ergogenic Aids 698
Chapter 14 Staying Injury Free 739
Chapter 15 Running and Your Health 838
References 922
Index 922
About the Author 931
Expanded Contents

Part I Physiology and Biochemistry of Running 1


Chapter 1 Muscle Structure and Function 3
1.1 Structural Components Of Skeletal Muscle 3
1.2 Biochemical Events of Muscle Contraction 8
1.3 Types of Muscle Fibers 13
1.4 Concentric and Eccentric Muscle Contractions 19
1.5 Final Word 21

Chapter 2 Oxygen Transport and Running Economy 23


2.1 How Oxygen Reaches the Muscles 23
2.2 The Concept of V.O2Max 25
2.3 Factors That Affect V.O2Max 41
2.4 V.O2Max Values of Elite Athletes 45
2.5 V.O2Max and Running Economy 46
2.6 Factors That Affect Running Economy 50
2.7 Training to Improve Running Economy 62
2.8 Predicting Running Performance 64
2.9 Changes with Aging 80
2.10 Final Word 91

Chapter 3 Energy Systems and Running Performance 92


3.1 How the Body Uses Food 92
3.2 How the Body Stores Fuel 100
3.3 Factors Affecting Food Storage and Rate of Usage 106
3.4 Factors That Affect the Type of Fuel Used 119
3.5 Carbohydrate Loading and Depletion 140
3.6 Energy Production During Supra-Maximal Exercise 154
3.7 Metabolic Adaptations To Training 164
3.8 Effects of Training and Detraining 169
3.9 Hereditary Capacity to Adapt to Endurance Training 173
3.10 Final Word 174

Chapter 4 Temperature Regulation During Exercise 175


4.1 Temperature Regulation During Exercise 176
4.2 Factors That Affect Heat Balance 177
4.3 Preventing Heat-Impaired Performance 196
4.4 Heat Hazards 231
4.5 Treating Collapsed Athletes 247
4.6 Cold Hazards 252
4.7 Final Word 254
Part II Training Basics 257
Chapter 5 Developing a Training Foundation 258
5.1 Step 1: Analyze Your Motivation and Discipline 259
5.2 Step 2: Decide If You Need Medical Clearance 261
5.3 Step 3: Choose Appropriate Running Shoes 264
5.4 Step 4: Choose Appropriate Clothing 273
5.5 Step 5: Learn the 15 Laws of Training 274
5.6 Follow These Practical Tips 325
5.7 Step 7: Start With a Planned Training Program 330
5.8 Step 8: Enter Progressively Longer Races 339
5.9 Step 9: Learn From Personal Experience 340
5.10 Step 10: Set Realistic Training and Racing Goals 340
5.11 Step 11: Set Year-Long Training Goals 341
5.12 Step 12: Decide Whether to Alternate Training Volumes Weekly 344
5.13 Step 13: View Each Race As A Scientific Experiment 344
5.14 Step 14: Beware of the Selfish Runners Syndrome 345
5.15 Risks and Benefits of Training at a Young Age 347
5.16 Guidelines for the Participation of Children in Sport 355
5.17 Final Word 360

Chapter 6 Learning From the Experts 361


6.1 Historical Overview 361
6.2 Distances From the Mile to the Marathon 363
6.3 Africas Expert Runners 433
6.4 Distances From 50 to 100 Kilometers 448
6.5 Distances of More Than 100 Kilometers 460
6.6 Conclusions: Training Methods of the Elite 476
6.7 Final Word 483

Chapter 7 Avoiding Overtraining 484


7.1 Indicators of Overtraining 485
7.2 Preventing Overtraining 487
7.3 Predictive Factors 495
7.4 Physiological Changes 500
7.5 Psychological Changes 507
7.6 Differentiating Overtraining From Other Conditions 508
7.7 Treating Overtraining 509
7.8 Finite Physical Activity 510
7.9 Final Word 513

Chapter 8 Training the Mind 514


8.1 Bannisters Mental Approach 514
8.2 Other Mental Approaches 517
8.3 Psychological Preparation for Sport 528
8.4 Psychological Preparation for Competition 535
8.5 Psychological Benefits of Running 544
8.6 Psychological Addiction of Running 548
8.7 Psychology of Injury 556
8.8 Final Word 560

Part III Transferring Training to Racing 563


Chapter 9 10k to Half-Marathon 566
9.1 Jeff Galloways Training Program 566
9.2 Jack Daniels Training Program 567
9.3 Pete Pfitzingers Training Program 571
9.4 Grete Waitzs Training Advice 572
9.5 Race Preparation 572
9.6 After You Race 595
9.7 Race Recovery When to Race Again 595
9.8 Final Word 595

Chapter 10 Marathon 596


10.1 The Marathon Boom 597
10.2 Tim Noakes Beginners Program 598
10.3 Tim Noakes Advanced Program 600
10.4 Jeff Galloways Programs 606
10.5 Joe Hendersons Programs 610
10.6 Art Libermans Beginners Program 611
10.7 Bob Williams Advanced Program 612
10.8 Pete Pfitzingers Advanced Program 613
10.9 Jack Daniels Advanced Program 614
10.10 Individual Result May Vary 616
10.11 Preparing to Race 616
10.12 After Your Race 638
10.13 Final Word 640

Chapter 11 Ultramarathon 641


11.1 Training Programs for Beginners 641
11.2 Intermediate Training Programs 645
11.3 Training Programs for Elite Runners 650
11.4 Preparing to Race 651
11.5 After Your Race 663
11.6 Race Recovery 664
11.7 Running Ultras As You Age 665
11.8 Final Word 669

Chapter 12 Pushing the Limits of Performance 670


12.1 Physiological Basis of Records 670
12.2 Predicting Performance Limits 677
12.3 Predicting Future World Records 685
12.4 Final Word 695

Part IV Running Health 697


Chapter 13 Ergogenic Aids 698
13.1 How Much Benefit Can You Expect 699
13.2 Intervention With Proven Ergogenic Effects 700
13.3 Intervention Without Proven Benefit 732
13.4 Ergolytic Substances 737
13.5 Final Word 738

Chapter 14 Staying Injury Free 739


14.1 Ten Laws of Running Injuries 741
14.2 Injury Self-Treatments 759
14.3 Types of Injuries 789
14.4 Final Word 837

Chapter 15 Running and Your Health 838


15.1 Exercise and the Respiratory System 839
15.2 Exercise and the Cardiovascular System 842
15.3 Running and the Gastrointestinal System 874
15.4 Exercise and Menstruation 884
15.5 Exercise and Other Cancers 902
15.6 Exercise and Male Fertility 903
15.7 Exercise and Female Fertility 905
15.8 Exercise and Pregnancy 907
15.9 Running and Iron Deficiency 913
15.10 Running and the Immune System 917
15.11 Headaches and Other Neurological Conditions 917
15.12 Endorphins and the Runners High 918
15.13 Running and Diabetes 919
15.14 Final Word 921
LORE OF RUNNING
FOURTH EDITION, 2002

TIM NOAKES, MD

Brief Contents
Foreword v
Preface to the Fourth Edition vi
Acknowledgements vii
Introductions: Some Reflections on Running ix

Part I Physiology and Biochemistry of Running 1


Chapter 1 Muscle Structure and Function 3
Chapter 2 Oxygen Transport and Running Economy 23
Chapter 3 Energy Systems and Running Performance 92
Chapter 4 Temperature Regulation During Exercise 175

Part II Training Basics 257


Chapter 5 Developing a Training Foundation 258
Chapter 6 Learning From the Experts 361
Chapter 7 Avoiding Overtraining 484
Chapter 8 Training the Mind 514

