You are on page 1of 209

CYMDIST

Tutorial Version 4.0

May 2003
Copyright CYME INTERNATIONAL INC.

All Rights Reserved

This publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form, by any method, for
any purpose.

CYME INTERNATIONAL INC. makes no warranty, either expressed or implied,


including but not limited to any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a
particular purpose, regarding these materials and makes such materials available solely on
an "as-is" basis.

In no event shall CYME INTERNATIONAL INC. be liable to anyone for special, collateral,
incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of purchase or use of
these materials. The sole and exclusive liability to CYME INTERNATIONAL, regardless
of the form of action, shall not exceed the purchase price of the materials described herein.

CYME INTERNATIONAL INC. reserves the right to revise and improve its products as it
sees fit. This publication describes the state of this product at the time of its publication,
and may not reflect the product at all times in the future.

The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement.

CYME INTERNATIONAL INC.


3 Burlington Woods, 4th Floor
Burlington, MA 01803-0269
1-800-361-3627 (781) 229-0269
Fax: (781) 229-2336

International and Canada:


1485 Roberval, Suite 104
St. Bruno QC J3V 3P8
Canada
(450) 461-3655
Fax: (450) 461-0966

Internet : http://www.cyme.com
E-mail : support@cyme.com

IBM and PC-DOS are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS and Windows are
registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Windows 95 and Windows NT are trademark of Microsoft. Autocad is a
trademark of Autodesk Inc.
CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

ABOUT CYMDIST

CYMDIST for Windows is the primary distribution CYMDIST allows the creation and management of
analysis software available from CYME International. several project-scenarios, all related to the same base
CYMDIST is an advanced tool for use in performing network. Each project consists of a set of
primary distribution planning, operation and modifications that alter the data or the topology of the
optimization studies. CYMDIST accommodates base network. Any alternative design can be used to
radial or looped systems with multiple generation update the base network.
sources. Its graphical user interface is efficient and
very user-friendly. The user can build feeders CYMDIST features a direct interface to CYMTCC,
graphically and visualize the results directly on the the software for Protective Device Coordination. This
one-line diagram. permits CYMDIST to verify the user defined criteria
for coordination, clearing time and loading.
CYMDIST for Windows performs per-phase voltage
drop calculations on balanced or unbalanced systems, CYMDIST supports interfaces to CAD and the most
fault calculations, protective device coordination popular AM/FM GIS packages, so as to display
interfacing with CYMTCC, optimal capacitor geographical background maps while performing
placement and sizing, load balancing and load simulations.
allocation. An option is also available to optimize an
electrical system configuration for minimal loss
operation. CYMDIST offers a very powerful graphic
editor to enter or modify feeder data, perform line
switching, load transfer, re-conductoring studies, etc.
It also offers a wide variety of graphical reports,
including voltage profile and short-circuit current
profiles along the feeder. Color coding of the one-line
diagram for over/under voltage conditions or
overloaded equipment is also supported. CYMDIST is
extremely powerful in performing "what-if" studies
with its project-oriented database structure.
CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CYMDIST TUTORIAL
INTRODUCTION

CYMDIST TUTORIAL ...........................................................................................1


Introduction.........................................................................................................1

Session 1 ..............................................................................................................1
1.0 Starting CYMDIST .......................................................................................1
1.1 Setting the Database Directories .................................................................1
1.2 Opening a New Study..................................................................................3
1.3 Loading the Network....................................................................................4
1.4 Saving Your Study.......................................................................................6
1.4.1 Saving the Study Into a File..............................................................6
1.4.2 Updating the Database.....................................................................7
1.5 Opening an Old Case Study........................................................................8
2.0 General Parameters ....................................................................................9
3.0 O.L.D. (One-Line Diagram) Settings..........................................................10
4.0 Mouse Commands ....................................................................................16
4.1 The Right Mouse Button............................................................................16
4.1.1 The PAN Function ..........................................................................16
4.1.2 The ZOOM Function.......................................................................16
4.1.3 Properties and Operation Function.................................................20
4.2 The Left Mouse Button ..............................................................................21
4.2.1 The SELECT Function....................................................................21
4.2.2 The ACTIVATE (Carry Out a Function) Command.........................26
5.0 The Show Options .....................................................................................31
6.0 CYMDIST Commands and Features .........................................................33
6.1 Attaching a Map.........................................................................................33
6.2 Building a Feeder ......................................................................................37
6.3 Phase Merging ..........................................................................................46
6.4 Building a Substation.................................................................................49
6.4.1 Creating a Substation with a Source ..............................................49
6.4.2 Attach a Relay to the Source ..........................................................51
6.4.3 Attaching a Transformer and a Switch............................................52
6.4.4 Creating a Bus................................................................................53
6.4.5 Connecting a Feeder to a Substation .............................................54
6.5 MultiExplorer..............................................................................................57
6.5.1 The Network Tab ............................................................................58
6.5.2 The Devices Tab ............................................................................62
6.5.3 The Legend Tab .............................................................................64
7.1 Running Some Analysis ............................................................................65
7.2 Load Allocation ..........................................................................................65
7.2.1 Running a Load Allocation..............................................................67
7.2.2 Load Allocation Report ...................................................................69

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Table of Contents


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.3 Loading the Study Feeders .......................................................................72


7.3.1 Viewing Each Feeder with a Different Color ...................................73
7.3.2 Zooming In on the Substation Area ................................................74
7.4 Parameters for the Voltage Drop (Load Flow) ...........................................75
7.4.1 Calculation Analysis .......................................................................75
7.4.2 Load Model Parameter ...................................................................77
7.4.3 Flag Parameters (Thresholds for Alarm Conditions).......................78
7.5 Running a Voltage Drop (Load Flow) ........................................................80
7.5.1 Viewing the Voltage Drop Results Graphically ...............................82
7.5.2 Tracing the Voltage Profile: ............................................................87
7.5.3 Tracing the VAR Profile ..................................................................88
7.5.4 Detailed Report...............................................................................89
7.6 Short-Circuit Calculation............................................................................93
7.6.1 Parameters for the Short-Circuit Calculations.................................93
7.6.2 Short-Circuit Calculations ...............................................................94
7.6.3 Viewing the Short-Circuit Results Graphically ................................95
7.6.4 Tracing the Short-Circuit Profile:.....................................................97
7.6.5 Detailed Report for Short-Circuit.....................................................98
7.6.6 Viewing Short-Circuit Results by Fault Level ................................102
8.0 Equipment Database ...............................................................................104
9.0 Problem Solving ......................................................................................108
9.1 Using Regulators and Capacitor Banks to Solve Problems.....................108
9.1.1 Adding a Voltage Regulator..........................................................109
9.1.2 Optimal Capacitor Placement Module ..........................................115
9.2 Reconfiguration (Reconductoring) ...........................................................122
9.3 Load Balancing on GA07.........................................................................127
9.3.1 Running the Load Balancing Function..........................................128
9.3.2 Rephasing Function (An alternate method) ..................................134
9.3.3 Visualizing the Improvements.......................................................137
9.4 Transferring Load from GA04 to GA07....................................................138
9.4.1 Closing the Switch on GA07 .........................................................142
9.4.2 Opening the Switch on GA04 .......................................................143
9.4.3 Switching Optimization Module (SOM) .........................................145

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Table of Contents


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Session 2 ..........................................................................................................149
10.0 RAM Module and Coordination Studies with CYMTCC. ........................149
10.1 Running the RAM Module on the Whole Network .................................150
10.2 Improving Reliability on GA07 ...............................................................154
10.2.1 Adding a 100 Amp Fuse .............................................................155
10.2.2 Adding a 50 Amp Fuse ...............................................................158
10.3 Coordination Studies with CYMTCC......................................................161
10.3.1 Starting CYMTCC.......................................................................162
10.3.2 Selecting the Database for the Protective Device Settings.........163
10.3.3 View a Device Setting.................................................................164
10.3.4 Returning to CYMDIST ...............................................................166
10.3.5 Network Coordination Verification ..............................................167
10.3.6 Send a Branch to CYMTCC........................................................171
10.4 Exercise Session ...........................................................................175

APPENDIX A.........................................................................................................1
Importing a Map..................................................................................................1

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Table of Contents


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

CYMDIST TUTORIAL

Introduction

The following tutorial session will take you through the various features available in the
CYMDIST program.

The main database contains five feeders that are connected to three sources (substations).
It will be used to demonstrate the standard features of CYMDIST, such as voltage drop
studies, short-circuit studies, optimal capacitor placement, etc.

This tutorial is organized in two sessions, so it is possible to skip some parts and go
directly to the sessions that are of greatest interest to you.

Session 1 covers basic commands, and Load Allocation, Voltage Drop, Short Circuit
analysis and Load Transfer, Optimal Capacitor Placement, Switching Optimization,
Problem Solving, etc.

Session 2 covers the Reliability Assessment Module and CYMTCC.

There are many features which will not be covered during this tutorial, such as Load
Growth for distribution planning, Load Allocation using multiple meters, voltage drop
studies with load curves, etc. Likewise, many editing functions are not explained here.
For a complete explanation of CYMDISTs features and usage, please refer to the
CYMDIST Reference Manual. If you have any questions about the programs
capabilities, please contact us. We are constantly adding to the features of CYMDIST
and it most probably does or will do what you are looking for.
You may reach our technical support staff:
by telephone at 1-800-361-3627 or 1-450-461-3655
by fax at 1-450-461-0966
by e-mail at support@cyme.com.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Introduction


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version
CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Session 1

1.0 Starting CYMDIST

To start CYMDIST, double-click on the CYMDIST program icon ( ).

1.1 Setting the Database Directories


Before you can load a set of feeders (networks), you have to first select its databases.

From the menu, select Files > Database > Set directory.

If a study is already open, CYMDIST prompts to close the study before setting
databases. Click Yes to continue.

You should obtain the dialog box below.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Database Profile associates a unique a User ID with a set of directories (Equipment,


Network, Project). Database profiles are user configurable and are session persistent -
Use this to change database directories information as you change projects or studies.

Set the Equipment and Network directories as shown above. Use the buttons
to browse to the directories. Or you can use the pull down menu button to
select from the most recently selected directories. The directories must exist
already, but they may be completely empty. If they are, CYMDIST will create
the necessary database files automatically.

Note: Your CYMDIST folder might be on a drive other than C:\.

The User ID identifies you to other people using CYMDIST in a multi-user (networked)
installation. The Password is necessary if you want to update the database. We will not
modify the password in this tutorial.

Click New to display the Add Database Profile dialog box.

Enter a name in the New profile field. Click Add to save this profile.

Note: The profile name can be 256 characters long, blank spaces are allow.

Click OK to save your data.

2 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

1.2 Opening a New Study

Now to be able to load the feeders, you must first open a study.

Click the New study icon . Or, from the menu select Files > New study.
CYMDIST will load a blank study file.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 3


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

1.3 Loading the Network

To load the networks (circuits) into the study, click on the Show/Hide Network icon
as shown below.

To load feeders, click on the Show/Hide Network


button.

The dialog box Loading/Unloading/View will open and will let you select the feeders
you wish to load and view. For the time being, load GA04 by clicking on its name and
then on the button left of the Network(s) Loaded field. The name GA04 should
appear in all three windows. Click OK.

Once loaded, the GA04 network should look like the diagram below. We will load the
other feeders later on in the tutorial.

4 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

If your circuit looks different, select the View > Show Options command. Select the
Show tab, and under Overhead Lines, place a check mark next to the "Single-phase"
and "Two phase" options. (For more information about the view options command,
please refer to section 5.0 of this document).

Hint: Alternately, you can load networks (circuits) into the study using the multi-
explorer. You will learn about the MultiExplorer in section 6.4 of this
document.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 5


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

1.4 Saving Your Study

Once you have loaded feeders into a study, you can modify those feeders as you like.
Those modifications can be either saved into a study file or added permanently to the
database.

We now show you how to save your work and re-open your study.

1.4.1 Saving the Study Into a File

At some points during the tutorial, you might want to save your work into a study file.
Doing that does not permanently affect the feeders in the original network.

To save a study into a file:


1. Click on the Save study icon ( ), or use the menu command Files > Save
study as shown below.

The following dialog box will open.

