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Foundation of Education


(MIDSEM TEST)4.1 Introduction The philosophy of education will be discussed first, since we need to
understand the philosophy of education, before we can discuss about its significance for teachers. The
lecture will cover seven philosophies of education (idealism, realism, pragmatism, existentialism,
essentialism, progressivism, and social reconstructionism); followed by the significance of four of these
philosophies (pragmatism, existentialism, essentialism, and social reconstructionism) for teachers.4.2
The Philosophy of Education Philosophy of education, as we know, focuses on the values, beliefs and
attitudes in relation to the process of growth of individuals and society. These values, beliefs and
attitudes determine the direction of our education, particularly the aims, goals, objectives, contents,
delivery and assessment of education. Now, we will look some educational philosophies which will help
us to understand better the goals of education. Idealism: Ideal means a conception of objects as
something that are perfect, having noble character, visionary, and existing only in imagination.
Idealism views that education should focus on moral, spiritual and mental aspects of human being; and
that the truth and values are absolute, timeless, and universal. Education should concern with ideas
and concepts and their relationship, with the final outcomes of education are the most general and
abstract subjects. Mathematics is important to develop abstract thinking; while history and literature are
important to develop moral and culture. Realism: Real means a conception of objects as something
that are actual, existence, and authentic, rather than imaginary. Realism views the world in terms of
objects and matter; and everything is derived from nature and is subjected to its laws. Realism
suggests that education should focus on objects and matter; and views that people can learn about the
world through their senses and reasons. However, just like idealist, realist views that the ultimate goals
of education are the most general and abstract subjects. Realist stresses that the subjects such as
ethical, political and economics are important in life; while reading, writing and arithmetic are necessary
as basic education. Pragmatism: Pragmatic means a conception of objects as something that are
real, and having cause-effect relationship and practical values. Pragmatism views the world as not
fixed, but constantly changing; and views knowledge as process and not as product. Education,
therefore, should focus on experiencing the process, for example, learning occurs as pupil engages in
problem solving. Knowing is an interaction between the learner and environment (both are undergoing
constant changes). Teaching is not focused on what to think, but on how to think critically; and
hence, it should be more exploratory than explanatory. The ultimate goal of education is for the learner
to acquire the process of solving problems in an intelligent manner. Existentialism: Existential means
a conception of objects as actual being, existing, occurring, appearing, or emerging. Existentialism
views the world as subjective, depending upon ones perception; and that knowledge is a personal
choice. Education should focus on emotional, aesthetic and philosophical subjects; such as literature,
drama and arts. Learners are allowed to choose the subject(s) for their self-fulfillment. Curriculum
should stress on self-expressive and experimentation activities that will create emotions, feelings and
insights. The ultimate goal of education is to develop consciousness about freedom to choose, and the
meaning ones choices and responsibility in relation to these choices. Essentialism: Essential means
a conception of objects as something that are absolutely necessary, indispensable, or vital.
Essentialism views that education should focus on the fundamental and essential subjects, such as the
3 Rs (reading, writing, arithmetic) as the fundamental subjects at primary school level; and five
academic subjects at secondary school level (English, mathematics, science, history & foreign
language). Essentialism rejects the subjects such as arts, music, physical education, homemaking and
vocational education. The ultimate goal of education is the acquisition of culture and mastery of
essential skills, facts, concepts, and thinking skills. Progressivism: Progressive means a conception
of objects as something that are moving forward toward specific goal, further stage, or cumulative
improvement. Progressivism views that education should promote 1
2. 2. democratic society in which students could learn and practice the skills and tools necessary for
democratic living; which include problem-solving methods and scientific inquiry; and learning
experiences that include cooperative behaviors and self-discipline; which are important for democratic
living. Since reality constantly keeps changing (similar to pragmatism), progressivism believes that
there is little need to focus on fixed body of knowledge. Social Reconstructionism: Social
reconstruction means a conception that the social problems; such as poverty and lack of educational
and employment opportunities; can be solved through education. Social reconstructionism believes
that people are responsible for creating social conditions, whether they are good or bad. It views that
education should prepare people to create new good and just society and to bring the have- nots into a
better society. Other than those who are fortunate helping out those who are unfortunate, education
can play its role by preparing students to meet their intellectual, emotional, personal, and social needs,
to solve their social problems.4.3 Significance of Philosophy of Education for Teachers The significance
of the philosophy of education for teachers can be discussed by looking at the goals of education, role
of students, role of teachers and teaching methods for various philosophies of education (Figure 6.3, p
151). We are going to look at four philosophies of education as examples, i.e. the Existentialism,
Pragmatism, Essentialism, and Social Reconstructionism. Pragmatism: The goal of education under
this philosophy is developing and applying practical knowledge and skills for life in a progressive
democratic society. The role of students is to show active learning and participation. Hence, teachers
need to plan teaching and learning activities that encourage students to actively participate in learning.
The role of teachers is to teach inductive and deductive reasoning, scientific method, and the power of
observation and practice, which can be achieved through the teaching methods of hands-on curricula,
group work, and experimentation. Existentialism: The goal of education under this philosophy is
developing authentic individuals who exercise freedom of choice and take responsibility for their
actions. The role of students is to develop independence, self-discipline, set challenges, and solve
problems. Teachers should know this goal to decide what to teach, how to teach, how students learn
and how to assess learning outcomes. The role of teachers is to encourage students to philosophize
about life and to recognize and fulfill personal freedom, which can be done through the teaching
methods of discussion and analysis, examination of choice-making in own and others live.
Essentialism: The goal of education under this philosophy is acquisition of culture and cultural literacy
for personal benefit. The role of students is to receive knowledge and demonstrate minimum
competencies. The role of teachers under this philosophy is to deliver a standard curriculum, which
can be done through teaching methods of subject-centered direct instruction. Teachers need to know
this role in order to plan teaching and learning activities that are subject-centered and can deliver the
standard content through direct instruction. An example of a subject with standard curriculum is history.
