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ENERGY CONVERSION A

2015-16

Exercises
Working fluid properties

Exercise 1
Compare two power plants, both based on the saturated Rankine cycle. These plants differ by
the working fluid as follows.

(A) Water (B) Organic fluid

Enthalpy of evaporation 2014 kJ/kg Molar mass 200 kg/kmol
Specific heat of steam 2.6 kJ/kg K Critical temperature 370C
Critical pressure 50 bar
Liquid density 800 kg/m3
Specific heat of liquid 1.5 kJ/kg K

Both cycles operate between a maximum temperature of 170C and a minimum temperature of
40C. Moreover, they exploit a heat source with constant heat capacity with a maximum tem-
perature of 225C.

Questions:
(i) which is the cycle with the highest thermodynamic efficiency?
(ii) which is the turbine working with the highest volume ratio?
(iii) which plant with the largest power production?

Exercise 2
Sketch qualitatively on the T-s diagram the following isobaric lines as well as the saturation
dome:
pressure = 1 bar
pressure = 80 bar
pressure = 300 bar
in the range 0-1000C and for the fluid CO2 (critical pressure and temperature: 73 bar, 31 C).

Exercise 3
Consider a saturated cycle operating between 150C and 40C. The working fluid is character-
ized by:
critical temperature = 600 K
critical pressure = 50 bar
molecular weight = 150
ratio cp/R = 40 (supposed constant in the range of temperature considered)

1) Determine, with the inevitable approximations of the corresponding state principle:

a) the pressures in which the cycle operates
b) the enthalpy expansion of the turbine
2) Represent the plant layout and represents qualitatively the cycle on the T-s diagram
3) Calculate the volume ratio

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2015-16

Exercise 4
Consider a binary cycle, made of two cascade saturated cycles, the first one operating with an
hypothetical liquid metal (pcr= 10 bar a, Tcr= 1300 C, M=150) and the second one with water
(M=18, Tcr= 374.2 C, pcr= 222 bar a, hev= 2010 kJ/kg), having a total net electrical power
of 500 MWe.

Assume the evaporation and condensation temperature for the first cycle are 650C and 300C,
respectively, and for the second cycle 290C and 40C.

Questions:
(iv) represent the plant layout
(v) plot the cycles on the T-s diagram
(vi) estimate the total net electric efficiency
(vii) determine the mass flow rate through the evaporator heat exchanger and through the con-
denser heat exchanger that transfer the heat from the topping cycle to the bottoming one.

Exercise 5
A natural gas-fueled micro gas turbine is being tested. Natural gas composition, in simplified
terms and on a molar-basis, is: methane 90%, ethane 5%, propane 1%, nitrogen 3% and carbon
dioxide 1%. The measured fuel consumption is 31 m3/h at normal conditions (0C and 1 atm);
the measured net electrical power output is 100 kW; lastly, the measured oxygen content in the
exhaust at dry molar conditions is 15%.

Determine:
net electrical efficiency (based on LHV of the fuel at 25C and 1 atm),
breathed air mass flow rate (assume standard dry air for simplicity).
The following data, taken from NIST Webbook, shall be assumed for the calculations.
Carbon di- Water
Methane Ethane Propane Nitrogen
oxide (vapor)
Molecular weight [kg/kmol] 16.0 30.1 44.1 28.0 44.0 18.0
Formation enthalpy* [MJ/kmol] -74.6 -84.0 -104 0 -393 -242
* at 25C and 1 atm

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2016-17

Exercises
Working fluid properties

Exercise 1
Compare two power plants, both based on the saturated Rankine cycle. These plants differ by
the working fluid as follows.

(A) Water (B) Organic fluid

Enthalpy of evaporation 2014 kJ/kg Molar mass 200 kg/kmol
Specific heat of steam 2.6 kJ/kg K Critical temperature 370C
Critical pressure 50 bar
Liquid density 800 kg/m3
Specific heat of liquid 1.5 kJ/kg K

Both cycles operate between a maximum temperature of 170C and a minimum temperature of
40C. Moreover, they exploit a heat source with a constant but not infinite heat capacity
and at a maximum temperature of 225C.

(i) which is the cycle with the highest thermodynamic efficiency;
(ii) which is the turbine working with the highest volume ratio;
(iii) which plant with the largest power production;
Do not employ preheaters or a recuperator. Moreover, complete the exercise considering first
ideal equipment and, subsequently, real equipment.

Exercise 2
Sketch qualitatively on the T-s diagram the following isobaric lines and saturation dome:
pressure = 1 bar
pressure = 80 bar
pressure = 300 bar
in the range 0-1000C and for the fluid CO2 (critical pressure and temperature: 73 bar, 31C).

Exercise 3
A saturated cycle operates between 150C and 40C. The working fluid is characterized by:
critical temperature = 600 K
critical pressure = 50 bar
molecular weight = 150
ratio cp/R = 40 (supposed constant in the range of considered temperature)

(i) determine with the inevitable approximations of the corresponding state principle:
a. the pressures in which the cycle operates;
b. the enthalpy expansion of the turbine;
(ii) sketch the plant layout and illustrate qualitatively the cycle on the T-s diagram;
(iii) calculate the volume ratio.