6 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

2. Enter the name of the case study in the File name field. Click on Save to save
the study under that name.

Note: If you have existing study files but can not see them in the Save Study As
dialog box, then you may type *.* in the File name field to enable the
displaying of all file in the directory.

Note: Starting with version 4.0, the study file extension is changed from DST to XST.
The purpose of this change is to allow your PC to associate study files to the
CYMDIST application.

At this point, we have not made any modifications to feeder GA04.


Click Cancel to exit without saving.

1.4.2 Updating the Database

The changes made in any study can be permanently applied to the original network
database. To do so, select the Files > Database > Update Network command as shown
below.

Note: Once you have updated the network database using this command, the study
becomes redundant and you should delete it. The modifications it contains
are now reflected already in the feeders.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 7


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

1.5 Opening an Old Case Study

To open an existing study:


1. Click on the Open Study icon , or use the menu command Files > Open
study as shown below.

You will obtain the following dialog box.

2. Click on the study name, so that it also appears in the File name field and then
click on Open to load that study.

8 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

2.0 General Parameters

The first thing to do when using the program for the first time is to set some parameters
with the command Parameters > General as shown below.

The following dialog box will open.

For the purpose of the tutorial, please set the default values as shown. If you make any
changes to the parameters, click OK to save your changes. Otherwise, click Cancel.

It is good practice to click on the Cancel button to exit a dialog box whenever no
modifications are made.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 9


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

3.0 O.L.D. (One-Line Diagram) Settings

You may customize the O.L.D. symbols display size, colors, line width, text size, etc.

Note: Before you can access this command, a study file must be open. Please
ensure you have a new study file opened and with feeder GA04 loaded.

Select the menu command View > Show Options, or click on the toolbar icon . The
dialog box will open with the Symbols And Colors tab selected.

The Save button will save your changes to the CYMDIST.ini file and reflect your
changes in the One Line Diagram immediately so you can see your changes without
needing to close the dialog box.

The OK button will apply your changes immediately and close the dialogue box.

10 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Choose the Selected Element symbol and change its color Properties to light
green, and its Line Width to 3.

Change the Background color to white.

Select the Grid symbol and experiment changing the size and color and spacing of the
grid. Try size = 500.

Try turning on the background grid and setting the field Size to 500.
The distance between gridlines represents 500 ft.
Go to the Show tab, and enable Grid under Miscellaneous.

Note:
Setting the Selected Element to light green will tell CYMDIST to display, in the One
Line, the currently highlighted (selected) item in the color light green. If you change
the corresponding line width value, then the selected item will be light green and the
section it is on will take on the new line thickness.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 11


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Select the Default Layer tab.


Under Select, choose the Phase layer, and change the color of the various
sections as shown below. Also, you may adjust the line thickness for each
section. Try Line width = 3 for Three-phases.

Three-phase sections (3p): LIGHT BLUE


Two-phase sections (2p): DARK BLUE
Single-phase (A, B, C) sections (1p): PURPLE

12 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Select the Analysis Layer tab.


Under Select, choose the Abnormal conditions layer and make the below
changes:

Overload indicator YELLOW


Over-voltage indicator OLIVE-GREEN
Under-voltage indicator RED

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 13


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Select the Miscellaneous tab.


The Scaling factor sizes the One Line Diagram. E.g. If the scaling factor is set to
1.0, this means that 1 coordinate unit = 1 foot.

Click Save to save your setting to the CYMDIST.ini file and then OK to exit.
The display should look like the image on the next page.

14 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 15


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

4.0 Mouse Commands

The left and right mouse buttons perform basic graphical user interface (GUI) functions,
and is context sensitive. It is important that you become familiar with these functions
before going any further.

4.1 The Right Mouse Button

The right mouse button has three functions: PAN, ZOOM, PROPERTIES, AND
OPERATION.

4.1.1 The PAN Function

Click the RIGHT mouse button once and HOLD IT DOWN (the cursor should say
Pan). Move the mouse and release the button. The picture on the screen will move as
though you had pulled it.

4.1.2 The ZOOM Function

This is a bit more difficult since you have to double-click.

1. Position the cursor at one corner of the desired area as shown below.

Place the cursor


here for example.

16 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

2. Click the RIGHT mouse button twice and HOLD IT DOWN. The cursor should say
Zoom. If it does not, double click again! Do not forget to keep the right mouse
button down. See display below.

The cursor should


now say zoom.

3. Move the mouse so that the outline box surrounds the desired area as shown below
and release the button.

Box surrounding the


selected area

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 17


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

After releasing the right mouse button, you should see a magnified view of the desired
area as shown below.

18 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

There are six zoom icons in the toolbar as shown below.

Click on the icon Zoom Out or Zoom In icon to decrease the view magnification
so that images are smaller but you see more of the network, or increase the view
magnification so that you see more detail.
Click on the icon Zoom to Fit to see the original display. Zoom to Fit-Feeder
fits the selected feeder in display.
Click on the icon Zoom Previous and Zoom Next to go back and forward in
screen displays.

Take a few minutes to get familiar with the PAN and ZOOM functions before going any
further.

Hint: You can switch the Zoom toolbar on or off using the menu command
View > Toolbars > Zoom.

Alternately:
You can zoom in or out using the mouse wheel, if your PC mouse is equipped with a
wheel. Note that the location under the cursor will remain visible as you change the
zoom level.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 19


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

4.1.3 Properties and Operation Function

Click the right mouse button once on any symbol in the One Line. And depending on the
type of symbol the cursor was on; one of the following context sensitive menus will open.
As you can see, we can easily go to the properties dialog box, delete the item, manoeuvre
switching devices, disconnect or reconnect load and show the corresponding tag.

Right-click on a Section Right-click on a Load symbol

Right-click on a Fuse (or switch)

20 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

4.2 The Left Mouse Button

The left mouse button has two functions: SELECT and ACTIVATE (a function).

4.2.1 The SELECT Function

First, zoom into a given area to see the details of a section.

Click on the node

Click on the section

Click on the load symbol

There are several ways of selecting an item with the mouse.

You may click the LEFT mouse button ONCE:

on a node,
on a section, or its equipment load symbol

OR

You may click the LEFT mouse button, HOLD and drag the outline box over a node, a
section or its equipment load symbol.

The selected item will appear in a different color. (LIGHT GREEN was selected via
View > Show Options command in Section 3.)

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 21


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Note: Symbols on the One-Line

The figure below shows symbols and their definitions. Alternative equipment
symbols are available, see table in Appendix E in the CYMDIST manual for
detail.

Spot load (source side) Uniformly distributed load Spot load (load side)

Transformer Fuse

A spot Load is concentrated in one place on the section. The arrow on the
spot load symbol indicates where the spot load is connected. If no arrow
appears, then the spot load is at the mid-point of the section.

Please try selecting some sections with the left mouse button. Then read about the
Find command, below.

Another way to select a section

The Edit > Find command offers an easy way to select a section, node, or equipment by
name.

A dialog box opens which lists by name all of the sections currently on display.

22 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Choose one from the drop down list and click on the Find button to go there. Make sure
that filters is set to OFF (as shown below) if you want to see all the sections in the list.

Otherwise, you can shorten the list of sections by activating the filters and clicking on the
Filters button. The dialog box will expand to display the filtering options, where you
can ask for sections that include certain kinds of equipment. For example, select switch
by checking the appropriate box then click on Close.

You will then notice that all the switches in the network are circled in yellow
(previously specified in the O.L.D. settings) and the list of sections features only
those with switches connected.

Click on the Find button to go directly to the section highlighted in the list. It will
appear in the center of the window, as if you had used the Find Current icon ( )

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 23


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

24 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Status bar

Whenever a section, or node, is selected, the status bar at the bottom of the
screen will be updated with information concerning the selected section, or
node.
In the bottom text line you will find: Section ID, Feeder name, From Node ID,
To Node ID, Phasing, Line or Cable type, Length, etc.

Note: The report on the status bar shows the static value only. In
contrast, the Voltage Result Box shows load flow data.

The upper bar may be customized to display feeder information from a list of keywords.
To customize, double click on the status bar; or select menu command
Parameters > Customization > Status bar. Click on the button Select key and select
keywords of interest from the pop up list.
Uncheck the Disable option to show the keywords selected.

Enter a partial text


string to search
through the list.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 25


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

4.2.2 The ACTIVATE (Carry Out a Function) Command

Left double-clicking carries out whatever function is currently selected. For now, we will
learn how to query or modify the properties of a section.

1. Make sure the Properties icon is selected. The cursor should show a ? mark.

Query a section

2. Select the desired section. (Select section 6527, for example.)

3. Click the LEFT mouse button TWICE. Note: When clicking the left mouse button
twice, the cursor can be anywhere around or on a selected section, but NOT on
another object.

Alternately,
You may obtain the same results placing the cursor directly on the section and click the
RIGHT mouse button ONCE. Then click on Properties with the left mouse button. If
the cursor is not located on the section when you right-click, then the Pan function will
be activated instead.

26 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

A Section Properties dialog box similar to the one shown below will open.

The Section field at the top left indicates the currently selected section name (6527).
Located at the bottom left corner, clicking on the Back or the Next ( ) buttons will
select and display the properties of the up stream or down stream section respectively.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 27


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

4. Inspect the load properties by clicking on Distributed Load under Devices. The
right hand side portion of the dialog box will display the distributed load properties.

Each section may carry one spot load and/or one uniformly distributed load. The
location of a spot load must be specified (At From node, At Middle or At To node). Both
load types must have the same configuration, which you select using the Configuration
field at the bottom right of the dialog box. You may choose to express the load type in
terms of kW & kVAR, kVA & PF or kW & PF.

You can see that there is only a uniformly distributed load on this section. The
transformer kVA on that section is 75 kVA per phase and the actual load is set to 36.5
kVA with a power factor of 60%.

28 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Select Overhead Line under Devices to display the type of line or cable. In our case,
we have selected 600_4/0_312, which is defined in the equipment database. The line is
409.869 ft long and the phasing is ABC.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 29


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Select Node from the Devices field to see the true x and y coordinates (true location) of
this node. See image below.

The Devices field indicates that there is currently no device connected at section 6527.
To add equipment(s), simply click Add and select the desired item from the drop down
list.

Please take a few minutes to become familiar with selecting and querying sections.

30 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

5.0 The Show Options

The menu command View > Show Options allows you to show or hide many items.
Alternately, you can click on the Show Options icon located on the toolbar.

The Show Options dialog box lets you select which items to display by clicking to
place or remove check marks next to the corresponding item.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 31


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Please choose the Show tab. Under Overhead Lines, disable the options
Single-Phase, and Two-Phase.

Note: The top 3 options (Single-Phase A, Single-Phase B, Single-Phase C)


should have a check mark next to them.

Under Text, enable Section ID and Phase Label.

Click on the Save button to save your changes to the CYMDIST.ini files and to see your
changes in the O.L.D. Your setting will be recalled the next time CYMDIST is started.

You should no longer see any single-phase (phase A, B, or C) or two-phase sections on


the display. Try zooming in until you can read the Sections phase label.

Before continuing to the next section, please turn back on the Single-phase (phases A,
B, & C) and the Two-phase sections. Disable the Section Id tag option.

32 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6.0 CYMDIST Commands and Features

6.1 Attaching a Map


The Window > Attach map function allows you to display a map behind the One
Line Diagram.

1. Select Window > Attach map or click on the Attach Map icon as shown
below.

The Map selection dialog box lets you define a dataset, which is an index
to one or more sheets composing the map.

Attach Map
Button

2. Click on attach dataset to set up an index to map images. Click on the browse
button ( ) to look for the . gds file provided with the tutorial database.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 33


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

3. Select the galstreets.gds file under the MAP directory and click Open.

4. The Attach button becomes enabled. Click on it to display a list of map sheets
for selection. Select the sheets you would like to attach and click Open. Note:
For our tutorial, select all of them.

Click here

34 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

5. Click OK to attach the select map sheets.

Now, click on the Zoom to fit icon ( ) to see the whole map. The display should now
look like this.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 35


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Try zooming in on an area as illustrated below.

Practice zooming and panning. We will build a feeder on top of the map.

