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Maud de Rohan Willner

The economic, political and historical influence on design within new food culture in Russia

BA (Hons) Sustainable Product Design School of Architecture, Design and Interiors

Falmouth University

2015

This dissertation is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the award of BA (Hons) Sustainable Product Design. I confirm that, except where other sources are acknowledged this project is my own

unaided work, and that its length is

............

words.

Signed: ............................ Date: .............................

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Contents

List of illustrations --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

Chapter 1 - Culture and history reflected in design and food, from Imperialist Russia to the end of the Soviet Era ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 Imperialist Russia (1613-1917) --------------------------------------------------------------- 8 The end of the Tsars and the Soviet Era (1917-1989) --------------------------------- 12

Chapter 2 - Post Soviet Era: The influence of economy and quality of life on design and new food culture between the fall of the Soviet Union until the 2007 financial crisis ------- 18 1989-1998: the collapse of the Soviet Union and life outside communism ------ 18 1998-2007: between two financial crises ------------------------------------------------- 23

Chapter 3 - Russia’s cultural renaissance ------------------------------------------------------------ 26 How Russia’s culture reappeared, reformed and was recreated ------------------- 26 Case study in Moscow 9th-13th November 2015 -------------------------------------- 27

Conclusion ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40

Appendices -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 41

Part 1: questionnaires ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 41 Part 2: interviews ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 49 Part 3: risk assessment for travelling ----------------------------------------------------- 53

Bibliography -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54

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List of illustrations

Figure 1. Shop Samovar, (n.d.). Samovar, Mid-19th century. [image] Available at: http:// www.shopsamovar.com/museum04.html [Accessed 26 Jan. 2016].

Figure 2. GERRARE, Wurt, 1904. A Japanese restaurant in Vladivostok. Gerrare, W. (1904). Greater Russia. London: William Heinemann, p.192.

Figure 3. Daily Mail, (2010). Russian revolutionary plate. [image] Available at: http://

[Accessed 26 Jan. 2016].

Figure 4. Idov, M. and Shayevich, B. (2011). Avoska. Idov, M. and Shayevich, B. (2011). Made in Russia. New York: Rizzoli.

Figure 5. Author, 2015. 12 sided panelled glass.

Figure 6. Public Broadcasting, (2014). Nixon and Khrushchev Kitchen Debate, 1959. [image] Available at: http://mediad.publicbroadcasting.net/p/shared/npr/styles/x_large/ nprshared/201406/314080236.jpg [Accessed 26 Jan. 2016].

Figure 7. Gazeta Russa, (2014). Moloko, Tetra Pak. [image] Available at: http:// gazetarussa.com.br/articles/2012/01/27/marcos_do_design_sovietico_14135 [Accessed 26 Jan. 2016].

Figure 8. Vorobyovy-Gory, (n.d.). Gazirovka (1989). [image] Available at: http:// www.vorobyovy-gory.ru/?pageID=90 [Accessed 26 Jan. 2016].

Figure 9. The Calvert Journal, (2013). Kvass mobile station. [image] Available at: https:// calvertjournal.com/features/show/3686/soviet-product-design-unsung-icons [Accessed 26 Jan. 2016].

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Figure 10. English Russia, (2015). Queue outside the first McDonalds in 1990. [image] Available at: http://englishrussia.com/2015/01/30/first-mcdonalds-in-soviet-union-biggest- launch-event-in-the-world/9/ [Accessed 27 Jan. 2016].

Figure 11. CU Portland, (n.d.). The USSR’s ethnic diversity in 1974. [image] Available at:

Figure 12. World Bank Data, (n.d.). Russia’s GDP growth (annual %) between 1980 and 2015 in comparison with other countries (data from the World Bank databank). [image] Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/country/russian-federation [Accessed 26 Jan. 2016].

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Introduction

The aim of this dissertation is to show that design within food culture is very much part of a country’s identity, and it is always influenced by history, economics and politics. When I thought of new food culture and design, my mind didn’t go straight to Russia. I thought of London, Paris, Berlin or New York. But Russia has been changing rapidly in the past 80 years.

In this dissertation, I'll be writing about design within food culture as a system, a concept and an experience that is created for people. There is a "new food culture" revolution happening at the moment and it is "delicate" as it has created a whole new world that combines design and food, changing the experience and traditions around eating a meal, and is still evolving. It has been talked about a lot recently, but I want to see how it was actually present in the past.

There are three recurring themes in Russia that I will demonstrate in this dissertation. The first is the irrepressible culture that can be found in Russia, that has been through a Revolution, reacted under capitalism and is now coming back. The second theme is the one of foreign influence, which changed the way people ate, where they ate and the spaces they ate in. The final theme is the sense of egalitarianism that has developed recently, through the development of design for people and less for food.

My first chapter will explain the historical and political transition between the extravagant Tsarist Russia through to communist and socialist Russia. I will investigate how the last Romanov Tsars integrated foreign influences through the expansion of their territory and how those influences were suppressed during the Soviet times.

The second chapter will analyse the effects of the fall of the Soviet Union on Russia’s food culture through famine and both economic crashes, and how the Russians recovered and restored their economy.

Finally, in my last chapter, I will investigate Russia’s current cultural renaissance since the 2007 financial crash up to today. To consolidate my opinions, I travelled to Russia to conduct a research project. Through a case study of questionnaires, interviews and visits

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to cafés, restaurants, eating and food spaces of Russia's capital city Moscow, I have analysed how design within new food culture is changing especially in this megalopolis, focusing on the current influence of Soviet and Russian history, politics and economics.

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Chapter 1 - Culture and history reflected in design and food, from Imperialist Russia to the end of the Soviet Era

Introduction

Between the 1700s and the 1990s Russia experienced massive political and cultural changes. The Russian population lived through different types of political systems, from having a Tsar in Imperial Russia to being a totalitarian state in the Soviet Union. To understand how design and new food culture go hand in hand in Russia today, I will explore the context of the country's history, investigating the political and economical background that influenced food, design and culture.

Imperialist Russia (1613-1917) Peter the Great came to power in 1682 when he was only 10 years old. During his reign, one of his main objectives was to “Europeanise” his Empire, which became one of the many contradictions in Russian culture. He organised a European Tour in 1697, setting off on a journey across Europe with a retinue of 250 people. The party travelled to Austria, France, the Netherlands and England, discovering new ways of developing cities, as well as ship building to establish the first Russian Navy. Peter the Great was considerably influenced by these modernised societies and took many ideas back to Russia in order to help expand his Empire. He also learned how Europeans lived, observing their manners and etiquettes, which contributed to Russia’s enforced cultural modernisation upon his return.