A teacher can prepare the content of a lesson and delivers the content through direct instruction.
Social Reconstructionism: The goal of education under this philosophy is solving social problems and
create a better world. The role of students is to inquire, apply critical thinking skills, and take action.
The role of teachers under this philosophy is to ask questions, present social issues and problem
solving challenges, and serve as organizer and information resource, which can be done through the
teaching methods of stimulating divergent thinking and group discussion. Teachers should give
emphasis on social studies, social problems, global education, and environmental issues.4.4 Tutorial
Activity Read Chapter 6 of the textbook from page 152 to 156. Explain in your own words of your
understanding about the philosophies of Marxism, Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Perennialism and
Essentialism. 2
3. 3. TOPIC 5: THE SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION (MIDSEM TEST)5.1 Introduction In Topic 1, we
defined education as the growth process of the individuals and society; and in Topic 2, we defined
sociology as the branch of knowledge that deals with the origin, development, organization and
functioning of human society. Since, sociology of education is a branch of sociology that focuses on
education, it can be defined as the origin, development, organization and functioning of human society
that are associated with the growth process of the individuals and society. Some argued that
education is a valued-based activity in which individuals experiencing and accepting what is valued by
our society. Few argued that education is the transmission of culture. As we all know, a society is made
up of people with different customs, beliefs, values, languages, religions and social institutions. Beside
all these local cultures, our society is exposed to global cultures brought to us by foreign visitors and
various technologies, such as internet, CDs, magazines, films, etc. Ask ourselves, Which of these
cultures should we transfer to children/youths?5.2 Social Foundations of Education Transmitting and
Improving Society: John Dewey (an American educator) believed that aims of education were of both
transmitting and improving society. To do this, educators must be very selective in determining and
organizing the experiences for the children and society. Hence, educators, together with others in the
society, are responsible in determining the content and activities (experiences) that can help individuals
to grow and finally to improve their society. The aims of transmitting and improving society were carried
out by the schools which educate and socialize the younger members of the society. Modal
Personality comprises of a set of characteristics that differentiate citizens of one country to those of
other countries (mod means distinguished attributes). For example, there are certain behaviours,
attitudes and feelings that distinguish the Americans from Europeans, which are believed to be the
outcomes of schooling. American schools, among other things, focus on the national civic culture to
inculcate modal personality. How do Malaysians differ from citizens of other countries? Is it due to their
schooling (formal education) or other institutions, such as homes or religious institutions (informal
education)? Though each country has cultural pluralism, there still exist a modal personality for all
citizens of that country. They gain this modal personality through schooling, which offers standard
curriculum that develops the modal personality. Do Malaysians have modal characteristics? Can we list
some of them? We in Malaysia have a large number of foreign workers that came from many countries.
Do you think they have the Malaysian modal personality? If we have a modal personality, regardless of
religion, national origin, race, class or gender; we will still have common points of likeness. The
Americans, for example, despite of having different economic level, education, manners, taste, ethnic
group, origin and tradition; they have many points of likeness, such as language, diet, hygiene, dress,
basic skills, land use, community settlement and recreation. They are closer together in their moral
outlook, political beliefs and social attitudes; compared to other nationals. Do we have any points of
likeness in Malaysia? What are they? Most of these points of likeness are society behaviours, which
are actually the sociology of a community. This is in fact an example of the social foundations of
education. Belief in the possible is perhaps another point of likeness that the Americans have, i.e.
belief that anything is possible. Slogans such as Work hard and you will succeed, 3
4. 4. Just do it, Anyone can grow up to be president and What counts is not where you came from but
what you do are just some examples of this belief. US schools are promoting this message throughout
the country. What can these slogans promote for the American people? Perhaps right attitudes and the
belief that The measure of a person is his or her achievements. Belief in moral bases for right action
is another point of likeness for the Americans. When American educators discuss about the rights of
individuals to an education, they belief that people have a moral right to further their humanness (to be
good people). The belief also will guide the Americans in their individual and collective (group) conduct
(behaviour). The slogan such as Just say no to either sex or drugs indicates the influence of this
belief. This is another social phenomenon that influences education.5.3 A Dynamic, Changing Society
The social foundations become very important in education because of the rapid change in our society.
The appropriate education for various groups cannot be determined accurately, since the groups are
changing, ethnic demands are emerging, information is exploding, behaviours are being modified, and
values are being altered. What are the changes that we see in Malaysia? May be food preferences,
entertainments, etc. How do these affect education? Thus, we have difficulty to set education for the
present, and even more complex for the future. As the society changes rapidly, the education should
also change accordingly. For example, as most mothers are now working, they have problems taking
care of their young children. In response to this change, the schools now have the provisions of taking
children as young as four years old. Parents can send their younger children to nurseries either at
private place or at place of work. The idea of literacy is no longer confined to reading and writing, but
must be expanded to cultural, scientific, computer, technological, electronic and research literacy. The
number of Asian immigrants in US increases from 13% to 38% in 1981-1990. In California, people of
colour are already majority. In Seattle schools, over 34 languages are spoken. English as second
language is a must for the students. Education must be responsive to the needs of the diversity of
students, while at the same time, transferring the civic culture that serves as the binding for the
American nation. Schools need different learning outcomes, pedagogical approaches, flexible curricula,
and different teaching environments.5.4 Tutorial Activity National Philosophy of Malaysian Education
(NPME): Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of
individuals in a holistic and integrated manner so as to produce individuals who are intellectually,
spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic, based on a firm belief in and devotion to
God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent,
who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving high level of
personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family,
society and nation at large (CDC, MOE, 1988). Discuss the Malaysian philosophy of education from
the perspectives of the philosophy of education and the sociology of education. Which philosophy(s)
matches the NPME? What are the social aspects of human relations that are covered by NPME? 4
5. 5. TOPIC 6: HISTORY OF EDUCATION (FINAL EXAM)6.1 History of Education: Introduction History,
in Topic 2 is defined as: the branch of knowledge that deals with past events. Therefore, history of
education can be defined as: the branch of knowledge that deals with past events that were related to
education. The events that took place during a particular period of time in a country had influenced the
education of that country, that is, the history of particular country becomes the foundations of education
of that country. Think of Malaysia, can you recall an event that had changed our goals of education?
