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You are on page 1of 17

Design of Beams

P s2 P

Problem 5.6-1 The cross section of a narrow-gage railway

Steel rail

bridge is shown in part (a) of the figure. The bridge is constructed Wood

with longitudinal steel girders that support the wood cross ties. tie d

The girders are restrained against lateral buckling by diagonal

bracing, as indicated by the dashed lines. b

The spacing of the girders is s1 50 in. and the spacing

Steel

of the rails is s2 30 in. The load transmitted by each rail to a girder

single tie is P 1500 lb. The cross section of a tie, shown in (b)

part (b) of the figure, has width b 5.0 in. and depth d.

s1

Determine the minimum value of d based upon an allowable

bending stress of 1125 psi in the wood tie. (Disregard the weight (a)

of the tie itself.)

Steel rail

Wood

tie d

b

s1

(b)

(a)

Mmax sallow S15,000 (1125)

d depth of tie P 1500 lb allow 1125 psi 6

P(s1 s2 ) Solving, d2 16.0 in. dmin 4.0 in.

Mmax 15,000 lb-in.

2

bd 2 1 5d 2 3P(s1 s2 )

S (50 in.)(d 2 ) d inches Note: Symbolic solution: d 2

6 6 6 bsallow

5b

Problem 5.6-2 A fiberglass bracket ABCD of solid circular cross

section has the shape and dimensions shown in the figure. A vertical A B

load P 36 N acts at the free end D.

Determine the minimum permissible diameter dmin of the bracket if

the allowable bending stress in the material is 30 MPa and b 35 mm. 2b

(Disregard the weight of the bracket itself.) D C

P 2b

DATA P 36 N allow 30 MPa b 35 mm MINIMUM DIAMETER

CROSS SECTION 96Pb (96)(36 N)(35 mm)

d3

d 4 sallow (30 MPa)

d = diameter I

64 1,283.4 mm3

MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT Mmax P(3b) dmin 10.9 mm

Mmax c d 3Pbd 96 Pb

smax c sallow

I 2 2I d 3

SECTION 5.6 Design of Beams 305

load of intensity q 200 lb/ft and a concentrated load P 2500 lb

(see figure). q 200 lb/ft

Calculate the required section modulus S if allow 15,000 psi. Then

select a suitable wide-flange beam (W shape) from Table E-1, Appendix

E, and recalculate S taking into account the weight of the beam. Select a

new beam size if necessary.

L = 6 ft

P 2500 lb q 200 lb/ft L 6 ft TRIAL SECTION W 8 21

allow 15,000 psi S 18.2 in.3 q0 21 lb/ft

2

REQUIRED SECTION MODULUS q0 L

M0 378 lb-ft 4536 lb-in.

qL2 2

Mmax PL 15,000 lb-ft 3,600 lb-ft

2 Mmax 223,200 4,536 227,700 lb-in.

18,600 lb-ft 223,200 lb-in. Mmax 227,700 lb-in.

Required S 15.2 in.3

Mmax 223,200 lb-in. sallow 15,000 psi

S 14.88 in.3

sallow 15,000 psi 15.2 in.3 18.2 in.3 Beam is satisfactory.

Use W 8 21

P = 4000 lb

Problem 5.6-4 A simple beam of length L 15 ft carries a uniform 7.5 ft

load of intensity q 400 lb/ft and a concentrated load P 4000 lb q = 400 lb/ft

(see figure).

Assuming allow 16,000 psi, calculate the required section

modulus S. Then select an 8-inch wide-flange beam (W shape) from

Table E-1, Appendix E, and recalculate S taking into account the

weight of the beam. Select a new 8-inch beam if necessary.

L = 15 ft

P 4000 lb q 400 lb/ft L 15 ft TRIAL SECTION W 8 28

allow 16,000 psi use an 8-inch W shape S 24.3 in.3 q0 28 lb/ft

REQUIRED SECTION MODULUS q0 L 2

Mmax 15,000 lb-ft 11,250 lb-ft 8

4 8 Mmax 315,000 9,450 324,450 lb-in.

26,250 lb-ft 315,000 lb-in.

Mmax 324,450 lb-in.

Mmax 315,000 lb-in. Required S 20.3 in.3

S 19.69 in.3 sallow 16,000 psi

sallow 16,000 psi

20.3 in.3 24.3 in.3 Beam is satisfactory.