Peter the Second came to the throne in 1727 and immediately started trading with China. Mary J. Barry explains, "Among the items the Chinese sold was tea, and Russia soon developed into a land of ardent tea drinkers" (1986:11), importing the samovar (Fig. 1) (the traditional water boiler to make tea, meaning in Russian “boils itself”) which "became an asset to social gatherings" (Barry, 1986:11). In the 1820s the Batashev factory in Tula, 200km south of Moscow, started making samovars, rapidly becoming the official supplier of the Imperial Court. This Asian influence spread throughout Russia, especially in the East. In his book Greater Russia, Wirt Gerrare describes the port of Vladivostok as "the chief naval base Russia possesses on the Pacific, and the largest commercial trading port" (1904:190). In this rapidly growing town, Chinese labour was in great demand as Gerrare wrote: "Even in the naval repairing yard only one Russian is now employed to ten

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Chinese. Without Chinese labour Vladivostok would be as Khabarovsk is, an unkempt village" (1904:192). This mix of Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean cultures gave the town a unique influence on Russian food culture: "Vladivostok is not quite Russian, nor Chinese, and its population is equally foreign" (Gerrare, 1904:193). Westernisation had not yet affected this developing town, "their methods are those of the East" (Gerrare, 1904:193). His 1904 photograph of a Japanese restaurant in Vladivostok demonstrates the weight of this alternative culture over a century ago (Fig. 2). This intriguing mix of cultures extended even to Alaska. In this vast territory - which was part of the Russian Empire until it was bought in 1867 by the United States - many towns are still named in Russian and samovars are still commonly found.

In West Russia during the 17 th century, a battle had begun between the love of peasant food and an admiration for exotic and foreign delicacies. In 1830, Alexander Pushkin published Yevgeniy Onegin, a romantic novel about a Russian dandy from St Petersburg. Onegin finds himself in the Talon restaurant in the city, and is presented with many exotic foods, such as truffles and golden pineapples. In his article, Nechepurenko describes this as "a symbol of his dandyism – a way of life that is beautiful, attractive, but ultimately meaningless" (2014). Leo Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina written in 1877, also uses food to describe the characters’ personalities. Tolstoy portrays the two very different personas of Levin and Oblonsky, by depicting the meals they both ordered in the French named restaurant in Moscow, L'Angleterre – Russians idolised anything French at that time. Prince Oblonsky, a wealthy character and civil servant, is served a sumptuous meal of oysters, turbot, roast beef and champagne, whereas Konstantin Levin, a more traditional Russian agricultural man, prefers to order shchi (cabbage soup) and kasha (porridge). This battle between traditional Slavic culture and the influence of the western and foreign civilisation has divided many Russians and still does today. Nechepurenko explains this: "For Levin, Europe – with all its wine and fancy cheeses – muddies the essence of Russia's Slavic culture. For Oblonsky, these luxuries only reinforce Russia's identity as a wealthy and noble European state" (2014). He concludes his article by saying:

"Nevertheless, the fact that the two friends can break bread together shows that the “gorgonzola” and “cabbage soup” camps are not sworn enemies. On the contrary, they appreciate each other, and enjoy a serious argument about the nature and fate of their motherland." (Nechepurenko, 2014)

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The French influence in Anna Karenina was very real in 18th and 19th century Russia. The Imperial Court employed French chefs, which led to amusing misunderstandings, such as the word vinegret which in French means “dressing” but in Russia it became the name of the dish which used it as a dressing. Other foreign dishes influenced Russian food culture at that time, especially within the zakuska table: a traditional Russian collection of little appetisers or as Russians meant in the 17th century “something to eat with something else” (Trutter, 2015:20), which came “hot and cold, pickled and marinated, salted, boiled, smoked and dried” (Trutter, 2015:20). Additions such as stuffed eggs, goose liver paté, white bread and preserved fruit were soon added to the table. These zakuskis were often eaten alongside a shot of vodka. Vodka can be directly translated as “little water” and is intrinsic Russian food culture, rare is a celebration without it.

At the beginning of the 20 th century, the "Silver Age" in Russia was booming, with new thinkers, currents and an art nouveau trend. This period is also referred to as the last days of the Tsars. After the 1905 revolution, Tsar Nicholas II was forced to create a constitution and a new parliament, the Duma. The communist party was founded in 1912 by Vladimir Lenin and in the kitchen, the traditional Russian cuisine was slowly transforming to become Soviet cuisine and culture.

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Figure 1. Shop Samovar, (n.d.). Samovar, Mid-19th century Figure 2. GERRARE, Wurt, 1904. A Japanese restaurant

Figure 1. Shop Samovar, (n.d.). Samovar, Mid-19th century

Figure 1. Shop Samovar, (n.d.). Samovar, Mid-19th century Figure 2. GERRARE, Wurt, 1904. A Japanese restaurant

Figure 2. GERRARE, Wurt, 1904. A Japanese restaurant in Vladivostok

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The end of the Tsars and the Soviet Era (1917-1989)

The Revolution soon led to the instalment of the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1922. An object

from the kitchen which clearly shows this radical change in Russian history, is the revolutionary plate painted in 1921, made of delicate porcelain predestined for the noble tables (Fig. 3). This plate shows the transition to communism, through the word kapital (capitalism) being walked on by a Russian communist worker, and the rise of the new industrial order in the background. Eric Hobsbawm, a Marxist historian explains:

"In one object you can see the old regime and the new regime, and the change from the one to the other, and there are very few objects in which history is so clearly present before you" (BBC, 2010)

Resulting from this political transition, many aspects of Russian culture suddenly disappeared. A strong difference between traditional Russian cuisine and Soviet cuisine developed. For example, before the Revolution many meals had to follow the Russian Orthodox fasting calendar, which restricted meat, in contrast with Soviet meals which contained generous helpings of meat and dairy products.

Stalin soon imposed a long period of repression in the 1930s and anyone who was thought to pose a threat to the communist regime was sent to the goulags (forced labour camps in Siberia). A symbolic product from this period of repression was the avoska (Fig. 5), a cotton fishnet shopping bag. In an avoska, the produce contained would be completely visible, which could be a hint to the Soviet regime that had eyes on everyone. The Soviet Union and Germany signed a deal of non-aggression in 1939, but in 1941 Russia’s second largest city today, Leningrad (now St Petersburg) was put under siege. This blockade, with over 3 million casualties, remains fairly untold outside Russia. The life people lived was horrific, the Nazis only allowed 300g of bread a day per person, slowly reducing it to 150g, aiming to “wipe Leningrad off the face of the Earth” through starvation (Attack on Leningrad, 2009). The only way to survive was with ration tickets and black market trading. People living in Leningrad were so desperate to eat, the film “Attack on Leningrad” represented this in a scene where bomb-like object with CAXAP written on it (sakhar - sugar) is dropped off on a parachute in the city. The naïve crowd thought the Germans sent them supplies and rushed over to it, but minutes later it blew up killing

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everyone

This programmed starvation plan ended after 900 days when the Germans

... were finally repulsed from Leningrad by the Soviet Army in 1944.

Just around this time, in 1943, a strong and durable 12-sided drinking glass (Fig. 6), started being mass-produced and became symbolic of this particular period. Following the Allied Victory over Nazi Germany and the end of WWII in September 1945, five to six million glasses were being produced annually. These glasses were used for hot drinks as well as traditional Russian vodka. However Khrushchev, one of Stalin's advisors, tried to control on-going alcoholism by prohibiting any vodka bottles that were smaller than 750g in an effort to reduce the purchase of the smaller pocketable bottles. Despite this, a large bottle would fill exactly 3 of the bevelled glasses right to the top, so with the frequent quest to find a third person to share a bottle with, these glasses became an ubiquitous and significant part of this Russian drinking ritual.

