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4. Group 15: Nitrogen and its Compound
1) Nitrogen 2) Ammonia 3) Oxides of nitrogen
Name: Ng Siang Bing (6AH1) Sharon Low Kit Wah (6AH1)
Teacher¶s name: Puan Jaya Mary
argon and liquid oxygen Ammonia Formation of ammonia from ammonium salts y Ammonia gas is prepared by heating a mixture of ammonium salt and a base( NaOH. KOH. when ammonium chloride(ammonium salt) is heated with calcium hydroxide(a base).The Inert Nature of Nitrogen Form covalent bond to achieves stable octet electron arrangement Consists of simple diatomic molecules with a covalent triple bond Very stable & relatively inert o Short bond length and high bond energy (bond energy increase. ammonia gas is given out. energy to dissociate the molecules increase) o Linear and non-polar (distribution of electrons is symmetrical. 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2(s) (s) CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2NH3 (g) (s) (l) 2 . CaCO3) NH4 + + y OH - NH3 + H2O For example. CaO. no polarity) Extraction of Nitrogen from Air Stage 1: Liquefaction of air y Clean air is cooled and passed through the compressor under high temperature y Cooled air is then passed through the expansion nozzle with lowered temperature y Liquefied air is produced and thus passed through the filter to filter off solid CO2 & hydrocarbons y The process of compression and expansion is repeated Stage 2: Fractional Distillation y Liquefied air contains nitrogen and oxygen o Nitrogen has the lower boiling point which will vaporise first y Liquefied air is passed through the fractionating column y Nitrogen gas will be the first vaporise and realease at the top of the fractionating column y The nitrogen gas is then distilled off to produced 40% of oxygen y Liquid oxygen is condensed at the bottom of the fractionating column y Fractional distillation produce nitrogen. Ca(OH)2.
8°. In terms of Bronsted-Lowry theory. Its high solubility is due to hydrogen bonding between ammonia molecules and water molecules. ammonia is a Lewis base because it acts as an electron-pair donor. In terms of Lewis theory. NH3(g) + H2O(l) N3N. It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent odour. ammonia is a base because it is a proton acceptor. Properties of Ammonia Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.81x10-5 mol dm-3). Ammonia molecule is pyramidal in shape wih a lone pair of electrons.H2O(or H3N«H-OH) A solution of ammonia in water is sometimes known as ammonium hydroxide even though NH4OH molecue does not exist. The bond angle of H-N-H-N is 107. Ammonia accepts a proton to form an ammonium ion. The other common dehydrating agents such as concentrated sulphuric acid and anhydrous calcium chloride cannot be used because they react with ammonia. Actually a solution of aqueous ammonia 3 . Ammonia can form dative bond by donating a pair of unpaired electrons on the nitrogen atom to any Lewis acid. NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH+4 (aq) + OHí (aq) (proton (proton donor) (conjugate (conjugate acceptor) acid) bae) Ammonia is a highly soluble in water producing a weak base solution with a low base dissociation constant (Kb=1.y Ammonia gas is dried by passing it through anhydrous calcium oxide and is collected by upward delivery.
