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According to data aggregated by the International Panel on Climate

Change, life-cycle global warming emissions associated with
renewable energy—including manufacturing, installation, operation
and maintenance, and dismantling and decommissioning—are
minimal [3].

Compared with natural gas, which emits between 0.6 and 2 pounds
of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (CO2E/kWh), and
coal, which emits between 1.4 and 3.6 pounds of
CO2E/kWh, wind emits only 0.02 to 0.04 pounds of
CO2E/kWh, solar 0.07 to 0.2,geothermal 0.1 to 0.2,
and hydroelectric between 0.1 and 0.5. Renewable electricity
generation from biomass can have a wide range of global warming
emissions depending on the resource and how it is harvested.
Sustainably sourced biomass has a low emissions footprint, while
unsustainable sources of biomass can generate significant global
warming emissions.

Increasing the supply of renewable energy would allow us to replace
carbon-intensive energy sources and significantly reduce U.S. global
warming emissions. For example, a 2009 UCS analysis found that a
25 percent by 2025 national renewable electricity standard would
lower power plant CO2 emissions 277 million metric tons annually
by 2025—the equivalent of the annual output from 70 typical (600

For example. neurological damage. The aggregate national economic impact associated with these health impacts of fossil fuels is between $361.5 billion. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory explored the feasibility and environmental impacts associated with generating 80 percent of the country’s electricity from renewable sources by 2050 and found that global warming emissions from electricity production could be reduced by approximately 81 percent [5]. heart attacks. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy has been found to reduce premature mortality and lost workdays. In contrast.5 percent and 6 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Natural gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) . both coal mining and natural gas drilling can pollute sources of drinking water. and cancer. fossil fuels can have a significant impact on water resources.and natural gas-fired power plants. Improved Public Health and Environmental Quality Generating electricity from renewable energy rather than fossil fuels offers significant public health benefits. total air emissions are generally much lower than those of coal. solar. and it reduces overall healthcare costs [6]. In addition. drinking water systems. Wind. or other important water needs. While geothermaland biomass energy systems emit some air pollutants. a ground-breaking study by the U. In addition.7 and $886. The air and water pollution emitted by coal and natural gas plants is linked to breathing problems.MW) new coal plants [4]. wind and solar energy require essentially no water to operate and thus do not pollute water resources or strain supply by competing with agriculture. or between 2. and hydroelectric systems generate electricity with no associated air pollution emissions.S.

renewable energy sources have the technical potential to supply 482. including those powered by coal. strong winds. However. This amount is 118 times the amount of electricity the nation currently consumes. like coal. . A Vast and Inexhaustible Energy Supply Throughout the United States. In 2012.and natural gas- fired power plants. the higher short-term costs of those resources. constraints on ramping up their use such as limits on transmission capacity. require water for cooling. Biomass and geothermal power plants. However. withdraw and consume water for cooling. and fast-moving water can each provide a vast and constantly replenished energy resource supply. sunny skies. NREL's 80 percent by 2050 renewable energy study. barriers to public acceptance. In addition. which included biomass and geothermal. and other hurdles. These diverse sources of renewable energy have the technical potential to provide all the electricity the nation needs many times over.requires large amounts of water and all thermal power plants. hydroelectric power plants impact river ecosystems both upstream and downstream from the dam. Estimates of the technical potential of each renewable energy source are based on their overall availability given certain technological and environmental constraints [8]. found that water withdrawals would decrease 51 percent to 58 percent by 2050 and water consumption would be reduced by 47 percent to 55 percent [7]. gas. plant residues. and oil. NREL found that together.247 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually (see Table 1). heat from the earth. it is important to note that not all of this technical potential can be tapped due to conflicting land use needs.

July 2012. But numerous studies have repeatedly shown that renewable energy can be rapidly deployed to provide a significant share of future electricity needs. on average. which are typically mechanized and capital intensive. more jobs are created for each unit of electricity generated from renewable sources than from fossil fuels. This means that. renewable energy provides only a tiny fraction of its potential electricity output in the United States and worldwide. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Today. the renewable energy industry is more labor-intensive. even after accounting for potential constraints [9]. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS -Based Analysis”.S. Jobs and Other Economic Benefits Compared with fossil fuel technologies. . Source: “U.

