CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW

Energy is interchangeable and compete one another. The world current
energy is mostly Non Renewables, very limited and fastly declining. Oil as a
weapon of war.

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CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW

Sources of Energy

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CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW
Types of Fossil Fuels

 Petroleum (oil)
 Natural Gas
 Coal
 Oil Shale
 Tar Sands

Oil shale Tar sands
Natural Gas Resources
Conventional natural gas
 Free natural gas (Non associated)
 Oil associated gas
Non-conventional natural gas
 Tight gas
 Coal bed methane (CBM)
 Aquifer gas coal
 Gas hydrates
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Gas hydrate

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW

Tight gas is unconventional natural gas which is difficult to access because of the
nature of the rock and sand surrounding the deposit. Because this gas is so much
more difficult to extract than natural gas from other sources, hydraulic
fracturing and directional drilling is necessary to produce the well.

Coalbed methane (CBM or Coal Bed Methane) is a form of natural
gas extracted from coal beds.

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CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Non-Renewable Energy Sources Conventional  Petroleum  Natural Gas  Coal  Nuclear Unconventional (examples)  Oil Shale  Natural gas hydrates in marine sediment 5 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Renewable Energy Sources Solar photovoltaics  Solar photovoltaics  Solar thermal power  Passive solar air and  Wind  Hydropower  Biomass  Ocean energy  Geothermal  Solar thermal power  Waste to Energy 6 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Renewable Energy Technologies Solar Wind  Photovoltaics -Flat Plate  Horizontal Axis Turbine  Photovoltaics -Concentrator  Vertical Axis Turbine  Solar Thermal Parabolic Trough  Solar Thermal Dish/Stirling Biomass  Solar Thermal Central Receiver  Direct Combustion  Solar Ponds  Gasification/Pyrolysis  Anaerobic Digestion Hydropower  Conventional Geothermal  Pumped Storage  Dry Steam  Micro-hydro  Flash Steam  Binary Cycle Ocean  Heat Pump  Tidal Energy  Direct Use  Thermal Energy Conversion 7 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Forms of Energy The five main forms of energy are:  Heat  Chemical  Electromagnetic  Nuclear  Mechanical 8 .

 Light is a form of electromagnetic energy  Each color of light (Roy G Bv) represents a different amount of 9 electromagnetic energy .  Fuel and food are forms of stored chemical energy. energy is released. because moving particles produce heat  Heat energy can be produced by friction  Heat energy causes changes in temperature and phase of any form of matter. Chemical Energy  Chemical Energy is required to bond atoms together  When bonds are broken. Electromagnetic Energy  Power lines carry electromagnetic energy into your home in the form of electricity.CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Heat Energy  The internal motion of the atoms is called heat energy.

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW  The nucleus of an atom is the source of nuclear energy  When the nucleus splits (fission). 10 . nuclear energy is released in the form of heat energy and light energy.  Nuclear energy is also released when nuclei collide at high speeds and join (fuse).  The sun‟s energy is produced from a nuclear fusion reaction in which hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei  Nuclear energy is the most concentrated form of energy.

11 . you give mechancal energy to the football to make it move. The energy it acquires is known as mechanical energy  When you kick a football. it acquires energy.CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Mechanical Energy  When work is done to an object.

 Green plants convert the sun‟s energy (electromagnetic) into starches and sugars (chemical energy)  Other Energy Conversion  In an electric motor. chemical energy is converted into electromagnetic energy.  The mechanical energy of a waterfall is converted to electrical energy in a generator. electromagnetic energy is converted to mechanical energy.  In a battery. 12 .CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Energy Conversion  Energy can be changed from one form to another  Changes in the form of energy are called energy conversions  All forms of energy can be converted into other forms  The sun‟s energy through solar cells can be converted directly into electricity.

fuel is burned to convert chemical energy into heat energy.CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Energy Conversions In an automobile engine. The heat energy is then changed into mechanical energy. 13 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Chemical  Heat  Mechanical 14 .