Stalin died in 1953, leading to a period of "deStalinisation" when Khrushchev came to power. The on-going tensions between the Soviets and the Americans continued however, and were demonstrated particularly at the famous Kitchen Debate between Nixon and Khrushchev in 1959 at the American Trade Exhibition (Fig. 7). They both stopped in front of an installation of a typical American kitchen with all their latest inventions and conveniences. Khrushchev declared, "You Americans expect that the Soviet people will be amazed. We have all these things in our new flats" (BBC, 1959). Nixon answered, "We hope we show our right to choose. We do not wish to have decisions made at the top by government officials who say that all homes should be built in the same way" (BBC, 1959).

The Soviet Union was largely self-sufficient in dairy products and even during the hard times, milk was not hard to find. In 1959 Tetra Pak – a Swedish brand – developed pyramid shaped cartons (Fig. 8), which took over the glass bottles on the shelves in Russia, the company becoming the largest foreign employer in the Soviet Union. But there was an ironic story in that by 1961 Tetra Pak had evolved to rectangle shaped cartons because of the holes the pyramid shapes were making in the new plastic bags in the West,. Soviet citizens were still using the cotton fishnet avoskas which meant that the pyramid shape was not a problem for them. Russia only moved on to the rectangle packaging 30 years later upon the arrival of plastic bags, the avoskas relegated to a symbol of poverty, whereas in the West they have become a sign of sustainable awareness.

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At the same time, the Soviets also developed the gazirovka (Fig. 9) – a communal soda fountain. These grey-coloured machines would fill up one of the iconic 12 sided drinking glass (usually chained underneath), with plain soda water for one kopek, or with syrup for three kopeks. Michael Idov explains that "getting free soda out of the machines became a national sport" (2011:40) but in the end this Soviet innovation was an "ethical and hygienic disaster" (2011:40).

With the arrival of Leonid Brezhnev in the 1970s, a long period of “economic stagnation and widespread corruption [occurred], undermining public faith in any superiority of the Soviet model" explains the BBC (2015), the Soviet Union was slowly collapsing.

Summary

From Peter the Great’s “Europeanisation” plan to Lenin’s nationalism, Russian food culture went through many transformations. Pre-Revolutionary cuisine transformed into a mix of traditions from the different Soviet republics. The communist government claimed eating was not to be an enjoyment and did not offer much regarding food culture. However, what really happened was that many traditions and recipes were shared and passed along the generations. This created confusions around the origins of certain foods, such as bortscht which actually comes from Ukraine, which is why when being asked “what is traditional Russian food?”, Russians sometimes hesitate. The influence the Western culture had on design and new food culture in Russia up until 1991 can be summarised in this phrase by Michael Idov who explains that Soviet design "jumbled together wartime know-how, space-age aesthetics, accidental shabby-chic, Slavic motifs and warped dreams of the West" (2011:8).

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Figure 3. Daily Mail, (2010). Russian revolutionary plate (1921, St Petersburg) Figure 4. Idov, M. and

Figure 3. Daily Mail, (2010). Russian revolutionary plate (1921, St Petersburg)

Figure 3. Daily Mail, (2010). Russian revolutionary plate (1921, St Petersburg) Figure 4. Idov, M. and

Figure 4. Idov, M. and Shayevich, B. (2011). Avoska

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Figure 5. Author, 2015. 12 sided panelled glass. Figure 6. Public Broadcasting, (2014). Nixon and Khrushchev

Figure 5. Author, 2015. 12 sided panelled glass.

Figure 5. Author, 2015. 12 sided panelled glass. Figure 6. Public Broadcasting, (2014). Nixon and Khrushchev

Figure 6. Public Broadcasting, (2014). Nixon and Khrushchev Kitchen Debate, 1959

Figure 5. Author, 2015. 12 sided panelled glass. Figure 6. Public Broadcasting, (2014). Nixon and Khrushchev

Figure 7. Gazeta Russa, (2014). Moloko, Tetra Pak

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Figure 8. Vorobyovy-Gory, (n.d.). Gazirovka (1989) Figure 9. The Calvert Journal, (2013). Kvass mobile station 17

Figure 8. Vorobyovy-Gory, (n.d.). Gazirovka (1989)

Figure 8. Vorobyovy-Gory, (n.d.). Gazirovka (1989) Figure 9. The Calvert Journal, (2013). Kvass mobile station 17

Figure 9. The Calvert Journal, (2013). Kvass mobile station

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Chapter 2 Post Soviet Era: The influence of economy and quality of life on design and new food culture between the fall of the Soviet Union until the 2007 financial crisis

Intro

In this chapter, I will be analysing the correlation between the historical, economical and political situation, and the new food culture that developed in the 90s. With the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia could finally open itself to the outside world, away from communism and socialism.

1989-1998: the collapse of the Soviet Union and life outside communism

As General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), Gorbachev implemented a new policy of glasnost to "free up political debate" and perestroika to "reform moribund economy", between 1985 and 1991, hoping this would save the falling Soviet Union. As a result, the Soviet population slowly opened up to the Western markets, and as a surprise to all, the first McDonalds in the Soviet Union opened on January 31st 1990 on Pushkin Square in Moscow (Fig. 10). This became the first sign of the westernisation influence in Russia, with over 30,000 Russians queueing all around the square to try this new foreign food. Until now, most of the restaurants in Moscow were state-controlled and only had very few customers (Louis Vuitton, 2013:75). It was a completely new experience for Russians. Unfortunately, the economic and political situation was not going very well at that time, and although Gorbachev was trying to save the USSR with his policies, many only thought of “the piteous mess he was making of the economy which left stores barren of almost everything edible” explains Anya Von Bremzen (2013:325). There was barely any food left in the shops on the streets of Moscow and coupons (taloni or kartochki) for food were re- introduced. In her book, Von Bremzen quotes a humorous song by Alla Pugacheva, about the food shortage in Moscow at the time:

“Open your fridge and take out 100 taloni (coupons) Add water and salt and bon appetite Yum Yum Ha-Ha-Ha He-He-He” (Von Bremzen, 2013: 328)

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The scarcity of food was partly caused by the neighbouring provinces which halted dairy and meat deliveries into the capital. Consequently, Muscovites started to make their own version of the products they couldn’t get. Von Bremzen points out that the “DIY food movement of late perestroika would awe modern-day San Franciscans” (Von Bremzen, 2013:329). She also calls 1990 “the year of the sauerkraut” (2013:330), (finely cut cabbage that had been fermented and preserved in a large glass jar). Any way of preserving food was popular in order to extend the shelf life of produce to waste nothing:

salting, marinating, bottling, sugaring or drying foods such as mushrooms, cucumbers, tomatoes, cranberries, cherries and apples (Trutter, 2015:49).

Many sub-cultures also appeared along the Soviet years, combining Russian, Ukrainian, Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani cuisine. Von Bremzen claims “our socialist cuisine merged into a one-pan-Eurasian melting pot” (2013:324).

Instead of being a positive policy for the Soviet Union, glasnost actually brought all their problems out into the open. Thousands of political prisoners were freed from the goulags, and everyone was finding out the dark side of the communist country. With the rapid drop of the economy, no one knew what would happen, would it be days, hours, years to the fall of the USSR? Many minorities within the USSR started appealing for independence or repatriation to their motherland.