Part III Transferring Training to Racing 563


Chapter 9 10k to Half-Marathon 566
Chapter 10 Marathon 596
Chapter 11 Ultramarathon 641
Chapter 12 Pushing the Limits of Performance 670

Part IV Running Health 697


Chapter 13 Ergogenic Aids 698
Chapter 14 Staying Injury Free 739
Chapter 15 Running and Your Health 838
References 922
Index 922
About the Author 931
Comprehensive Table of Contents

Part I Physiology and Biochemistry of Running 1


Chapter 1 Muscle Structure and Function 3
1.1 Structural Components Of Skeletal Muscle 3
1.1.1 Myofibrils, Sarcomeres, and Myofilaments 4
Figure 1.1 The Structure of Muscle 4
Figure 1.2 An Electronmicrograph of Skeletal Muscle 4
Figure 1.3 The Structure of Sarcomeres 6
1.1.2 Mitochondria 7
1.1.3 Fat Droplets 7
1.1.4 Glycogen 8
1.2 Biochemical Events of Muscle Contraction 8
Figure 1.4 Nerve Impulse Pathways 9
Figure 1.5 The Molecular Mechanism in Muscle Contraction 10
Figure 1.6 Muscle Contraction Models Compared 11
Article 1.1 The Cross-Bridge Cycle 11
1.3 Types of Muscle Fibers 13
1.3.1 Fibre Type Composition: Sprinters Versus Endurance Athletes 14
Table 1.1 Muscle Fiber Composition in Athletes 14
Table 1.2 Physiological and Physical Requirements 15
Article 1.2 Only the Fast and Strong Die Young 16
1.3.2 Training to Develop Specific Muscle Fiber Types 17
1.4 Concentric and Eccentric Muscle Contractions 19
1.5 Final Word 21

Chapter 2 Oxygen Transport and Running Economy 23


2.1 How Oxygen Reaches the Muscles 23
Figure 2.1 Oxygen Pathways 24
.
2.2 The Concept of V O2Max 25
2.2.1 Early Studies 25
Figure 2.2 Anaerobic Energy Production During Progressive Exercise 26
Figure 2.3 Oxygen Consumption and Running Speed 27
2.2.2 Measuring V.O2Max 27
2.2.3 Cardiovascular/Anaerobic Model 28
Figure 2.4 Exhaustion in the Cardiovascular/Anaerobic Model 29
Figure 2.5 Inadequate Blood Flow in the Hill Model 30
2.2.4 Central Governor Model 33
Figure 2.6 Termination Mechanisms During Maximal Exercise 34
Figure 2.7 Physiological Limiting Factors 35
2.2.5 Muscle Power Model 37
Article 2.1Athletic Mammals 38
2.2.6 Using V.O2Max Correctly 39
Table 2.1 V.O2Max Values in Elite Athletes 40
2.3 Factors That Affect V.O2Max 41
2.3.1 Age 41
2.3.2 Gender 42
2.3.3 Fitness and Training 42
2.3.4 Changes in Altitude 42
2.3.5 Ventilatory Muscle Action 44
.
2.4 V O2Max Values of Elite Athletes 45
Table 2.2 V.O2Max Values and Marathon Times 46
2.5 V.O2Max and Running Economy 46
Table 2.3 Running Efficiencies of Elite Athletes Compared to Children 48
Article 2.2 Why V.O2Max Doesnt Necessarily Predict Performance 49
Figure 2.9 Comparison of Running Economy, Running Speed, and V.O2Max 49
2.6 Factors That Affect Running Economy 50
2.6.1 Up-and-Down Movement 50
2.6.2 Muscle Capacity to Store Energy 51
2.6.3 Biomechanical Factors 53
2.6.4 Technique and Type of Activity 53
2.6.5 Fitness and Training 54
2.6.6 Age 54
2.6.7 Fatigue 54
2.6.8 Gender 56
2.6.9 Race 56
2.6.10 Added Weight of Clothing and Shoes 57
2.6.11 Environmental Conditions 58
Figure 2.10 Additional Oxygen Costs of Hills and Headwinds 60
2.7 Training to Improve Running Economy 62
Figure 2.11 A Nike Shox Running Shoe 63
2.8 Predicting Running Performance 64
Figure 2.12 Comparative Fatigue Resistances of Elite Athletes 65
2.8.1 Prediction Tables 66
2.8.1.1 Davies-Thompson 67
Figure 2.13 Sustainable Exercise Intensity based on Davies-Thompson 67
Table 2.3 Predicted Running Times based on Davies-Thompson 68
2.8.1.2 Daniels-Gilbert 71
Table 2.4 Predicted Running Times based on Daniels-Gilbert 72
Table 2.5 Performance Ratings of World Records based on Daniels-Gilbert 74
2.8.1.3 Osler 71
Table 2.6 Predicted Running Times based on Osler 76
2.8.1.4 Gardner-Purdy 72
Table 2.7 Predicted Running Times based on Gardner-Purdy 78
2.8.1.5 Mercier-Leger-Desjardins 74
Figure 2.14 Predicting Running Performance based On Mercier-Leger-Desjardins 75
2.8.2 Using the Tables to Predict Performance 78
2.9 Changes with Aging 80
2.9.1 Reduction in V.O2Max 80
Figure 2.15 Reduction in V.O2Max and Age 81
2.9.2 Muscular Components 82
Figure 2.16 Microscopic Picture of Healthy and Diseased Skeletal Muscle 83
2.9.3 Body Composition 83
2.9.4 Training Changes 84
Figure 2.17 Predicting Maximum Longevity with Reduction in V.O2Max 85
2.9.5 Capacity to Absorb Landing Forces 85
Figure 2.18 Number of Years Running for Age-Group Record Holders 86
Figure 2.19 Annual Training Distance and Age 87
Figure 2.20 Average Running Speed and Age 88
2.9.6 Recovery 90
2.9.7 Chronic Orthopedic Disabilities 90
2.9.8 Ability to Adapt to Training 91
2.10 Final Word 91