then scientists look for it –leading to many important discoveries. and if energy is destroyed mass is created. energy is created.CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW The Law of Conservation of Energy Energy can be neither created nor destroyed by ordinary means  It can only be converted from one form to another  If energy seems to disappear. Albert Einstein said that mass and energy can be converted into each other  He showed that if matter is destroyed.  E = MC2 15 .  In 1905.

with lot of dissolved natural gas  Sometimes it‟gooey. like asphalt  Usually it is somewhere in between: a black. stinky liquid 16 .CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW What is oil?  Sometimes it‟really light.

you could fill Crater Lake Oregon in 4 years! 17 .CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW How Much Oil Do We Use? The world consumes 82 million barrels of oil per year That‟s 3.4 billion barrels per year! At that rate.

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW What Is Natural Gas?  Methane: CH4  The lightest component of oil  The world consumes 100 trillion cubic feet per year!  Imagine a balloon 20 miles in diameter! 18 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW How do we get oil & gas?  Between the grains in rocks?  In large underground pools?  Close to hot magma in volcanoes? 19 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW How Do We Get Oil & Gas? 20 .

785 ltr)  (1 barrel = 159 ltr) 21 .CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW A Barrel of Crude Provides: (1 gallon = 3.

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW In Oil & Gas Industry. We Compete for Common Resources INVESTMENT RESERVERS TECHNOLOGY AND RESOURCES MARKET HUMAN PROJECT RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 22 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW The Oil & Gas Industry Challenges  To find and develop deepwater reserves  Accelerate the incorporation of proven reserves  Accelerate the start of production  Ensure availability of required drilling rigs  Increase PEP‟s execution capacity through the incorporation of third parties  To explore subsalt prospects. mainly in offshore plays  To apply enhanced oil recovery processes in mature fields  To develop extra-heavy oil reserves in a profitable manner  To increase project managements skills  To develop low permeability reservoir 23 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Energy Conversion & Efficiency Understanding Net Energy  It takes energy to process fossil fuels for usage  Cheapest energy cost to process fuels is Saudi Arabia oil  Most expensive energy cost to process fuels are the non-conventional fossil fuels  Also energy costly to produce bio-diesel  Negative net energy  Vital to understand the concept of net energy  Explains poor prospect for many alternatives  Different than $$ cost 24 .

ENVIRONMENT RESOURCES ENERGY 25 .CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Energy Sources Natural resources. energy and the environment are intimately related –a perturbation in one cause perturbations in the others.

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW The Carbon Cycle and Fossil Fuels 26 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW The 3C and 3E of Energy 27 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW The Energy Balance of the World 28 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Chemical Energy Content of some Fuels (in MJ/kg) 29 .

) 30 . (Thermal engines are less efficient than electrical engines.CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Not All Processes Have the Same Efficiency.

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Combined Efficiency is Limited by the Least Efficient Step 31 .

reason for efficiency (picture in 1998) 32 .CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Oil price.

reason for efficiency 140 USD (2008) 33 .CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Oil price.

how to store?)  Geothermal (limited availability)  Tides (limited availability. disposal)  Water power (NIMBY. dams kill fish)  Biofuels (still emit greenhouse gas)  Solar (expensive.CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Alternative Energy Alternatives that don‟t require fossil fuels:  Wind power (NIMBY. bird killers)  Nuclear (NIMBY. like a dam)  Fuel cells (how to get hydrogen?) 34 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW An Alternative Energy House 35 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Where Will Future Energy Come From? 36 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW In The Mean Time… All Oil is „Difficult‟ 37 .

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Thoughtful Bumper Sticker 38 .

. 39 .CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW BUT…………….

. 40 .CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW BUT…………….

CHAPTER 1 WORLD ENERGY OVERVIEW Is Oil Expensive……? anecdote 41 .