H2O species that is partially ionised to form ammonium ions and hydroxide ions: H3N«H-OH NH+4 (aq) + OHí (aq) Ammonia can react with aqueous acid to form ammonium salts. Ammonia is also used as a refrigerant gas. when ammonia is allowed to mix with gaseous hydrogen chloride. ammonia will be oxidised to nitrogen. NH3(g) + H3O+(aq) NH+4 (aq) + OHí (aq) (base) (acid) (salt) (water) Gaseous ammonia can react as a base towards acidic gases. It is found in many household and industrial-strength cleaning solutions. NH3(g) + HCl(g) NH4Cl(g) A daive bond is formed between the nitrogen in ammonia with the hydrogen in hydrogen chloride. pesticides. white fumes of ammonium chloride are formed. Aqueous ammonia is used as a reagent to identify in qualitative analysis. dyes and other chemicals. explosives. 2NH3 + 3Cl2 N2 + 2HCl 2NH3 + 3CuO 3Cu + N2 + 2H2O Uses of Ammonia About 80% of the ammonia produced by industry is used in agriculture as fertilizer.Ammonia solutions for industrial use may be concentrations of 25% or higher and are corrosive. textiles. NH3 + HNO3 NH4NO3 (ammonium nitrate) 2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 (ammonium sulphate) 2NH3 + CO2 (NH2)2CO(area) + H2O 4 . K+ and NH+4. Ammonia acts as ligands in the formation of complexes by donating the lone pair of electrons to the empty orbitals of metal ions. The unpaired electrons on the nitrogen atom can bond with a proton to form tetrahedron ammonium ion. for purification of water supplies. This is also used as a test for the presence of ammonia gas. All cations produce metal hydroxides as precipitates except Na+. and in the manufacture of plastics. For example. Ammonia can acts as a reducing agent in redox reactions.contains NH3. In the process. Household ammonia cleaning solutions are manufactured by adding ammonia gas to water and can be between 5 and 10% ammonia. Some metal hydroxides dissolve in excess ammonia to produce complexes that are soluble in water.
wool and silk. NO2. Nitrogen monoxide. and for the manufacture of certain plastics such as phenolics and polyurethanes. NO is further oxidised by air yo nitogen dioxide. dyes. certain alkalies such as soda ash. nickel and molybdenum from their ores. 2 NO(g) + O2(g) 2 NO2(g) Overall equation: 4 NO2 (g) + O2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) 4 HNO3 (aq) The resulting solution is fractionally distilled to produce an azeotropic mixture consisting 68% HNO3. Stage 1: Catalytic oxidation of ammonia Ammonia is oxidised by air to nitrogen monoxide at 850-900°c in the presence of platinum as a catalyst. h) The food and beverage industry use ammonia as a nitrogen source needed by yeast and microorganisms. 5 . 3 NO2(g) + H2O(l) 2 HNO3(aq) + NO(g) Nitrogen monoxide is then recycled to produce more nitrogen dioxide. Nitrogen dioxide gas dissolves in water to form nitric acid (50-60%) and nitrous acid. Ammonia is used in the manufacture of nitric acid. synthetic textile fibers such as nylon. Nitric acid is produced commercially by the Ostwald process. rayon and acrylics. pharmaceuticals such as sulfa drugs. e) The mining industry uses ammonia to extract certain metals such as copper. vitamins and cosmetics. 4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g) Stage 2: Oxidation of nitrogen monoxide to nitrogen dioxide. 2 NO(g) + O2(g) 2 NO2(g) Stage 3: Formation of nitric acid from nitrogen dioxide. d) The petroleum industry utilizes ammonia to neutralize acid constituents of crude oil and to protect equipment from corrosion. vitamins and cosmetics. g) The pulp and paper industry use ammonia for pulping wood and as a casein dispersant in the coating of paper. b) Ammonia is used in the manufacture of certain dyes and applied in the dyeing and scouring of cotton. c) The pharmaceutical industry uses ammonia in the manufacture of certain products such as sulfa drugs. Others uses of ammonia: a) Ammonia is used by the ammonia-soda industry for producing soda ash. f) The rubber industry uses ammonia to prevent premature coagulation by stabilizing natural and synthetic latex during transportation from plantation to factory.
l) Weak ammonia solutions are also widely used as commercial and household cleaners and detergents. Oxides of Nitrogen y y y y y y Nitrogen monoxide (NO)Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Insoluble in water Colourless neutral gas Reducing agent Unstable & easily oxidised by oxygen Resonance of two structure Unpaired electron of NO ± paramagnetic & weakly attracted by magnetic field Resonance structure of NO x x xN O xxx xN O Properties of NO2 y Brown acidic gas y Pungent smell Molecular geometry = V-shaped Exists as resonance hybrid structure (doubled bond & dative bond btw N and O are delocalised) N O O Hybrid resonance structure of NO2 N O O O N O 6 . as a slime and mold preventative in tanning liquors and as a protective agent for leathers and furs in storage. k) Ammonia is used by the leather industry as a curing agent.i) The textile industry uses ammonia in the manufacture of synthetic fibers such as nylon and rayon. j) The plastics industry uses ammonia in the manufacture of phenolics and polyurethanes.