36 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6.2 Building a Feeder

Let us build a sample feeder to help you become more familiar with the program. Zoom-
in to the area as shown below.

Our feeder will originate from a substation. Let us make a copy of an existing substation
for our use.

Select the menu command Equipment > Source.


Select the W_GALV1 substation and change its ID to DEMO-STATION.
Click Add, make sure DEMO-STATION has been added to the list, then click OK.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 37


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Next, we will place the substation on the map in the zoomed area.

Click on the New feeder icon ( ) located in the Editor Toolbar, or select the menu
command Edit > Feeder > New. The cursor should say Feeder.

Hint: Click to show or hide the Editor toolbar.

Position the cursor as shown in the illustration below.

Hint: To find the location shown below, use the Find command to locate node
12955. Pan your display to give yourself room to perform this part of the
tutorial.

Double click the left mouse button and hold it down.


Position the cursor exactly where you want the substation to be, but not too far from
some portion of FEEDER GA04.
Release the mouse button, and the following dialog box will open.

If you do something wrong, use the UNDO icon ( ) to undo your change.

38 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Under Feeder / Name, enter DEMO-FEEDER. If you click on the Info button, you
can enter user-defined text like comments, peak load date, etc.
Next, click on the drop down menu arrow next to Source / Name and select the
substation DEMO-STATION.

Click OK. A box representing the substation is added (see below).

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 39


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Next, we will create some sections.

Hint: If you want to draw a perfectly horizontal or vertical line, you can activate the
menu command Edit > Geometry > Ortho Mode. In our example, we will not
activate this function.

To add a section, select the Add Section icon ( ) from the editor toolbar, or select the
menu command Edit > Section > Add. The cursor should say Section.

(A new section is always connected to the currently selected node. In this


case, that node is the substation.)

Position the cursor several centimeters (an inch or two) away from the substation
symbol.

Double-click the left mouse button and hold it down. This creates the new section (a
dashed line) and still allows you to position its node.

Still holding down the mouse button, move the mouse to stretch out the new section.
See the illustration below.

Connecting a new section to the substation

Release the mouse button. The Section Properties dialog box will open as shown
below.

If you double-clicked and nothing happened, click once on the substation symbol to
make sure it is selected. Make sure the cursor says section and try double-
clicking again.

40 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Under Section, enter SECTION1

Next to Line ID, select <4/0_4/0_312> from the drop down list. (Click on the
symbol.)
The length is computed in feet according to the coordinates.
Click OK to accept the changes. You should see the following display.

Hint: You can hide the Section ID tag by pressing the [Ctrl] + [I] keys or by
selecting View > Show Text > Section ID

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 41


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

We will now add a switch on this section.

Press the <enter> key once to select the Properties function.

Select the new section and double click the left mouse button. The section properties
dialog box will open.

Under Devices, click Add and select Protective Device > Switch. Select S for the
ID. Next to location, select At To Node from the drop down menu.

Click OK to add the switch.

A switch symbol is added to the section.

42 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Go through the same steps to add a new section called SECTION2 and place it as shown
below.

Lets add some load on section2.

Select section2 and double click the left mouse button. The section properties dialog box
will open.

In the Devices field, click Add and select Load > Spot Load.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 43


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Fill in the information as shown below and click OK. Make sure to select the
<kVA&PF> as the load type.

Note:

Observe how you can connect equipment and load to the section at the same time as you
create it, rather than having to re-open the dialog box and edit the section as we are doing
here. As you become familiar with creating sections, you will find how quickly you can
build up the feeder.

44 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

We will now create an interconnection to feeder GA04.

There are two methods to create an interconnection, by choosing the


New interconnection icon ( ), (this is the same as selecting the
Edit > connect command), or by performing a drag and drop operation. In this
tutorial, we will use the drag and drop method.

Our interconnection will be between SECTION2 and some nearby section


belonging to Feeder GA04.

Press the <enter> key to select the properties function ( ).


Position the cursor over the To node of section 2 and hold it down.

Drag the node over to the target node till a square box, like the one below, appears next to
the cursor then release the mouse button. The program will ask you to confirm the
interconnection, click OK to confirm the operation, or click Cancel to undo.

You have successfully created a feeder and performed an interconnection.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 45


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6.3 Phase Merging


Phase merging is the ability to connect sections with different phases together.

Restrictions on phase merging

Things that you cannot do:


Merging phases of section that belongs to different feeders.
Merging phases that could result in the creation of a multiple source node
section.

Continuing from the previous tutorial, you will create at the To Node of section1, a
phase branching and merging operation to demonstrate a phase merge.

Note: Remember to reuse what you have just learned about creating new sections.

1. Create a new section with phases A, B, and C, as shown below. For the purpose
of this demonstration, you do not need to add any devices or load the sections.

46 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

2. Create a series of phase A, phase B, and phase C sections (branches) and position
them as in the second image below. Note that when you are creating a new
section downstream of a single-phase section, the phase selection is limited to the
same phase (see top image).

Hint: To change the phase of a section, open its properties dialog box and un-check the
appropriate phases next to Phase.

Note: If you do not see the newly created section, then select the command:
View > Show Options. Select the Show tab and under Overhead Lines, enable
all single-phase and two-phase options.

Only upstream phase(s)


are available

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 47


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

3. Create the third phase A section and the third phase C section in the configuration
shown below. The node where all 3 sections meet is the merge point; sections
created downstream from this node can now have phases A, B, and or C.

Merge
Point

All 3
phases are
available
again

Now, you close this study. Save it if you like.

48 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6.4 Building a Substation

The substation is the starting point of a feeder. It represents the impedance of the
generation and transmission network (including the substation transformers) that supplies
the feeder. In the above tutorial, we used a copy of an existing substation (substation
equivalent) to show you how to start building a feeder. In this section, we will show you
how to use the same basic tools to build a detailed substation. Note: Although we are
using the same set of tools, some of the tools / commands will have different functions
and limitations. In addition, you will learn two new O.L.D. concepts needed to build a
substation:
SOURCE and BUS

Note:

To enable the substation functions (module), first, you must have the correct hardware
key connected to the parallel port. Second, before accessing the functions for the first
time, you must enable it via the windows program group command: Start > Programs >
Cyme > Cymdist > Tools > Enable Substation module detection. This is a one-time
requirement, once enabled; cymdist will remember the setting for subsequence sessions.

Click OK to confirm activation.

6.4.1 Creating a Substation with a Source

Open a new study file.


1. Click on the New substation icon , (or select Edit > Substation > New). The
cursor should say Subs.

2. Double click and hold down the mouse button; Drag the cursor to where you
would like to place the substation and release. The Substation Properties dialog
box will open.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 49


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

3. Under Substation, select the Name field and type in DEMO-STATION1


4. Under Source, select Equivalent as the Source type and DEMO-STATION as
the Source Name
5. Click OK to create the substation.

The dotted line represents the substations extent (boundary). You do not
need to fit new component manually since it will expand automatically as
you work. But if you prefer to change the size and or proportion manually,
you can click on the dotted line and drag the handles to make your
changes.

50 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6.4.2 Attach a Relay to the Source

1. Press the <enter> key to activate the properties command.


2. Select the Source
3. Click on the Add section icon , (or select the command)
4. Double click and hold down the mouse button so you can move the To node of
the relay a small distance below the source. Release the mouse button. The
Device properties dialog box will open.

5. Under Device, type a new name other then the application generated one.

Hint: The auto-generated name is set using the command Parameters > General

6. Under Devices, click Select and select Relay as shown.

For the purpose of this tutorial, you can leave the relay setting in their default
values.

7. Click OK to create the relay.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 51


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6.4.3 Attaching a Transformer and a Switch

Using the above steps as reference, create a transformer and a switch below the relay.
After adding the transformer and switch, your substation should look similar to the
sample below.

You should see by now that although the process of building a substation is similar to
building a feeder, the same Add section command from the previous tutorial will call up
a Device properties dialog box instead of a Section properties dialog box.
Furthermore, you can create only one device per section. The reason being, in a
substation the typical conductors used to connect devices together have negligible
electrical value, thus CYMDIST places emphasis on the devices and not the connecting
elements.

Note: In a substation, devices are added one at a time using the Add section
command. In other word, you can only have one device per section.

52 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6.4.4 Creating a Bus

A bus is essentially a node but a node that you can extend horizontally or vertically to
accept connectors. Connectors are connection points where you can start new sections.

To create a bus, you must start from a node. You can create a bus in two ways:

From the node properties dialog box;


Graphically by dragging the nodes handles;

We will start off with the properties dialog box method:

1. Select the properties function;


2. Select the To node of the switch you have just created;
3. Left double click anywhere in the O.L.D to display the Node properties dialog
box;
4. Under Type, mark a check mark in the Bus check box. The Alignment and
Width sections will be enabled.
5. Select Horizontal for Alignment and change the bus width and node ID if the
default values do not fit your needs.
6. Click OK to create the bus

The properties dialog box method converts the


selected To Node into a bus (bus bar), and
automatically creates 3 equally spaced connectors.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 53


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Adding a connector to an existing bus


Now, we will use the second, and more intuitive, method to create another connector.

Hint: You can use this dragging of the node handle method to turn a regular node into
a bus. However, using this method will create only one connector at the original
location of the node.

1. Select the bus like you would select any other symbol.
2. Drag the handle on the right to lengthen the bus as shown.
3. Right click on the bus where you want the new connector to be. Select
Connector > Add from the context sensitive menu.

Hint: You can delete connectors by right clicking on them and select
Connector > Delete.

6.4.5 Connecting a Feeder to a Substation

Connecting a feeder to a station is the same as making an interconnection between two


networks. You can do this by using the Connect command ( ), or you can simply
drag and drop a feeder, via the feeder source node onto the connecting node of the
substation.

Before creating a node for the interconnection between substation and feeder:

Using the add section command, create and connect another relay to one of the
connectors. See below.

Connectors

Connecting node
to a feeder.

54 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Creating and connect a new feeder to the substation

1. Select the command Edit > Feeder > New. The cursor will say Feeder.
2. Double click the left mouse button a small distant below the substation.
3. In the Feeder Properties dialog box, fill in the Name as shown below. If you want
to, assign a different Color to the feeder network.

Both the Source Type and the Source Name are filled in for you because
CYMDIST detected an existing substation in the open study file or the
currently selected network database.

If you wish, you can select an alternate Source Type and Name via their
respective pull down list.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 55


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

4. Click OK to create the feeder.

Note that the feeder is already connected to the substation via a connector
symbol.

Connector
symbol

Alternately, if you have defined a Source Type and Name other the substations in step
#3 above, then the feeder will NOT be connected.

To connect a feeder with a source other than the loaded substation

1. Select the feeder by the feeder source node and drag it on top of the substation
connecting node and release.
2. From the pop up dialog box, confirm the replacement of the sources.

Now, you may close this study. Save it if you like.

56 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6.5 MultiExplorer

The MultiExplorer is a multi-function tool that enables you to load & unload, show
or hide, explorer, and work with your networks using a Windows Explorer like
environment. It is an alternate interface to access the same show options commands
that you have learned. Designed to help you work with large and complex studies, that
may require you to do a lot of lengthy circuit tracing, information in the explorer is
always visible, tabulated by equipment type, alphanumerically ordered, presented in a
tree structure list, and is color-coded.

Network, Devices, & Legend


The 3 main sections (tabs) of the MultiExplorer

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 57


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6.5.1 The Network Tab

This tab displays the content of your network database. It allows you to load or unload
substations and feeders into your study directly by using mouse commands. Once
information is loaded into memory, and or displayed, you can work with them as if you
are working in the O.L.D.

Right click on any item to open its context sensitive menu, and depending on the items
type and status, you will be able to perform various operations: load, unload, hide, show,
delete, edit its properties, generate a report, etc.

Loading some networks via the Network Tab

A study must be opened before you can select the multi-explorer.Open a new study.

1. In the main toolbar, click on the MultiExp icon . The MultiExp will open into
one of the 3 main tabs as shown above.
2. Click to select the Network tab. (If it is not the current selection).
3. Double click on the Feeder layer to see a list of available feeders.

Hint: You can single click on the plus sign to expand the any layer.