““Sooner or later”, one of Gorbachev’s advisers bitterly quipped, “someone is going to declare his apartment an independent state”” (Von Bremzen, 2013:227).

During the year of 1990, the CPSU lost six of its republics: Lithuania, Moldova, Estonia, Latvia, Armenia and Georgia. Boris Yeltsin was elected president on June 12th 1991 and on December 26th, the Soviet Union was dissolved.

Along with this fall anything Soviet disappeared, including the gazirovkas (soda fountains, Fig. 8) which were removed from the streets, the metal sold to Estonia. Plastic bags replaced the avoskas (Fig. 4) and rectangle Tetra Pak packaging appeared.

Yeltsin became the new president to pick up the pieces of the collapsed economy, with the GDP dropping by 1/6th in 1991. The strong inflation period between 1992 and the 1998 crash was tough on its population. The rouble suffered a 70% devaluation that year and

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many foreigners had to leave the country. It was even said that Russia was the "biggest holder of dollars outside the United States in the late 1990s" (Westin, 2012:29). In her book (Mastering the Art of Soviet Cooking), Anya Von Bremzen explains how she cooked a birthday meal for her mother, reflecting the Soviet multi-ethnic cuisine, to bid farewell to the USSR after its fall. She wanted to feature "the real dishes of our erstwhile republics" (2013:353), including Moldovan feta strudels, Georgian chicken satsivi, Armenian lamb, a Lithuanian honey cake and Byelorussian herbal vodka. This meal is a symbol of what the Soviet Union became over the years: a diverse collection of people, cultures and traditions (Fig. 11). Those who were born after Soviet times don't always know about this past culture. Russia’s transition from communism and socialism back to capitalism slowly helped the economy rise back up. This improved economy had a lot of influence on Russia’s food culture, as Yuliya Fokina explains to me in a questionnaire:

“In my opinion, economy has the most influence, because the opportunities started to grow, when Russia became a capitalistic country. There was more money and more influence from Europe and America, people became more demanding for design, atmosphere and quality.”

After the fall of the Soviet Union, for most of the restaurants that opened,

“Decor was everything - the more extravagant the better. What was on the plate scarcely mattered. To attract Muscovites, all that was required was a menu offering an A to Z of world cuisine, from curry to roast chicken, pizza to sushi” (Louis Vuitton,

2013:75)

This demonstrates the mindset in which Russians were in at the time, suddenly being put face to face with the outside world, realising the diversity that was possible and that they could finally afford it.

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Figure 10. English Russia, (2015). Queue outside the first McDonalds in 1990 21

Figure 10. English Russia, (2015). Queue outside the first McDonalds in 1990

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Figure 11. CU Portland, (n.d.). The USSR’s ethnic diversity in 1974 22

Figure 11. CU Portland, (n.d.). The USSR’s ethnic diversity in 1974

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1998-2007: between two financial crises

The graph in Fig. 12 shows Russia’s GDP annual growth between 1980 and 2015 in comparison with the United Kingdom, the United States, Austria and Germany. Russia’s history and economic journey can be clearly underlined. Since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia managed to climb back up the economic ladder, until August 1998, when the transition to a post-Soviet economic reform had affected too many businesses and resulted in a serious financial crisis called the “ruble crisis”. On October 7th, communists and trade unionists organised a national strike, asking Yeltsin to resign, and on October 9th Russia felt obliged to appeal for humanitarian aid, including food. Before Yeltsin resigned on December 31st 1999, he asked for Vladimir Putin to replace him, an ex-KGB officer, who quickly gained the trust of the government and the public due to his success in the Chechen War.

In contrast with the end of the Soviet Union, the "post-1998-crisis period [became] a golden age for Russia" explains Peter Westin in his book In From the Cold, The Rise of Russian Capitalism (Westin, 2012:30). There was a sudden rise of 130% in oil prices and the average quality of life in Russia increased, as the GDP grew from 196bn dollars in 1999 at the time of the crisis, to nearby 1500bn dollars in 2010. Peter Westin talks about a "thriving middle class" that started to emerge in the 2000s, in between the two extreme classes of the billionaire oligarchs and the most deprived. With life expectancy increasing from 65 years in 1995 to 71 years in 2013, this middle class now constitutes around one fourth of the Russian population, mostly concentrated in the biggest cities: Moscow, St Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Yekaterinburg. Travelling abroad and consumerism became more popular, and Nechepurenko explains that in the 2000s "Eating out became a way of demonstrating one's good taste, not one's wealth" (Nechepurenko, 2014), so the attitude of this middle class changed too. New ways of selling and eating food also developed in the 90s and 2000s in Russia; for instance street food, with specialities such as shashlik, kababi and khachapuri were being sold on the streets. With Russians dreaming about the west, offering different kinds of dishes from around the world became the aim of many restaurants.

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Summary

In Russia, the 90s marked the end of the Soviet Union and the opening to the outside world for many. For the economy, it was a roller coster over the years until they finally integrated with the other developed countries. Back in the graph on Fig. 11, the economic journey of Russia really shows the way to the globalisation of its economy, slowly adjusting to fit along with the other developed countries in the world, as we can see between 1999 and today.

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Figure 12. World Bank Data, (n.d.). Russia’s GDP growth (annual %) between 1980 and 2015 in

Figure 12. World Bank Data, (n.d.). Russia’s GDP growth (annual %) between 1980 and 2015 in comparison with other countries (data from the World Bank databank)

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Chapter 3 Russia’s cultural renaissance

Intro

After having looked at the history and trends in design and food culture, I am now going to

review the most recent changes in Russia’s new contemporary food culture. Firstly I will investigate how traditional Russian culture is slowly coming back to being popular and a source of inspiration, under the influence of the economy and politics. In the second part I will present a case study of Russia’s capital city, Moscow. My research involved looking at past and present eating trends and the influence of the current economy and culture on the food culture.

How Russia’s culture reappeared, reformed and was recreated

In 2007 a world financial crisis hit Russia as well as many other developed countries. From the graph in Fig. 11 we can see that after the economic crash, Russia managed to re integrate the average level of the annual GDP growth, alongside the United Kingdom, Germany and the US and in 2009 the GDP was back to the positive side. In 2013 Russia’s economy was close to the average European country’s. Now another crisis is developing with the oil crash and Russia’s food scene will no doubt react with more changes and adaptations.

In 2010, famous critic Aleksei Zimin wrote about the Russian cuisine, commenting on the mediocre quality of food which frustrated many chefs who decided it was time to change, re-invent and improve food culture in Russia (Louis Vuitton, 2013). There was a wave of modernisation and westernisation but Russians started to give their own cultural touch to it: Russian fast food chains appeared such as Teremok, which specialises in blinis (Russian pancakes), as well as food festivals and new restaurants, celebrating Russia’s past cuisine, Soviet and pre-Soviet, with a modern twist. As Nechepurenko explains,

Traditionally, in Russia, food only became the centre of attention on big feast days like New Year's Eve, or weddings, but in recent years it has become an everyday exercise of personal taste” (2014). The international food festival Omnivore tours around different countries, celebrating a culinary revolution. In 2010 the organisers tried the event in Moscow, which was a huge success and they have been coming back ever since. They celebrated the 5th year during an event in the iconic Central Telegraph building, where I was lucky enough to go in November. Simon Dunlop who works at the Telegraph running

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Dream Industries, a collaborative working space, told me that the week long event brought together some of the best chefs in the world. Dream Industries host at least one food event every month, proof of a real food revolution in Moscow.