thus the intensity of brown colour increase. Formation of Oxides of Nitrogen in the Environment Lightning cause the dissociation of N molecules then react with O2 to form NO N2 (g) + O2 (g) 2NO(g) NO combines with O2 to form NO2 2NO (g) + O2 (g) 2NO2 (g) Formation of Oxides of Nitrogen in the Internal Combustion Engine Combustion of fuel in the engine cylinder ± fast 7 . The concentraion of NO2 decrease. the position of equilibrium shift to the left. The concentraion of NO2 increase.Properties of N2O4 y y y Colourless gas Structure = planar Formed by dimerisation of NO2 -reversible process -depends on temperature Dissociation process = endothermic reaction y 21-140°C N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) Hybrid resonance structure of N2O4 O N O N O O 21-140°C heat O N N O O Changes of the composition of the oxides of nitrogen 140 .600°C Above 1000°C heat N2O4 2NO2 2NO + O2 heat N2+2O2 cooled cooled (brown) (colourless) (colourless) (colourless) y y When temperature decrease. the position of equilibrium shift to the right. When temperature increase. thus the intensity of brown colour decrease.
g. lead bromide (leaded petrol) Effects of Oxides of Nitrogen on Air Pollution y Formation of acid rain y Formation of photochemical smog Formation of Acid Rain Oxides of nitrogen Dissolved in rain water Nitrous acid & nitric acid 2NO2 + H2O 4NO2 + 2H2O + O2 HNO2 + HNO3 4HNO3 NO2 catalyses the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 NO2 + SO2 NO + ½ O2 Overall: SO2 + ½ O2 NO + SO3 NO2 SO3 (1) (2) SO2 Dissolved in rain water Sulphurous acid SO3 + H2O Dissolved in rain water Sulphuric acid 8 . sulphur dioxide.o Temperature rises rapidly (2800°C) N2(g) + O2 (g) 2NO(g) converted NO NO2 Oxides emitted with other exhaust pollutants o e. Carbon monoxide. unburnt hydrocarbon.
marble & concrete building Depletes nutrients of soil when it react with minerals o Produce salts which leached out of topsoil Photochemical Smog NO2 + hydrocarbons from vehicles photochemical smog Stage 1 UV light cause the formation of oxygen radicals from NO2 uv NO (g) + O (g) NO2 (g) Stage 2 Oxygen radicals + O2 molecules ozone molecules O (g) + O2 (g) Photochemical smog affect: y eyes and lungs y cause repiration problems Ozone: y secondary pollutants y harmful to animals and plants O3(g) 9 .Primary pollutants: y Suplhur dioxide y Oxides of nitrogen Propertis of Acid Rain y y y y Secondary pollutant pH < 5 Corrode metal structure.
The final product is the component of smog.Smog is formed when the vapour of organic products condese on dust particles in air. carboxylic acids. Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution Reduce oxides of nitrogen & CO emission Catalytic converters Consists of 2 compartments O2 added First compartment Heat at high temperature Thermal reactor Unburnt hydrocarbons oxidised oxidised CO2 + H2O CO CO2 2CO + O2 Second compartments Catalyst : platinum or palladium 2CO2 Mixture of exhaust gases & air Solid catalyst Catalytic reactor 10 . aldehydes and ketones. Oxidise unsaturated hydrocarbon to produce less volatile organic products such as alcohol.y y combined with unsaturated hydrocarbon (from incomplete combustion of fuels) to form organic radicals which then combine with NO.
tetramethyl lead and tetraethyl lead from leaded petrol can ³poison´ the catalyst. oxides of nitrogen reduced N2 + O2 2NO N2 + O2 Overall equation of catalytic converters: 2CO + 2NO 2CO2 + N2 The use of catalytic converter needs to be followed by the usage of lead-free fuel. 11 . o These additives will adsorp on the catalyst and hinder the reactivity of the catalyst on the active sites. Why? y The additives.Catalyst: alumina layered with CuO / Cr2O3 At low temperature.
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