1
2
Clicking on the
MultiExp icon will
3 open the Multi-
Explorer window

Double click
Feeders

58 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

4. Right click on GA04 and select Load network from the context sensitive menu
to load that feeder.

Red check mark and a red box =


loaded and currently display in the
O.L.

Red box = loaded in memory but


is hiden from view

Gray box = available for loading

As practice, try loading, unloading, and hiding other feeders.

Hint: If you want to work with all the feeders, then try right clicking the Feeders
layer. The context sensitive menu will open with layer wide commands like
Load Networks, Unload Networks, and Show Networks.

Note: You will notice that even though you have just loaded GA04, the rest of the
feeders, and the substation, are also loaded into memory. This is normal
because a substation and all of its connected feeders are considered one big
circuit and CYMDIST must consider entire circuit when performing calculation
and analysis.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 59


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Working with the Sections and Nodes Layers

The Sections and Nodes layers list alphanumerically all sections and nodes that are
loaded in memory. Instead of tracing the O.L.D. to locate a section, you can expand the
Section layer and scroll directly to a specific section (or node).

To see a tool tip, place the pointer on top of a section or node.


Right click on a section to open its context sensitive menu and perform the
same tasks as if you are working in the O.L.D.

60 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Enable Auto Locate

When enabled, the O.L.D. will automatically centers and zoom in on a selected section
(or node). Auto Locate works in the other direction as well; select a section, or node, in
the O.L.D. and the MultiExplorer will highlight and zoom in on the same section (or
node).

1. Right click in a blank part of the MultiExplorer window to open the navigation
menu.
2. Select Auto Locate to enable it.

Try selecting some sections in the MultiExplorer and in the O.L.D. Also, right click on
some sections in the O.L.D. and in the MultiExplorer and compare their context sensitive
menus.

Section
10268

Click here

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 61


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6.5.2 The Devices Tab

Similar to the section and node layers in the Network tab, the Devices tab provides an
easy way to locate and work with devices on the network(s). This tab sorts all devices,
that are loaded into memory, by device type and then by device ID (alphanumerically).

The number of devices of each type loaded in memory is displayed next to it in brackets.
A blue box next to a device layer will indicate that at least one device of this type exists
in the network loaded in memory.

The figure above shows that with all the loaded networks combined;
there is no capacitor, 103 fuses, 66 switches, etc.

62 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Device Layer Report

Right click on a device layer and select Report from the pop up menu to generate a
device database report.

The auto locate function (that was mention earlier) also works between the MultiExplorer
window, the Cyme Spreadsheet type report, and the O.L.D. Consequently, when you
select a device in the report or in the explorer, or in the O.L.D., this device will be
selected and zoomed to in the other 2 views.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 63


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6.5.3 The Legend Tab

The Legend tab is designed to help you read information off of the O.L.D. It is an
always visible portion of the View > Show option dialog box that you can easily refer
to (and modify) to improve the readability of the O.L.D.

By reading the Default layer setting on the top left corner of the screen, you can easily
identify feeder GA04 from GA05 based on their color setting.

In the sections that follow, you will be changing the display properties to help you
identify trouble areas of a network, or to high light specific information of interest. Keep
the MultiExp in mind and if you like to, try re-enabling it and perform the same
modification as instructed.

64 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.1 Running Some Analysis


Now that you are familiar with the mouse commands and some other useful commands,
we will run some analysis on the feeders.

We will first run a load allocation on GA06 and thereafter we will load GA04 and GA05
to run some analysis on both feeders.

7.2 Load Allocation


Open a new study and load Feeder GA06. If you query some sections you will see that
transformer kVA has been entered for each section with a load on it.

For this tutorial, use the Edit > Find function to locate section 15285.

Click on the Find button.

In the One Line, left double click the mouse button to call up the section properties
dialog box. See below figure.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 65


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Under Devices, click on Distributed Load to view the load on this section. (See the
image above.) The transformer kVA is set to 100 kVA per phase and the actual load
is set to 54 kVA per phase with a power factor of 51 %. (If you would rather express
the load in kW and kVAR, select kW & kVAR under the Load type option.)

Click Cancel to exit from the Section Properties dialog boxes.

Note: It is a good practice to click on the CANCEL button to exit a dialog box
whenever no modifications are made.

66 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.2.1 Running a Load Allocation

We will allocate a total of 15 MVA on GA06 using the kVA method.

1. Select the Analysis > Load Allocation menu command as shown below.

The Load Allocation dialog box will open as shown below.

Under Select feeders(s): de-select all feeders except GA06.


Under Method, select Connected kVA, set the allocation Tolerance to 2%, and then
click on the Demand >> button to specify the demand for GA06.
The Feeder Demand dialog box will open as shown below.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 67


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

2. Click on the Downstream button. The following dialog box will open.

This gives you the information on the connected load downstream of the substation.
Click Close to close the Downstream Load dialog box.

3. Click on the box marked Total and enter a 7000 kVA total. Click under PF% and
enter a 90% power factor. Then click OK to exit the Feeder Command dialog box.

4. To start the load allocation, simply click on the Run button. When the allocation is
complete, the display will return to normal and you can view the load allocation
report.

68 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.2.2 Load Allocation Report

1. To view the report, click Report > On calculation as shown below.

The Simulation Report dialog box will open as shown below.

2. Click on Load allocation to place a check mark there.

3. Click on OK to view the report.

The load allocation report opens in a window.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 69


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

You may resize the report window. Scroll down to check it. Right click inside the report
to customize, zoom, print, close etc.

Hint: The Show Reports icon , and the View > Reports menu command,
displays or hides the report. Click on it if you do not see the report.

4. At the top of this report you should get the information about the demand that
we specified as well as the demand that was allocated.

We requested 7000 kVA at 90% power factor and the program has allocated 6990.5 kVA
at 89.8% PF. The difference is in the tolerance threshold that was selected (2%). Also,
for each phase, the program reports the total amount of connected transformer kVA. In
this example, neither the energy consumption in kWh nor the number of consumers was
entered in the database.

70 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

As you scroll down the report, you will see the loading information for each section.

At the bottom of the report, the allocated load is reported by phase and total.

You may close the report window.

Next, we will perform a voltage drop (load flow) analysis.

You may close this study.

Hint: If you would like to save your work now, click on the Save icon , or choose
Files > Save study. The study will be saved in the Project folder.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 71


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.3 Loading the Study Feeders

Before we can run a voltage drop, we need to load GA04 and GA05 into a new study.

1. Open a new study.


2. Click on the Load Feeders icon ( ).

The following dialog box will open.

2. To load GA04 and GA05, select both and then click on the arrow button >> .

Both GA04 and GA05 should appear in all three columns now.

3. Click OK to start loading both feeders into the new study.

4. You should now see the two feeders. Click on the Zoom to fit icon to have a
global view.

72 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.3.1 Viewing Each Feeder with a Different Color

In the menu, select View > Show Options to display the Show Options dialog box.
Select the Default Layer tab.

Under Select, click on the down button and select Feeder color (random).
Click OK.

Now the two feeders are represented in separate colors, making it easier to identify
between them.
Hint: By editing the feeder Feeder Source node symbol (Feeder Properties), you may
assign a specific color to all sections connected to it (that is, each feeder can have
its own color.) In that case, you might use Feeder Color.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 73


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.3.2 Zooming In on the Substation Area

Now let us look at the start of the feeders by zooming into this area.

1. Move the mouse cursor to one corner of the desired area (see display below).
2. Click the RIGHT mouse button twice and HOLD IT DOWN. The cursor should say
Zoom.
3. Move the mouse so that the outline box surrounds the desired area and release the
button.

After you release the mouse button you should see a display like the one below.

74 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.4 Parameters for the Voltage Drop (Load Flow)

Before running a voltage drop, we will review the default parameters that are currently
set for calculation, the load model and alarm thresholds.

7.4.1 Calculation Analysis

Select the Analysis > Calculation menu command, or click on the toolbar icon .

The Feeder Calculation box opens.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 75


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Select the General tab.

Verify your parameters, and set them as above.


Select the Report each iteration option. This will generate an iteration report for the
progress of voltage drop solution for each feeder in the study.

Also, select the Display a status box option. This displays a box indicating load
parameters selected (discussed next), and any abnormal conditions present, once the
calculation is finished.

76 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.4.2 Load Model Parameter

Select the Load Model tab.

By default, the Load factors is set to Nominal and both the Active and Reactive load
growth factors are set to 1 p.u. Thus the load defined on each section will be used
without adjustment. All load types are represented by a 100% constant power load
model. (Load power does not vary with voltage.)

Ensure you have the same parameter as shown above.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 77


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.4.3 Flag Parameters (Thresholds for Alarm Conditions)

Select the Flag Levels tab.

Under Equipment ratings select Summer, and under Flag levels based on select
Planning.

Click on Settings . The flag levels dialog box will open.

78 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

In the table, you may specify the capacity of the equipment, based on its nominal
capacity (assigned in the Equipment database).

If the current (or power) transmitted by an equipment is greater than this level, then an
alarm is set for that equipment. A message will appear in the report and the equipment
symbol will change color on the display.

You may set the alarm levels for High-voltage and Low-voltage. If the calculation
shows that the voltage on a section lies outside these limits, then an alarm is set for that
section. A message appears in the report and the section changes color on the display.
Set the limits as shown above.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 79


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.5 Running a Voltage Drop (Load Flow)

We are now ready to begin analysis of these two feeders and to locate any problems or
weaknesses in this system. Continuing from the Feeder Calculation dialog box above:

Under Select feeder(s), click on the All button to select the two feeders.

Under Select Analysis, place a check mark beside the option Voltage Drop.

Please note that you could run a voltage drop and short-circuit at the same time if both
analysis options were selected. You may try that later. For now, perform just the Voltage
Drop.

To start the simulation click on the Run button.

You should see the Simulation in progress status display. Depending on the speed of
your computer, it may appear for a few seconds only.

80 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Hint: The Cancel button allows you to interrupt a simulation, if a calculation is


obviously not converging.)

The Iteration Report, shown above, shows the calculation for GA04 converged in 4
iterations, and that the calculation for GA05 is in progress. If a calculation does not
converge to a solution, then this report can help you investigate the problem. It identifies
the section where the maximum voltage mismatch occurs at each iteration.

Once the simulation has completed, the Unbalanced voltage drop status status box
opens.

Notice that it points out abnormal conditions of overload and under voltage on the
feeders.

Click
Close to return to the feeder main window (One Line).

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 81


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.5.1 Viewing the Voltage Drop Results Graphically

To view the voltage drop results graphically we will turn on two options.

First, click on the Show options icon, as shown below, or by select the menu command
View > Show Options.

Show Option
icon

The Show options dialog box opens with the Symbols And Colors tab selected.
Choose the Show tab.

82 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Under Results, enable Voltage Drop Box to permit inspection of the voltage drop
(load flow) results by clicking on individual sections.
Select the Analysis Layer tab.
Under Select, click on the down button and select abnormal conditions.
Click OK to apply the show options.

You may also use the short-cut key combination [Ctrl]+[V] to turn the voltage drop
box ON or OFF.

The Analysis layer color scheme has precedence over the Default layer color
scheme. So, after a simulation, sections with abnormal conditions such as low
voltage would assume the low voltage color (as shown above) rather than the colors
defined for 3-phase, 2-phase, etc. (phase colors).

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 83


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

On the display, you should see many sections colored in RED at the end of the feeder and
others colored in YELLOW at the top. The RED colored sections are experiencing low
voltage, whereas the YELLOW colored sections are experiencing overloading.

Overloading

Overloading

Under-voltage

Under-voltage

84 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Zoom in on the under-voltage area (right double-click) of GA04 and select section
15492 with the mouse or with the Find command. Once you have selected it, the
Voltage results box will open as shown below.

Section
15492

The Voltage Drop Box shows for each phase (A, B and C) of the selected section:

V(120) --- the voltage on 120 V base = 113.8


kVLN --- the phase to neutral voltage in kV = 6.8
dv% --- the accumulated voltage drop in % = 11.3%
i --- the current in Amperes = 3.6

Because the center circle of the voltage result box is selected, the results shown are for
the conductor portion of that section. (Since section 15492 does not include any
equipment, the circles marked 'S' for Source-end and 'L' for Load-end are not active.)