Chapter 3 Energy Systems and Running Performance 92


3.1 How the Body Uses Food 92
Figure 3.1 The Passage and Digestion of Food in the Intestine 93
3.1.1 Carbohydrate 93
Article 3.1 Hypoglycemia 94
Figure 3.2 The Pathways for Carbohydrate and Fat Metabolism 96
3.1.2 Fat 96
3.1.3 Protein 97
Article 3.2 Energy Supply Model 98
Figure 3.3 Changes in Power Output and Electromyographic (EMG) Activity 100
3.2 How the Body Stores Fuel 100
Figure 3.4 Percentage by Weight of Organs and Energy Stores 101
3.2.1 Carbohydrate Storage 102
Table 3.1 Effects of Interventions on Glycogen Stores 104
3.2.2 Fat Storage 104
Figure 3.5 Percentage Body Fat by Gender 105
3.2.3 Protein Storage 105
3.3 Factors Affecting Food Storage and Rate of Usage 106
3.3.1 Exercise Intensity and Duration 106
Figure 3.6 Rates of Glycogen and Exercise Intensity and Duration 107
3.3.2 Eating a High-Carbohydrate Diet 108
Figure 3.7 Effects of Carbohydrate Depletion/Loading on Glycogen Levels 109
Figure 3.8 Glycogen Changes in Trained Athletes Undergoing CHO loading 111
3.3.2.1 The Energy Depletion Model 111
Figure 3.9 Pre-exercise Glycogen Concentrations and Exercise Duration 113
Figure 3.10 Hypoglycemia in Low Carbohydrate Diet 114
3.3.2.2 Replenting Muscle Glycogen Without Food 118
3.4 Factors That Affect the Type of Fuel Used 119
3.4.1 Exercise Intensity 120
Figure 3.11 Carbohydrate Energy and Reduction in Fat Oxidation Energy 120
Figure 3.12 Fat Oxidation Energy During Various Exercise Intensities 122
3.4.2 Exercise Duration 123
3.4.3 Degree of Fitness 123
Figure 3.13 Percentage Contribution to Total Energy Expenditure 124
3.4.5 Carbohydrate Stores 124
3.4.6 What Was Last Eaten and When 125
3.4.7 Ingesting Caffeine and Fat 127
3.4.8 Ingesting a High Carbohydrate Meal 128
Figure 3.14 Glucose and Insulin [ ] After High/Low CHO Ingestion 129
Table 3.2 Food Classification According to the Glycemic Index 130
Article 3.3 Exercise-Related Hypoglycemia 131
Figure 3.15 Gert Thys 132
3.4.9 Nicotinic Acid Concentrations 133
3.4.10 Fasting Before Exercise 133
3.4.11 Taking in Fuel During Exercise 133
Figure 3.16 Percentage Contribution to Total Energy Expenditure 134
3.4.12 The Athletes Regular Diet 135
3.4.13 Gender 136
3.4.14 Environmental Temperature 136
3.4.15 Warming Up 136
3.4.16 Increasing Carbohydrate Stores Before Exercise 137
3.5 Carbohydrate Loading and Depletion 140
3.5.1 Reducing the Rate of Muscle Glycogen Use 140
Article 3.4 Why the Hawaiian Ironman Triathlon Is a Metabolic Impossibility 141
Figure 3.17 V.O2 , % V.O2Max , and Rates of Energy Expenditure 142
Figure 3.18 Ironman Simulation 143
3.5.2 Maintaining Liver Glycogen Stores 143
Article 3.5 Central Governors Role During Prolonged Exercise 144
Figure 3.19 Effects of Carbohydrate Ingestion 145
Figure 3.20 Power Outputs, Electromyographic (EMG), and Time 146
3.5.3 Preventing Hypoglycemia 148
3.5.3.1 Carbohydrate Ingestion during Exercise 150
3.5.3.2 Pre-Exercise Carbo Loading 151
3.5.3.3 Type and Amount of Carbohydrate 152
3.5.4 Restocking Glycogen 152
3.6 Energy Production During Supramaximal Exercise 154
3.6.1 ATP and PCr Stores 154
3.6.2 Oxygen-Independent Glycolysis 154
Figure 3.21 Changes in Blood Lactate and Glycogen During Intervals 156
3.6.3 Lactate Metabolism 157
Figure 3.22 Blood Lactate Concentrations and Running Speed 158
Article 3.6 Biochemical Explanations for Increased Lactate 160
Figure 3.23 Training Increases Lactate Turnpoint 160
3.6.3.1 Lactate Turnpoint 161
3.6.3.2 Conconi Test 162
3.6.3.3 Lactate Shuttle 162
3.6.3.4 Lactate and Exhaustion 163
3.6.3.5 Lactate Removal After Exercise 163
3.6.3.6 High-Intensity Training and Lactate Metabolism 164
3.7 Metabolic Adaptations To Training 164
3.7.1 Increased Capillarization 165
3.7.2 Glycolytic Pathway Adaptations 165
3.7.3 Changes in the Mitochondria 166
Figure 3.24 Training Increases the Rate of ATP Production 166
3.7.4 Changes in Muscle Contractility 168
3.7.5 Increased Capacity to Recruit Muscle Mass 168
Article 3.7 Effects of Short-Term Training 169
3.8 Effects of Training and Detraining 169
3.9 Hereditary Capacity to Adapt to Endurance Training 173
3.10 Final Word 174

Chapter 4 Temperature Regulation During Exercise 175


Figure 4.1 Rates of Energy Expenditure and Running Speeds 176
4.1 Temperature Regulation During Exercise 176
4.2 Factors That Affect Heat Balance 177
4.2.1 Exercise Intensity 177
4.2.2 Wind 179
4.2.3 High Temperatures 179
Article 4.1 Why All Great Marathoners Are Small 180
Figure 4.2 Josiah Thugwane, Winner 1996 Atlanta Olympic Marathon 180
Figure 4.3 Height and BMI of Boston Marathon Winners Over Time 181
Figure 4.4 Predicted Rates of Heat Production and Heat Loss 182
Figure 4.5 Predicted Rates of Heat Production and Heat Loss 183
Figure 4.6 Predicted Maximum Running Speeds and Body Mass 183
Figure 4.7 Predicted Rates of Heat Production and Heat Loss 184
4.2.4 Low Temperatures 185
4.2.5 Cloud Cover 185
Article 4.2 The WBGT Index 185
4.2.6 Clothing 186
Figure 4.8 Insulation Requirements and Air Temperatures 187
4.2.7 Heat Acclimatization 187
4.2.8 Dehydration 188
4.3 Preventing Heat-Impaired Performance 196
4.3.1 Sponging the Body 197
4.3.2 Ingesting Fluids 197
4.3.2.1 Before Exercise 197
4.3.2.2 During Exercise 199
Figure 4.9 Postrace Rectal Temperature and Level of Dehydration 200
Article 4.3 ACSMs Fluid Replacement Guidelines: Not Evidence-Based 201
4.3.2.3 Ingestion Equal to Sweat Rate 204
Figure 4.10 Postrace Rectal Temperature and Level of Dehydration 205
4.3.2.4 Calculating the Sweat Rate 207
4.3.2.5 Rate of fluid Ingestion and Absorption 209
Table 4.1 Factors Determining the Gastric Emptying Rate 210
4.3.2.6 Electrolyte Content of Fluid 213
Table 4.2 Electrolyte and the Effects of Fitness and Heat Acclimatization 214
Table 4.3 Drinks to Optimize Absorption of Carbohydrates and Water 216
Article 4.4 Ann Trasons Salt Ingestion During Ultramarathons 217
4.3.2.7 Carbohydrate and Fat Content of Fluid 218
Figure 4.11 Various Factors on the Rate of Gastric Emptying 218
Article 4.5 Drinking Patterns and Rates of Carbohydrate and Fluid Delivery 219
Figure 4.12 Changes in Gastric Volumes Following Ingestion 222
Figure 4.13 Changes in Gastric Volumes and Rates of Delivery 223
Article 4.6 Muscle Uptake of Carbohydrate 224
4.3.2.8 During Recovery 229
4.3.3 The Ideal Sports Drink 229
4.4 Heat Hazards 231
Figure 4.14 Jim Peters, Collapsing Near the Finish of 1954 Marathon 232
4.4.1 Heatstroke 233
4.4.1.1 Diagnosing Heatstroke 233
Article 4.7 Heat Injury in Children During Exercise 234
4.4.1.2 Treating Heatstroke 236
Article 4.8 How Best to Treat Heatstroke Forgotten Lessons 237
4.4.1.3 Preventing Heatstroke 239
4.4.2 Other Heat-Related Disorders 241
4.4.2.1 Heat Cramps 242
4.4.2.2 Heat Exhaustion 243
4.4.2.3 Exercise-Associated Collapse (EAC) 245
4.5 Treating Collapsed Athletes 247
4.5.1 Initial Management 248
Table 4.4 Guidelines for Determining the Severity of the Condition 249
4.5.2 Diagnostic Steps for Collapsed, Unconscious Athletes 250
4.5.3 Diagnostic Steps for Collapsed, Conscious Athletes 251
Article 4.9 Avoiding the Hazards of Sunburn 252
4.6 Cold Hazards 252
4.6.1 Hypothermia 252
4.6.2 Frostbite 254
4.7 Final Word 254