Use W 8 28

306 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams

q q

the next page. Calculate the required section modulus S if allow 15,000 psi,

L 24 ft, P 2000 lb, and q 400 lb/ft. Then select a suitable I-beam

(S shape) from Table E-2, Appendix E, and recalculate S taking into A B

account the weight of the beam. Select a new beam size if necessary.

L L L L

4 4 4 4

P 2000 lb q 400 lb/ft L 24 ft TRIAL SECTION S 10 25.4

allow 15,000 psi

S 24.7 in.3 q0 25.4 lb/ft

2

REQUIRED SECTION MODULUS q0 L

M0 1829 lb-ft 21,950 lb-in.

8

PL qL2

Mmax 12,000 lb-ft 7,200 lb-ft Mmax 230,400 21,950 252,300 lb-in.

4 32

19,200 lb-ft 230,400 lb-in. Mmax 252,300 lb-in.

Required S 16.8 in.3

Mmax 230,400 lb-in. sallow 15,000 psi .

S 15.36 in.3

sallow 15,000 psi 16.8 in.3 24.7 in.3 Beam is satisfactory.

Use S 10 25.4

longitudinal wood beams, known as balks, that span between adjacent Chess

pontoons and support the transverse floor beams, which are called Pontoon

chesses.

For purposes of design, assume that a uniform floor load of

8.0 kPa acts over the chesses. (This load includes an allowance for

the weights of the chesses and balks.) Also, assume that the chesses

are 2.0 m long and that the balks are simply supported with a span of

3.0 m. The allowable bending stress in the wood is 16 MPa. Balk

If the balks have a square cross section, what is their minimum

required width bmin?

Chess LR 2.0 m

Pontoon

FLOOR LOAD: w 8.0 kPa

ALLOWABLE STRESS: allow 16 MPa

Balk 2.0 m 3.0 m

Lb 3.0 m

SECTION 5.6 Design of Beams 307

Section modulus S

6

KN

q 8.0 m

qL2b (8.0 kNm)(3.0 m) 2

b Mmax 9,000 N m

8 8

b

Mmax 9,000 N m

S 562.5 106 m3

Lb 3.0 m sallow 16 MPa

b3

W total load 562.5 106 m3andb3 3375 106 m3

6

wLb Lc

Solving, bmin 0.150 m 150 mm

W wLc

q

2Lb 2

(8.0 kPa)(2.0 m)

2

8.0 kN/m

wood planks supported by 2 in. (nominal width) joists spaced at

distance s, measured from center to center (see figure). The span Planks

length L of each joist is 10.5 ft, the spacing s of the joists is 16 in.,

and the allowable bending stress in the wood is 1350 psi. The uni-

form floor load is 120 lb/ft2, which includes an allowance for

the weight of the floor system itself. s

Calculate the required section modulus S for the joists, and

then select a suitable joist size (surfaced lumber) from Appendix F, s

L

assuming that each joist may be represented as a simple beam car- s

rying a uniform load. Joists

qL2 1

q Mmax (13.333 lbin.)(126 in.) 2 26,460 lb-in.

8 8

Mmax 26,460 lbin.

Required S 19.6 in.3

sallow 1350 psi

L 10.5 ft 126 in.

w floor load 120 lb/ft2 0.8333 lb/in.2

s spacing of joists 16 in.

q ws 13.333 lb/in.

308 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams

Problem 5.6-8 The wood joists supporting a plank floor (see figure) are

40 mm 180 mm in cross section (actual dimensions) and have a span

length L 4.0 m. The floor load is 3.6 kPa, which includes the weight

of the joists and the floor.

Calculate the maximum permissible spacing s of the joists if the

allowable bending stress is 15 MPa. (Assume that each joist may be

represented as a simple beam carrying a uniform load.)

Planks

h = 180 mm

s b = 40 mm

L

s

Joists

L 4.0 m

w floor load 3.6 kPa allow 15 MPa

s spacing of joists

L 4.0 m

q ws 4 bh2sallow

SPACING OF JOISTS smax

3wL2

bh2

S Substitute numerical values:

6

4(40 mm)(180 mm) 2 (15 MPa)

qL2 wsL2 smax

Mmax 3(3.6 kPa) (4.0 m) 2

8 8

0.450 m 450 mm

Mmax wsL2 bh2

S

sallow 8sallow 6

SECTION 5.6 Design of Beams 309

constructed of a C 10 30 channel section (see figure). The beam

supports its own weight (30 lb/ft) plus a uniform load of intensity A C

B

q acting on the overhang. The allowable stresses in tension and

compression are 18 ksi and 12 ksi, respectively.