Notice that the voltage fields are colored with the under-voltage color. (Alarm colors
are used inside the results box even when One-Line color coding is off.)

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 85


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

The voltage results box that you see may look a little different. This is because the fields
are customizable.

Double-click (left) inside the box, and you can change the column and row headings.
The names in the fields are keywords that stand for different results. Click on the Select
key button to see a list of them.

86 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.5.2 Tracing the Voltage Profile:

Click on the Plot button inside the Voltage Drop Box to plot the voltage profile along
the feeder, from the substation to the node currently selected. Select the voltage plot.

You should obtain a graphic like the one below. If you do not have this graphic, it is
probably because the section 15492 was not selected.

This plot shows the voltage profile of each phase (the Y-axis is the voltage and the X-axis
is the distance (m or ft) from the substation). If you move the mouse cursor around on
the graphic, the cursor coordinates (voltage, distance and section number) are displayed
continuously in an information box.

Note: The plot on your screen may look different. To customize the plot, right click
anywhere on the plot and select Settings from the context sensitive menu.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 87


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.5.3 Tracing the VAR Profile

Click on the Plot button inside the voltage results box and choose kVAR to plot
the kVAR flow profile along the feeder, from the substation to the node currently
selected.

This plot shows the kVAR flow profile of each phase (the Y-axis is the kVAR and the X-
axis is the distance (m or ft) from the substation). If you move the mouse cursor around
on the graphic, the cursor coordinates (kVAR, distance and section number) are displayed
continuously in an information box.

You may now close the voltage and VAR profile windows. Try selecting different
sections and looking at the results graphically.

88 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.5.4 Detailed Report

In the example above, we looked at the point-and-click results. You may also obtain a
detailed report in tabular form. You may choose what information will be included in the
report, via the Report > Customize > Voltage drop command. The report may also be
saved to a DBF file so you can attach your own report generator to it.

1. Now let us see the tabular report. Select Report > On calculation.

Report on calculation

You will obtain the following dialog box.

2. Select the option Voltage drop - Complete. Select the Cyme Text file format.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 89


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

3. Then click on OK to see the report.

Please remember that the contents of this report are user-selectable and it may be
customized by clicking Properties for a selected format.

As you scroll down the report for FEEDER GA04 you will see detailed
information about each phase of each section. You may look at the contents
of the report by yourself; however, we would like to point out that at the
bottom of the tabular report there is a summary.

Summary report

The summary shows: the total load (nominal), the load used (adjusted), the total capacitor
kVAR, the total losses, etc. Also for each phase, the section with the lowest voltage is
identified. To find out where that section is, simply use the menu command
Edit > Find. If the "Edit > Find" command is not active (grayed out), click on the
window where the feeder One Line Diagram is shown to reactivate the whole toolbar.

90 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

The Cyme Spreadsheet report is also available and permits you to interact with the
diagram from within the report.

1. Select Report > On calculation. You will obtain the following dialog box.

2. Select the options Voltage drop - Complete, and Cyme Spreadsheet.

3. Then click on OK to see the report.

Please remember that the contents of this report are user-selectable and it may be
customized by clicking Properties for a selected format.

By clicking on the row number of the section you want to select (on the left
side of the report), the section is automatically selected on the one line
diagram. This type of report presents many other features to help you
personalize your reports.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 91


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Let us close the report windows. Note that if several report windows are open, you can
close them all with a RIGHT click and selecting Close all.

Other file formats such as Spread-sheet, Excel, Dbf, Enhanced or Html are
available, besides the Text format.

92 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.6 Short-Circuit Calculation

7.6.1 Parameters for the Short-Circuit Calculations

Before running a short-circuit calculation, we will review the default parameters.

Note: You can access the short-circuit parameters (or voltage-drop parameters)
using the menu commands Parameters > Calculation or
Analysis > Calculation or by clicking on the Run analysis icon .

Select the Parameters > Calculation menu command.


The following dialog box will open. Select the Short-Circuit tab.

Here you may specify multipliers kmax and kmin and the impedance within the
fault itself. For the purposes of this demonstration, please ensure the values are set as
shown above. (Usually 0 kmin 1.0 kmax 1.1).

Click OK if you have made changes, otherwise click Cancel to exit from this dialog
box without changing anything.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 93


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.6.2 Short-Circuit Calculations

We are now ready to begin the short-circuit analysis of these two feeders.

Click on the Calculate icon , or choose from the menu Analysis > Calculation.
You will obtain the Feeder Calculation dialog box shown below.

Click on the All button to select both feeders.

Place a check mark beside the option Short-Circuit.

You should also remove the check mark beside the option Voltage Drop,
otherwise you will run both types of study.

To start the short-circuit simulation, click Run.

You will notice that the short-circuit calculation is almost instantaneous. Upon
completion, both feeders will be displayed again in the active window.

94 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.6.3 Viewing the Short-Circuit Results Graphically

To view the short-circuit results graphically we will turn on the option in the dialog box
Show Options. Select the menu command View > Show Options.

Or you can click the


Show Option icon

You will obtain the Show Options dialog box.

Under Results, place a check mark beside the option Short-Circuit Box. See
figure above. Click OK to apply your changes and exit the dialog box.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 95


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

As an example, we will look at the short-circuit current values for section 14321 on
GA04. Use the menu command Edit > Find to select section 14321. Once it is
selected, the Short-circuit results box will display the short-circuit results.

Section 14321 is a three-phase section, so we get the following results in the box:

Three-phase fault current (LLL) = 2708 A


Double-line-to-ground (LLG) = 2416 A
Line-to-line (LL) = 2345 A
Line-to-ground (LG) = 1513 A

Note:
The Short-Circuit Box that you see may look a little different. This is because the fields
are customizable.

Double-click (left) inside the box, and you can change the column and row headings.
The names in the fields are keywords that stand for different results. Click on the Select
key button to see a list of them.

96 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.6.4 Tracing the Short-Circuit Profile:

Click on the Plot... button inside the Short-circuit results box to plot the fault current
profile along the feeder, from the substation to the node currently selected. You should
obtain a graphic like the one below.

This plot shows the fault current profile for each type of fault. The Y-axis is the current
in Amperes and the X-axis is the distance (m or ft) from the substation. The coordinates
of the mouse cursor are continuously displayed on the graphic.

You may now close the Fault Current Profile window. Try selecting different sections
and looking at the results graphically.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 97


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.6.5 Detailed Report for Short-Circuit

In the example above, we looked at the point-and-click results. You may also obtain a
detailed report in tabular form. You may choose what information will be included in the
report, via the Report > Customize > Short-circuit command. The report may also
be saved to a DBF file so you can attach your own report generator to it.

1. Now let us see the tabular report. Select Report > On calculation.

Report on calculation

98 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

You will obtain the following dialog box.

2. Select the two feeders, GA04 and GA05.


3. Select the Short-circuit report, and choose the Cyme Text report format.

4. Then click on OK to see the report.

Remember that the contents of this report are user-selectable.

As you scroll down the report you will see detailed information about each section.
You can look at the contents of the report by yourself; however, we would like to
point out that at the bottom of the tabular report there is a summary.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 99


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Summary report:

The summary shows the maximum and minimum LLL and LG fault current, and the
sections where they occur. To find out where these sections are, simply use the menu
command Edit > Find. If the "Edit > Find" command is not active (grayed out),
click on the window where the feeder One Line Diagram is shown to reactivate the
whole toolbar.

The Cyme Spreadsheet report is also available and permits you to interact with the
diagram within the report.

1. Select Report > On calculation. You will obtain the following dialog box.

2. Select the options Short-circuit, and Cyme Spreadsheet.

3. Click OK to see the report.

100 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Please remember that the contents of this report are user-selectable and it may be
customized by clicking Properties in the Simulation Report dialog box.

By clicking on the row number of the section you want to select (on the left
side of the report), the section is automatically selected on the one line
diagram. This type of report presents many other features to help you
personalize your reports.

Let us close the report windows. Note that if several report windows are open, you can
close them all with a RIGHT click and selecting Close all.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 101


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7.6.6 Viewing Short-Circuit Results by Fault Level

Now let us view the L-G fault current levels along the feeders. L-G fault currents,
generally being the smallest of fault currents to detect, are used to select the trip ratings
of protective devices.

Please open the Show Options dialog box and select the Analysis Layer tab.

Pink
Light green
Dark green

Under Select, select Fault level (LG amps) color scheme


Set the fault range and color code as shown.

Click OK to apply your changes and exit the dialog box.

You should get the following display.

102 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

The feeder fault levels can help us in a quick coordination check and to verify if
protective devices are suitably rated for their protection zone.

A detailed coordination analysis requires the use of the TCC interface, which is discussed
in Section 10 of this manual.

You may now go back to the original feeder display with phase colors, by selecting the
menu command View > Show Options.

Select View > Show Options and select the Analysis layer tab - choose None from
the drop down menu.
Click OK to exit and return to feeder display.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 103


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

8.0 Equipment Database

Next, we look at the equipment in the database. The equipment database contains all the
equipment (transformers, regulators, cables, etc.) that you will need to build your feeders.
Let us have a quick look at the Overhead Line database.

Please select the command Equipment > Overhead Line

The following dialog box will open.

104 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

You can ADD, DELETE or MODIFY as many Lines as you wish. A Line is
characterized by its positive sequence impedance (Z1) and zero sequence impedance (Z0)
if the Line is balanced (all phase conductors are the same). If the Line is not balanced
then we use the phase impedance matrix. The program can calculate the impedance of the
line given the phase and neutral conductors and their arrangement on the pole.

Let us add a line that we name ABC-DEMO.

1- Click in the ID field and type in the name ABC-DEMO as shown below.

2- Suppose the phase conductor is 4/0, the neutral conductor is 4BS, and the pole
arrangement is 312. You must select these conductors from the drop down box as
shown below.

3- Remove the lock on the Block impedance update, which prevents them from being
updated by mistake. Click on the Calculate button to calculate the impedances.
You should get the following values.

Click here to
calculate the
impedances.

Click here to
unlock.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 105


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

4- Click on the ADD button to insert ABC-DEMO temporarily in the database. The
dialog box should look like the one below.

This exercise showed how to add a Line and calculate its impedances. If you already
know the impedances you can enter them directly. We will exit this dialog box by
choosing Cancel (instead of OK) so that the Line ABC-DEMO will not be added to the
database.

Impedance may be calculated for the Selected line or All lines. Remember, when
you select a different set of conductor resistance R@25 or R@50 in
Parameters > General, all line impedances must be recalculated.

Its a good idea to enable the block impedance update option after calculating the
impedance. Enabling this option protects our impedances setting from wrong entries or
mis-types.

There is another way to create an overhead line: build it as you need it in the Section
Properties dialog box. See below.

106 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Right-click on a section (as in Section 4.1.3) and choose Properties:

Under Devices, select Overhead Line.

Under Configuration, select By phase configuration.

Edit the dialog box in order to have the same conductors as in the previous example. You
can see that the equivalent impedances are the same.
Click on CANCEL so that this section will not be modified.
You may have a look at other equipment data as you wish.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 107


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

9.0 Problem Solving

In this section, we will focus on solving abnormal conditions in the network. We will
solve voltage and overloading problems on GA04 using regulators and capacitor banks.
Then we will focus on the problems in GA05.

9.1 Using Regulators and Capacitor Banks to Solve Problems

Open a new study and load feeder GA04. Then run a voltage drop analysis. To run the
voltage drop, please refer to section 7.4 above. Make sure you use the Planning
thresholds (Parameters > Calculation / Flag level tab).

In View > Show Options, ensure Abnormal conditions is selected for Analysis layer.
The diagram should look like the one below.

We can find many alarm conditions in this feeder. A huge area located at the end of the
feeder is experiencing low-voltage. At the same time, many sections that are located on
the main circuit close to the substation are overloaded.

108 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

We will show how placing regulators and shunt capacitors on the main line can solve
these problems. When doing so, we must be careful not to create other abnormal
conditions, such as an over voltage, on the line.

Our goal in this section is to solve the abnormal conditions in GA04 by placing regulators
and capacitor banks at the appropriate locations in the circuit.