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2016-17

Exercise 4
Consider a binary cycle made of two cascade saturated cycles, the first one operating with an
hypothetical liquid metal (pcr= 10 bar a, Tcr= 1300 C, M=150) and the second one with water
(M=18, Tcr= 374.2 C, pcr= 222 bar a, hev= 2010 kJ/kg). The binary cycle have a total net
electrical power of 500 MWe.

Assume the evaporation and condensation temperature for the first cycle are 650C and 300C,
respectively, and for the second cycle 290C and 40C.

(i) sketch the plant layout;
(ii) illustrate the cycles on the T-s diagram;
(iii) estimate the total net electric efficiency;
(iv) determine the mass flow rate through the evaporator heat exchanger and through the con-
denser heat exchanger that transfer the heat from the topping cycle to the bottoming one.

Exercise 5
The main information for propane and iso-pentane are provided in the following table.

Name Propane Iso-pentane

Formula C3H8 C5H12
Molecular weight [kg/kmol] 44.1 72.1
Critical temperature, C 96.8 187.2
Critical pressure, bar 42.5 33.8

Please, determine the enthalpy of evaporation of iso-pentane at 96C, knowing that the enthalpy
of evaporation of propane at -88C is 469.7 kJ/kg, while at -52C is 435.7, at -14C is 393.4
and at 22C is 340.9.

Exercise 6
A natural gas-fueled micro gas turbine is being tested. The natural gas composition, in simpli-
fied terms and on a molar-basis, is: methane 90%, ethane 5%, propane 1%, nitrogen 3% and
carbon dioxide 1%. The measured fuel consumption is 31 m3/h at normal conditions (0C and
1 atm); the measured net electrical power output is 100 kW; lastly, the measured oxygen content
in the exhaust at dry molar conditions is 15%.

(i) net electrical efficiency (based on LHV of the fuel at 25C and 1 atm),
(ii) breathed air mass flow rate (assume standard dry air for simplicity).

The following data, taken from NIST Webbook, shall be assumed for the calculations.

Name Carbon di- Water

Methane Ethane Propane Nitrogen
oxide (vapor)
Molecular weight [kg/kmol] 16.0 30.1 44.1 28.0 44.0 18.0
Formation enthalpy* [MJ/kmol] -74.6 -84.0 -104 0 -393 -242
* at 25C and 1 atm

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2015-16

Exercises
Exergy

Exercise 1
Consider the following energy source: an air stream of constant mass flow rate (100 kg/s) at
temperature of 300C and at pressure of 0.8 bar (absolute, not gauge).

1. determine the maximum mechanical power obtainable from that energy source;
2. draw a realistic plant layout capable of producing mechanical power from the source;
3. calculate and comment on the power losses related to the most important irreversibilities
in the considered power plant.

Exercise 2
Consider a thermal power source of constant heat capacity equal to 1000 kW/C at a
temperature of 500C, which can be cooled down to the ambient temperature of 15C. Such a
source is exploited by an air plant employing the following equipment:
four intercooled air compressors (adiabatic efficiency = 90%),
three air-cooled intercoolers (pressurized air-side pressure losses = 0%, compressed air end
temperature 30C),
one hot air expander (adiabatic efficiency 93%),
one heat exchanger between thermal power source and compressed air (relative pressure
loss for pressurized air 5%, = 20C constantly during the heat transfer).

Assuming a constant specific heat for air, please:

1. sketch a plant layout;
2. calculate the expansion ration such that the outlet temperature is 15C, and then compute
useful power obtainable by the air plant;
3. compute the wasted power due to the fluid-dynamic irreversibility in the expander;
4. list and comment, without computing, the wasted power due to all irreversibilities.

Exercise 3
Consider two energy sources:
a) a saturated steam stream of constant mass flow rate (100 kg/s) at 270C (pressure 55 bar,
saturated steam enthalpy = 2799 kJ/kg, saturated liquid enthalpy = 1185 kJ/kg),
b) a water stream of constant mass flow rate (1000 kg/s) at a pressure of 150 bar, T = 250 C
(enthalpy = 1086 kJ/kg).

Taking as reference enthalpy = 0 kJ/kg at triple point (0.01C and liquid phase). Please:
1. determine the maximum mechanical power ideally obtainable from that energy sources;
2. sketch a realistic plant layout able to produce mechanical power from both energy sources
and calculate the useful power from each of the two layouts;
3. Calculate and comment on the power losses related to the most important irreversibilities
in the considered power plants.

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2015-16

Exercise 4
Consider a pressurised hot water energy source (p=50 bar, T=120C), with a constant mass flow
rate of 10 kg/s.

1. compute the maximum mechanical power extractable from that source, assuming that the
environment temperature is 15C;
2. propose a plant layout adapt for exploiting the source for power production;
3. taking realistic assumptions, estimate the second-law efficiency of the proposed plant.

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2016-17

Exercises
Exergy

Exercise 1
Consider the following energy source: an air stream of constant mass flow rate (100 kg/s) at
temperature of 300C and at pressure of 0.8 bar (absolute, not gauge).

1. determine the maximum mechanical power obtainable from that energy source;
2. draw a realistic plant layout capable of producing mechanical power from the source;
3. calculate and comment on the power losses related to the most important irreversibilities
in the considered power plant.