Part II Training Basics 257


Chapter 5 Developing a Training Foundation 258
5.1 Step 1: Analyze Your Motivation and Discipline 259
5.2 Step 2: Decide If You Need Medical Clearance 261
5.3 Step 3: Choose Appropriate Running Shoes 264
5.3.1 Shoes for Novices 264
5.3.1.1 Shoe Anatomy 264
Figure 5.1 Anatomical Features of the Typical Running Shoe 264
Figure 5.2 The Thumb Compression Test 266
Figure 5.3 The Noakes Running Shoe Pronation Testing Technique 268
Figure 5.4 Testing the Strength of the Heel-Counter of the Running Shoe 169
5.3.1.2 Ensuring Proper Fit 271
5.3.2 Shoes for Experienced, Uninjured Runners 272
5.4 Step 4: Choose Appropriate Clothing 273
5.5 Step 5: Learn the 15 Laws of Training 274
Article 5.1 Arthur Newtons Contributions to Training 274
5.5.1 Law 1: Train Frequently, All Year-Round 275
Table 5.1 Alec Newtons 16 Week Marathon Training Program 277
5.5.2 Law 2: Start Gradually and Train Gently 278
Table 5.2A The Original Borg Scale Rating Perception of Effort (RPE) 280
Table 5.2B The Category-Ratio Scale of Perceived Exertion-the New Borg Scale 280
Table 5.3 Maximum Heart Rates and Target Range for Different Ages 282
Figure 5.5 The Five Heart Rate Training Zones 282
Table 5.4 Exercise Prescription According to Five Training HR Zones 283
Article 5.2 Using Heart Rate Monitors in Training 284
5.5.3 Law 3: Train First for Distance, Only Later for Speed 286
5.5.4 Law 4: Dont Set Your Daily Training Schedule in Stone 289
5.5.5 Law 5: Alternate Hard and Easy Training 290
5.5.6 Law 6: Achieve As Much As Possible on a Minimum of Training 291
Figure 5.6 Determining Your Optimal Training Load 293
Article 5.3 Quantifying Your Training Load 293
Table 5.5 The Modified Borg Scale to Calculate Training Load 294
Figure 5.7 The Effects of Different Training Loads on Racing Performance 295
5.5.7 Law 7: Dont Race When in Training 295
5.5.8 Law 8: Specialize 297
Figure 5.8 Boston Billy Rodgers 300
5.5.9 Law 9: Incorporate Base Training and Sharpening 301
Figure 5.9 The Forbes Carlile Yearly Training Plan 302
5.5.9.1 Base Training 303
5.5.9.2 Sharpening 304
Article 5.4 The Science of Sharpening Training 304
Figure 5.10 The Theory Behind Peaking 307
Table 5.6 Training Paces based on J. Daniels (1998) VDOT Method 313
Table 5.7 Optimum Running Times for Interval Training 317
5.5.10 Law 10: Prevent Overtraining 317
5.5.11 Law 11: Train With a Coach 318
5.5.12 Law 12: Train the Mind 319
5.5.13 Law 13: Rest Before a Big Race 320
Article 5.5 The Science of Tapering 320
5.5.14 Law 14: Keep a Detailed Logbook 322
5.5.15 Law 15: Understand the Holism of Training 325
5.6 Follow These Practical Tips 325
5.6.1 Learn Proper Breathing 326
Figure 5.11 Learning How to Belly Breathe 327
5.6.2 Train with Company 327
5.6.3 Choose Safe and Appropriate Training Routes 327
5.6.4 Stretch and Strengthen Regularly 328
5.6.5 Eat What Your Body Dictates 329
5.6.6 Get Enough Sleep 329
5.6.7 Be Sensible About Weather Conditions 329
5.6.8 Dont Let Running Become a Cause of Stress 330
5.7 Step 7: Start With a Planned Training Program 330
5.7.1 Basic Beginners Marathon Program 331
Table 5.8 A 20-Week Training Schedule for Beginners 332
Article 5.6 To run Faster, Walk More? 333
5.7.2 Grete Waitzs Beginners Program 337
Table 5.9 Grete Waitzs Training Program for Beginners 337
5.7.3 Jeff Galloways Beginners Program 338
Table 5.10 Jeff Galloways Training Program for Beginners 339
5.8 Step 8: Enter Progressively Longer Races 339
5.9 Step 9: Learn From Personal Experience 340
5.10 Step 10: Set Realistic Training and Racing Goals 340
5.11 Step 11: Set Year-Long Training Goals 341
Table 5.11 Division of Yearly Training Hours 342
Table 5.12 Training Volumes for Endurance Sports 343
5.12 Step 12: Decide Whether to Alternate Training Volumes Weekly 344
5.13 Step 13: View Each Race As A Scientific Experiment 344
5.14 Step 14: Beware of the Selfish Runners Syndrome 345
5.15 Risks and Benefits of Training at a Young Age 347
Figure 5.13 Haile Gebrselassie, winner 2000 Sydney Olympic 10,000m 349
5.15.1 Are There Benefits of Intensive Training at a Young Age? 350
5.15.2 Is There a Risk of Physical Burnout? 352
5.15.3 What Are the Effects of Parental and Coaching Pressures? 353
5.15.4 What Do Children Desire From Sport? 355
5.16 Guidelines for the Participation of Children in Sport 355
Table 5.13 The Importance of Values With Sporting Participation 356
5.16.1 Coachs Role 357
5.16.2 Parents Role 358
5.17 Final Word 360