9.1.1 Adding a Voltage Regulator

By zooming in at the end of the feeder, you should notice that most of the sections

located downstream of section 12982 are experiencing low voltage. Lets try to boost the

voltage at this point by placing a voltage regulator there.

Using the Edit > Find command, select section 12982 as show below. This section is
in fact the one located just upstream of those on which the voltage has dropped below the
5% threshold we set.

12982

Let us put a voltage regulator at the load-end of section 12982.

1. Section 12982 should be the section currently selected. Click on the ( ) icon;
there should be a question mark ? next to the cursor.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 109


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

2. Click the LEFT mouse button TWICE and release it. (Or, just right-click on the
section and choose Properties.) The Section Properties dialog box will open as
shown below.

3. Under Devices, click on Add and select Regulator from the drop down menu.

4. Under Regulator At From Node, click on the drop down menu of the ID field and
select REG437 from the list of available regulators.

5. Next to Location, select At To Node from the drop down menu. The section
heading Regulator At From Node will change to
Regulator At To Node to indicate that regulator is placed at the load end of the
section.

Note: Selecting the At From Node will place the regulator at the source end of the
section; and the section heading will change back to Regulator At From
Node

110 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6. Now, let us set the parameters for that regulator. Under Devices, click on Control
to access the regulator control setting as shown below.

For our tutorial, we will set the regulator to maintain nominal voltage at the
last node of GA04, which is section 15492. With that option, the program
automatically calculates the R and X settings to maintain the desired voltage.

6. Under Control / option, select the option Load Center.

7. Under Control / Load Center Id, select 15492.

8. Under FORWARD, set the voltage to 120, which is our desired voltage.

9. Under Control / Status, select status C

Note: You can control the behaviour of the regulators text tag by selecting the Tag
branch under Regulator. Refer to the CYMDIST reference manual for detail.

10. Click OK to apply the changes and exit from the Section Properties dialog box.

Now, let us run another voltage drop to see the effect of the voltage regulator.
Please refer to section 7.4 above, if you do not remember how to do this.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 111


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

At this point, the graphic display should no longer show any low voltage alarms.

The graphic below shows the Voltage results box while section 15492 is selected. The
voltage is now between 119.2 and 120.4, which is within tolerance (120V with bandwidth
of 2V).

From the Voltage Drop Box, clicking on the Plot button to open the Voltage Drop
Profiles dialog box. Select voltage and click Plot to open the voltage profiles chart
(see below). The chart shows the voltage profiles from the substation to the section
15492.

Hint: By using the Parameters > Customization > Plotting Profile command, you may
adjust the Y-axis.

112 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

As you move the mouse cursor from side to side in the graphic, you will notice that the
coordinates of the cursor position are continuously displayed just above the legend with
the section ID. Compare this voltage profile to the one we have obtained earlier without
adding the regulator to see the impact of the regulator placement.

Please close the Voltage Profile window.

Now, lets find out which settings were given to the regulator in order to achieve the
proper voltage regulation on section 15492. Select section 12982 using the Edit > Find
command.

Right-click on the Regulator symbol and choose Properties.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 113


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

The Section Properties dialog box opens with the regulator device selected. Select
Control under Regulator At To Node.

The regulator R-X settings for the line-drop compensator (LDC) are R=0.21 and X=0.52
as shown above and the tap position is set to 9. (If you want to put the regulator in LDC
mode, under Control/option, select the option R-X Settings from the pull-down
menu.)

Click on Cancel to exit.

114 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

9.1.2 Optimal Capacitor Placement Module

We will resolve the abnormal conditions on GA04 using the Optimal Capacitor
Placement Module provided with Cymdist. Before looking at the capacitor placement
function we will undo all the modifications we have already made, by clicking on the
undo icon until it is grayed out .

1. We will first look at the parameters of the capacitor optimization module. Select the
Analysis > Capacitor Placement command.

The following dialog box should open.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 115


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Select Improve System voltage for the Objective.

Set the threshold voltage to 120V so as to place capacitor banks to boost


the voltage on all the zones that are below this voltage.

Set the target voltage to 126 V so as not to exceed this voltage at the
capacitors location.

Make sure that only the Ignore single-phase box and the Ignore two-
phase box are checked.

116 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

2. Then select the Capacitor Banks tab.

The Minimum capacitor bank size is the smallest capacitor bank size (per
phase) allowed on any section. Set it to 300 Kvar/phase.

The Increment capacitor bank size is the smallest capacitor unit that can be
added to an installation. Set it to 300 Kvar/phase as well.

Make sure only the above two options are selected.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 117


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

3. Select the Load Levels tab.

The Light load, Normal load and Peak load categories allow us to run the
capacitor optimization at different load levels. (For example, at 50% light load,
100% normal load).
Please set the loading condition values as show shown in the above figure.

4. Ignore the Cost Options for now and click on Run to perform the capacitor
placement.

118 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

The Results tab will open automatically when the calculation is finished.

To view the results for individual sections, click on the branches with a plus sign
. As you do so, you have the option to install the capacitor you are looking at by
clicking on the Apply Capacitor button. The Modify Capacitor button
gives you the option to modify that capacitors parameters as if you were editing
the section where it is going to be installed. Apply all recommended changes.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 119


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Let us now view the summary report for the Optimal Capacitor Placement. Click
on Close to exit this dialog box.

1. Select menu command Report > On Calculation.


2. Under Report, click to place a check mark next to Capacitor placement.
3. Under Format, ensure Cyme Text (*.txt) is selected.

Click OK to view the report.

This report indicates that 2700 kVAR are needed for the light load scenario, and that
6300 kVAR are needed for normal load, which means that the 900 kVAR bank at section
12395 needs to be switchable as we have seen in the dialog box.

120 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Perform a Voltage Drop (using the planning criteria). Notice that the overload and the
under voltage problem have been eliminated with the installation of capacitors.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 121


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

9.2 Reconfiguration (Reconductoring)

Open a new study and load feeder GA05. Click on the Run analysis icon and select
the Flag Levels tab. Ensure Flag level based on is set to Planning. Then click Run
to run a voltage drop analysis.

For detail on how to run a voltage drop, please refer to section 7.4 above.

Set the O.L.D. setting to show feeder by abnormal conditions by enabling the menu
command View > Show Results > Abnormal Conditions.
(Alternately, you can use the keyboard shortcut [Shift]+[Ctrl]+[C].)
After running the voltage drop, the diagram should look like the one below.

Legend

Overload

Low voltage

By looking at the diagram, we notice many abnormal conditions in this feeder.

122 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Re-conductoring the lines on the main feeder can solve those abnormal conditions. In
fact, by placing conductors with lower impedance we decrease the losses in the line, and
we improve the voltage and loading conditions in the feeder.

Our goal in this section is to solve the abnormal conditions in GA05 by re-conductoring
the lines in the main feeder.

Using the Edit > Find command, go to section 7794 as shown below. This section is
located near the substation (starting point) of the feeder.

Section 7794

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 123


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Once section 7794 is selected,

1. Select the command Edit > Section > Reconductor/Rephase, or click on the re-
conductoring icon as shown below.

Or click the
re-conductor icon

The cursor now says Config.

2. Click the left button TWICE and release it to activate the reconfiguration function
(re-conductoring function). You should see the Reconfiguration Dialig dialog box
as shown below.

124 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

3. We want to change the conductor for all the sections located in the main branch of the
feeder until section 14160. To do this, Select the To radio button to enable the To
edit field. Select section 14160 using either the drop down menu or by clicking on
the section in the One Line.
4. De-select the option Include laterals to restrict the selection to the sections that lie
on the path from ending section to starting section.
5. Click Next.
6. Under Select action, select Reconductor
Click Details to view tool tips about:
Total distance and number of sections for each phase;
The number of single-phase, two-phase, three-phase sections;
The number of sections for each kind of configuration (Line, Cable, By phase)

7. Click Next >


8. For Type, select option Overhead Line
9. For ID, select 600_4/0_312 and click Finish.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 125


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Now that we have changed the conductor on the main branch of the feeder, let us run a
voltage drop to see the changes. We can see after running the voltage drop that there are
no more abnormal conditions on the feeder.

In conclusion, we see that simply changing the conductor on the main branch of the
feeder has solved all the low-voltage and overloading problems. It is therefore important
that the designer of the electrical network chooses the appropriate conductors to avoid
such problems.

126 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

9.3 Load Balancing on GA07

Open a new study and load feeder GA07. Then run a voltage drop analysis. To run the
voltage drop, please refer to section 7.4 above. Make sure you use the Planning
thresholds (Parameters > Calculation / Flag level tab).

Set the O.L.D. setting to show feeder by abnormal conditions by enabling the menu
command View > Show Results > Abnormal Conditions.
(Alternately, you can use the keyboard shortcut Shift+Ctrl+C.)

After running the voltage drop, if you select the substation, the voltage drop result box
should look as below suggesting that the feeder is severely unbalanced.

Lets run the load balancing analysis function and see if it can improve the load balancing
on the feeder.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 127


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

9.3.1 Running the Load Balancing Function

Load balancing analysis shows how to reconnect loads from one phase to another so as
to meet the objective you selected. You can choose among three objectives:

Minimize the KW losses


Minimize the load unbalance factor
Minimize the current unbalance factor

In this tutorial, we will perform a load balancing using the Minimize the KW losses
objective on feeder GA07.

Select menu command Analysis > Load Balancing to access the Load Balancing
dialog box.

Select the Location tab to define the parameters the module will use in attempting to find
the optimal solution.

Under Balancing Location(s), expand the Feeder layer and select GA07.

Hint: Load Balancing a specific point on the network

128 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

You can expand the other layers (Sections, Switching devices, Fuses, etc.), select
a specific fuse, switch, etc and perform a load balance analysis. CYMDIST will
perform the load balance on that point.

Note: Selecting the Feeders layer is the same as selecting the first section of all
feeders in memory.

Under Objective, select Minimize the KW losses from the pull down menu.

Under Minimum requirement for a tap sections, set the minimum load to 0 kVA, to
consider switching any load. The function will stop suggesting changes when it cannot
find any change that will reduce the losses by at least the minimum loss reduction. In
this case, with 0 kW for the minimum loss reduction, the function will consider all
changes.

You may ignore the Minimum unbalanced factor setting.

Make sure there is a check mark beside the fields Include single-phase sections and
Include two-phase sections but not the field Include three-phase section. See the
dialog box above.

Note: Select the Display tab to define the colors and the content of the rephasing
information tag that will be displayed.

Click RUN to start the load balancing simulation.

As load balancing proceeds the iteration report displays the moves considered /
recommended during the simulation.

Note: The report is visible only if the Show report function was active before
running the load balancing command.

Iteration Report

The Result tab (as shown below) will be selected automatically once the Load
Balancing progress dialog box closes.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 129


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Under Balancing locations, the results (if any) are displayed in a tree structure list and
in order of operation recommended, (step 1, step 2, step N). In our tutorial, there
should be only 4 recommendations.

Click on each step to see the recommended rephasing changes and the result each
change will have on the target location. To apply a specific step (step 1), select step 1
and click Apply.

You can right click on each item (step) under Balancing locations, and select one of the
available apply options from the context sensitive menu.

130 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Hint: Once you have applied a step, the context sensitive menu will have additional
options to let you undo your changes.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 131


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

To view the load balancing report, select the menu command Report > On calculation,
or click on the Analysis reports icon .

Make sure you have the same settings as above and click OK.

You should obtain the following report.

132 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Some table column definitions:

Loss reduction (Losses (KW))Indicates KW loss reduction that could be


obtained by the recommended rephasing.
Maximum unbalanced load factor (Average KVA unbal.)Indicates the
maximum unbalanced load factor of the location after the recommended
rephasing.
Maximum unbalanced current factor (Average I unbal.)Indicates the
maximum unbalanced current factor of the location after the recommended
rephasing.

Hint: Alternately, base on the report information, you can use the
Edit > Section > Reconductor/Rephase command to implement the
recommended changes.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 133


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

9.3.2 Rephasing Function (An alternate method)

1. Continuing from the above tutorial, click on the undo icon to undo any load
balancing steps that you may apply. Then, select the menu command
Edit > Section > Reconductor/Rephase as shown below, or click on the
Reconfiguration icon .