Exercise 2
Consider a thermal power source of constant heat capacity equal to 1000 kW/C at a
temperature of 500C, which can be cooled down to the ambient temperature of 15C. Such a
source is exploited by an air plant employing the following equipment:
four intercooled air compressors (adiabatic efficiency = 90%),
three air-cooled intercoolers (pressurized air-side pressure losses = 0%, compressed air end
temperature 30C),
one hot air expander (adiabatic efficiency 93%),
one heat exchanger between thermal power source and compressed air (relative pressure
loss for compressed air 5%, = 20C constantly during the heat transfer).

Assuming a constant specific heat for air, please:

1. sketch a plant layout;
2. calculate the expansion ratio such that the outlet temperature is 15C, and then compute
useful power obtainable by the air plant;
3. compute the wasted power due to the fluid-dynamic irreversibility in the expander;
4. list and comment, without computing, the wasted power due to all irreversibilities.

Exercise 3
Consider two energy sources:
a) a saturated steam stream of constant mass flow rate (100 kg/s) at 270C (pressure 55 bar,
saturated steam enthalpy = 2799 kJ/kg, saturated liquid enthalpy = 1185 kJ/kg),
b) a water stream of constant mass flow rate (1000 kg/s) at a pressure of 150 bar, T = 250 C
(enthalpy = 1086 kJ/kg),
(where the water enthalpy values are defined with respect to a reference enthalpy of 0 kJ/kg at
triple point of 0.01C and liquid phase).

1. determine the maximum mechanical power ideally obtainable from that energy sources;
2. sketch a realistic plant layout able to produce mechanical power from both energy sources
and calculate the useful power from each of the two layouts;
3. Calculate and comment on the power losses related to the most important irreversibilities
in the considered power plants.

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2016-17

Exercise 4
Consider a pressurised hot water energy source (p=50 bar, T=120C), with a constant mass flow
rate of 10 kg/s.

1. compute the maximum mechanical power extractable from that source, assuming that the
environment temperature is 15C;
2. propose a plant layout adapt for exploiting the source for power production;
3. taking realistic assumptions, estimate the second-law efficiency of the proposed plant.

Exercise 5
Consider the following energy source: an ideal gas flow of 100 kg/s at 500C and 0.1 bar. The
gas is characterized by a molar mass of 50 kg/kmol and an average specific heat at constant
volume of 2000 J/(kg K).
1. compute the reversible power by way of exergy difference;
2. propose and sketch a realistic plant for exploiting the source; this plant must satisfy the
following technological requirements: all heat exchangers must operate at a pressure higher
than 0.2 bar and all equipment must operate at a pressure lower than 100 bar and a temper-
ature lower than 620C;
3. draw the overall process on a T-s diagram;
4. considering irreversible processes, list and compute all second-law efficiency losses.

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2015-16

Exercises
Second-law analysis for
gas turbines in diverse configurations

Exercise 1
Consider a gas turbine operating with the following conditions:
ambient temperature: 15C ;
ambient pressure: 1.01325 bar;
compression pressure ratio: 40;
TIT: 1400C;
breathed air mass flow rate: 100 kg/s.
Moreover, consider a localized pressure drop of 0.1 bar alternatively located at:
1. compressor suction;
2. compressor discharge;
3. turbine suction;
4. turbine discharge.
i. plot a realistic cycle on the T-s diagram, for all alternative cases, highlighting the
differences;
ii. compute and compare the second-law efficiency losses due to only the pressure drop for
all alternative cases;
iii. comment without computing how all other losses change from case to case.

Exercise 2
Consider a single-level combined cycle that features the following parameters:
TOT in combined cycle configuration: 600C;
exhaust gas mass flow rate: 200 kg/s;
exhaust gas average specific heat capacity at constant pressure: 1.10 kJ/(kg K);
steam cycle evaporation pressure: 35 bar (absolute);
evaporation enthalpy at 35 bar (absolute): 1750 kJ/kg;
evaporation temperature at 35 bar (absolute): 242C;
superheated steam average specific heat capacity at constant pressure at 35 bar (absolute):
2.3 (kJ/kg K);
condensation temperature: 40 C.
Moreover, consider two alternative cases:
1. T of subcooling at ECO outlet of 40C;
2. T of subcooling at ECO outlet of 0C, employing a valve downstream of ECO with a
pressure loss, p, of 15 bar;
i. sketch the plant layouts;
ii. plot the temperature-heat transfer (T-Q) diagram of the HRSG for the two cases on a
single chart in order to highlight the difference between the cases;
iii. compute and compare the wasted power due to the following irreversibilities:
o heat exchange within the ECO,
o pressure loss downstream of ECO,
o stack loss.

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2015-16

Exercise 3
Consider two large-scale power plants rated at the same net electric power output of 800 MW;
the first one is an Ultra-Supercritical power plant (USC), while the second a combined cycle.
Both are natural gas-fired.

Assuming realistic values for the characteristic parameters of the plants, please compute, com-
pare and comment the following irreversibilities for the two cases:
i. stack loss, assuming a Lower Heating Value of the fuel equal to 31.65 MJ/Sm3;
ii. combustion loss;
iii. condensation loss, assuming an ambient temperature of 15 C.