Determine the allowable uniform load qallow if the distance L L

L equals 3.0 ft.

in. 0.649 in.

10.0 in.

DATA Allowable bending moment

C 10 30 channel section based upon tension

Mt 29,750 lb-in.

c1 2.384 in.

I 3.94 in.4 (from Table E-3)

Allowable bending moment

q0 weight of beam ABC

based upon compression

30 lb/ft 2.5 lb/in.

sc I (12 ksi)(3.94 in.4 )

q load on overhang Mc 72,850 lb-in.

c2 0.649 in.

L length of overhang

3.0 ft = 36 in. Allowable bending moment

Tension governs. Mallow 29,750 lb-in.

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

t 18 ksi c 12 ksi Allowable uniform load q

Mmax qallow q0

2 L2

(q q0 )L2

Mmax occurs at support B. Mmax 2Mallow 2(29,750 lb-in.)

2 qallow q0 2.5 lbin.

2

Tension on top; compression on bottom. L (36 in.) 2

45.91 2.5 43.41 lb/in.

qallow (43.41)(12) 521 lb/ft

room provides a means for patients to exercise while in bed

(see figure). The bar is 2.1 m long and has a cross section in

the shape of a regular octagon. The design load is 1.2 kN applied

at the midpoint of the bar, and the allowable bending stress is C

h

200 MPa.

Determine the minimum height h of the bar. (Assume that

the ends of the bar are simply supported and that the weight of

the bar is negligible.)

310 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams

P

L

2 C

h

b

L

Determine minimum height h.

Section modulus

Maximum bending moment IC 0.054738h4

S 0.109476h3

PL (1.2 kN)(2.1 m) h2 h2

Mmax 630 N m

4 4

Minimum height h

s S

S s

Use Appendix D, Case 25, with n 8 630N m

0.109476h3 3.15 106 m3

b 200 MPa

b length of one side h3 28.7735 106 m3 h 0.030643 m

h

2 360 360

b 45 hmin 30.6 mm

C n 8

b b Alternative solution (n 8)

b tan (from triangle)

2 2 h PL b b

b h M b 45tan 2 1cot 2 1

h cot 4 2 2

2 2 2 b

b ( 2 1)hh ( 2 1)b

C

11 82 4 42 5 4

IC b h

b 45 12 12

For 45: tan 0.41421

h 2 42 5 3 3PL

S h h3

h 45 6 2(42 5)sallow

cot 2.41421

b 2 Substitute numerical values:

h3 28.7735 106 m3 hmin 30.643 mm

Moment of inertia

nb4 b b

IC cot 3 cot2 1

192 2 2

8b4

IC (2.41421) [3(2.41421) 2 1] 1.85948b4

192

crane in a testing laboratory moves slowly across a simple beam AB (see 4000 lb 2000 lb

figure). The load transmitted to the beam from the front axle is 2000 lb 5 ft

and from the rear axle is 4000 lb. The weight of the beam itself may be

disregarded.

(a) Determine the minimum required section modulus S for the beam A B

if the allowable bending stress is 15.0 ksi, the length of the beam is 16 ft,

and the wheelbase of the carriage is 5 ft.

16 ft

(b) Select a suitable I-beam (S shape) from Table E-2, Appendix E.

SECTION 5.6 Design of Beams 311

P2 P1 Bending moment under larger load P2

x d

M RA x 125(43x 3x2) (x ft; M lb-ft)

A B dM

Set equal to zero and solve for x xm.

dx

L

dM 43

RA

125(43 6x) 0x xm 7.1667 ft

dx 6

43 43 2

P1 load on front axle Mmax (M) xxm 125 B (43) 3 R

2000 lb 6 6

P2 load on rear axle 19, 260 lb-ft 231,130 lb-in.

4000 lb

L 16 ft d 5 ft allow 15 ksi (a) Minimum section modulus

x distance from support A to the larger load P2 (feet)

Mmax 231,130 lb-in.