Click here to re-


conductor/rephase

The cursor should say Config.

2. Next, let us select the first section (section 15924) we have to rephase.

Hint: Use the Find command to easily locate and highlight section 15924.

Please notice the status bar at the bottom of the screen, which now displays
information about section 15924. It shows that the phasing is (B).

134 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

3. Since the cursor says Config, click the LEFT mouse button TWICE and release it
to activate the Reconfiguration Dialog box.

4. Click Next to activate the Select action option.


Under Select action, select Rephase and click Next.

5. Under Rephase, change phase B to phase C by using the pull down menu.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 135


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6. Click Finish to apply the phase change.

All single-phase sections starting at 15924 will go from B phase to C phase. You
should also notice in the status bar that the phasing is now C.

Apply the rest of the recommended steps. If require, perform another load
balancing.

The rephasing is now complete. Next, we will run a voltage drop to see the improvement
we have made by rephasing this lateral.

136 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

9.3.3 Visualizing the Improvements

Run a voltage drop on feeder GA07. If you do not know how to run a voltage drop, refer
to section 7.4 above.

The current at the substation should be as shown below.

To select the substation, zoom-in to the beginning of the feeder and select GA07.

With the change we have made, the current is much more balanced between the
3 phases (354.1, 353.3 and 352.5 AMPS). This means that the load on our
feeder is much more balanced now.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 137


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

9.4 Transferring Load from GA04 to GA07.

Open a new study and load feeders GA04 and GA07.

For the purpose of these exercise, we will need to change the desire voltage value for the
two sources. Select Equipment > Source, the Substation Equivalent dialog box will
open. Select W_GALV1 then W_GALV4 and ensure their Desired Voltage value is
set at 13 kV. Click OK to save your changes.

Now run a voltage drop analysis. To run the voltage drop, please refer to section 7.4
above. Make sure you use the Planning thresholds (Parameters > Calculation /
Flag level tab).

In the View > Show Options dialog box, select the Default layer tab and select
Feeder color in the Select field, and Abnormal conditions in the Analysis layer
tab. After running the voltage drop, the diagram should look like the one below.

138 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

GA04 is experiencing many abnormal conditions, whereas GA07 has no alarm


conditions at all. Select Report > On calculation or click on the calculation
report icon as shown below to open the Simulation Reports dialog box.

Analysis Report
Button

In the Simulation Reports dialog box, select Voltage Drop - Feeder Loading as
shown below and click OK.

The report should look like the one below.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 139


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

By looking at the feeder loading report, we see that the demand at GA04 is much
bigger than the demand at GA07. Therefore, some load could be transferred
from GA04 to GA07 in order to lower the demand at GA04.

140 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

The switching is done in two steps:

1. Closing a switching device on GA07.


2. Opening a switching device on GA04.

First, use the Find command to locate section 14194-1. Then zoom in to display the
switches on both sections 14194-1 and 13846

Switch at section
13846

Switch at section
14194-1

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 141


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

9.4.1 Closing the Switch on GA07

We will now close the switch located at section 14194-1 on GA07:

1. Select section 14194-1

2. Right-click on the switch symbol and choose Close from the context sensitive
menu. (See Section 4.1.3).

3. The text label Open that was displayed near the switch should not be visible
anymore.

142 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

9.4.2 Opening the Switch on GA04

Now, we need to open the switch located on section 13846 in order to transfer
the load to GA07.

1. Use the Find command to locate section 13846.


2. Right-click on the switch symbol and choose Open from the context
sensitive menu. (See Section 4.1.3).

3. The text label Open appears next to the switch symbol to give a visual
indication of the switch status.

You should notice that the color of the zone you have transferred has changed.
It should now be colored in the same color as GA07s.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 143


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Now that we have transferred some load from GA04 to GA07, we may run a Voltage
Drop to see the effects of such modifications on the networks conditions. Please refer to
section 7.4 above if you have forgotten how to run a voltage drop.

Now zoom to fit in order to see the whole network, and then run a voltage drop.
The network should be as below.

By looking at this diagram and the one before the transfer, we notice that we have
improved the voltage and loading conditions on GA04. In fact, we only have a few
sections that are overloaded near the starting point of the GA07 feeder in the planning
mode.

Hint: We might have chosen to open the switch on GA04 first and then close the one on
GA07. It makes no difference in the simulation, although it would not be done that
way in the field.

144 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

9.4.3 Switching Optimization Module (SOM)

We will now use the Switching Optimization Module provided with CYMDIST to
illustrate how the load can be switched from GA04 to GA07 automatically.

Open a new study and load feeders GA04 and GA07.

1. Select the menu command Analysis > Switching Optimization

The following dialog box will open.

2. Click on All to select all feeders in the list for the optimization.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 145


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

3. Under Objectives, select Minimize Overloaded Exceptions.

The optimization module will recommend switching operations (manoeuvres)


designed to minimize the number of overloads.

You may select another objective, but remember that our goal here is to resolve the
abnormal conditions in feeder GA04 by switching some of its load onto GA07.

4. Click on Parameters, the dialog box below will open:

The options under User Defined Limits allow you to reduce the number of possible
operations. Leave them at zero for the purpose of the demo.

The Report selection offers six choices. Select them all for the purpose of the demo.

5. Check only the option Allow initial constraint violations because we want
CYMDIST to tolerate initial violations (overloads, high/low voltages). Any
operation that would worsen these constraint violations will be rejected. Click
OK.

146 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6. Click on Restrictions. The (SOM):Operation Constraints dialog box will open.


You can specify the maximum loading of each type of equipment and the
maximum and minimum voltage limits on this dialog box. Click on Planning and
then click on OK to use the Planning criteria.

7. Click on the Devices button to get the following dialog box.

A () indicates that the type of device may be considered for switching. You
may click to restrict switching () for certain types of device, such as relay
controlled breaker.

You can also prevent individual devices from being opened or closed, by locking
them in position.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1 147


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Click on All to select them all and then on OK to exit.

When ready, click Run to start the optimization procedure. Once the simulation is
completed, you should obtain the following report. Please notice the switching
operations.

148 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 1


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Session 2

10.0 RAM Module and Coordination Studies with CYMTCC.

Open a new study and load feeders (GA04, GA05, GA06, GA07 and GA10). After
loading the feeders, the display should look as below.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 149


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

10.1 Running the RAM Module on the Whole Network

1. Select the menu command Analysis > Reliability assessment > Run as shown
below.

The following dialog box will open.

Enter the above parameters for the respective equipment. Make sure that all the
feeders are selected.

Note: Ensure the Setting file name option is unchecked. The RAM module will
not run if the option is checked with no specified RAM parameter file.

150 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

2. Select the Load Indices Targets tab. In this dialog box, we specify target values
that we wish to achieve for calculated load (i.e., customer) indices. Enter the target
values as shown below. Note that values are by phase.

Note that we will analyze the system for permanent fault conditions only.

3. Select the System Indices Targets tab. Similarly, we specify the desired system
target values as shown below.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 151


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

4. Select the Reports tab. Uncheck the Tag report option so that the report will not
hide the feeders from view.

5. Now select the Color Code tab, and define the colors as shown below.

Light blue
Yellow
Orange
Pink
Red

Make sure Display Target Monitor is enabled, and that Targeted Load Point Indice is
enabled with option Avg. outage hr/yr selected.

152 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6. Click Run to perform the simulation.

We see that the reliability of our system is quite good near the substation, but it becomes
worse as we go away from the substation. Feeders GA04 and GA07 are those with the
worst indices.

Lets focus on GA07 and see how we can improve reliability on this feeder.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 153


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

10.2 Improving Reliability on GA07

Use Edit > Feeder > Load to hide all feeders but GA07. Run the RAM module
on GA07 only. The diagram should look as below.

In order to improve the system reliability, we are going to add protective devices
on some branches of the feeder. Doing so benefits the upstream customers by
isolating them from downstream faults.

154 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

10.2.1 Adding a 100 Amp Fuse

We will add a 100 A fuse on the first section of the lateral that begins with section 14732.
This should improve the reliability for customers that are located on the main branch of
the feeder.

1. Select section 14732 with the Edit > Find command.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 155


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

2. Double-click the left mouse button to open the section properties dialog box.
(Or right-click on the section and choose Properties.)
3. Add a fuse at the source end of the section. Select S&C100K (that is a 100 A
fuse) for the equipment ID.

4. Click on OK and run the RAM module to see the improvement.

156 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

The display should now look like this.

Before

We can see that we have improved the reliability for customers that are located
on the main branch.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 157


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

10.2.2 Adding a 50 Amp Fuse

We will add a 50 A fuse at section 15283 in order to isolate downstream faults.

1. Select section 15283 with the Edit > Find command.

158 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

2. Double-click the left mouse button to open the section properties dialog box.
(Or right-click on the section and choose Properties.)
3. Add a fuse at the source end of the section. Select S&C50K (that is a 50 A
fuse) for the equipment ID.

4. Click on OK and run the RAM module to see the improvement.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 159


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

The display should now look like this.

Area
improved

Here also, we have improved the reliability for customers that are located
upstream of the 50 A fuse.

160 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

10.3 Coordination Studies with CYMTCC

Coordination of protective devices installed on feeders in CYMDIST is accomplished by


an interface to the CYMTCC program.

CYMTCC is a separate stand-alone program that addresses protective device


coordination in industrial, commercial and distribution power systems. Time-current
plots and device-setting reports may be produced using any of the 3000 devices stored in
its library. If necessary, you may add new devices to the library and edit the curves and
settings ranges of the existing devices. Curves may be plotted on standard Keuffel &
Esser log forms, or on plain paper.

Note: CYMTCC is provided separately from the CYMDIST demonstration.

Each protective device in CYMDIST has a corresponding time-current curve in


CYMTCC. You will determine the manufacturer, type, rating and/or settings of the
device within CYMTCC and store that information as a Setting ID in a database. Then
you may send the Setting ID to CYMDIST. CYMDIST can then look it up in the
database and display the device information in an equipment tag next to the device
symbol on the One Line Diagram.

The main database will be used for this demonstration.

Loading the main CYMDIST database

Please make sure the CYMDIST databases have been selected according to Steps 1.2 and
1.3 in Session 1.

Hint: Rather than browsing, click on the down arrow next to the directory and choose
from the list of past choices.

Open a new study and load the feeder GA07.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 161


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

10.3.1 Starting CYMTCC

1. Minimize the CYMDIST window.

2. Start CYMTCC by double clicking on the CYMTCC program icon ( ).


CYMTCC will start with a blank study.

The CYMTCC interface consists of a Curve Plot window frame and an One Line
Diagram windows frame.

162 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

10.3.2 Selecting the Database for the Protective Device Settings

Normally, one always uses the same setting database. Therefore, this selection is made
only once.

Select the Project > Project Properties command. The CYMTCC Project Database
Properties dialog box will open.

Set the data as shown above. (Your CYMDIST directory might be different)

Click OK.

Hint: You can set the database directly from inside CYMDIST, use the menu command:
Analysis > Protective Device Coordination > Setting Directory

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 163


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

10.3.3 View a Device Setting

Some device settings have already been stored in the database as examples. We will look
at one now and later we will create our own using devices from CYMDIST.

1. Select the Create > Fuse command. The following dialog box will open, listing all
device settings that have been stored in the database.

2. Select the Company and the Device type named S&C POSITROL K SPEED
from the list. Choose the 6K rating. Set the Device Voltage to 7.2 kV and click
Draw.

The time-current curve for the fuse will be inserted on the plot and a fuse symbol will be
drawn in the one-line diagram window as shown below. Its setup data are displayed at the
bottom of the screen and its name appears in the device list box in the ribbon (top right).

164 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Notes:

The toolbar at the top of the screen gives quick access to many tools in CYMTCC as well
as the Plotting Voltage and Current Scale multipliers.

The Curve Plot coordinates of the mouse pointer are continuously displayed at the bottom
of the screen.

If required, use the Zoom command ( ) and the Pan command ( ) to adjust the view.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 165


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

10.3.4 Returning to CYMDIST

Now we will return to CYMDIST

1. Close the current study in CYMTCC. Select the File > Close command.
CYMTCC will ask whether you want to save the study. Click No.