Exercise 4
Compare, both in the first- and in the second-law analysis, the efficiency loss at the stack form a
natural gas-fired combined cycle and from a traditional coal-fired steam cycle. Assuming realistic
values for the characteristic parameters of the plants.

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2016-17

Exercises
Second-law analysis of
gas turbines in diverse configurations

Exercise 1
Consider four different gas turbines operating with the following common conditions:
ambient temperature: 15C ;
ambient pressure: 1.01325 bar;
compression pressure ratio: 40;
TIT: 1400C;
breathed air mass flow rate: 100 kg/s.
The gas turbine differ by a localized pressure drop of 0.1 bar alternatively located at:
1. compressor suction;
2. compressor discharge;
3. turbine suction;
4. turbine discharge.
i. plot a realistic cycle on the T-s diagram, for all alternative cases, highlighting the
differences;
ii. compute and compare the second-law efficiency losses due to only the pressure drop for
all alternative cases;
iii. comment without computing how all other losses change from case to case.

Note: the exercise could be setup as a single gas turbine operating in four off-design conditions.

Exercise 2
Consider an air-cooled single-level combined cycle that features the following parameters:
TOT in combined cycle configuration: 600C;
exhaust gas mass flow rate: 200 kg/s;
steam cycle evaporation pressure: 35 bar (absolute);
evaporation enthalpy at 35 bar (absolute): 1750 kJ/kg;
evaporation temperature at 35 bar (absolute): 242C.
Moreover, consider two alternative cases:
1. T of subcooling at ECO outlet of 40C;
2. T of subcooling at ECO outlet of 0C, employing a valve downstream of ECO with a
pressure loss, p, of 15 bar;
i. sketch the plant layouts;
ii. plot the temperature-heat transfer (T-Q) diagram of the HRSG for the two cases on a
single chart in order to highlight the difference between the cases;
iii. compute and compare the wasted power due to the following irreversibilities:
o heat exchange within the ECO,
o pressure loss downstream of ECO,
o stack loss.

Note: for simplicity of calculation, but not of drawings, the deaerator may be neglected.

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2016-17

Exercise 3
Consider two large-scale power plants rated at the same net electric power output of 800 MW;
the first one is an Ultra-Supercritical power plant (USC), while the second a combined cycle.
Both are natural gas-fired.

Assuming realistic values for the characteristic parameters of the plants, please compute, com-
pare and comment the following irreversibilities for the two cases:
i. stack loss, assuming a Lower Heating Value of the fuel equal to 31.65 MJ/Sm3;
ii. combustion loss;
iii. condensation loss, assuming an ambient temperature of 15 C.

Exercise 4
Compare, both in the first- and in the second-law analysis, the efficiency loss at the stack form a
natural gas-fired combined cycle and from a traditional coal-fired steam cycle. Assuming realistic
values for the characteristic parameters of the plants.

Exercise 5
Consider a natural gas-fired micro gas turbine (i.e. a recuperative and non-cooled gas turbine)
for a conventional installation site at which the fuel is available at almost atmospheric pressure
(assume 1 bar). For sake of simplicity, neglect any pressure drop within the unit and assume a
specific heat at constant pressure for natural gas equal to 2.1 kJ/(kg K).

i. sketch the layout and plot the cycle on the temperature-specific entropy diagram in agree-
ment with the assumptions;
ii. compute the second-law efficiency loss due to the natural gas compressor;
iii. compute the second-law efficiency loss due to the combustor (2 points).

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2015-16

Exercises
Second low analysis for the steam cycles

Exercise 1
Considering a coal-fired power plant, please compute and comment on the wasted work [kJ/kg]
caused by the following throttling cases:
inlet to the high pressure turbine: p = 10 bar;
regenerative bleeding at 1 bar: p = 0.1 bar;
outlet from the low pressure turbine: condensation pressure is 0.05 bar and p = 0.01 bar.

Exercise 2
Considers adopting alternatively a direct heat exchanger or an indirect heat exchanger to preheat
the feedwater from 100 to 120C. In the former case, saturated steam at 120C is employed,
while in the latter case, saturated steam at 125C (heat of condensation for both of 2200 kJ/kg).

Compare the wasted work [kJ/kg] in the two cases, assuming 4.2 kJ/(kg K) for liquid water cp.

Exercise 3
Consider a water pre-heating line of a steam power plant and assume the following data:
cycle net power output: 500 MW;
cycle net electric efficiency: 40%;
condensing temperature: 35 C (condensing latent heat at 35 C = 2400 kJ/kg);
deaerator temperature: 130C ;
deaerator pressure: 2.7 bar (absolute).
i. plot the plant layout from the condenser and the deaerator;
ii. calculate the wasted power [kW] due to fluid-dynamic loss in the condensate pump;
iii. calculate the wasted power [kW] due to the irreversibility in the first preheater (assuming
the bleeding mass flow rate is a tenth of the feedwater).

Exercise 4
Consider attemperation (that is steam temperature control by use of liquid water) of a steam
mass flow rate of 100 kg/s between two reheating tube bundles of a steam generator in a 3-
pressure level combined cycle with a net power output of 390 MWe; the steam flow is cooled
down from 480 to 460C. Consider the following two configurations for the attemperation:
1. liquid water from the high pressure economizer outlet,
2. liquid water from the intermediate pressure steam drum.
Adopt the superheated steam and water specific heat capacities equal to 2.3 and 4.3 kJ/(kg K),
respectively, and the enthalpy of condensation equal to 1800 kJ/kg. Furthermore, assume rea-
sonable values for the steam and liquid water conditions.
i. determine the second-law efficiency losses due to two configurations;
ii. comment the results, comparing the two configurations.