Chapter 6 Learning From the Experts 361


6.1 Historical Overview 361
6.2 Distances From the Mile to the Marathon 363
6.2.1 Deerfoot 363
6.2.2 Walter George 364
Figure 6.1 Walter George with Arthur Newton 364
6.2.3 Len Hurst 365
6.2.4 Joe Binks 366
6.2.5 Alfred Shrubb 366
Table 6.1 Training of Alfred Shrubb 367
6.2.6 Hannes Kolehmainen 368
6.2.7 Clarence DeMar 368
Figure 6.2 Clarence DeMar 369
6.2.8 Paavo Nurmi 370
Article 6.1 The Finnish Training Methods of Kolehmainen and Nurmi 376
Table 6.2 Pre-Competition Training for a Finnish 1,500m Olympian 377
6.2.9 Arthur Newton 379
Table 6.3 Pre-Competition Training for a Finnish Olympic Marathoner 379
Table 6.4 Arthur Newtons Comrades Training and Racing Record 380
Figure 6.4 Arthur Newton 381
6.2.10 Emil Zatopek 382
Figure 383 Emil Zatopek, winner 1952 Helsinki Olympics 5000m 383
Article 6.2 The Origins of Interval Training 384
6.2.11 Jim Peters 385
Figure 6.6 Emil Zatopek, with Jim Peters 385
Table 6.5 Jim Peters Training Program for October 1950 386
Table 6.6 Jim Peters Training Program for April 1951 386
Table 6.7 Jim Peters Training Program for June 1951 388
Table 6.8 Jim Peters Training Program for June 1953 389
Figure 6.7 Bannister, 3rd Lap of Famous 1954 Mile of the Century 390
6.2.12 Gordon Pirie 390
Table 6.9 Gordon Piries Training Program 391
6.2.13 Herb Elliott 392
Table 6.10 Herb Elliotts Training Week in 1956 392
Figure 6.8 Herb Elliott 393
6.2.14 Ron Clarke 394
Figure 6.9 Ron Clarke 395
6.2.15 Leonard Edelen 396
Figure 6.10 Buddy Edelen, winner 1963London Polytechnic Marathon 397
Table 6.11 The Training of Buddy Edelen 1961 398
Table 6.12 The Training of Buddy Edelen 1963 399
Article 6.3 How Abebe Bikila Won the 1960 Olympic Marathon 402
Figure 6.11 Abebe Bikila 403
6.2.16 Hezekiah Kipchoge (Kip) Keino 405
Figure 6.12 Kip Keino, winner 1968 Mexico City Olympic 1500m 405
Article 6.4 Geographical Origins of Kenyan Runners 406
Figure 6.13 Map of Geographical Origins of Kenyan Runners 407
6.2.17 Derek Clayton 409
Table 6.13 Derek Claytons Training Week 409
6.2.18 Ron Hill 410
Figure 6.14 Ron Hill, winner 1970 Commonwealth Games Marathon 410
Table 6.14 Ron Hills Training Week 411
Figure 6.15 Ron Hills Weekly Training Distances for His 10 Fastest Marathons 414
Figure 6.16 Ron Hills Weekly Training Distances for 8 Similar Marathons 414
Figure 6.17 Ron Hills Training Load Versus Marathon Performance 415
6.2.19 Frank Shorter 416
Figure 6.18 Frank Shorter, winner 1972 Olympic Games Marathon 417
Table 6.15 Frank Shorters Training Week 419
6.2.20 Grete Waitz 420
Figure 6.19 Grete Waitz, winner 1983 Helsinki World Championship Marathon 421
Table 6.16 Grete Waitzs Training Week 422
6.2.21 Dave Bedford 423
Table 6.17 Dave Bedfords Training Week 423
6.2.22 Robert de Castella 424
Table 6.18 Robert de Castellas Training Week 424
Figure 6.20 Robert de Castella, winner 1986 Commonwealth Games Marathon 425
6.2.23 Steve Jones 426
Table 6.19 Steve Jones Training Week 427
6.2.24 Carlos Lopes 428
Figure 6.21 Carlos Lopes, winner 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Marathon 429
6.2.25 Matthews Temane 429
Figure 6.22 Matthews Temane 430
Figure 6.23 The 15-Month Periodization Program for Matthews Temane 430
Table 6.20 Matthews Temanes Road and Cross Country Training 431
Table 6.21 Matthews Temanes Track Training 431
Table 6.22 Matthews Temanes Training Before World 21-km Record 432
6.3 Africas Expert Runners 433
Figure 6.24 Percentage of All-Time Best Performances by Geography 433
Table 6.23 All-Time Marathon List 435
Figure 6.25 Distribution of 12km Running Times of Kalenjin to Europeans 437
6.3.1 Physiological Explanations for the Superiority of Black Africans 438
Table 6.26 Racing Intensity of Black LD Runners and White MD Runners 438
Figure 6.27 Skeletal Muscle Fiber Comparison 440
6.3.2 Training Methods of the Kenyans 442
Table 6.24 Kenyan Typical October Training 445
Table 6.25 The Training Program of a Modern Kenyan Runner 446
Article 6.5 SoIf You Can Run, Then Any Kalenjin Can Run 447
6.4 Distances From 50 to 100 Kilometers 448
6.4.1 Bruce Fordyce 448
Figure 6.28 Bruce Fordyce 450
Table 6.26 Bruce Fordyces Training 451
6.4.2 Mark Allen 454
Figure 6.29 Mark Allen and Dave Scott 457
Table 6.27 Mark Allens Three Training Paces 458
6.5 Distances of More Than 100 Kilometers 460
6.5.1 Early Pedestrians 461
Article 6.6 U.S. Transcontinental Races of 1928 and 1929 464
6.5.2 Modern Pedestrians 466
6.5.3 Yiannis Kouros 467
6.5.4 Eleanor Adams 469
6.5.5. Ann Trason 471
Figure 6.30 Ann Trason, winner Comrades Marathon 473
6.6 Conclusions: Training Methods of the Elite 476
6.6.1 Remarkable Performances Achieved on Little Training 476
6.6.2 Many Were Not Outstanding School Runners 477
6.6.3 Many Train Similarly 477
6.6.4 Most Achieved Success at Shorter-Distance Races First 478
6.6.5 Most Included Regular Speed Work 478
6.6.6.Most Ran Their Best Marathons When Inexperienced 480
Table 6.28 Prior Marathon Racing Experience of Olympic Marathon Winners 481
Article 6.7 The Training Synthesis of Carl Foster 482
6.7 Final Word 483

Chapter 7 Avoiding Overtraining 484


7.1 Indicators of Overtraining 485
Table 7.1 Indicators of Overtraining/Staleness Syndrome 486
7.2 Preventing Overtraining 487
7.2.1 Stages of Overtraining Syndrome 488
7.2.1.1 A Fall in Performance 489
Figure 7.1 Fatigue Zones 489
7.2.1.2 Heavy Leg Syndrome 490
7.2.1.3 Super Plods 490
7.2.2 Other Factors 491
7.2.3 Monitoring the Early Signs 491
Figure 7.2 The Effects of Training and Overtraining on Heart Rate 492
Figure 7.3 The Heart Rate Infliction Point 494
7.2.4 Blood Tests 494
7.3 Predictive Factors 495
Table 7.2 Psychological Complaint Index 497
Table 7.3 Modified Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale 498
Table 7.4 An Evaluation of a Training Program 499
Figure 7.4 The Concept of Training Monotony 499
7.4 Physiological Changes 500
7.4.1 Evidence of muscle Damage and Recovery 500
Table 7.5 Classification of Muscle Soreness 502
7.4.2 Evidence of Chronic Muscle Fatigue 504
7.4.3 Evidence of Neurohumoral Basis 505
Figure 7.5 Hans Selyes General Adaptation Syndrome 505
7.5 Psychological Changes 507
7.6 Differentiating Overtraining From Other Conditions 508
7.7 Treating Overtraining 509
7.8 Finite Physical Activity 510
7.9 Final Word 513

Chapter 8 Training the Mind 514


8.1 Bannisters Mental Approach 514
Figure 8.1 Roger Bannister Completing the Worlds First Sub-4-Minute Mile 516
8.2 Other Mental Approaches 517
8.2.1 During Training and Pre-Competition 517
8.2.1.1 Set Training and Racing Goals 517
Table 8.1 Mental Approaches of Successful Performers 518
8.2.1.2 Put More Effort Into Racing Than Into Training 519
8.2.1.3 Control Arousal 519
8.2.1.4 Visualize Your Race 520
8.2.1.5 Plan Your Race Strategy 521
8.2.1.5 Focus on What You Can Control 522
8.2.2 During Competition 524
8.2.2.1 Dominate From the Start 524
8.2.2.2 Allow for the Unexpected 525
8.2.2.3 Concentrate and Focus 525
8.2.2.4 Give a Maximum Effort 526
8.2.2.5 Perform up to Expectation 527
8.2.3 After Competition 527
8.2.3.1 Learn From Each Race 527
8.2.3.2 Understand the Value of a Coach 527
8.3 Psychological Preparation for Sport 528
Figure 8.2 The Stimulus-Belief System-Behaviour Diagram 529
8.3.1 Controlling Emotion 531
8.3.2 Controlling Thought 532
8.3.3 Analyzing the Self-Concept 533
8.34 Improving the Self-Concept 534
Article 8.1 Psychological Price of Success 534
8.4 Psychological Preparation for Competition 535
8.4.1 Controlling Anxiety 535
Figure 8.3 The Simplified Arousal Diagram 536
Figure 8.4 The Influence of Task Complexity on Arousal Patterns 537
8.4.2 Visualizing 540
8.4.3 Using Strategies During Competition 541
8.5 Psychological Benefits of Running 544
8.5.1 Positive State of Mind 544
8.5.2 Reduced Tension and Anxiety 544
8.5.3 Decreased Depression 545
8.5.4 Increased Quality of Life 545
8.5.5 Positive Personality Traits 546
8.5.6 Stress Resistance 546
8.5.7 Fewer Minor Medical Complaints 547
8.5.8 Improved Mental Functioning 547
8.5.9 More Awareness of Health 547
8.5.10 How Runners Perceive These Benefits 548
8.6 Psychological Addiction of Running 548
8.6.1 Arguments for Addiction 548
Table 8.2 A Psychological Survey 549
8.6.1.1 Biochemical 550
8.6.1.2 Psychological 550
8.6.2 Arguments Against Addiction 551
8.6.2.1 Biochemical 552
8.6.2.2 Psychophysiological 553
8.7 Psychology of Injury 556
8.7.1 Typical Response to Injury 557
8.7.2 Other Injury Patterns 558
8.7.2.1 Munchausen Syndrome 558
8.7.2.2 Overly Eager Parent Syndrome 559
8.7.2.3 Iatrogenic Injury Syndrome 560
8.7.2.4 My-Injury-Is-Unique Syndrome 560
8.8 Final Word 560