Lx Lxd Smin 15.41 in.3

RA P2 P1

sallow 15,000 psi

L L

x x 5 (b) Select on I-beam (S shape)

(4000 lb) 1 (2000 lb) 1

16 16 16 Table E-2. Select S 8 23

125(43 3x) (x ft; RA lb)

(S 16.2 in.3)

L 450 mm supports a load P 400 N acting at the free end (see figure). B

The beam is made of steel with an allowable bending stress of 60 MPa. d

Determine the required diameter dmin of the beam, considering the P

effect of the beams own weight. L

DATA L 450 mm P 400 N Minimum diameter

allow 60 MPa Mmax allow S

weight density of steel

77.0 kN/m3 gd 2L2 d 3

PL sallow

8 32

Weight of beam per unit length Rearrange the equation:

d 2

q g 32 PL

4 sallow d 3 4g L2 d 2 0

Maximum bending moment (Cubic equation with diameter d as unknown.)

qL2 gd 3L2 Substitute numerical values (d meters):

Mmax PL PL

2 8 (60 106 N/m2)d 3 4(77,000 N/m3)(0.45m)2d 2

d 3

Section modulus S 32

32 (400 N)(0.45 m) 0

60,000d 3 62.37d 2 1.833465 0

Solve the equation numerically:

d 0.031614 m dmin 31.61 mm

312 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams

points A, B, and D and has a splice (represented by the pin connection)

at point C. The distance a 6.0 ft and the beam is a W 16 57 A

B C D

wide-flange shape with an allowable bending stress of 10,800 psi.

Pin

Find the allowable uniform load qallow that may be placed on top of

the beam, taking into account the weight of the beam itself. 4a a 4a

q 5q a2

Mmax sallow S

2

A

B C D 2sallow S

Pin qmax qallow qmax (weight of beam)

5a2

4a a 4a Data: a 6 ft 72 in. allow 10,800 psi

11qa

RA 8 RB

45qa

RD 2qa W 16 57 S 92.2 in.3

8

Allowable uniform load

Pin connection at point C.

M 121 qa2 2(10,800 psi)(92.2 in.3 )

2qa2 qmax 76.833 lbin.

128 5(72 in.) 2

A B C D 922 lb/ft

11a

8 2a 2a qallow 922 lb/ft 57 lb/ft 865 lb/ft

5qa2

2

by three identical cantilever beams (see figure). Each beam has length

L1 2.1 m, width b, and height h 4b/3. The dimensions of the balcony

floor are L1 L2, with L2 2.5 m. The design load is 5.5 kPa acting

over the entire floor area. (This load accounts for all loads except

the weights of the cantilever beams, which have a weight density

5.5 kN/m3.) The allowable bending stress in the cantilevers is 4b

h=

3

15 MPa.

Assuming that the middle cantilever supports 50% of the load b

L2 L1

and each outer cantilever supports 25% of the load, determine the

required dimensions b and h.

Solution 5.6-14q Cantilever beam for a balcony Middle beam supports 50% of the load.

4b

h= L2 2.5 m

3 q w (5.5 kPa) 6875 Nm

2 2

L1 b

Weight of beam

L1 2.1 m L 2 2.5 m Floor dimensions: L 1 L 2 4gb2 4

Design load w 5.5 kPa q0 gbh (5.5 kNm2 )b2

3 3

5.5 kN/m3 (weight density of wood beam)

allow 15 MPa 7333b2 (N/m) (b meters)

SECTION 5.6 Design of Beams 313

(q q0 )L211 (120 106)b3 436,590b2 409,300 0

Mmax (6875 Nm 7333b2 )(2.1 m) 2

2 2

15,159 16,170b2 (N m) Solve numerically for dimension b

bh2 8b3 4b

S b 0.1517 m h 0.2023 m

6 27 3

Mmax allow S

Required dimensions

8b3

15,159 16,170b2 (15 106 Nm2 ) b 152 mm h 202 mm

27

unsymmetric wide-flange shape (see figure) is subjected to a negative b

bending moment acting about the z axis.

1.5 in.

Determine the width b of the top flange in order that the stresses at

1.25 in.

the top and bottom of the beam will be in the ratio 4:3, respectively.

z 12 in.

C

1.5 in.

16 in.

y

Areas of the cross section (in.2)

b

A1 1.5b A2 (12)(1.25) 15 in.2

1.5 in.

A1

C1 1.25 in. A3 (16)(1.5) 24 in.2

z 12 in.