Curricula are prepared or created within political, social, economic and cultural contexts. The people
who created the curricula have firm belief in appropriate social action, views of knowledge, acceptance
of political ideologies, allegiances to class value systems, incorporation of economic motives, and even
adherence to religious convictions. These values are sometimes being challenged by various sectors of
community. Can you think of one curriculum that was not yet accepted in Malaysia? We are going to
look at American history of education as an example.6.2 The Colonial Period: 1642-1776 In the
northern (New England) colonies, the history of American education started with the education in the
earliest colony of Massachusetts, a settlement of the Puritans (members of a sect of Protestant from
England) who hold strictly to religious discipline. The earlier schools in Massachusetts were concerned
with the doctrines of Puritan church. The major purpose of schooling was to teach children to read
scriptures (passages) from the Bible and the notices of civil affairs department. The major goal of
education then was to enable children to read and understand the principles of religion and the laws of
the Commonwealth. The basic education in Massachusetts at that time was reading and writing; and
Latin in addition was taught mainly to prepare students to go to Harvard College. In the middle
colonies, unlike in Massachusetts (everyone used English language), there were no common language
or religion existed. Due to the differences in the language used and religious believes, no single school
system could be established in the middle colonies. These differences motivated the settlers of different
ethnic and religious groups to established parochial (provincial/ local) and independent schools, rather
than the central or district-wide school system as in New England. The present concept of cultural
pluralism in fact already existed 200 years ago in the middle colonies. Think of Malaysia, are there
similarities to what had happened in the North America with respect to school system or cultural
pluralism? In the southern colonies, the education decisions were left to the family. There was no
formal education here and the focus of education was only on vocational skills. Why vocational skills?
The legislative provision was instituted only to the guardians of poor children, orphans, and illegitimate
children, that is for them to provide private education or vocational skills to the children. The privileged
class of white children (children of plantation owners) received their education through private tutors.
The poor white children (children of the farm workers) did not have any formal education, with most of
them could not read or write. They continued to become farmers just like their parents. The children of
Black slaves were forbidden to learn to read or write. 5
6. 6. The curriculum of colonial schools in the northern, middle and southern colonies; despite the
differences in language, religion, and economic system; was influenced by the English political ideas.
The religious commitment had high priority in all schools and society, and the family played a major role
in socialization and education of all children. The curriculum of colonial schools consisted of reading,
writing, arithmetic, and some religious faith, and lessons to develop manners and morals. The
curriculum stressed on basic skills, social and religious conformity, faith in authority, knowledge for the
sake of knowledge, rote learning and memorization. There were various types of schools existed during
this period, such as the town schools (one-room primary schools), private schools (established by
missionary, ethnic and religious groups), Latin grammar schools (for sons of upper class), academy
(secondary school) and college (Harvard or Yale).6.3 The National Period: 1776-1850 School
curricula during Colonial Period were mostly based on religious needs. However, during the National
Period, secular forces had changed American education from religious based primary and secondary
education to more function based education. The secular forces argued that the time spent on studying
the two dead languages (Latin & Greek), for example, should be better used to study science, to help
the new America to explore and develop its natural resources. The secular forces also had influenced
the development of democracy, strong federal government, an emerging cultural nationalism, the idea
of religious freedom, and new discoveries in natural sciences. As a result of this movement, the federal
government became more committed to education and had allocated 154 million acres of land for
schools. The government even decided to give free primary, secondary, college and university
education, The school curriculum during the National Period (Rushs curriculum) stressed on reading,
writing, arithmetic and history in elementary school; English, German, the arts and especially sciences
at secondary school and college level; and good manners and moral principles for all levels. Education
was seen more for the development of natural resources, and to promote democracy. During this
period also, grammar schools were built for gifted students and scholarships were given to gifted
students who could not pay tuition fees. Half of the scholarship students were later assigned positions
as primary school teachers. Educational policy makers (e.g. Rush, Jefferson, Franklin) were all
concerned with equality of educational opportunity; and had proposed nationwide education for all
children and youth. Students of superior ability were identified and given free secondary and college
education. During this period also, the Americans were thinking of having their own national cultures,
for example having a national language and literature, which should be different from the English
language and literature used in Britain. This language (spelling, pronunciation & reading) should be
taught deliberately and systematically to the children and youth in the nations schools. The selection of
literature was focused on portraying patriotism, heroism, hard work, diligence, and virtuous living; with
the tone of moral, religion, capitalistic, and pro-American. Other than the cultures, the Americans also
aspired to expand the moral and political ideas as their contributions to humankind. For example, they
had shown to Europe the proof that institutions founded on equality and representation principles
(democracy) were capable of maintaining good governments.6.4 Tutorial Activity Read Chapter 4 of
the textbook from page 90 to 102. Explain in your own words, your understanding about the influence of
religion, politics, industry or others in each of the education described (Education in Southern Colonies,
Middle Atlantic Colonies, New England Colonies, 6
7. 7. Education for the Slaves, Education for Native Americans, Education in Spains Colonies,Education
for Women). 7

Philosophical foundation of educ.