Part III Transferring Training to Racing 563


Part III 1.1 36 to 13 Weeks Before Race Day 564
Part III 1.2 12 to 5 Weeks Before Race Day 564
Part III 1.3 4 to 1 Weeks Before Race Day 564
Part III 1.4 7,6,5 Days Before Race Day 564
Part III 1.5 4 and 3 Days Before the Race 565
Part III 1.6 2 Days Before the Race 565
Part III 1.7 The Day Before the Race 565
Part III 1.8 Race Day 565
Chapter 9 10k to Half-Marathon 566
9.1 Jeff Galloways Training Program 566
Table 9.1 Galloways 32-Week 40 Minute 10km Training Program 567
9.2 Jack Daniels Training Program 567
Table 9.2 Daniels Advanced 24-Week Training Program for 5 to 15km 568
9.3 Pete Pfitzingers Training Program 571
Table 9.3 Pfitzingers Advanced Training Program for 15 to 21km 571
9.4 Grete Waitzs Training Advice 572
9.5 Race Preparation 572
9.5.1 Step 1: Run Progressively Longer Races 572
9.5.2 Step 2: Acclimatize to Heat 573
9.5.3 Step 3: Acclimatize to Altitude 574
Figure 9.1 The Effect of Altitude on Performance at the 1968 Olympic Games 574
Table 9.4 Performance Equivalent To Actual Sea Level World Records 576
Figure 9.2 Predicted Changes In Running Speeds With Change In Altitude 578
Figure 9.3 Predicted Changes in Performance With Altitude Acclimatization 579
9.5.4 Step 4: Taper your Training 580
9.5.5 Step 5: Decide Your Race Pace or Effort 580
9.5.6 Step: Eat Healthy Foods 582
9.5.7 Step 7: Prepare Mentally 583
9.5.7.1 Store Creative Energy 583
9.5.7.2 Mentally Rehearse 583
9.5.8 Step 8: Give Yourself Enough Travel Time 584
9.5.9 Step 9: Assemble Your Gear 584
9.5.10 Step 10: Get Enough Rest 585
9.5.11 Step 11: Wake Up Right 586
9.5.12 Step 12: Eat a Pre-Race Breakfast 587
9.5.13 Step 13: Warm Up 587
Table 9.5 Heat Stress Warnings based on the WBGT Index 588
Table 9.6 Heat Stress Warnings based on Dry Bulb Temperature 589
Figure 9.4 The Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) 590
Figure 9.5 Heat Stress Associated With Different Environmental Conditions 591
Figure 9.6 The Influence of Ambient Dry Bulb Temperature 591
9.5.14 Step 14: Run a Good Race 592
9.5.14.1 Pacing 592
9.5.14.2 Running in Group 593
9.5.14.3 Drinking and Sponging 593
9.5.14.4 Mental Imaging 593
9.5.14.5 Late-Race Problem Solving 594
9.6 After You Race 595
9.7 Race Recovery When to Race Again 595
9.8 Final Word 595

Chapter 10 Marathon 596


10.1 The Marathon Boom 597
Figure 10.1 Annual Numbers of 5 Famous Distance Races 597
10.2 Tim Noakess Beginners Program 598
Table 10.1 Noakes 26-Week Marathon Training Program 599
10.3 Tim Noakes Advanced Program 600
Article 10.1 Modifying Training for Age 600
Table 10.2 Noakes Typical Base Training Week 601
10.3.1 Increasing Volume 602
Figure 10.2 Percentage Training and Racing Times At Different Hear Rates 604
10.3.2 Peaking 605
Table 10.3 Noakes 6-Week Marathon Peaking Program 605
10.4 Jeff Galloways Programs 606
Table 10.4 Galloways Beginners Marathon Training Program 607
Table 10.5 Galloways 4-Hour Marathon Training Program 608
Table 10.6 Galloways 2:39:00 Marathon Training Program 609
10.5 Joe Hendersons Programs 610
Table 10.7 Hendersons Cruiser Training Program 610
10.6 Art Libermans Beginners Program 611
Table 10.8 Libermans Beginners Training Program for a 5 Hour Marathon 611
10.7 Bob Williams Advanced Program 612
Table 10.9 Williams Advanced 3-Hour Marathon Program 612
10.8 Pete Pfitzingers Advanced Program 613
Table 10.10 Pfitzingers Advanced Marathon Training Program 613
10.9 Jack Daniels Advanced Program 614
Table 10.11 Daniels Advanced Marathon Training Program 614
10.10 Individual Result May Vary 616
10.11 Preparing to Race 616
10.11.1 Step 1: Run shorter Races First 616
Table 10.12 Predicting Marathon Times based on Shorter Race Results 617
Table 10.13 Predicting Marathon Times based on Shorter Race Results 617
10.11.2 Step 2: Cut Back on Long Runs 617
10.11.3 Acclimatize to Heat 618
10.11.4 Step 4: Acclimatize to Altitude 618
Table 10.14 Marathon Pacing Schedules 620
10.11.5 Step 5: Taper Your Training 621
10.11.6 Step 6: Choose Your Race Pace 621
10.11.7 Step 7: Carbohydrate Load (and Deplete) 622
10.11.8 Step 8: Prepare Mentally 623
10.11.8.1 Store Creative Energy 625
10.11.8.2 Mentally Rehearse 625
10.11.9 Step 9: P Arrive at the Competition in Good Time 626
10.11.10 Step 10: Drive Over the Course 627
10.11.11 Step 11: Eat Right 628
10.11.12 Step 12: Assemble Your Gear 628
10.11.13 Step 13: Get Enough Rest 629
10.11.14 Step 14: Eat a Pre-Race Breakfast 629
10.11.15 Step 15: Warm Up 630
10.11.16 Step 16: Run a Good Race 630
10.11.16.1 Drinking and Sponging 631
10.11.16.2 Mental Imaging 632
10.11.16.3 Mid-Race Problem Solving 632
10.11.16.4 Late-Rate Problem Solving 636
Article 10.2 Everyone Slows Down 636
Figure 10.3 Mean 5-km Split Times During 1990 Osaka Marathon 637
Figure 10.4 Running Speeds for Successive 10-km Laps 638
10.12 After Your Race 638
10.13 Final Word 640