C A A1 A2 A3 39 1.5b (in.2)

C2 A3 A2

B B 1.5 in.

First moment of the cross-sectional area about the

16 in.

lower edge B-B

Stresses at top and bottom are in the ratio 4:3. QBB a yi Ai (14.25)(1.5b) (7.5)(15) (0.75)(24)

Find b (inches) 130.5 21.375b (in.3)

h height of beam 15 in.

Distance c2 from line B-B to the centroid C

Locate centroid

QBB 130.5 21.375b 45

stopc1 4 c2 in.

A 39 1.5b 7

sbottom c2 3

4 60 Solve for b

c1 h 8.57143 in.

7 7 (39 1.5b)(45) (130.5 21.375b)(7)

3 45 82.125b 841.5 b 10.25 in.

c2 h 6.42857 in.

7 7

314 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams

(see figure) is subjected to a bending moment acting about the z axis.

Calculate the thickness t of the channel in order that the bending

t t

stresses at the top and bottom of the beam will be in the ratio 7:3,

respectively.

t 50 mm

z C

120 mm

y Areas of the cross section (mm 2)

A1 ht 50t A2 b1 t 120t 2t 2

A 2A1 A2 220t 2t 2 2t(110t)

A1 A1

c1 A2 t h 50 mm First moment of the cross-sectional area

z C about the lower edge B-B

c2

B B t t

QBB a yi Ai (2) (50 t) (b1 )(t)

t b1 t 2 2

t

2(25)(50t) (120 2t)(t)

b 120 mm 2

t (2500 60t t 2) (t mm; Q mm3)

b1 b 2t 120 mm 2t

Q BB t(2500 60t t 2 )

Stresses at the top and bottom are in the ratio 7:3. c2

A 2t(110 t)

Determine the thickness t.

2500 60t t 2

15 mm

Locate centroid 2(110 t)

stop c1 7

Solve for t

sbottom c2 3 2(110 t)(15) 2500 60t t 2

7 t 2 90t 800 0 t 10 mm

c1 h 35 mm

10

3

c2 h 15 mm

10

Problem 5.6-17 Determine the ratios of the weights of three beams that

have the same length, are made of the same material, are subjected to the

same maximum bending moment, and have the same maximum bending h = 2b a

stress if their cross sections are (1) a rectangle with height equal to twice

the width, (2) a square, and (3) a circle (see figures).

b a d

SECTION 5.6 Design of Beams 315

Beam 1: Rectangle (h 2b) a3

(2) Square: S a (6S) 13

Beam 2: Square (a side dimension) 6

Beam 3: Circle (d diameter) A2 a2 (6S)2/3 3.3019S 2/3

L, , Mmax, and max are the same in all three beams.

M d 3 32S 13

S section modulus S (3) Circle: S d

s 32

Since M and are the same, the section moduli must d 2 32S 23

be the same. A3 3.6905 S 23

4 4

bh2 2b3 3S 13

(1) Rectangle: S b Weights are proportional to the cross-sectional areas

6 3 2

23 (since L and are the same in all 3 cases).

3S

A1 2b2 2 2.6207S 23 W1 : W2 : W3 A1 : A2 : A3

2 A1 : A2 : A3 2.6207 : 3.3019 : 3.6905

W1 : W2 : W3 1 : 1.260 : 1.408

t

Problem 5.6-18 A horizontal shelf AD of length L 900 mm, width b

300 mm, and thickness t 20 mm is supported by brackets at B and C A D

[see part (a) of the figure]. The brackets are adjustable and may be placed B C

in any desired positions between the ends of the shelf. A uniform load of b

intensity q, which includes the weight of the shelf itself, acts on the shelf L

[see part (b) of the figure]. (a)

Determine the maximum permissible value of the load q if the q

allowable bending stress in the shelf is allow 5.0 MPa and the position

of the supports is adjusted for maximum load-carrying capacity. A D

B C

L

(b)

q

t

A D b

B C

L

Solve for x: x ( 12 1)

L 2

(a) Substitute x into the equation for either M1 or M2 :

qL2

M1 Mmax (3 212) Eq. (1)

8

A B C D bt 2

L 900 mm Mmax sallow S sallow Eq. (2)

b 300 mm 6

M2 M2

x x t 20 mm Equate Mmax from Eqs. (1) and (2) and solve for q:

allow 5.0 MPa

(b) 4bt 2sallow

For maximum load-carrying capacity, place the supports qmax

3L2 (3 212)

so that M1 M2 .