2. Open a new study in CYMTCC and then return to CYMDIST . To restore


CYMDIST, just press the [Alt] + [Tab] keys and select the CYMDIST
application. You can also click on the Windows taskbar button in Windows 95 /
NT 4.0 to select CYMDIST.

166 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

10.3.5 Network Coordination Verification

Open a new study and load Feeder GA07. The diagram should look as below.

CYMTCC offers functions that allow you to verify:

Coordination
Loading level
Clearing (minimum fault for given clearing time)

You may make use of these functions within CYMDIST too, once the Protective Devices
have their settings established.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 167


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

1. To verify that the relay on section 6252 is set correctly, we will use the
Analysis > Protective Device Coordination > Network command. This command
will verify all protective devices on the selected feeder(s).

The following dialog box opens.

168 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Under field Verify:

Coordination will check to see that for every value of fault current, the coordination
criteria specified in CYMTCC are respected between each successive pair of devices.
Loading will check that the actual load current passing through each device does not
exceed a certain percentage of its pick-up current. The percentage is defined in
CYMTCC.
Clearing will check that all devices react to the lowest fault current within a certain
delay. The delay is specified in CYMTCC.

2. Click on GA07 if it is not already selected.

3. Click to place check marks next to the conditions to be verified. Ensure you select
the same conditions as illustrated in the above figure.

4. Click Run to start the Analysis. Section Report tags will turn RED if there is an error
or if the Protective Device fails any of the checks. See the example below.

Note: Report tag background color can be customized using the command:
View > Show Options Miscellaneous Tab

5. To view the Verification Report that explains the error or device failure, select the
menu command "Report > On calculation".

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 169


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6. Check TCC - Verification report and TCC - Short-circuit verification report as


shown below.

7. Analysis report. Rows with the C error codes indicates that there is a coordination
problem. Let us analyze the fuse on section 15350 which does not coordinate with
the fuse on section 16018.

170 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

The Short Circuit Verification report identifies the Minimum reaction time (MM) and
Total Clearing time (TC) for each device, according to the fault level at the node of each
section in its zone of protection. Toward the end, we see:

10.3.6 Send a Branch to CYMTCC

We will use the Analysis > Protective Device Coordination > Branch command to
fix the problem of coordination. This command allows you to identify a branch of a
feeder whose protection you want to coordinate. CYMDIST then activates the CYMTCC
program and communicates to it all of the protective devices in the branch. The symbols
of the devices will appear in order on the CYMTCC One Line Diagram.
Since we want to send the complete branch, let us try to select a section downstream of
15350.

1. Using the Edit > Find command, select section 15545.


2. Select the Analysis > Protective Device Coordination > Branch command. The
cursor says "Tcc".
3. Double-click anywhere to activate the command. A dialog box opens.

Click to enable the Source field since we want to coordinate all the way from section
15545 up to the substation. Note: The displayed section ID is the section immediately
downstream from the source.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 171


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

4. Click Send. In CYMTCC, the One Line Diagram shows all protective devices in
the selected branch with the most upstream device at the top. The Curve Plot shows
the time-current curves of all devices in the branch.

We can see that the two fuses on the Curve Plot window are too close to each other.
This is because the different of the two rating is only 5amps.

172 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

From the menu, select Options > Display device name in OLD.
Select the 25K fuse, and click on the fast adjust icon (hand).

A fuse box opens.

There are two ways of moving the curves in order to find which ratings coordinate.

Click the left mouse button once on the curve and hold the mouse button down (the
cursor will change to the symbol of a hand). Then move the mouse to the left. Notice
that the rating in the fuse box changes. Continue moving the mouse until there is a 15 K
rating difference between the two fuses.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 173


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

The second method is to click on the + or in the fuse dialog box.

Finally the 15 A fuse coordinates with a 30 A fuse and both now coordinate with the
substation relay.

174 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

10.4 Exercise Session

Given the following equipment, we will add the necessary protective devices.

1. First, let us open a New Study and enter the devices which are shown above. We
see that there is a transformer with a disconnect switch, and then a cable and a
fuse for a downstream load.

We will set the plotting voltage to 4.16 kV as shown above.

We will set the current scale multiplier to x10, as shown above.

Let us begin with the fuse. Click on the fuse symbol in the Symbol Window and
drag it into the One Line diagram window.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 175


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

The dialog box for fuses will open, as shown below.

Note how the Device Voltage is automatically set to the plotting voltage, 4.16 kV.

176 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Choose Kearney as the company, Kearney K as the type, and 40K as the
rating.

You may click on the Color button and choose a color and hatching pattern.

You may click on the Symbol button and add a short Symbol Label (text).

Click on the Draw button to see the curve.

If you wish to display some text on the One-Line Diagram, you may turn on the
Options > Display Device Settings in OLD command.

You may also add a Symbol Label and a User Label. See illustration below.

Symbol Label
Edit via Symbol Button in device dialog
Display via Options > Show Symbol Label

User Label
Edit via Right-click on symbol
Display via Options > Show Symbol User Label

Note:
Device Settings Select the symbol before selecting the menu
Edit via Edit > Plot Tag Information command
Display via Options > Display Device Settings in OLD

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 177


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

2. Next, let us add the cable above the fuse.

Select the Create > Cable Damage Curves command, OR click and drag a
Cable symbol from the Symbol window until it touches the top of the fuse
symbol and the words snap on fuse appear (see illustration, and next page). The
dialog box will open when you release the mouse button.

Again, CYMTCC correctly fills in the operation voltage, 4.16 kV.

178 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Choose the size 500 kcmil and insulation type shown. There is one cable per
phase, and they are made of aluminium.

You may also add more text by choosing the Symbol button.

Above the cable, we may enter a bus symbol, to indicate the voltage level.
Click and drag a Bus symbol from the Symbol Window. Place it just above the
cable, until you see the words snap to cable appear, then release the mouse
button.
The dialog box shown below will open.

Enter the voltage as 4160 Volts.

Click on the Draw button. The bus symbol will appear in the One-Line
Diagram.
You may click on the bus symbol and drag it upwards away from the cable to
make more room.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 179


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

3. Now we come to the transformer.

Drag a transformer from the Symbol window and connect it above the bus.

Here we give the transformers primary voltage, 34.5 kV.

Enter the impedance, 7%, expressed on the transformers rated power, 2000
kVA.

Enter the other parameters shown above.

Activate the options to display a marker for the Full-Load Amps (based on the
fan-cooled rating) and the inrush current (based on the nominal rating

Add a User Label by clicking on the Symbol button, if desired.

Click on the Draw button to display the transformer life curve and the markers.

180 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

At this point the One Line Diagram should look very similar to the following:

4. Let us add a switch symbol above the transformer.

Select Create > Symbol > Switch .

Enter the text as shown. This text appears in the One-Line Diagram.
De-select the option Symbol only.

Click on the Draw button.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 181


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

5. Finally, we add another bus symbol to identify the high voltage level.

Select Create > Symbol > Bus.

Edit a bus Voltage of 34500 and ensure all other option have the save value as
shown below.

Click on the Draw button.

Now you should see the curves and One-Line Diagram as shown on beginning of the
exercice (10.4)
If not, turn on the File > Print Preview Diagram command.

182 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6. We are ready to add a relay and circuit breaker on the secondary side of the
transformer.

Select the cable (just above the fuse) by clicking on its symbol in the One-Line
Diagram or on the tag for its curve in the Curve Plot.

Now select Create > Electronic Relay. You will see the following dialog box.

We will use the GEC ALSTHOM MCGG Extremely Inverse electronic relay.

Make the settings as shown above and click on the Compute button.

Click on the Draw button to display the relay on the Curve Plot.

The relay symbol should now appear in the One Line Diagram, connected between the
4160 V bus and the 500 kcmil cable.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 183


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Now let us return to the relay dialog box. Double-click the left mouse button on
the relay.

Click on the SC & FLA button to define the maximum fault current that the
relay will ever see.

If the three-phase fault level at 34.5 kV is 5000 A (approximately 300 MVA), then the
maximum fault current at the transformer secondary is 3625 A, approximately. Enter the
same values as shown above, and click to enable on the Draw option.

Click on OK.
Click on the Draw button.

Now you should see that the relay curve is no longer drawn beyond 3625 A.
To see the fault arrow indicating 3625 A, activate Options > Show Fault Arrow.

184 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

7. Next, we will add a symbol for the breaker which is being controlled by this
relay.

Select the relay.

Select Create > Symbol > Circuit Breaker Box.

Enter (in the Circuit Breaker Box Number field) the IEEE code 52 for power
circuit breaker. This code number appears in a square symbol on the One-Line
Diagram when you click on the Draw button. You may also add some
descriptive information about the breaker, as in the example.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 185


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

9. To give protection to the transformer from the primary side, we will add a fuse.

Select the transformer.


Select the Create > Fuse.

Enter the operation voltage, 34.5 kV.


Choose the fuse type as shown and select the size of fuse.
Click on the Draw button.

Add a second circuit breaker in parallel:

a. Click on the 4160 V bus and drag the right end to make the symbol wider.
b. Click and drag the Breaker symbol (from the Symbol only window), and place
underneath the bus until the words snap to bus appear. Then release the button.

186 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

You should have something very similar to the following diagram.

Use the Mode > Tag command to relocate the curve tags, as desired.

If desired, click and drag the Device Settings tags (see following page).
If desired, draw a dashed line from the relay to the Circuit Breaker Box symbol.
a. Choose View > Customize > Tool Bar and activate the Drawing tool bar.
b. Click on the Line segment icon and draw line segments.
c. (Display the Alignment tool bar and use its Nudge commands to move the line
segments into their final positions.)

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 187


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

One Line Diagram featuring additional cosmetic modifications

8. We have arranged the transformer protection so that the relay is the first line of
defense against a fault on the secondary side, and the fuse acts as back-up
protection. We should make sure that the relay will operate before the fuse, when
the fault current is maximum (3625 A).

188 CYMDIST TUTORIAL Session 2


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

Let us measure the coordination margin in time between the relay and the upstream fuse
at this fault current.

Zoom in on the region shown below, if desired.


Activate the Tools > Device Margin command. Then:
1. Choose the (34.5 kV) Fuse as the first device
2. Make sure to use its Minimum Melting curve
3. Choose the (4.16 kV) Relay as the second device (it only has one curve)
4. Select both Time and Current Iterval
5. Choose User Defined Tracking, since we want to specify the current.(3625 A)
6. Specify the current. Ignore the specified time. Click Calc .
7. Read the measured Device Time Margin, dT.

The difference in time between the two curves should be about 0.27 seconds, which
seems to be satisfactory.

6
5

Please feel free to experiment with other relays and fuses. Change the settings. Try the
method of dragging the curves with the Mode > Drag command.

CYMDIST TUTORIAL SESSION 2 189


CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

APPENDIX A

Importing a Map
The menu command Window > Attach map allows you to display a map behind the
One Line Diagram.

1. Select menu command Window > Attach map, or click on the attach map icon
as shown below.

Attach Map
Button

The Map selection dialog box lets you define a dataset that is an index to one
or more sheets composing the map.

2. Click on Attach dataset to set up an index to map images. Click on the


browse button ( ) to look for the .gds file.

APPENDIX A A-1
CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

3. Select the .gds file and click on Open. Then lick on Import .

The import function will make a copy of these files and change the format of the copy.

4. Click on Add .

A-2 APPENDIX A
CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

CYMDIST supports several formats (BMP, BNA, MIF, DXF ) for map information.

5. In File of type, click on the drop down menu and select AutoCAD DXF (dxf).
Click Open.

APPENDIX A A-3
CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

6. Make sure the Input Files and Output Folder are set as shown below. Click on
the OK button.

A-4 APPENDIX A
CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

The following progress dialog box will open telling you that the conversion is in
progress.

Once the conversion finished, click on OK to add the map. Now, click on the Zoom to
fit icon to see the whole map. The display should now look like this.

APPENDIX A A-5
CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

A-6 APPENDIX A
CYMDIST for Windows Tutorial version

APPENDIX A 7