However, following the Crimea annexation the EU sanctions on Russia led to a food import

ban imposed by president Putin in 2014. The Russian population has a very divided opinion on this, so I asked in my questionnaires, if they had seen any surprising results of the food ban and EU sanctions. Yuliya Fokina told me “Yes, chefs started to cook in restaurants unusual and delicious dishes from local ingredients”, whereas Alex Levchenko declared “It’s all stupid, prices went up, they even doubled sometimes”. Others remarked subtle changes, like “the change of cheese assortment” (Marionout) or “Nothing special” says Yoshinori Yagi, “though my favourite yogurt disappeared”. In general, many have adapted to the removal of the banned products, and the ban could be seen as a positive action for Russia as it bought back the local producers into the food scene. The term and popularity of lavka (local) was re-introduced by restaurateur Boris Akimov, who opened Lavka Lavka, a restaurant in Moscow which serves dishes made with local produce. I observed this new food trend along with the arrival of organic and healthy style stores and restaurants, during my research visit to Moscow in November 2015.

“In the bad old days of food shortages, Muscovites had other worries on their plates, but as prosperity returns, they are discovering new flavours and a world full of delicacies to enjoy and compare, fanned by their tremendous appetite for foreign travel. ” (Louis Vuitton, 2013:105)

Case study in Moscow 9th-13th November 2015

When travelling to Moscow (9th-13th November 2015), I visited restaurants and food spaces with new and different concepts, as well as spaces which celebrate Russia’s culinary history, and interviewed people there.

Restaurant tour with Dmitry Fokin, a prominent Internet Entrepreneur and Central Moscow resident We started our tour with a symbolic place of westernisation: the first McDonalds which opened in 1990, during the Soviet Union which was a big step for Russia and showed the state’s willingness to try and open up to the world during the glasnost period under

27

Gorbachev. Dmitry told me that when he was a young boy he sometimes skipped school and went to the Pushkin Square to earn a few Roubles standing in the queue for someone else, something which became a reoccurring phenomenon after the opening.

We then walked on to the CCCP restaurant (USSR), a basement eating space, with white, red and yellow colours. The interior was designed as a reminder of Soviet times, with the symbolic typography on the menu, the simple (not very appealing) food, and some 12 sided glasses filled with milk on the counter near the dried fish hanging above the till. I observed that the clients were mainly elderly people, who would have lived through the Soviet times and would perhaps want to remember those times. A few people had added a third chair to a table for two, which reminds the tradition of a bottle of vodka being shared between three.

A new trend of take-away coffee is developing in Moscow Dmitry tells me, especially in kiosks with street windows, such as the one we walked by a few times.

The next stop was Pinch restaurant, new in its kind in Moscow, following the European trend of high end detailed designed interiors. The space was particularly dark and the kitchen on the left side was completely open for clients to see their meals being prepared and make them feel part of the action and experience, a new trending concept around the world, making the client feel more comfortable and at the same social level as the staff .. They called themselves a “soul food restaurant” with a menu changing every two months, serving very delicate dishes including porcini ice cream with thyme sauce. While we were having drinks there on Thursday, Dmitry explained that the type of clients who come here are usually very wealthy. He also pointed out three muscly men sitting at a table, “probably some guys in the mafia” Dmitry said, “with a few men waiting in their black car outside, ready to jump out if something happens”.

Mari Vanna was next on our restaurant tour. If you are wondering what the Soviet kommunalnaya kvartira (communal apartments) which appeared after the Russian Revolution, looked like, this is the place to go. The design of the restaurant was a replica of these apartments, which would typically be shared between two and seven families. Before entering, to remind the large number of families who lived in these flats, many different doorbells were placed on the wall next to the door. In each apartment, one family would own one room, a combined living room, dining room and bedroom. Walking through

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the door, I noticed wooden chevron flooring, old flowery wallpaper and traditional Soviet furniture and bookshelves filled with Russian literature and stacking dolls which made it look remarkably realistic. To add to the experience, the waitresses were wearing long dresses and long hair, looking like they came straight from the Soviet times. The menu only served traditional Russian cuisine so we chose the famous Olivier salad with ox tongue, a bowl of marinated mushrooms, cabbage pirogi (which look like Spanish empanadas), beetroot salad with prunes, and cranberry juice (Russia’s favourite juice drink). Dmitriy had a shot of vodka to accompany the meal, reminding me that after a shot it is a custom to smell some bread or eat a pickle to rinse off the strong taste. I felt like there was so much history woven into this place. Mari Vanna became so popular in Moscow and St Petersburg that it now also exists in London and New York.

We then walked to a restaurant specialised in seafood, named Crabs are Coming. As the name indicates, the menu offered dishes such as crab soup, crab fried rice or crab rangoon. What makes this place so attractive to Muscovites is the low pricing, which is surprising for this type of food in Moscow. Alongside the restaurant was a small shop called Tochka, selling new and healthy foods which are still difficult to find in Moscow. However, these types of products are becoming more and more available with the influence of the current organic and healthy western trend.

Ryumochnaya, the following place we visited, was an entirely different kind of restaurant, offering different types of traditional vodka to accompany a varied choice of “homecooked” dishes. On a typical Tuesday evening it was fairly busy, with business people as well as young ladies enjoying a shot of vodka with a few zakuskis (small entrées). This place is not very common for tourists as it offers “too much of a Russian experience”. After one shot of cranberry vodka, we went on to the next stop.

Dmitry took me to Club Mayak just above the Mayakovsky theatre. We went through a small door in a side street then up the stairs and into a large restaurant space. It was fairly empty but being open 24 hours I could imagine how it would become a few hours later. The design of the interior had similarities to a Parisian café. Club Mayak opened in 1993 for a clientele mainly composed of actors as well as musicians and artists. It was a private club until two years ago when it re-opened to the public again. I could easily imagine this creative community having extravagant nights here.

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We walked again until we reached Turandot Palace, a place out of the ordinary. This restaurant and social club stands up to its name with a marbled Italian courtyard to welcome us in the hall, and stone balconies above, in reference to the Puccini operas. The restaurant space was situated on the left of the entrance, luxuriously decorated with hand- painted wall ornaments and columns, impressive and grandiose.

Our last stop on this culinary tour was the famous Cafe Pushkin. After entering, we went downstairs to leave our coats in a room that looked very much like the basement of a castle, with stone vaults and wooden doors. We took the very old elevator up to the third floor. Walking around I could see Russian businessmen enjoying a corporate dinner around a couple of glasses of vodka and cognac, English tourists having a nice meal ... The restaurant opened in 1999 and is the most recommended culinary place to visit in Moscow. The menu offers traditional Russian food (one could say pre-Revolutionary) and follows the theme of a pharmacy on the ground floor and a library on the next two floors, with antique books on the shelves. This is a place that is particularly linked to history, with a strong French influence to the decoration, the menu and the experience offered, reminding customers of Russia’s tight cultural relationship with the French. I ordered Russian dumplings and salmon roe caviar (not the expensive version unfortunately) with traditional millet blinis. The caviar was served with a tiny pearl and silver spoon which felt even more luxurious. For dessert, the waiter arrived with an Egyptian pyramid shaped crème brulée, surrounded by strawberries in syrup, covered with a dome of thin caramel like a cage. He explained about when Napoleon envaded Egypt in 1798 which was called the Battle of the Pyramids, but while wanting to protect them, he was being attacked by the Turkish and abandoned his conquest in Egypt. Right after this the waiter poured flambéed alcohol onto the dome which melted the caramel onto the pyramid. This was one of the finest desserts I have ever had, the whole experience of being told an interactive story about a dish I was about to eat was truly incredible and I felt that it added so much more to the atmosphere of this place.