Let x length of overhang Substitute numerical values:

qL qx2 qmax 5.76 kN/m

M1 (L 4x) M2

8 2

2

qL qx

(L 4x)

8 2

316 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams

4.0 0.5 in. cover plate

sectional dimensions 4.0 in. 0.5 in. is welded along the full length of

the top flange of a W 12 35 wide-flange beam (see figure, which shows

the beam cross section).

What is the percent increase in section modulus (as compared to the W 12 35

wide-flange beam alone)?

y Moment of inertia about axis L-L:

4.0 0.5 in. cover plate 1

ILL I0 (4.0)(0.5) 3 (4.0)(0.5)(6.25 0.25) 2

12

c1

6.25 369.5 in.4

z y C

L L Moment of inertia about z axis:

c2 6.25 ILL Iz A1 y 2Iz I11 A1 y 2

Iz 369.5 in.4 (12.3 in.2)(1.057 in.)2 355.8 in.4

All dimensions in inches. Section modulus (Use the smaller of the two section

moduli)

Wide-flange beam alone Iz 355.8 in.4

(Axis L-L is centroidal axis) S1 48.69 in.3

c2 7.307 in.

W 12 35 d 12.50 in.

A0 10.3 in.2 I0 2.85 in.4 S0 45.6 in.3 Increase in section modulus

S1 48.69

Beam with cover plate 1.068

(z axis is centroidal axis) S0 45.6

Q1 a yi Ai (6.25 in. 0.25 in.)(4.0 in.)(0.5 in.)

13.00 in.3

Q1 13.00 in.3

y 1.057 in.

A1 12.3 in.2

c1 6.25 0.5 y 5.693 in.

c2 6.25 y 7.307 in.

at A and B and has an overhang BC of length L 150 mm

(see figure on the next page). The beam supports a uniform A C

load of intensity q 3.5 kN/m over its entire length of B 2b

450 mm. The cross section of the beam is rectangular

with width b and height 2b. The allowable bending stress 2L L b

in the steel is allow 60 MPa and its weight density is

77.0 kN/m3.

(a) Disregarding the weight of the beam, calculate t

he required width b of the rectangular cross section.

(b) Taking into account the weight of the beam,

calculate the required width b.

SECTION 5.6 Design of Beams 317

q

Substitute numerical values:

A C

2b 3(3.5 kNm)(150 mm) 2

B b3 0.98438 106 m3

4(60 MPa)

b

2L L

b 0.00995 m 9.95 mm

9qL

3qL RB

RA 4

4 (b) Include the weight of the beam

RB q0 (b)(2b) 2b 2

32 L 150 mm

M

q 3.5 kN/m (q q0 )L2 1

0 B C allow 60 MPa Mmax (q 2g b2 )L2

A 2 2

77.0 kN/m3

qL2

2 2b3

S Mmax allow S

3

qL2 bh2 2b3 1 2b3

Mmax S (q 2g b2 ) L2 sallow

2 6 3 2 3

Rearrange the equation:

(a) Disregard the weight of the beam

4allow b 3 6L2 b2 3qL2 0

qL2 2b3

Mmax allow S sallow Substitute numerical values:

2 3 (240 106)b3 10,395b2 236.25 0

3qL2 (b meters)

b3

4sallow Solve the equation:

b 0.00996 m 9.96 mm

horizontal wood planks 3 in. thick (actual dimension) that are

p1 = 100 lb/ft2

supported by vertical wood piles of 12 in. diameter (actual 12 in.

dimension), as shown in the figure. The lateral earth pressure diam. 12 in.

diam.

is p1 100 lb/ft2 at the top of the wall and p2 400 lb/ft2 at

the bottom.

Assuming that the allowable stress in the wood is 1200 psi,

calculate the maximum permissible spacing s of the piles. s 3 in.