1. 1. Philosophical Foundation <br />of <br />Curriculum<br />Prepared by:<br />Rowena M. Tivoli<br
/>MAED Student<br />
2. 2. Philosophy provides educators. teachers and curriculum makers with framework for planning,
implementing and evaluating curriculum in schools. It helps in answering what schools are for, what
subjects are important, how students should learn and what materials and methods should be used. In
decision making, philosophy provides the starting point and will be used for the succeeding decision
making.<br />
3. 3. The philosophy of curriculum planner, implementer, or evaluator reflects his or her life experiences,
<br />common beliefs, social and economic background and education.<br />For example, JOHN
DEWEY (1916) looks at<br />education as a way of life a laboratory in which philosophy becomes
concrete and is tested<br />
4. 4. Suggestions<br />from Subject Specialists<br />Studies of<br />Learners<br />Studies<br /> of
Contempo-rary Life<br />School Purposes<br />Use of Psycho-<br />logy of Learning<br />Use of
Philosophy<br />
5. 5.
6. 6.
7. 7. Philosophical Foundations of Education The most remarkable thing about philosophyis that the
questions raisednever seem to get answered.<br />
8. 8. Idealism<br />- The most significant philosophymost of the worlds religions are based on idealism-
Idealism as idea-ism- Platothe Academy opened in 397 B.C., believed that material things are of
littleconsequencethe everyday world of things and objects is a shadowy copy of the true idea which
the soul carries within itself from heaven, reason is rooted in a spiritual soul<br />- No discipline
problems, because the teacher knows the content well, likes to teach, and knows the students- The
idealist philosophy views the school as representing the community<br />
9. 9. Idealist philosophers <br />- Plato, Descartes, Kant, Spinoza, Leibniz, Hegel, Schopenhauer-
Students are encouraged to stretch themselves through higher-level thinking to become truth seekers-
The teacher will devote considerable time and energy to the one who goes astray<br />
10. 10. Realism <br />- Objects exist regardless of how we perceive them- Focuses on the scientific
method and personal experience- The crux of realism is scienceempirical, objective, and
experimentalwith precisemeasurements<br />
11. 11. Realist philosophers<br />- Aristotle, Comenius, Pestalozzi, Herbart, Montessori, Hobbes, Bacon,
Locke- Thomas Jefferson and Horace Mann embraced realism- Accountability in the schools is an
outgrowth of realism<br />
12. 12. Existentialism<br />- Focuses on the individual- Not a logical theory, but one that can be felt as an
attitude or mood- Awareness, anxiety, choice take on special meaning- Revolt against the traditional
philosophical stance- A way of life which involves ones total self in complete seriousness about the
self<br />
13. 13. Existentialist philosophers <br />- Kierkegaard, Sartre, Nietzsche- Kierkegaardthemes of
passionate choice, absolute freedom, total responsibility- Life must be understood backward, but lived
forward- The theory focuses on value questions<br />
14. 14. The End<br />Thank you for listening<br />

Psychological Foundations of Education (Complete)

1. 1. Table of Contents Educational Psychology

.................................................................................................... 3 Key Concepts
.................................................................................................................. 3 Cognitive and Learning
Development ............................................................................ 3 Cognitive Development
.................................................................................................. 3 Theories of Cognitive Development
............................................................................... 3 Piagets Main Tenet
.................................................................................................... 3 Vygotskys Socio-Cultural Theory of
Cognitive Development ................................. 7 Information-Processing Theory
................................................................................ 10 Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligence
............................................................... 13 Language Development
................................................................................................ 15 Learning Theories and Implications
............................................................................. 16 Theories of Learning
..................................................................................................... 16 Laws of Learning
.......................................................................................................... 17 Behavioral Psychology and
Learning ........................................................................... 18 Albert Banduras Social Cognitive Learning
................................................................ 18 Basic Concepts of Social Cognitive Learning Theory
.............................................. 18 Four Learning Mechanisms in Observational Learning
........................................... 19 Watsons Classical Conditioning
.................................................................................. 19 Skinners Operant Conditioning
................................................................................... 19 Effective Teaching and Evaluation of Learning
.......................................................... 20 Psychological Foundations of Education 1
2. 2. Effective Teaching ........................................................................................................ 20 Foundations
of Bilingualism .......................................................................................... 22 Bilingual Language
Development ................................................................................ 22 Developing Bilingualism
.............................................................................................. 22 Two Major Patterns in Bilingual
Language Acquisition .............................................. 23 Bibliography
.................................................................................................................... 25 Psychological Foundations
of Education 2
3. 3. Educational Psychology Psychological Foundations of Education 3 Key Concepts Educational
psychology deals in learning and teaching. This branch of psychology involves not just the learning
process of early childhood and adolescence, but includes the social, emotional and cognitive processes
that are involved in learning throughout the entire lifespan. The field of educational psychology
incorporates a number of other disciplines, including developmental psychology, behavioral psychology
and cognitive psychology. It concerned primarily with understanding the processes of teaching and
learning that take place within formal environments and developing ways of improving those methods. It
covers important topics like learning theories; teaching methods; motivation; cognitive, emotional, and
moral development; and parent-child relationships etc. Cognitive and Learning Development Cognitive
Development Cognitive development is gradual, systematic changes by which mental process become
more complex and refined. Establishment of new schemes is essential in cognitive development.