Eating spaces which celebrate healthy, local and organic produce After visiting many cafés and restaurants, and reading travel recommendations, I established that I needed to find out more about Moscow’s food scene but from another angle. I wanted to see if this new food culture was apparent elsewhere in the food business, so I went to a few places that sold food.

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The first place I went to was Tsvetnoy Mall’s food hall on the top floor. Walking out of the grey and gloomy metro station I did not expect a place like this. Entering the shopping centre, I discovered Moscow’s wealthy side, with international beauty brands around the first floor, and big fashion labels on the next few floors. When I reached the last floor, I felt like I was back in London in Whole Foods or in the Selfridges food court. All I could see was the extensive layers of fruit and vegetable on the wooden stalls, under the mirrored ceiling. A little further, a multitude of healthy and organic products such as coconut water and “superfoods” were sold on the shelves. I could see a lot of foreign brands, as well as Russian brands. It was clear that only the elite who could afford this actually shopped here, as it wasn’t particularly busy for a food store. Surprisingly, I tried to talk to some people who worked there, but no one could speak English!

Danilovsky market looked like a typical indoor food market like one would find in Europe but I soon found out more. In the middle were all the stalls, each seller offering local produce: fruit and vegetables, meat, fish and dairy products. Around the central stalls, small independent businesses had a space of their own, selling prepared and cooked food including a famous bakery stall named Batch, reputed for its long queues in the morning. I managed to talk to Elena who worked at Juicy Lab, a juice bar along the side. She told me that this type of place was relatively new: “Lots of new businesses are opening, a few of the stands you can see in the market have opened in the past couple of months. We get funding from the owner of the market. But there aren't that many Russians coming here as many are struggling with money at the moment.” I also interviewed Svetlana, an 18 year old who worked at the market, who explained the market system to me. She told me about how there is a real emphasis on local produce here but people think it’s expensive. I observed that police were walking around the market and she explained that the clientele was usually quite wealthy here. She also reveals that the people working in the centre on the stalls all work for one person who owns the market, but the stalls on the outside circle are independent, although they get some funding from this person.

I really found that these two places add strongly to Moscow’s food scene and I could even say that they tell more about Russia’s recent food culture revolution, than the restaurants that I visited previously.

Finally, Dmitry strongly recommended that I should go and see the Eliseevskiy Magazin, for it’s extravagant interiors. I was very surprised when I entered this Neo-Baroque building

31

through a large door (although it didn’t feel like I was entering a grocery store). This food hall was actually built in 1901 and is considered one of the first of it’s kind at the time. It’s former owner and millionaire Grigory Eliseev decorated this place with huge chandeliers hanging from the ceiling and high arches between the different spaces. It is very surprising that this place has been preserved over a hundred years, which shows again how Russian culture is irrepressible.

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Photos from Moscow

Photos from Moscow DyDo machines in the metro CCCP restaurant menu CCCP restaurant Garage Museum with

DyDo machines in the metro

Photos from Moscow DyDo machines in the metro CCCP restaurant menu CCCP restaurant Garage Museum with

CCCP restaurant menu

Photos from Moscow DyDo machines in the metro CCCP restaurant menu CCCP restaurant Garage Museum with

CCCP restaurant

Photos from Moscow DyDo machines in the metro CCCP restaurant menu CCCP restaurant Garage Museum with

Garage Museum with Louise Bourgeois installation

Photos from Moscow DyDo machines in the metro CCCP restaurant menu CCCP restaurant Garage Museum with

Garage Museum Cafe (online photo)

Photos from Moscow DyDo machines in the metro CCCP restaurant menu CCCP restaurant Garage Museum with

CCCP restaurant

Photos from Moscow DyDo machines in the metro CCCP restaurant menu CCCP restaurant Garage Museum with

CCCP restaurant

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Take-away coffee house Pinch restaurant 34

Take-away coffee house

Take-away coffee house Pinch restaurant 34
Take-away coffee house Pinch restaurant 34

Pinch restaurant

Take-away coffee house Pinch restaurant 34

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Mari Vanna Mari Vanna entrance Ryumochnaya Mari Vanna “kvartira” style interior Crabs Are Coming (online photo)

Mari Vanna

Mari Vanna Mari Vanna entrance Ryumochnaya Mari Vanna “kvartira” style interior Crabs Are Coming (online photo)

Mari Vanna entrance

Mari Vanna Mari Vanna entrance Ryumochnaya Mari Vanna “kvartira” style interior Crabs Are Coming (online photo)

Ryumochnaya

Mari Vanna Mari Vanna entrance Ryumochnaya Mari Vanna “kvartira” style interior Crabs Are Coming (online photo)

Mari Vanna “kvartira” style interior

Mari Vanna Mari Vanna entrance Ryumochnaya Mari Vanna “kvartira” style interior Crabs Are Coming (online photo)

Crabs Are Coming (online photo)

Mari Vanna Mari Vanna entrance Ryumochnaya Mari Vanna “kvartira” style interior Crabs Are Coming (online photo)

Ryumochnaya’s “home-cooked meals”

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Club Mayak’s Parisian interior Turandot Turandot Turandot 36

Club Mayak’s Parisian interior

Club Mayak’s Parisian interior Turandot Turandot Turandot 36

Turandot

Turandot Turandot
Turandot
Turandot

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(online photo on the left) Cafe Pushkin Millet blinis and salmon roe caviar The Egyptian crème

(online photo on the left)

(online photo on the left) Cafe Pushkin Millet blinis and salmon roe caviar The Egyptian crème
(online photo on the left) Cafe Pushkin Millet blinis and salmon roe caviar The Egyptian crème

Cafe Pushkin

(online photo on the left) Cafe Pushkin Millet blinis and salmon roe caviar The Egyptian crème

Millet blinis and salmon roe caviar

(online photo on the left) Cafe Pushkin Millet blinis and salmon roe caviar The Egyptian crème

The Egyptian crème brulée

(online photo on the left) Cafe Pushkin Millet blinis and salmon roe caviar The Egyptian crème

Menu with French text

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Tsvetnoy food hall Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky food market Danilovsky food market Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky

Tsvetnoy food hall

Tsvetnoy food hall Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky food market Danilovsky food market Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky

Tsvetnoy food hall

Tsvetnoy food hall Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky food market Danilovsky food market Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky

Danilovsky food market

Tsvetnoy food hall Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky food market Danilovsky food market Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky

Danilovsky food market

Tsvetnoy food hall Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky food market Danilovsky food market Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky

Tsvetnoy food hall

Tsvetnoy food hall Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky food market Danilovsky food market Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky

Danilovsky food market

Tsvetnoy food hall Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky food market Danilovsky food market Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky

Danilovsky food market

Tsvetnoy food hall Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky food market Danilovsky food market Tsvetnoy food hall Danilovsky

Danilovsky food market

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Eliseevsky grocery store Eliseevsky grocery store Eliseevsky grocery store 39

Eliseevsky grocery store

Eliseevsky grocery store Eliseevsky grocery store Eliseevsky grocery store 39

Eliseevsky grocery store

Eliseevsky grocery store Eliseevsky grocery store Eliseevsky grocery store 39

Eliseevsky grocery store

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Conclusion

In this dissertation, I have demonstrated that economics, history and politics really do affect a country’s design in food culture, especially in Russia. Through this fascinating country’s past and present, I have explored and analyzed the formation of the current food revolution. Since the 17th century up to the present times, so much has happened and so much has evolved.