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2016-17

Exercises
Second-law analysis of steam Rankine cycles

Exercise 1
Considering a water-cooled two-reheat coal-fired USC in Italy, please compute and comment
on the wasted work [kJ/kg] caused by the following hypothetical throttling irreversibilities:
inlet to the high pressure turbine: p = 10 bar;
regenerative bleeding at 5 bar: p = 0.1 bar;
outlet from the low pressure turbine: p = 0.01 bar;
inlet of the first preheater: p% = 10%.
outlet of the last preheater: p = 10%.

Exercise 2
Consider adopting alternatively a direct heat exchanger or an indirect heat exchanger to preheat
the feedwater from 100 to 120C. In the former case, saturated steam at 120C is employed,
while in the latter case, saturated steam at 125C (heat of condensation for both of 2200 kJ/kg).

i. compare the wasted work specific to the feedwater mass flow rate [kJ/kg] in the two cases
due to the different heat transfer irreversibility,
ii. compute the ratio of mass flow rate of bleed steam and of feedwater.

Exercise 3
Consider the low-pressure preheating line of a steam power plant characterized by:
gross electric power output: 500 MW;
gross electric efficiency (LHV): 40%;
condensing temperature: 35 C (enthalpy of condensation at 35 C = 2420 kJ/kg);
deaerator temperature: 130C;
deaerator pressure: 2.7 bar (absolute).

i. plot the plant layout from the condenser to the deaerator;
ii. sketch the TQ diagram of the entire low-pressure preheating line;
iii. calculate the second-law efficiency loss due to fluid-dynamic irreversibility in the
condensate pump;
iv. calculate the second-law efficiency loss due to the heat transfer irreversibility in the first
preheater (assume an enthalpy of condensation of about 2300 kJ/kg);

Exercise 4
Consider attemperation, also known as desuperheating (that is steam temperature controlled by
sprayed liquid water), of a steam mass flow rate of 100 kg/s cooled down from 480 to 460C
between two reheating tube bundles of a steam generator in a 3- pressure level combined cycle.
The plant is characterized by a net power output of 390 MWe.

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2016-17

Consider the following two configurations for the attemperation:

1. liquid water from the high pressure economizer outlet,
2. liquid water from the intermediate pressure steam drum.
Adopt the superheated steam and water specific heat capacities equal to 2.3 and 4.3 kJ/(kg K),
respectively, and the enthalpy of condensation equal to 1800 kJ/kg. Furthermore, assume rea-
sonable values for the steam and liquid water conditions.

i. determine the second-law efficiency losses due to attempering in the two configurations;
ii. comment the results, comparing the two configurations.

2
Following some questions from some of you, herein you will find some instructions about a possible
solution of the first exercise on gas turbine off-design.

According to the solution given in class, it is possible to compute the power of the compressor (using the
ideal isoentropic relations and then assuming a compressor polytropic efficiency. N.B. Remember about the
cooling flows!!) and then the power of the turbine, once the compressor intake air mass flow rate is known
from the specific work.

Following the compressor inlet pressure loss generates a change in the intake air mass flow rate.

An important assumption is that the cooling efficiency remains unchanged, thus the following are constant:

cooling mass flow and inlet air flow ratio

fuel mass flow and air mass flow ratio

The fact that these two ratios are constant ensures (under the said assumptions) that the mass flow rate at
the turbine inlet changes proportionally to the change in the compressor inlet mass flow rate.

In order to work out the fuel mass flow rate, there are two alternatives:

1. assume a first law efficiency of the GT cycle; therefore, knowing the LHV of methane, the cycle inlet
thermal power is known; from this the fuel mass flow is computed.
2. Assume an air-to-fuel ratio (using the compressor intake air) approximately equal to 45. From this
the fuel mass flow is directly calculated.

From this calculations, the mass flow at the turbine inlet is known both in the base and in the modified
(with pressure loss) cases.

The TOT of the base case can be known either by assuming a reasonable value for an aero-derivative
machine or by calculating the thermal power wasted by the cycle:

=
,

= = ( )

The expansion process is modified by the pressure loss as follows:

T
1 1 TIT

A TOT
TOT
2 2

s
Reduction of pressure ratio this affects the enthalpy drop in the expansion. Note that the first
stages of the turbine are not affected by these changes because they are chocked. The last stage is
that which is mostly affected by the enthalpy drop change.
Assume that the two expansion lines are shifted (but parallel to each other) by the pressure loss at
the compressor inlet

It is possible to calculate the theoretical power of the new expansion as if it continued until point 2, using
the new value of turbine mass flow and the value of TOT of the base case.

N.B. the power of the expander must be calculated as the sum of the compressor mechanical power and
the total net mechanical power of the plant. DO NOT calculate the expansion power with the theoretical
formulae for a real expansion process because they do not take into account the cooling flows.