Theories of Cognitive Development Piagets Main Tenet Jean Piaget viewed children as constructivists,
meaning they are active seekers who respond to the environment according to their understanding of
its essential features. He also believed that intelligence was not random but it was a set of organized
4. 4. structures that the child actively constructed, and viewed intelligence as basic life function that helps
the child to adapt to his environment. According to Piaget, human beings inherit two essential
intellectual functions which he called organization and adaptation. 1. Organization is inborn and
automatic, and it refers to the childs tendency to arrange available schemata into coherent systems or
body of knowledge. Children are constantly rearranging their existing knowledge to produce new and
more complex cognitive structures (Gines, et al., 1998). 2. Adaptation is the childs tendency to adjust
to the demands of the environment. This occurs in two ways: a. Assimilation is interpreting or
understanding environment events in terms of ones existing cognitive structures and ways of thinking.
b. Accommodation is changing ones existing cognitive structures and ways of thinking to apprehend
environment events. Psychological Foundations of Education 4 Stages of Cognitive Development
Piaget divided cognitive development into four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete
operational and formal operational. He outlined this theory that follows an increasingly adaptive
behavior mechanism from diffused to generalized responses of the patterns of behavior. He said that all
children pass through these stages in this order and that no child can skip a stage. However, different
children may pass through the stages at somewhat different rates.
5. 5. 1. Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years). During this stage, children acquire knowledge through
sensory experiences and performing actions accordingly. This is entirely unconscious, self-unaware,
and non-symbolic cognition. There are six divisions of this stage: a. Reflexes (0 to 1 month). These
refer to the behavioral foundation upon which more complex behaviors are based. They develop when
applied to a wider variety of stimuli and events e.g. sucking and modify with continuous Psychological
Foundations of Education 5 experience. b. Schemes (1 to 4 months). These refer to an organized
pattern of behavior which the child interacts and comes to know his world e.g. sucking and grasping.
This substage coordinates and integrates previously independent schemes such as visual and auditory.
Moreover, schemes are directed inward e.g. grasp for the sake of its grasping than on the effect it has
on the world. c. Procedure (4 to 8 months). The schemes are directed outward and develop into
procedures of interesting behaviors that produce interesting effects in the world. Procedure gets
repeated e.g. banging on a pot with a wooden spoon. d. Intentional Behavior (8-12 months). Prior to
this substage, child produces some outcome from his behavior and repeats it. Now, the child wants to
produce a particular result then figures out the action. e. Experimentation (12-18 months).
Experimentation is the childs trial-and-error exploration of the world to discover new and different ways
of acting on it. Here the child produces new actions and observes the effects e.g. pulling the rug to get
an out-of-reach object.
6. 6. f. Representation (18-24 months). Before this substage, all actions and results occur externally. In
this substage, the child begins to think about and acting on the world internally e.g. naming an object
that is not currently present but is just thought of. Besides, the child witnesses an action but does not
reproduce it and he reproduces the witnessed action at a later time. This is called Psychological
Foundations of Education 6 deferred imitation. 2. Preoperational Stage (2 to 6 years). During this stage,
children develop their capacity to employ symbol, particularly language. Because of symbols, they are
no longer limited to the stimuli that are immediately present and they use these symbols to portray the
external world internally e.g. child can talk about the ball and can form a mental image of it. In stage,
children also develop their ability to conserve the qualitative and quantitative identify of objects even
when they change perceptually. 3. Concrete Operational Stage (6-12 years). Children are more logical
and able to complete task not able to perform in preoperational period. Thinking is still with real or
concrete objects and actions, and not yet abstract thinking. This is the beginning of rational activity in
children. They come to master various logical operations including arithmetic, class and set
relationships, measurement, and conceptions of hierarchical structures (Gines, et al., 1998). Child
mastered by age 6 the Conservation of Number and he mastered by age 8 or 9 the Conservation of
Length and Weight.
7. 7. 4. Formal Operational Stage (12 years and over) Children develop their abstract thinking. It is their
ability to think logically about things that are only possible and not necessarily real or concrete. They
also develop their hypothetical-deductive reasoning. Vygotskys Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognitive
Development Lev S. Vygotskys theory emphasizes that social interaction plays a vital role in cognitive
development. His theory basically means that development depends on interaction with people and the
tools that the culture provides to help form their own view Psychological Foundations of Education 7 of
the world (Gallagher , 1999). These cultural tools can be transmitted to three ways. These are: 1.
Imitative Learning- a person tries to imitate or copy another person. 2. Instructed Learning- a person
remembers the instructions of the teacher and then uses them to self-regulate. 3. Collaborative
Learning- a group of person who strive to understand each other and they work together to learn a
specific skills. He believed that children are born with elementary mental abilities such as perception,
attention and memory. These innate abilities transforms into higher mental functions as children interact
with their culture and society (Meece, 2002). His theory also states that language plays a vital role in
cognitive development. Within his theory, he identified three stages in childrens use of language: 1.
Social speech- speech used by children for purpose of communication to other people.
8. 8. 2. Egocentric speech- speech that is more intellectual and children use this by Psychological
Foundations of Education 8 verbalizing their ideas. 3. Inner speech- speech used by children to think in
their minds about their problem or task, instead of verbalizing their ideas in order to solve their problem
or to decide what to do next. His Socio-Cultural Theory also refers to the difference between what a
learner can do independently and what can be done with others guidance. He called this as Zone of
Proximal Development (ZPD). He assumed that interactions with adults or peers in the zone of proximal
development help children move to higher levels of mental functioning within the classroom (Meece,
2002). The implications of Vygotskys theory to education are to encourage cooperative learning
exercises and to engage student in the discovery process with guidance from knowledgeable source.
He suggests that teachers use cooperative learning exercises where less competent children develop
with the aid from more adept peers within the zone of proximal development. He believed that when a
student is at the ZPD for a particular task, providing the appropriate assistance, will give the student
enough of a boost to achieve his goal or to complete the task (McLeod, 2012). ZPD is associated with
scaffolding. The concept of scaffolding was introduced by Wood and Middleton. It is defined as a
learner to concentrate on those elements of the task that are initially beyond his capacity and complete
only those elements that are within his range of competence. According to Wood and Middleton,
scaffolding becomes most effective when the assistance is correlated to the needs of the learner
(McLeod, 2012).