Throughout my writing, I described the three themes I talked about in my introduction and I established why and how they were present in Russia’s food culture. I have proved the importance of foreign influence that has existed since the Imperialist period, and probably even further back. This influence, whether it was French, Western or Central Asian, had a strong impact on the development of Russia’s food culture. I also established the presence of an irrepressible culture in a powerful yet fragile history, that keeps asking for more and evolves through time. Finally, I underlined the rise of an egalitarian society, developing human-centered design within Russian food culture, with people as a focus.

My research trip made this dissertation project even more interesting as I saw this new food culture with my own eyes, walking through an ever-changing megalopolis, and talking with its inhabitants. I discovered the multi-faceted side of Russia’s customs and traditions.

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Appendicies

PART 1 - Questionnaires Finding out more about the difference between Soviet and present times within the food space, the effects of the food import ban and what people think has the most influence on food culture

Page 34: Alex Levchenko Page 35: Elena Page 36: Yuliya Fokina Page 37: Marionout Page 38: Yoshinori Yagi Page 39: Lina Page 40: Roman Linin

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PART 2 - Interviews

Ziferblat, London Wednesday 28 th October 2015

Pay by the minute social space

5p/minute

Interview with Sasha who works at Ziferblat

How do you think this space fits in in London?

There is a big Russia community in London and many Russian food shops have opened

so the people are already here, it was an easy step forward.

Who are the main customers at Ziferblat?

About half are UK or European Union customers and the other half are Russian.

During the day we mainly have students come in and work.

How does this place work?

This space works on a clocking system, you register when you arrive and when you leave,

and you pay for how many minutes you've been here. It's a creative social space for working, collaborating or meeting new people. We don't have a food license so we just serve tea, coffee and biscuits. We organise social events here, such as a board game evening every Saturday, talks about art and poetry, and our weekly "We Speak Freely" event about public speaking without social pressure. Some social groups come here for their own events, like the Ukrainian Society who used our space for a meeting last Sunday.

How are the different locations of Ziferblat connected?

All the branches are independent but we operate the same system (pay by the minute)

and we organise similar events, like the board game evening happens in every location.

Tell me about the design of the space.

We wanted to be different to the standard café. We have art from different countries on the walls and the furniture is all different, to make you feel like you are in your own living room. It is a space for socialising, meeting new people and starting unexpected friendships in a calm and relaxed environment.

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Garage Museum Café interview Tuesday 10th November 2015 Andrei, staff at Garage Café

Tell me about the history of this place museum.

The Kafe Vremena Goda was built during the Soviet Union in 1959 and was the biggest restaurant in Moscow. It had 1000 space capacity and there was even a fun fair outside. It was then destroyed in the 90s. Five years ago, Abramovitch decided to invest 50 million dollars in it's reconstruction to make it into the museum it is now. It opened 5 months ago.”

How have things changed since the Soviet Union?

Every cafe, restaurant, supermarket was the same. When Khrushchev came to power, he tried to develop a new way of thinking, Soviet modernism, which was when the restaurant was built. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia suddenly opened to the rest of the world and that was when the western influence started. Fast food chains were so popular. There are still restaurants that specialise in the cuisine from particular ex-Soviet countries such as Armenia, Kazakhstan and Georgia. People go there to keep in touch with their native country.”

Do you feel that Russian cuisine is coming back now?

No I think Russian cuisine is not very mainstream at the moment, young people prefer Italian and French restaurants. There is so much influence from the west that there aren't that many traditional restaurants anymore. The Government is trying to invest more money to promote traditional cuisine. Many restaurants now offer a mix of choices, you can often find pizza, sushi and traditional Russian dishes on the same menu.”

Tell me about the café here.

Our chef often travels to different countries to find inspiration for new menus. He tries to find local and traditional recipes from small unknown villages in Europe. The design is based on Soviet modernism in the 60s. The red sofas are replicas from the 60s. They bring back memories. My grandfather came here once and he told me he remembered these sofas from when he was younger. We also have the 12 panelled glasses here. In the Soviet times, diversity of materials was not our power. We have tried to recreate this here, by using a minimum of different materials. The floor for example, is a replica of the floors that were in every city's Culture House. The mosaic too is a look from the 60s.”

Tell me about products that define your youth.

I remember how excited we were about ChuppaChupps lollipops, Snickers, Nike shoes, blue jeansMy grandfather bought his first pair of blue jeans when he was 80, and he had to buy them on the black market as they were still quite rare and considered as contraband. People used to travel and bring back items from Europe and swap them here. We also got mobile phones in the 90s here whereas in Europe they already had them in the 70s.”

Do you feel that history, economy and politics influence design and new food culture?

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Yes, when the first McDonalds opened, the population that wasn't excited about it said that the food there was unhealthy and dangerous. But as you can see we still have many McDonalds here. The young Russian population is much more educated today. More of us go to university and learn about culture outside Russia. It’s the less educated population who still like the Soviet ways of doing things. The cities of Moscow and St Petersburg have evolved a lot during the past 10 years. But the smaller towns and villages in the rest of Russia are still 30 years behind.”

What do you feel about the EU sanctions/food ban?

I'm not sure it's a good idea, but I understand why it has happened. In Russia everything is possible today. It's not difficult to find the products and food you want, it just costs more.”

How do you feel about Russia today?

There is still so much corruption here, money is often power. But it's still so normal for many of us, even if we understand it's not the best way to run things. I bought my driving license for example. But when I get my own car, I will try and drive carefully! With open minds and education things will improve. In the 90s it was really hard to start a business, because it wasn't always safe and you often had to pay other people. But today it's much easier and safer.”

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Danilovsky Market Thursday 12th November 2015 Interview with Elena who works at Juicy Lab

“If there was one thing I could improve it would be the recycling system here. Next week

the owner of the market is coming and he'll be asking us about what we think should change in this space.”

Is Juicy Lab a new type of café in Moscow?

“There is a new popular trend here about healthy eating. We sell juices, detox juices and healthy foods like chia seeds. Lots of new businesses are opening, a few of the stands you can see in the market have opened in the past couple of months. We get funding from the owner of the market. But there aren't that many Russians coming here as many are struggling with money at the moment.”