Chapter 11 Ultramarathon 641


11.1 Training Programs for Beginners 641
11.1.1 Basic Beginners Program 641
Table 11.1 A 22-Week Ultramarathon Training Schedule 642
11.1.2 Oliver-Tabakin Novice Program 643
Table 11.2 The Oliver-Tabakin Monthly Training Program 644
11.2 Intermediate Training Programs 645
11.2.1 Tim Noakes Peaking Program 646
Table 11.3 Noakes 6-Week Peaking Training Program 646
11.2.2 Norrie Williamsons Program 647
Table 11.4 Williamsons 14-Week Training Program 648
11.3 Training Programs for Elite Runners 650
11.4 Preparing to Race 651
11.4.1 Step 1: Complete One Race of More than 42km 651
11.4.2 Step 2: Race 30km or Less 12 Weeks Before the Ultra 651
11.4.3 Step 3: Acclimatize to Heat 653
11.4.4 Step 4: Acclimatize to Altitude 653
11.4.5 Step5: Taper Your Training 653
11.4.6 Step 6: Decide on Your Race Pace 654
Article 11.1 Womens Success in Ultras 655
11.4.7 Sep 7: Carbohydrate Load Correctly 656
11.4.8 Step 8: Mentally Prepare 657
11.4.9 Step 9: Mentally Rehearse 657
11.4.10 Step 10: Allow Enough Time to Acclimate 658
11.4.11 Step 11: Assemble Your Gear 658
11.4.12 Step 12: Get Enough Rest 659
11.4.13 Step 13: Eat a Pre-Race Breakfast 659
11.4.14 Step 14: Prepare for the Start 660
11.4.15 Step 15: Run a Good Race 660
11.4.15.1 Drinking, Eating, and Sponging 660
11.4.15.2 Mental Imaging 662
11.4.15.3 Mid-Race Problem Solving 662
11.5 After Your Race 663
11.6 Race Recovery 664
11.7 Running Ultras As You Age 665
11.8 Final Word 669

Chapter 12 Pushing the Limits of Performance 670


12.1 Physiological Basis of Records 670
Figure 12.1 A. V. Hills Chart of Average Running Speeds and Time 671
Article 12.1 Women in the Marathon 673
Figure 12.2 Katherine Switzer and her boyfriend in the 1968 Boston Marathon 675
12.2 Predicting Performance Limits 677
Figure 12.3 Record Progression in the Mens Long Jump 678
Figure 12.4 Mens and Womens Record Progression 200m to the Marathon 679
Figure 12.5 Record Progression 100m to 1610km 682
Article 12.2 Will Women Ever Outrun Men? 683
Figure 12.6 Comparative Performances of Ultramarathoners at Other Distances 684
12.3 Predicting Future World Records 685
Figure 12.7 Record Progression 100m to 42km 686
Table 12.1 Record Predictions 100m to 42km for 2004 and 2028 687
Figure 12.8 Record Progression in the Mens 1500m 687
Table 12.2 Predicted Male Records from 1980 to 2100 688
Figure 12.9 Progression of Mens and Womens Marathon Record 689
12.3.1 Physiological Determinants 690
Table 12.3 Projected Mens World Records in Running Events 691
Table 12.4 Projected Womens World Records in Running Events 692
Table 12.5 Comparison of Male and Female Records in 2000 to Predictions 693
12.3.2 Limiting Factors 694
12.4 Final Word 695

Part IV Running Health 697


Chapter 13 Ergogenic Aids 698
13.1 How Much Benefit Can You Expect 699
13.2 Intervention With Proven Ergogenic Effects 700
13.2.1 Exercise Training 700
13.2.2 Anabolic Steroids and Other Banned Hormones 701
Table 13.1 Expected Performance Enhancement of Anabolic Steroids 702
13.2.3 Increasing Oxygen Delivery 703
13.2.3.1 Live and Train at Medium Altitude 704
Figure 13.1 Jim Ryun, Winner 1965 Kansas State Mile Championship 705
13.2.3.2 Train at Sea Level, Live at Altitude 710
13.2.3.3 Blood Doping 711
13.2.3.4 Using Erythropoietin 714
13.2.3.5 The Next Alternatives 717
13.2.3.6 Using a High-Altitude or Nitrogen House 717
13.2.3.7 Training With Oxygen-Enriched Air 718
13.2.4 Ingesting Carbohydrate to Prevent Hypoglycemia 721
13.2.5 Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate Loading 722
13.2.6 Ingesting Fluid During Exercise 723
13.2.7 Caffeine 724
13.2.8 Sodium Bicarbonate or Sodium Citrate 726
13.2.9 Pre-Exercise Cooling 728
13.2.10 Creatine Supplementation 728
13.2.11 Environmental Aids 730
13.2.12 Pacing 731
Figure 13.2 1km Splits for 3 10,00m Record Performances by Haile Gebrselassie 732
13.3 Intervention Without Proven Benefit 732
13.3.1 Glycerol 733
13.3.2 Medium-Chain Triglycerides 733
13.3.3 Branched-Chain Amino Acids 733
13.3.4 L-Tryptophan 735
13.3.5 Other Amino Acids 735
13.3.6 Chromium Picoliante 735
13.3.7 Most IOC-Banned Stimulants 735
13.3.8 Vitamins 736
13.3.9 Antioxidants 736
13.3.10 L-Carnitine 736
13.3.11 Other Studied Practices 737
13.4 Ergolytic Substances 737
13.4.1 Ethanol 737
13.4.2 Tobacco 738
13.5 Final Word 738

Chapter 14 Staying Injury Free 739


14.1 Ten Laws of Running Injuries 741
14.1.1 Law 1: Injuries Are Not An Act of God 741
Figure 14.1 An Athlete With Flat Feet and Feet in the Corrected Position 742
Figure 14.2 Feet Assume the Neutral Position When Not Bearing Weight 743
Figure 14.3 An Athlete With the Malicious Malalignment Syndrome 743
Figure 14.4, A-F The Running Stride 744
Figure 14.4, G-L The Swing Phase of the Cycle 745
Figure 14.5 Ankle Joint Pronation 746
14.1.2 Law 2: Each Injury Progresses Through Four Grades 749
14.1.3 Law 3: Each Injury Indicates a Breakdown 749
14.1.3.1 Training Surfaces 750
Figure 14.6 The Dissected Midsole of a Well Used Running Shoe 751
14.1.3.2 Training Shoes 751
14.1.3.3 Training Methods 751
Table 14.1 A Summary of the Factors Related to Running Injuries 752
14.1.4 Law 4: Most Injuries Are Curable 753
14.1.5 Law 5: Sophisticated Methods Are Seldom Needed 753
14.1.6 Law 6: Treat the Cause, Not the Effect 754
14.1.7 Law 7: Complete Rest Is Seldom the Best Treatment 754
14.1.8 Law 8: Never Accept As Final the Advice of a Nonrunner 755
14.1.9 Law 9: Avoid Surgery 756
14.1.10 Law 10: Recreational Running Does Not Appear to Cause Osteoarthritis 756
14.2 Injury Self-Treatments 759
14.2.1 Step 1: Decide Whether Your Injury Is Due to Running 760
14.2.2 Step 2: Diagnose and Determine the Cause 760
14.2.2.1 Shoes 760
Figure 14.7 Testing the Midsole Compaction 761
Figure 14.8 Outsole Wear Patterns 763
14.2.2.2 Biomechanical Structure 763
Figure 14.9 Three Types of Footprints in the Sand 764
14.2.2.3 Biomechanical Structure and Shoe Design 765
Article 14.1 Are Running Shoes an Expensive Gimmick? 767
14.2.2.4 Training 772
14.2.3 Step 3: Warm UP Before Exercise 773
14.2.4 Step 4: Stretch 774
14.2.4.1 Benefits 775
14.2.4.2 Dangers 775
14.2.4.3 Techniques 775
14.2.4.4 Stretching Program 777
Figure 14.10 Exercise A: Hamstrings 777
Exercise B: Quadriceps 778
Exercise C: Back 778
Exercise D: Abdomen and Chest 778
Exercise E: Hip and Sartorius 778
Exercise F: Shoulders 779
Exercise G: Lower Leg
Exercise H: Groin 779
Exercise I: Sitting Hamstrings 779
Exercise J: Lying Hamstrings 780
Exercise K: Quadriceps 780
Exercise L: Hip and Sartorius 780
Exercise M: Hamstring 780
Exercise N: Hamstring 781
Exercise O: Pelvic Area, Abdominals, and Back 781
Exercise P: Abdominals and Quadriceps 781
Exercise Q: Quadriceps and Hamstrings 781
Exercise R: Abdominals 782
Exercise S: Abdominals and Back 782
Exercise T: Trunk 782
14.2.5 Step 5: Strengthen Muscles 783
Figure 14.11 Exercise A: Lunges 783
Exercise B: Hip Flexion 784
Exercise C: Chair Squat 784
Exercise D: Leg Press 785
Exercise E: Standing Calf Raises 785
Exercise F: Inner and Outer Thigh 786
Exercise G: Push-Ups 786
Exercise H: Stomach Crunches 787
Exercise I: Alternate Arm/ Leg Raises 787
Exercise J: Bridging With Leg Extension 787
14.2.6 Step 6: Diagnose and Treat the Injury 788
14.3 Types of Injuries 789
14.3.1 Ligament-to-Bone or Bone-to-Tendon Injuries 789
14.3.1.1 Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome 789
Figure 14.12 Sites of Pain Common in Running Injuries 790
Figure 14.13 Palpating the Kneecap to Diagnose PFPS 791
Figure 14.14 The Q Angle Affects the Running Stride 792
Figure 14.15 How to Measure the Q Angle 793
14.3.1.2 Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome 794
Figure 14.16 The Anatomy of the Iliotibial Band 795
Figure 14.17 The IT Band Stretch for the Right Knee 798
14.3.1.3 Plantar Fasciitis 799
Figure 14.18 The Relevant Anatomical Features of the Ankle 800
14.3.1.4 Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome 801
14.3.1.5 Osgood-Schlatter Syndrome 801
Figure 14.19 The Epiphyseal Growth Plate 802
14.3.2 Bone Injuries 803
14.3.2.1 Tibial Bone Strain 803
Figure 14.20 Anatomical Sites at which the Tibial Bone Strain Can Occur 803
Figure 14.21 The Muscle Compartments of the Right Calf 804
14.3.2.2 Stress Fractures 810
Figure 14.22 Anatomical Distribution of Stress Fractures 811
Figure 14.23 A Pelvic X-Ray Showing a Healing Stress Fracture 811
Figure 14.24 A Bone Scan Showing a Stress Fracture 812
Figure 12.25 A CT Scan Showing a Fracture 813
14.3.3 Muscle Injuries 816
14.3.3.1 Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness 816
14.3.3.2 Acute Muscle Tears 819
14.3.3.3 Chronic Muscle Tears 820
14.3.3.4 Muscle Cramps 822
Figure 14.26 The Schwellnus Theory of Muscle Cramps Can Occur 824
14.3.3.5 Side Stitch 825
14.3.4 Tendon Injuries 825
14.3.4.1 Achilles Tendinosis 825
14.3.4.2 Other Tendon Injuries 832
14.3.5 Injuries Due to Interference With Blood Circulation 833
14.3.5.1 Acute and Chronic Compartment Syndromes 833
14.3.5.2 Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome 835
14.3.5.3 Effort Thrombosis of the Deep Calf Veins 835
14.3.6 Nerve Injuries 836
14.3.7 Heel Bruise 836
14.4 Final Word 837