including jobs in solar installation.000 people on a part-time or full-time basis. including manufacturing. More than 500 factories in the United States manufacture parts for wind turbines. Renewable energy already supports thousands of jobs in the United States. For example. and consulting services [10]. operations and maintenance.000 full-time-equivalent employees in a variety of capacities. Other renewable energy technologies employ even more workers. and sales [13].200 people [15]. project development. and financial. In 2009.000 people in 2009 [14]. the wind energy industry directly employed 75. manufacturing. In 2011. legal. the hydroelectric power industry employed approximately 250. and in 2010 the geothermal industry employed 5. and the amount of domestically manufactured equipment used in wind turbines has grown dramatically in recent years: from 35 percent in 2006 to 70 percent in 2011 [11. in 2011. the Union of Concerned . transportation and logistics. 12]. Increasing renewable energy has the potential to create still more jobs. construction and turbine installation. the solar industry employed approximately 100.

other countries: 16 states spent a total of more than $1. These revenues can help support vital public services. UCS analysis found that a 25 by 2025 national renewable electricity standard would stimulate $263. For example. as well as payments for power line easements and road rights-of- way. and 11 states spent more than $1 billion each on net coal imports [19]. and $11. Or they may earn royalties based on the project’s annual revenues. Similarly. Renewable energy projects therefore keep money circulating within the local economy. $13.4 billion in new capital investment for renewable energy technologies. Thirty-eight states were net importers of coal in 2008—from other states and. In addition to creating new jobs. and Indonesia.5 billion in new property tax revenue for local communities [18].000 new jobs in 2025 [16].Scientists conducted an analysis of the economic benefits of a 25 percent renewable energy standard by 2025. increasing our use of renewable energy offers other important economic development benefits. it found that such a policy would create more than three times as many jobs as producing an equivalent amount of electricity from fossil fuels— resulting in a benefit of 202.5 billion in new landowner income biomass production and/or wind land lease payments. Owners of the land on which wind projects are built also often receive lease payments ranging from $3. In addition to the jobs directly created in the renewable energy industry. growth in renewable energy industry creates positive economic “ripple” effects. increasingly. industries in the renewable energy supply chain will benefit. . farmers and rural landowners can generate new sources of supplemental income by producing feedstocks for biomass power facilities. and unrelated local businesses will benefit from increased household and business incomes [17]. Venezuela. and in most states renewable electricity production would reduce the need to spend money on importing coal and natural gas from other places.000 to $6. Local governments collect property and income taxes and other payments from renewable energy project owners. especially in rural communities where projects are often located.000 per megawatt of installed capacity.8 billion on coal from as far away as Colombia.

. natural gas prices have fluctuated greatly since 2000 [25]. wind power can compete directly with fossil fuels on costs [22]. coal prices due to rising global demand before 2008. The cost of renewable energy will decline even further as markets mature and companies increasingly take advantage of economies of scale. The costs of renewable energy technologies have declined steadily. As a result.6 percent lower electricity prices by 2030 [23]. renewable energy prices are relatively stable over time.S. Likewise. then a rapid fall after 2008 when global demands declined [24]. the average price of a solar panel has dropped almost 60 percent since 2011 [20]. and can help stabilize energy prices in the future. there was a rapid increase in U. UCS’s analysis of the economic benefits of a 25 percent renewable electricity standard found that such a policy would lead to 4. In contrast. once built they operate at very low cost and. fossil fuel prices can vary dramatically and are prone to substantial price swings. For example. In areas with strong wind resources like Texas. For example.Stable Energy Prices Renewable energy is providing affordable electricity across the country right now. the fuel is free.1 percent lower natural gas prices and 7. The cost of generating electricity from wind dropped more than 20 percent between 2010 and 2012 and more than 80 percent since 1980 [21]. While renewable facilities require upfront investments to build. and are projected to drop even more. for most technologies.

An increased reliance on renewable energy can help protect consumers when fossil fuel prices spike. long-term renewable energy investments can help utilities save money they would otherwise spend to protect their customers from the volatility of fossil fuel prices. Distributed systems are spread out over a large geographical area. In addition. Since hedging costs are not necessary for electricity generated from renewable sources. so a severe weather event in one location will not cut off power to an .Using more renewable energy can lower the prices of and demand for natural gas and coal by increasing competition and diversifying our energy supplies. A More Reliable and Resilient Energy System Wind and solar are less prone to large-scale failure because they are distributed and modular. utilities spend millions of dollars on financial instruments to hedge themselves from these fossil fuel price uncertainties.