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PART 3 - Risk assessment for travelling

SPD$Overseas$Travel$Student$Checklist$and$Risk$Assessment$

! Student!Number:! 1200467 ! Surname:! Forename:! de!Rohan!Willner ! Maud ! Mobile!Telephone:! 07792408396! NonAUniversity!Email:! PIC!Tutor:! Project!Title:!! m.derohanwillner@outlook.com!
!
Student!Number:!
1200467 !
Surname:!
Forename:!
de!Rohan!Willner !
Maud !
Mobile!Telephone:!
07792408396!
NonAUniversity!Email:!
PIC!Tutor:!
Project!Title:!!
m.derohanwillner@outlook.com!
Drummond!Masterton !
Moscow!dissertation!research!trip !
Project!Start!Date:!
9 th !November!2015!
!
Note:$All$questions$are$mandatory,$students$cannot$continue$until$all$questions$answered$and$details/actions$column$completed.$
$
Question$
Yes$ No$ Details/Action$Taken$to$Minimise$Risk$
Have!you!checked!the!Foreign!and!Commonwealth!Office!website!for!destinationA
specific!safety!and!security!advice!and!visa!requirements?!
(https://www.gov.uk/foreignAtravelAadvice)!!
Have!you!checked!the!NHS!Travel!Health!website?!
(http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/travelhealth/Pages/Travelhealthhome.aspx)!
Have!you!checked!the!National!Travel!Health!Network!and!Centre!for!current!
destinationAspecific!health!advice!and!information?!
(www.nathnac.org)!!
If!you!are!driving!in!a!nonAEU!country,!have!you!applied!for!an!International!Driving!
Permit!(IDP)?!
(http://www.postoffice.co.uk/internationalAdrivingApermit)!!
Are!You!Prepared!for!an!Emergency?!You!will!need!to!locate!the!British!
Embassy/Consulate!in!your!destination!country.!
(https://www.gov.uk/government/world/organisations)!!
Have!you!arranged!for!enough!medication!to!last!your!entire!visit!taking!into!account!
delays!in!returning!home?!
Do!you!need!copies!of!prescriptions!as!evidence!of!a!medical!condition?!(Eg.!Diabetes.)!!! !
Do!You!Have!Photocopies!of!Your!Itinerary,!Travel!Documents!and!Important!Contact!
x! ! Safe!country!and!got!a!Russian!Visa!
x!
!
No!health!issues!
x!
!
Checked!health!advice!
!
x!
Not!driving!
x!
!
Have!emergency!contact!details!(parents,!
tutors),!travelling!with!father!
!
x! No!need!for!medication!
x!
!
x! No!prescriptions!needed!
Contact!details!in!phone,!have!photocopies!of!
Numbers?!
itinerary!and!have!passport!
Do!you!have!appropriate!travel!and!medical!insurance?!(you!will!only!be!insured!by!us!
x!
!
Bank!insurance!(Coutts),!EHIC!card!
for!projectAspecific!activities.)!!
If!travelling!within!Europe!have!you!applied!for!a!European!Health!Insurance!Card!
x!
!
I!already!have!a!EHIC!card!
(EHIC)?!
(http://www.nhs.uk/NHSEngland/Healthcareabroad/EHIC/Pages/aboutAtheAehic.aspx)!!
Have!you!notified!your!bank,!credit!card!company,!or!other!financial!institutions!that!you! x! ! Already!notified!
are!going!overseas?!
Have!you!got!a!“Plan!B”!if!you!lose!your!money!/!credit!card!whilst!abroad?! x! ! Go!to!same!bank!in!Moscow!
Have!you!learned!about!local!laws!and!customs!for!your!destination!country?!
x!
!
Yes!
(https://www.gov.uk/foreignAtravelAadvice)!
Do!You!Know!How!to!Find!Medical!Help!Abroad?!(Eg.!Emergency!numbers!and!local!
x!
!
Online,!travel!book!
hospitals/clinics.)!
Have!you!identified!a!travel/project!buddy!who!you!can!contact!in!the!UK!to!let!them!
x!
!
Father!on!trip!(Guy!de!Rohan!Willner),!Mother!
know!you!are!safe!and!keep!them!updated?!(This!could!be!a!parent/guardian!or!a!
in!UK!(Laurence!de!Rohan!Willner)!
friend/colleague.)!
Does!your!mobile!phone!work!in!your!destination!country?!(Check!with!your!network!
x!
!
EE/Orange,!already!works!abroad!
operator.)!
If!you!are!working!with!children!or!other!vulnerable!people!have!you!had!awareness!
!
training!on!safeguarding!and!child/adult!protection?!
x! Not!working!with!children!or!vulnerable!
people!
Are!you!travelling!alone?!If!so!what!precautions!will!you!be!taking?! ! x! Not!travelling!alone!
Are!you!attending!another!academic!institution?!If!so!please!provide!name!and!contact!
!
x! Not!attending!another!academic!institution!
details.!
Are!you!being!mentored!by!a!professional!company?!If!so!please!provide!name!and!
!
contact!details.!
Are!you!undertaking!userAcentred!design!strategies?!Please!indicate!safety!precautions!
!
x! Not!being!mentored!by!a!professional!
company!
x! Not!undertaking!user!centred!design!strategies!
considered.!
Are!you!travelling!with!others?!If!so!please!provide!name!and!contact!details.! x! ! Father:!Guy!de!Rohan!Willner!
(guy100@mac.com,!07584280700)!
Are!you!using!public!transport!in!your!destination!country?!If!so!please!provide!details.! x! ! Metro,!bus,!taxi!
Will!the!nature!of!your!project!present!the!likelihood!of!harm!to!yourself!or!others?!
!
x! No!risk!to!harm!myself!or!others!
Please!provide!details!of!risks!and!control!measures!planned!to!minimise!such!risks!in!
the!final!column.!

53

Bibliography

Books

Gerrare, W. (1904). Greater Russia: the Continental Empire of the Old World. London:

William Heinemann.

Idov M. et al. (2011) Made in Russia: Unsung Icons of Soviet Design. USA: Rizzoli International Publications Inc.

Klanten R., Ehmann S., Mollard A., Bolhöfer K., Silus R. (2011) Delicate, New Food Culture. Berlin: Gestalten.

Klein, N. (2000). No Logo. UK: Flamingo.

Stiglitz, J. (2002) Globalization and its discontents. UK: Allen Lane The Penguin Press.

Trutter, M. and Schmid, G. (2015). Culinaria Russia. Potsdam, Germany: H.F. Ullmann.

Von Bremzen, A. (2013) Mastering the Art of Soviet Cooking. UK: Doubleday.

Vuitton, L. (2013). Moscow, Louis Vuitton City Guide. Paris: Louis Vuitton.

Westin, P. (2012) In From the Cold: the Rise of Russian Capitalism. London: London Publishing Partnership.

Websites

Afisha.ru, (n.d.). Crabs are Coming restaurant. [image] Available at: http://www.afisha.ru/ msk/restaurant/43458/ [Accessed 27 Jan. 2016].

BBC A History of the World (2010). Russian Revolutionary Plate. [Internet] Available at:

BBC (2015). Russia profile – Timeline. [Internet] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ world-europe-17840446. [Last accessed: 4 th November 2015]

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Films and videos

Anna Karenina. (2012) Directed by Joe Wright. UK: Working Title Films, StudioCanal. [Video: DVD]

Attack on Leningrad. (2010) Directed by Aleksandr Buravsky. UK and Russia. [Video:

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