This value of power should be decremented by the wasted power due to the fact that the new expansion
stops at point A, which is the new TOT. The value of TOT can be calculated as seen in class. Remember to
use a value of polytropic efficiency for the last stage of the turbine (i.e. 0.92), when calculating the real
expansion.
ENERGY CONVERSION A
2015-16

Exercises
Off-design

Exercise 1
Consider an aero-derivative gas turbine characterized by the following parameters:
compression pressure ratio: 35,
TIT: 1400C,
net electric power (neglecting the pressure drop, see below): 50 MW,
specific work: 385 kJ/kg.
Moreover, consider the following alternative conditions:
1. pressure drop null at the compressor inlet;
2. pressure drop of 150 mm of column head at the compressor inlet (assume controlling the
turbine at constant TIT without operating the Inlet Guide Vanes).
i. plot the cycles on the same T-s diagram, showing the differences due to the pressure drop;
ii. compute the variation of the net power due to the pressure drop;
iii. calculate the new temperatures at the compressor outlet and at the turbine outlet (TOT).

Exercise 2
Consider a natural-gas fired gas turbine in a single-shaft and simple-cycle architecture, charac-
terized by the following parameters at ISO conditions (15C, 1.01325 bar, 60% RH):
net electric power: 170 MWel;
specific work: 320 kJ/kg;
net electric efficiency: 35% ;
turbine outlet temperature (TOT): 540C;
compression ratio: 15 ;
i. compute the following properties:
o mass flow rate of combustion air at the compressor inlet;
o mass flow rate of natural gas (LHV equal to 50 MJ/kg);
o mechanical power to the compressor;
o mechanical power from the turbine;
ii. calculate the variations of the net electric power and the net electric efficiency in case a
iii. plot a realistic T-Q diagram of the recuperator;
iv. compute the second-law efficiency losses due to a non-ideal recuperator.

Exercise 3
Consider a one pressure-level combined cycle with post-combustion located between the gas
turbine and the heat recovery steam generator. Moreover, assume the following parameters to
be constant despite varying the post-combustion temperature (see below):
steam pressure and temperature: 100 bar, 500C, h equal to 3374.60 kJ/kg;
condensation temperature: 40 C;
temperature of subcooling at the economizer outlet: 0C;

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2015-16

temperature of pinch point: 15C;

specific heat at constant temperature of flue gas, cp: 1.15 kJ/(kg K);
specific heat at constant temperature of condensate water, cL: 4.2 kJ/(kg K).
i. plot an accurate T-Q diagram of the heat recovery steam generator;
ii. compute the temperature the post-combustion temperature beyond which regenerative
steam bleedings from the steam turbine become convenient.

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ENERGY CONVERSION A
2015-16

Exercises
Off-design

Exercise 1
Consider a gas turbines in four off-design conditions with the following common parameters:
ambient temperature and pressure: 15C and 1.01325 bar;
compression pressure ratio: 40;
TIT: 1400C;
breathed air mass flow rate: 100 kg/s.
The four conditions differ by a localized pressure drop of 0.1 bar alternatively located at:
1. compressor suction;
2. compressor discharge;
3. turbine suction;
4. turbine discharge.
For the reference case without pressure drops as well as all alternative cases, please:
i. plot the thermodynamic cycle on the T-s diagram highlighting the differences;
ii. compute and compare the second-law efficiency losses due to the pressure drop;
iii. comment without computing how all other losses change from case to case.
Note: see exercise 1 of the second-law analysis of gas cycles.

Exercise 2
Consider an aeroderivative gas turbine characterized by the following parameters:
compression pressure ratio: 35,
TIT: 1400C,
net electric power and specific work (neglecting the pressure drop): 50 MW, 385 kJ/kg.
Moreover, consider the following alternative conditions:
1. pressure drop null at the compressor inlet;
2. pressure drop of 150 mm of column head at the compressor inlet (assume controlling the
turbine at constant TIT without operating the Inlet Guide Vanes).
i. plot the cycles on the same T-s diagram, showing the differences due to the pressure drop;
ii. compute the variation of the net power due to the pressure drop;
iii. calculate the new temperatures at the compressor outlet and at the turbine outlet (TOT).

Exercise 3
Consider a natural-gas fired gas turbine in a single-shaft and simple-cycle architecture, charac-
terized by the following parameters at ISO conditions (15C, 1.01325 bar, 60% RH):
compression ratio: 15 ;
turbine outlet temperature (TOT): 540C;
net electric power, specific work and efficiency; 170 MW, 320 kJ/kg and 35%;
i. compute the following properties:
o mass flow rate of combustion air at the compressor inlet;
o mass flow rate of natural gas (LHV equal to 50 MJ/kg);
o mechanical power to the compressor;
o mechanical power from the turbine;

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ii. calculate the variation of net electric power and efficiency if a recuperator is adopted;
iii. plot a realistic T-Q diagram of the recuperator;
iv. compute the second-law efficiency losses due to a non-ideal recuperator.

Exercise 4
Consider a natural gas-fired recuperative gas turbine characterized by the following nominal
parameters at ISO conditions (15C, 1 atm, 60% RH):
compression ratio: 16;
recuperator effectiveness: 90%;
turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and outlet temperature (TOT): 1250C and 580C;
net electric power, specific work and efficiency: 17 MW, 300 kJ/kg and 36%.
Moreover, consider an off-design condition at which the ambient pressure is lower by 5%.
i. plot the on- as well as off-design thermodynamic cycle on the same T-s diagram;
ii. plot the on- as well as off-design TQ diagram;
iii. set up an iterative procedure for computing the variation of recuperator effectiveness
from on- to off-design operation (assuming constant overall heat transfer coefficient).