Chapter 15 Running and Your Health 838


15.1 Exercise and the Respiratory System 839
15.1.1 Exercise-Induced Asthma 839
15.1.2 Lung Cancer 840
15.1.3 Respiratory Infections 840
15.1.4 Pulmonary Edema 841
15.1.5 Second Wind 842
15.2 Exercise and the Cardiovascular System 842
15.2.1 Lack of Physical Activity 848
15.2.1.1 Morris Study 848
15.2.1.2 Paffenbargers Studies 849
Figure 15.1 The Risk of Heart Attack and Levels of Physical Activity 850
Article 15.1 Calculating Weekly Kilojoule Expenditure 850
Figure 15.2 Running Speed and Oxygen Cost 851
Figure 15.3 The Risk of Heart Attack Reduced In Smokers 853
Figure 15.4 The Risk of Developing Hypertension Increases With BMI 853
Figure 15.5 Life Expectancy Increases In Proportion to Amount of Exercise 854
15.2.1.3 Siscovicks Studies 855
Figure 15.6 Habitual Exercise Reduces Risk of Cardiac Arrest 856
Article 15.2 Exercise Versus Sudden Death 857
15.2.1.4 Blair and Coopers Studies 858
15.2.1.5 Finnish Studies 860
15.2.2 Lack of Physical Fitness 860
15.2.3 Heart Disease 862
Table 15.1 Cardiovascular Values in Untrained, Trained and Elites 866
15.2.4 Heart Damage 867
15.2.5 Heart Murmurs 868
15.2.6 Myocarditis 868
15.2.7 Abnormal Heart Rhythms 869
15.2.8 High Blood Pressure 870
15.2.9 Post-Exercise Collapse 871
15.2.10 Stroke 872
15.2.11 Peripheral Arterial Disease 873
15.3 Running and the Gastrointestinal System 874
15.3.1 Runners Trots 874
15.3.2 Bloody Diarrhea 876
15.3.3 Nausea 877
15.3.4 Colon Cancer 878
15.3.5 Diverticular Disease 879
15.3.6 Gall Bladder Disease 879
15.3.7 Gastrointestinal Absorption 879
15.3.8 Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) 879
15.3.8.1 Bladder Trauma 880
15.3.8.2 Red Cell Leakage 880
15.3.8.3 Hemoglobinuria 880
15.3.8.4 Myoglobinuria 881
15.3.8.5 Factors Unrelated to Exercise 882
15.3.9 Athletic Pseudonephritis 882
15.3.10 Acute Kidney Failure 882
15.3.11 Kidney Stones 883
15.3.12 Urinary Incontinence 884
15.4 Exercise and Menstruation 884
15.4.1 Menarche 884
15.4.2 Menstrual Irregularity 886
15.4.2.1 Low Percentage Body Fat 886
15.4.2.2 Age at Menarche 888
15.4.2.3 Training Volume 888
Figure 15.7 Absent Menstrual Periods and Weekly Training Distance 888
15.4.2.4 Age 889
15.4.2.5 Previous Menstrual Irregularity 889
15.4.2.6 Parity ` 890
15.4.2.7 Hypothalamic Dysfunction 890
Figure 15.8 Cyclical Changes In Blood Hormone Levels 891
15.4.2.8 Nutrition 891
15.4.2.9 Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa 892
Article 15.3 Anorexia Nervosa and Compulsive Exercise 893
15.4.3 Female Athlete Triad 898
15.4.4 Osteoporosis 899
15.4.5 Athletic Performance and the Menstrual Cycle 900
15.4.6 Premenstrual Symptoms and Endometriosis 902
15.5 Exercise and Other Cancers 902
15.6 Exercise and Male Fertility 903
Figure 15.9 The Ratio of Sons and Daughters to Fathers With Weekly Training 904
15.7 Exercise and Female Fertility 905
15.8 Exercise and Pregnancy 907
15.8.1 Blood Flow to the Fetus 907
15.8.2 Hyperthermia and the Fetus 909
15.8.3 Premature Labour 909
15.8.4 Benefits of Exercise During Pregnancy 910
15.8.4.1 Short-Term 910
15.8.4.2 During Labour 910
15.8.4.3 Long-Term 911
15.8.5 Exercise Guidelines 911
15.9 Running and Iron Deficiency 913
15.9.1 Studies Showing Iron Deficiency in Runners 913
15.9.1.1 Iron Deficiency With Anemia 915
15.9.1.2 Sport Anemia 915
15.9.1.3 Early Season-Training Anemia 916
15.9.2 Changes in the Blood 916
15.10 Running and the Immune System 917
15.11 Headaches and Other Neurological Conditions 917
15.12 Endorphins and the Runners High 918
15.13 Running and Diabetes 919
15.14 Final Word 921