9. 9. Meece has provided some of the major contributions of Vygotskys theories to education. His theory
gives insight to role of private speech and peer interactions in cognitive development and explains the
significance of guided participation and Psychological Foundations of Education 9 scaffolding (Meece,
2002). Furthermore, he also emphasized in his theory that three factors that shape childrens behavior,
and these are called ecological contexts. 1. Cultural Contexts- He said that ones culture comprises the
environment that humans have created and continue to perpetuate in their caregiving practice. Culture
consists of human designs for living, which are embodied in beliefs, values, customs, and activities. 2.
Social Contexts- He believed that learning occurs through interpersonal, social context. Thinking, as he
defined, is a process of social interaction between children and more experienced and knowledgeable
members of community. This social interaction helps them to master culture-specific skills and develop
their behaviors that will enable them to successfully adapt to their particular community. 3. Historical
contexts- His viewpoint, the childs environment which he is reared and his own developmental history
in terms of his experiences in that society are both significant in identifying the ways in which the child
will think. Conceptual thinking must be transmitted to children through words, thus language becomes a
crucial cognitive tool for deciding how children learn to think (Owens, 2006).
10. 10. Psychological Foundations of Education 10 Information-Processing Theory Exponents of this theory
perceive that we are a processor of information. It means that we are not merely responding to stimuli
rather we process the information we receive. They equate our mind to a computer, which receives
information and follows a certain program to produce an output. Structure of the Information-Processing
System The standard information-process model has three major components: sensory memory,
working memory or short-term memory, and long-term memory (Wikipedia, 2013). 1. Sensory Memory
Environment is the source of variety of stimuli. In psychology, stimulus is an energy pattern which is
recorded by our senses such light, sound, heat, cold, etc. Human body has special sensory receptor
cells that transduce external stimulus to electrical energy so the brain can understand. This process of
transduction creates memory. Each sensory system has its own sensory register which receives and
temporary stores all of the stimuli. The sensory register stores sensory information for a while, then
analyzes it to identify whether the sensory input should be conveyed into working or short-term memory
or should be forgotten. (See diagram 1) It is absolutely critical that the individual attend to the
information at this first stage in order to transmit it to the second stage. Transmission of sensory
11. 11. information to working memory can be done if the stimulus has a stimulating effect to the individual
or the stimulus activates a known pattern. 2. Working Memory or Short-Term Memory It is believed to
be the center of conscious thought, compare to a computer it is the Central Processing Unit (CPU) or
using the concept of Sigmund Freud it is the conscious memory. As individual pays attention to an
external stimulus or internal thought, working memory is created. Processing of information may take
around 15 to 20 seconds unless it is repeated or rehearsed at which point it may Psychological
Foundations of Education 11 take up to 20 minutes. Working memory has subsystems that store and
process verbal information and visual images. It also supervises the coordination of subsystems that
includes awareness of the follow of information into and out of the memory and visual representation of
the possible moves, all stored for a limited amount of time. The short-term has a limited capacity, which
can be readily demonstrated by simple expedient of trying to remember a list of random items without
allowing repetition. In the experiments conducted by George Miller in 1956, he gave the number 7 + 2,
which he described as the magical number or sometimes referred to as Millers Law however latest
study proposes the number may be more like 5 + 2 for most things we are trying to recall. The number
of objects an average human can hold in working memory, also called memory span, varies in how
much individuals can work with (Mastin, 2010).
12. 12. One of technique for retaining and retrieving information in short-term memory, and it also the
method used to get information into long-term memory is chunking. Chunking of information helps to
the capacity of short-term memory. It is the organization of pieces of information into shorter meaningful
units to make it more manageable. For example, it is easier to recall 0917-571-4380 rather than
Psychological Foundations of Education 12 09175714380. 3. Long-Term Memory Long-term memory is
responsible of storing information over a long period of time. It encodes information for storage
semantically- based on meaning and association. However, some studies suggest that it also encodes
to some extend by acoustic. For example, when we are trying to recall a word, we try to associate by a
certain sound. Short-term memory can be become long-term memory through the process of
organization involving repetition and meaningful association (Mastin, 2010). There are two major
memory strategies: 1. Rehearsal- A memory strategy that involves repeating the words or information
to be remembered or recalled either verbally or mentally. 2. Retrieval- A memory strategy that gets
information out of the long-tern memory. Two common forms of retrieving the information: recognition
and recall. Recognition is a form of retrieval that involves noticing whether a stimulus is identical or
similar to one previously experienced, and
13. 13. recall is a form of retrieval that involves remembering or recalling a stimulus that is not present
(Owens, 2006). Psychological Foundations of Education 13 Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligence
Howard Gardners theory of multiple intelligences suggests that intelligence is not a single intellectual
capacity but it has eight different capacities. 1. Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence It is well-developed verbal
skills and sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms and meanings of words. Roles: teachers, editors,
journalists, radio broadcasters 2. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence It is the ability to think conceptually
and abstractly, and capacity to detect logical or numerical patterns. Roles: engineers, programmers,
scientists 3. Spatial-Visual Intelligence It is the ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and
abstractly, to do changes on those perceptions, and to re-create aspects of visual experiences in the
absence of pertinent stimuli. Roles: sculptors, photographers, architects 4. Bodily-Kinesthetic
Intelligence It is the ability to control ones body movements and the ability to handle objects skillfully.