Exercise 5
Consider a water-cooled USC power plant characterized by the following nominal parameters:
turbine inlet temperature and pressure: 620C and 320 bar;
condensation temperature: 30C;
boiler efficiency: 95%;
net electric efficiency 45%;
condensation temperature: 30C;
condenser cooling water inlet and outlet temperature: 20 and 27C.
Moreover, consider an off-design condition in which the cooling water flow is reduced by 50%.
i. plot the T-s diagram and plant layout;
ii. plot the T-Q diagram at nominal and off-design conditions on the same chart;
iii. compute the off-design condensation temperature and power;
iv. compute the reduction of the net electric efficiency due to the off-design operation.

Exercise 6
Consider a one pressure-level combined cycle with post-combustion located between the gas
turbine and the heat recovery steam generator. Moreover, assume the following parameters to
be constant despite varying the post-combustion temperature (see below):
steam pressure and temperature: 100 bar, 500C, h equal to 3374.60 kJ/kg;
condensation temperature: 40 C;
temperature of subcooling at the economizer outlet: 0C;
temperature of pinch point: 15C;
specific heat at constant temperature of flue gas, cp: 1.15 kJ/(kg K);
specific heat at constant temperature of condensate water, cL: 4.2 kJ/(kg K).
i. plot an accurate T-Q diagram of the heat recovery steam generator;
ii. compute the temperature the post-combustion temperature beyond which regenerative
steam bleedings from the steam turbine become convenient.

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Exercises
Turbomachines

Exercise 1

Consider designing two single-stage turbines with the following common inlet conditions:
Inlet pressure: 20 bar absolute
Inlet temperature: 700 C
Isentropic enthalpy drop: 100 kJ/kg
Isentropic power output: 1 MW
The two turbines operate with two different working fluids:
1. air
2. monoatomic fluids characterised by a molecular mass of 150 kg/kmol.
i. calculate the velocity triangles;
iii. comment on the expected efficiencies;
iv. verify whether the obtained design is compatible with good efficiencies if a direct cou-
pling to a two-pole electric generator is assumed.

Exercise 2
Consider an adiabatic axial-flow turbine which expands a monoatomic perfect gas (molecular
mass equal to 150kg/kmol) starting from the following initial conditions:
p = 100 bar
T = 700 C
down to the outlet pressure of 10 bar. The working fluid mass flow is 100 kg/s. Please:
i. Determine the velocity triangles of first and last stages assuming a three-stage ma-
chine.
ii. Determine the velocity triangles of a single-stage machine.
iii. Explain why the three-stage solution is able to reach greater efficiencies compared to
the single-stage one.
iv. Determine the rotational speed of the turbine (three-stage machine) which corresponds
to a h/D ratio for the last stage equal to 0.25.

Exercise 3
Consider a single-shaft steam turbine rotating at 3000 rpm and characterised by:
High pressure mass flow rate = 100 kg/s
Low pressure mass flow rate = 70 kg/s
Steam conditions at turbine inlet: 40 bar, 550 C
Condensation pressure = 0.05 bar ( 33 C)
i. Determine the velocity triangles of the first and last stage at the mean diameter.
ii. Compute the blade height at rotor outlet and the mean diameter of first and last stages
iii. Comment the expected efficiencies for the two stages.

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Exercise 4
Consider two stages of an axial-flow turbine working in kinematic and geometric similarity
conditions; they both operates with air as a working fluid, which can be assimilated as an ideal
gas with cp = 1 kJ/(kg/K), constant with temperature, and MM = 29.kmol/kg.

Stage A
P in= 2.5 bar a
P out = 1 bar a
T in = 100 C
M = 400 kg/s
Rotational speed = 3000 RPM
Stage B
P in = 6 bar a
T in = 700 C
M = 200 kg/s
i. Determine the velocity triangles for the two stages.
ii. Determine the rotational speed for stage B.
iii. Determine the ratio between the loads related to the centrifugal stresses at the rotor
blade hub of the two stages
iv. Determine the ratio between the loads of the fluid-dynamic forces of the two stages.

Exercise 5
Consider a single-shaft steam turbine characterised by the following operating conditions:
Inlet pressure = 250 bar
Inlet temperature = 580 C
Inlet enthalpy = 3430 kJ/kg
Condensation pressure = 0.05 bar a (corresponding to a condensation temperature of
32.9C, condensation latent heat = 2423.8 kJ/kg)
Gross electric power = 100 MW
Steam quality at the turbine outlet = 0.93
Rotational speed =3000 rpm

The high-pressure cylinder features a control stage (partial admission) and a series of reaction
stages downstream. Conditions at the control stage: P=189 bara, T= 487C, h = 3290 kJ/kg.

i. Determine the mass flow rate at the turbine inlet, using reasonable assumptions on the
power cycle.
ii. Design the control stage, calculating:
a. The velocity triangles.
iii. Calculate the enthalpy drop in the first reaction stage (downstream the control stage).