5 ft

(Hint: Observe that the spacing of the piles may be

governed by the load-carrying capacity of either the planks or

the piles. Consider the piles to act as cantilever beams subjected

to a trapezoidal distribution of load, and consider the planks to

act as simple beams between the piles. To be on the safe side, Top view

assume that the pressure on the bottom plank is uniform and

equal to the maximum pressure.) p2 = 400 lb/ft2

Side view

318 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams

q1

t

h

s q

t thickness of plank 3 in.

b width of plank (perpendicular to the plane Divide the trapezoidal load into two triangles

of the figure) (see dashed line).

p2 maximum soil pressure 1 2h 1 h sh2

400 lb/ft 2 2.778 lb/in.2 Mmax (q1 )(h) (q2 )(h) (2p1 p2 )

2 3 2 3 6

s spacing of piles

q p2 b allow 1200 psi S section d 3

S Mmax allow S or

modulus 32

qs2 p2 bs2 sh2 d 3

bt 2 (2p1 p2 ) sallow

Mmax S 6 32

8 8 6

p2 bs2 bt 2 Solve for s:

Mmax allow S or sallow 3 sallow d 3

8 6 s 81.4 in.

Solve for s: 16h2 (2p1 p2 )

4 sallow t 2 Plank governs smax 72.0 in.

s 72.0 in.

B 3p2

h 5 ft 60 in.

p1 soil pressure at the top

100 lb/ft2 0.6944 lb/in.2

q1 p1 s

q2 p2 s

d diameter of pile 12 in.

side) is bent in the plane of a diagonal (see figure). By removing a small y

amount of material at the top and bottom corners, as shown by the shaded

triangles in the figure, we can increase the section modulus and obtain a

stronger beam, even though the area of the cross section is reduced. a a

(a) Determine the ratio defining the areas that should be removed

in order to obtain the strongest cross section in bending. z C

(b) By what percent is the section modulus increased when the areas

are removed?

a a

SECTION 5.6 Design of Beams 319

removed

y

Ratio of section moduli

a S

(1 3b)(1 b) 2 Eq. (1)

am m (1 ) a

S0

1

q

z 1.10

C h h1

(S)

S0 max 1.0535

a P P1 Eq. (1)

a

1.00

a length of each side 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

a amount removed 19

Beam is bent about the z axis. .50

a4 a I0 a3 12 Graph of EQ. (1)

I0 c0 S0

12 12 c0 12

(a) Value of for a maximum value of S/S0

Square mnpq (Area 1) d S

0

(1 b) 4a4 db S0

I1 Take the derivative and solve this equation for .

12

1

b

Parallelogram mm, n, n (Area 2) 9

1

I2 (base)(height)3 (b) MAXIMUM VALUE OF S/S0

3 Substitute 1/9 into Eq. (1). (S/S0)max 1.0535

1 (1 b)a 3 ba4 The section modulus is increased by 5.35% when the

I2 (ba12) B R (1 b) 3

3 12 6 triangular areas are removed.

a4

I I1 2I2 (1 3b)(1 b) 3

12

(1 b)a I 12 a3

c S (1 3b)(1 b) 2

12 c 12

width b and height h is shown in part (a) of the figure. For reasons 9

unknown to the beam designer, it is planned to add structural projections d

of width b/9 and height d to the top and bottom of the beam [see part

(b) of the figure].

h h

For what values of d is the bending-moment capacity of the beam

increased? For what values is it decreased?

b d

b

9

(a) (b)

320 CHAPTER 5 Stresses in Beams

S2 d

Graph of versus

S1 h

d

d S2

h S1

1 h 2 h

0 1.000

0.25 0.8426

b d 0.50 0.8889

b

0.75 1.0500

9

(a) (b) 1.00 1.2963

bh3 h I1 bh2 S1

I1 c1 S1

12 2 c1 6 1.0

1 8b 1 b 0.5

I2 h3 (h 2d) 3

12 9 12 9

0.2937 0.6861

b d

[8h3 (h 2d) 3 ] 0 h

108 0.5 1.0

h 1

c2 d (h 2d) Moment capacity is increased when

2 2

d

I2 b [8h3 (h 2d) 3 ] 7 0.6861

S2 h

c2 54(h 2d)

Moment capacity is decreased when

Ratio of section moduli d

6 0.6861

2d 3 h

8 1

S2 b[8h (h 2d) ]

3 3

h

Notes:

S1 9(h 2d)(bh2 ) 2d S2 2d 3 2d

9 1 1 when 1 9 1 8 0

h S1 h h

d

Equal section moduli or 0.6861 and 0

h

S2 d 3

Set 1 and solve numerically for . S2 d 1 41

S1 h is minimum when 0.2937

S1 h 2

d d

0.6861 and 0

h h

S2

0.8399

S1 min

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