S. Even if some of the equipment in the system is damaged. 2011. the rest can typically continue to operate. Renewable energy sources are more resilient than coal. The risk of disruptive events will also increase in the future as droughts. see How it Works: Water for Electricity. [2] Energy Information Agency (EIA). and limited water availability during a severe drought or heat wave puts electricity generation at risk. (Chapter 9). S. natural gas. and nuclear power plants in the face of these sorts of extreme weather events. von Stechow (eds)]. . Sokona. T. K. (For more information. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2010. 1075 pp.) References: [1] Environmental Protection Agency. Seyboth. USA. Matschoss. R. Cambridge University Press. How much of the U. Schlömer.S.entire region. Modular systems are composed of numerous individual wind turbines or solar arrays. 2012. United Kingdom and New York. more intense storms. Kadner. Hansen. coal. C. Pichs-Madruga. and nuclear power depend on large amounts of water for cooling. Inventory of U. in 2012 Hurricane Sandy damaged fossil fuel- dominated electric generation and distribution systems in New York and New Jersey and left millions of people without power. Edenhofer. In contrast. IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation. carbon dioxide emissions are associated with electricity generation? [3] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For example. Zwickel. For example. Y. renewable energy projects in the Northeast weathered Hurricane Sandy with minimal damage or disruption [26]. S. Wind and solar photovoltaic systems do not require water to generate electricity. G. Eickemeier. and increasingly severe wildfires become more frequent due to global warming. P. Cambridge. P. natural gas. 2012. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [O. and they can help mitigate risks associated with water scarcity. NY. heat waves.

Economic value of U. Solar Industry Data. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS-Based Analysis. 2009. Washington. 2011 Wind Technologies Market Report. Wind Industry Annual Market Report: Year Ending 2011. 2011. [12] Wiser. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Clean Power Green Jobs. UCS. Rizk. Green Jobs through Geothermal Energy. pg. [5] National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).S. 2012b. Climate 2030: A national blueprint for a clean energy economy. 2012. AWEA U. Volume 1. . Ryan. 2009. fossil fuel electricity health impacts. 2011. [9] Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA). IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation. [8] NREL. Job Creation Opportunities in Hydropower. [7] Renewable Electricity Futures Study. 2013. [15] Geothermal Energy Association. [14] Navigant Consulting. 2010. 210. [10] American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). US Department of Energy. 2012. 2009. D. and Mark Bolinger. Federal Production Tax Credit for Wind Energy. National Solar Jobs Census 2011.S.S. Environment International 52 75–80. 2013. 2012a. 2012.C.[4] Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS).: American Wind Energy Association. [6] Machol. 2013. [13] The Solar Foundation. [11] AWEA. 2012. U. Renewable Electricity Futures Study.

Are renewables stormproof? Hurricane Sandy tests solar.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price. November 19. 2010.greenmatch. [22] Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). [19] Deyette. 2009. 2012. [17] Environmental Protection Agency. [24] UCS. [20] SEIA. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy: A Resource for States. wind. http://www.. [21] AWEA. Federal Production Tax Credit for Wind Energy. A Risky Proposition: The financial hazards of new investments in coal plants. Chapter 5. Solar Market Insight Report 2012 Q3. 2013. Long-term System Assessment for the ERCOT region. burning cash: Ranking the states that import the most coal. 2012. [26] Unger. 2010. Cambridge. 2012. Freese. Clean Power Green Jobs. 2011. Burning . Some private companies and non-profit organizations are currently engaged in take-back and recyclingoperations for end-of-life modules. 2009. 2012b. MA: Union of Concerned Scientists. The Christian Science Monitor.[16] UCS. [18] UCS. and B. [23] UCS. U. J. David J. Clean Power Green Jobs. Clean Power Green Jobs. Can solar panels be recycled? Most parts of a solar module can be recycled including up to 97% of certain semiconductor materials or the glass as well as large amounts of ferrous and non- ferrous metals. [25] EIA.

Similarly burning of 1 kg of wood will generate 1. dry wood? Ans.80 Kg of CO2.65 to 1.80 Kg of CO2. The atomic weight of carbon is 12 and that of oxygen is 16. The molecular weight of CO2 will be 44. CO2 molecule is made of one carbon atom and 2 oxygen atoms. This means 12 Kg of carbon on complete combustion will produce 44 Kg.1110:How much CO2 is stored in 1 Kg. Wood is heterogeneous and exact amount of carbon in 1 Kg of dry wood will vary depending on the species of wood.65 to 1. of CO2. age of wood etc.67 Kg. Considering paper has same percentage of carbon as wood. This means 1 Kg of wood is holding about 1.85 Kg of CO2. of wood ? How much CO2 is produced by burning 1 Kg. It is reported that 1 Kg of wood contain about 450 to 500 gm of Carbon. . of wood? How much CO2 is stored in 1 Kg of Paper? How much CO2 is removed/absorbed by growing 1 Kg. of CO2 or 1 Kg of carbon on complete combustion will produce 3. This is how wood or forest act as carbon sink.Q.65 to 1. 1 Kg paper is storing 1.