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Exercises
Turbomachines

Exercise 1

Consider two alternative single-stage turbines with the following common inlet conditions:
Inlet total pressure: 20 bar (absolute)
Inlet total temperature: 700 C
Isentropic expander enthalpy drop: 100 kJ/kg
Isentropic expander power output: 1 MW
The two turbines operate with two different working fluids:
1. air:
2. monatomic fluids characterised by a molecular mass of 150 kg/kmol.
i. sketch the qualitative ideal and real process on a h-s diagram;
ii. calculate the velocity triangles (in the case of ideal velocities);
iv. comment on the expected efficiencies (in the case of real velocities);
Moreover, consider the direct coupling to a two-pole electric generator (rotating at 3000 rpm):
v. verify whether the obtained design is compatible with good efficiencies;
vi. compute the size parameter and the specific speed.

Exercise 2
Consider an adiabatic axial-flow turbine expanding a monoatomic perfect gas (molecular mass
equal to 150 kg/kmol) from the following initial conditions:
total pressure: 100 bar
total temperature: 700 C
down to the expander outlet pressure of 10 bar. The working fluid mass flow is 100 kg/s.
Considering a single-stage machine:
i. determine accurately the velocity triangles of a single-stage machine;
ii. determine the rotational speed corresponding to an aspect ratio h/D of 0.25.
Moreover, considering a three-stage machine:
iii. sketch the velocity triangles of repeated stages assuming a three-stage machine;
iv. explain why the three-stage machine allows for higher efficiencies ;

Exercise 3
Consider a single-shaft steam turbine rotating at 3000 rpm and characterised by:
High pressure mass flow rate = 100 kg/s
Low pressure mass flow rate = 70 kg/s
Steam conditions at turbine inlet: 40 bar, 550C
Condensation pressure = 0.05 bar (33C)
i. determine the velocity triangles and mean diameter of first last stages.
ii. compute the blade height at rotor outlet :
iii. comment the expected efficiencies for the two stages.

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Exercise 4
Consider a single-shaft steam turbine characterised by the following operating conditions:
Inlet pressure = 250 bar
Inlet temperature = 580 C
Inlet enthalpy = 3430 kJ/kg
Condensation pressure = 0.05 bar a (corresponding to a condensation temperature of
33C and condensation latent heat = 2423.8 kJ/kg)
Gross electric power = 100 MW
Steam quality at the turbine outlet = 0.93
Rotational speed =3000 rpm

The high-pressure cylinder features a control stage (partial-arc admission) and a series of reac-
tion stages downstream. Conditions at the control stage: P=189 bara, T= 487C, h = 3290 kJ/kg.
i. determine the mass flow rate at the turbine inlet, using proper assumptions on the cycle;
ii. design the control stage calculating:
a. the velocity triangles,

Exercise 5
Consider two alternative single-stage axial-flow turbines working in kinematic and geometric
similarity conditions; they both operates with air as a working fluid.
Turbine A
P in= 2.5 bar a
P out = 1 bar a
T in = 100C
M = 400 kg/s
Rotational speed = 3000 RPM
Turbine B
P in = 6 bar a
T in = 700C
M = 200 kg/s
i. the velocity triangles for the two turbines;
ii. the rotational speed for Turbine B.

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Exercises

Exercise 1
A geothermal source produces a constant stream (10 kg/s) at 180C with a vapour quality of
60%. Assume the dead state as liquid water at 15C and 1 bar. Please, determine:
i. the maximum power obtainable from the considered energy source;
ii. the power fraction which would be wasted by splitting the liquid fraction from the
steam fraction at 180C and operating the power plant with the steam fraction only.
Thermodynamic properties (reference h=0 e s=0 at triple point (0.01 C and liquid phase):
- vapour pressure at 180C: p_sat = 10.027 bar
- saturated steam at 180C: h= 2776.27 kJ/kg, s= 6.5819 kJ/kg/K
- saturated liquid at 180C: h= 763.12 kJ/k
Exercise 2
Plot the T-s diagram and the plant layout of a USC cycle (Tmax = 620C, pmax = 320 bar, Tcond
= 30C), having a net electric efficiency equal to 45% (boiler efficiency of 95%). Assume that,
with respect to the nominal conditions in which the cooling water goes through the condenser
from 20C to 27C, a 50% reduction of the cooling water mass flow rate occurs.Determine:
i. The new condensation temperature
ii. The efficiency reduction caused by this variation

Exercise 3
Consider a binary cycle, made of two cascade saturated cycles, the first operating with an hy-
pothetical liquid metal (pcr=10 bar a, Tcr=1300 C, M=150) and the second with water (M=18,
Tcr= 374.2 C, pcr= 222 bar a, hev= 2010 kJ/kg), having a net electric power of 500 MWe.

Assume the evaporation and condensation temperature for the first cycle are 650C and 300C,
respectively, and for the second cycle 290C and 40C. Please:
i. represent the plant layout
ii. plot the cycles on the T-s diagram
iii. estimate the total net electric efficiency
iv. determine the mass flow rate through the evaporator heat exchanger and the condenser
heat exchanger that transfer the heat from the topping cycle to the bottoming one.

Exercise 4
Assume to have a gas stream with the following characteristics:
Temperature: 500C
Specific heat capacity (assumed constant) = 1.1 kJ/kg/K