Roles: athletes, dancers, nurses, geologists 5. Musical Intelligence It is the ability to produce and
appreciate pitch, rhythm, melody, and aesthetic sounding tones and the ability to understand the forms
of musical expressiveness. Roles: singers, DJs, violists, song composers
14. 14. Psychological Foundations of Education 14 6. Interpersonal Intelligence It is the capacity to discern
and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations and desires of others. Roles:
psychologists, politicians, therapists, salesmen 7. Intrapersonal Intelligence It is the capacity to be self-
aware and in-tune with inner feelings and to use these feelings to guide ones own behavior, and
knowledge of ones own strengths, weaknesses, desires, and intelligences. Roles: person who is self-
aware and involved in the process of changing personal thoughts, beliefs, and behavior in relation to
their situation. 8. Naturalist Intelligence It is the ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals and
other objects in nature or appreciate the world and nature. Roles: zoologists, botanists Achievement
Motivation and Intellectual Performance Achievement motivation is a persons tendency to strive for
successful performance, to assess ones performance against specific standards of excellent and to
experience pleasure as a result of having performed successfully. The achievement motivation is
premised on the fact that a person needs to experience a certain degree of achievement essential for
him in school, sports, occupation, and business for self-esteem and social approval. A person with high
achievement motivation tends to choose challenging activities (Zulueta & Malaya, 2012).
15. 15. Psychological Foundations of Education 15 Language Development There is no definite sequence
on how a child can acquire language. But since the birth of child psychology many had developed
theories or did researches that led to some relevant information on how we as children acquire
language. As the studies were compiled and revised, it eventually formed a framework basis for the
study of Language Development. Some learning theorists believed that language is acquired by
imitation. It is an advanced behavior whereby an individual observes and replicates another's behavior.
It is also a form of social learning that leads to the development of traditions and ultimately our culture
(Wikipedia, 2013) . Noam Chomsky proposed that language is learned based on the Nativist Theory of
Language Acquisition. The Nativist explains that Children are born with a specific innate ability to
discover for themselves the underlying rules of a language system on the basis of the samples of a
natural language they are exposed to. Chomsky believes that language development is primarily a
matter of maturation and that that environment is of little significance. Language is innate, an aspects of
childrens genetic foundation (Owens, 2006). Modern theorists cling that language is learned through
interaction. They say that children are biologically ready for language but they require extensive
experience with spoken language for ample development. Acquiring language is always an active and
interactive. This involves formulating, testing, and evaluating languages rule. Interactionist Theory
explains that language development is both biological and social. They argue that language learning is
influenced by the strong desire of children to
16. 16. communicate with others. According to this theory, children are born with a powerful brain that
matures slowly and predisposes them to acquire new understandings that they Psychological
Foundations of Education 16 are motivated to share with others. One of the modern theorists is
Jerome Bruner. He stresses that parents and other caregivers have critical role in the language
acquisition process. He also proposes the use of Language Acquisition Support System (LASS). This
refers to the importance of a childs social support network, which works in conjunction with innate
mechanisms to encourage or suppress language development (by interacting and encouraging the
child to respond). Learning Theories and Implications Theories of Learning A number of theories of
learning have been devised to provide a theoretical framework to explain in a unified manner the
various variables affecting learning. These are: 1. The S-R Bond Theory- This theory assumes that
through conditioning specific responses can be directly linked with a particular stimulus. These bonds
are the result of biological processes in the human system. 2. Behaviorism- This theory assumes that
learning is a process of building conditional reflexes through the substitution of one stimulus for
another. It completely denies the existence of instincts or inborn tendencies of the individual. It is
inferred that almost all that an individual becomes in relation to this theory is a matter of conditioning of
17. 17. 3. Gestalt Theory- This theory of learning emphasizes use of insights as a basic principle and is
opposed to trial and error. Learning in terms of modification of behavior takes place in meaningful
patterns and configuration. 4. Functionalism- This theory assumes that behavior and mental processes
are adaptive (functional). This state behavior and mental processes enable the individual to adjust to a
changing environment to maintain equilibrium (Zulueta Psychological Foundations of Education 17 &
Malaya, 2012). Laws of Learning Edward Lee Thordike, an American psychologist and lexicographer
postulated laws of learning. According to him, learning occurs by the establishment of responses to
action. 1. The Law of Readiness- this law emphasizes the need for adequate motivation and
preparation of the learner by way of setting the proper mind-set and fostering the level of aspiration. 2.
The Law of Exercise- this law adheres to the adage that practice makes perfect. It means learning can
be achieved through repetition of correct responses. 3. The Law of Effect- this law states that if the
response is rewarded and the reward is satisfying or pleasant, the learning connection is strengthened;
however, if the effect is unpleasant or annoying, the connection is weakened (Zulueta & Maglaya,
18. 18. Behavioral Psychology and Learning Albert Banduras Social Cognitive Learning Social cognitive
learning theory which was proposed by Albert Bandura has become the most influential theory of
learning and development. His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new
information and behaviors by watching other people known as observational learning or modelling. It
emphasizes the concept of imitation as a form of learning. Learning according to this theory results
from the ability of the child to select the pattern of behavior to imitate. He also stresses the process of
learning through vicarious learning. It is a process of learning by way of seeing directly or by hearing
about consequences as a result of other peoples action (Zulueta & Malaya, Psychological Foundations
of Education 18 2012). Basic Concepts of Social Cognitive Learning Theory 1. People can learn
through observation. There are three basic models of observational learning: (1) a live model which
involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior, (2) a verbal instructional model
which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior, and (3) a symbolic model which involves
real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, televisions, programs, or online media.
2. Mental states are important to learning. He describes intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal
reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment. 3. Learning does not necessarily
lead to a change in behavior.
19. 19. Four Learning Mechanisms in Observational Learning Bandura enumerated four learning
mechanisms that are essential in observational Psychological Foundations of Education 19 learning
(Zulueta & Maglaya, 2012): 1. Attention- it is essential that one pays attention to what is happening
around him. 2. Retention- it is not only important to attend closely to the observed behavior; but also
remember it at some later time for use. 3. Motivation- one is likely to initiate those that are rewarding for
his behavior and whom he likes to have similarities with or to value more. 4. Reinforcement- the
association of stimulus particularly the anticipation of rewards as a motivational factor. Watsons
Classical Conditioning John Broadus Watsons argued that any science of behavior must be based on
observable events, and his approach is known as behaviorism. His work was heavily influenced by Ivan
Pavlov who was first to demonstrate the process of classical conditioning. It is a type of learning that
results from the repeated pairing of stimuli. He defined classical conditioning as learning that involves
the modification of a reflex; the conditioning stimulus, which is neutral at the start, eventually initiates
the same behavioral responses as the unconditioned stimulus (reflex reaction) (Owens, 2006).
Skinners Operant Conditioning A key concept in Burrhus Frederic Skinners system is the process of
operant conditioning. According to Skinner, it is a process of learning in which reinforced
20. 20. behaviors tend to be repeated and occur more frequently (Owens, 2006). In other words, if a
response is followed by a reward, the response will be strengthened. They concept of reinforcement is
one of the significant contributions he made in the concept of learning. Reinforcement is the process by
which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated. Reinforcement
can be either positive or negative. A positive reinforcement is a stimulus added to the environment that
brings about an increase in a preceding response. In contrast, negative reinforcement refers to an
unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response
will be repeated in the future (Magpantay & Danao, 2014). Furthermore, he also emphasized the
importance of reward in shaping the behavior. Reward is a form of positive reinforcement that will help
to increase the probability the desired behavior will recur. Punishment is a form of negative
reinforcement that will help to decrease the probability the unpleasant behavior will not Psychological
Foundations of Education 20 recur. Effective Teaching and Evaluation of Learning Effective Teaching
Effective teachers strive to inspire and engage all their students in learning rather than simply accepting
the some students cannot be engaged and are destined to do poorly. They believe every student is
capable of achieving success at school and they do all they can to find ways of making each student
successful (O'Niel, n.d.). 1. Using a variety of pedagogies- Effective teachers use techniques or
strategies that best serve the learning needs of their students. They help students learn on
21. 21. their own as well as with and from others. They know that students learn best if they are provided
with opportunities to learn not only from the teacher but also from other students and from sources
outside the school that are now more readily accessible through various forms of technology. 2.
Encouraging student responsibility- Effective teachers teach in a way that encourages students to take
greater responsibility for their own learning and make sure their students know what the goals of the
learning program. 3. Having mastery of subject matter- Effective teachers have a thorough knowledge
of their subject content and skills. Through this, they inspire in their students a love of learning. They
also understand how students learn best the concepts, the content and the skills. 4. Providing safe
environment- Effective teachers provide a safe and orderly environment, both physically and
emotionally, so students can achieve their potential. They know students learn best if they are in a
classroom where they feel safe and confident to attempt new tasks even if at first they are unsure
Psychological Foundations of Education 21 about how to tackle them. 5. Monitoring progress and
providing feedback- Effective teachers closely monitor each students achievements. This enables them
to provide every one of their students with regular feedback on their performance, and gives them
valuable information to assess the impact of their teaching. They are in the habit of constantly reflecting
on how well they are getting through to their students and searching for better ways of teaching those
who are not responding as well as extending those who are achieving well. They
22. 22. understand the standards their students are expected to achieve and use a range of assessment
methods to determine the extent to which those standards are being met and to plan the next steps. 6.
Building positive relationships- Effective teachers develop productive relationships with their students
they get to know them and take a particular interest in their overall development and progress. They
treat their students with respect and expect the same in return. They work collaboratively to
Psychological Foundations of Education 22 benefit student learning. Foundations of Bilingualism
Bilingual Language Development How does a bilingual child acquire language? And how do learning
two languages affect the childs language development? Bilingualism is the persons ability to speak or
write fluently in two languages. Bilingualism is distinguished into two (Bialystok & Hakuta, 1994): 1.
Productive Bilingualism- Speaker can produce and understand both languages. 2. Receptive
Bilingualism- Speaker can understand both languages but have more limited production abilities.
Developing Bilingualism According to Fierro-Cobas and Chan (Fierro-Cobas & Chan, 2001), language
development is a complex, dynamic process influenced by the childs age, language exposure and
social interaction. A bilingual child generally follows one of the two language acquisition patterns:
simultaneous bilingualism, in which the child acquires two
23. 23. languages at the same time before the age 3 years, and sequential bilingualism, in which the child
acquires a second language by age 3 having acquired the primary language. Preschoolers may differ
qualitatively from school-age children in their ability to develop a second language. For older children
and adult, acquiring a second language is a conscious rather than subconscious process; more
appropriately learned language Psychological Foundations of Education 23 learning rather than
language acquisition. For example, Filipinos are not a native speaker of Spanish, and for them to learn
the language, they enroll to one of the language institutions that offers courses for speaking and writing.
Two Major Patterns in Bilingual Language Acquisition 1. Simultaneous Bilingualism- children go
through two stages to simultaneously learn two languages. Stage 1: Children mix or blend words or part
of words from both languages. Example: Gusto ko hat. Stage 2: Child can distinguish the two
languages, and can use each language separately. Example: I want hat. and Gusto ko ng sombrero.
2. Sequential Bilingualism- Fierro-Cobas and Chan (Fierro-Cobas & Chan, 2001) explained that the
process of developing a second language before age 3 is slightly different from a process of developing
the first language. The reasons are: a. A sequential bilingual child can draw on knowledge and
experience with the first language.
24. 24. b. Whether and for how long a child passes through several phases in sequential language
acquisition process depends on his temperament Psychological Foundations of Education 24 and
motivation. c. The relative exposure to second language compared with the first language can affect
how a child develops the second language.
25. 25. Bibliography Bialystok, E. & Hakuta, K., 1994. In Other Words: the Science and Psychology of
Second Language Acquisition. New York: Harper Collins. Fierro-Cobas, V. & Chan, E., 2001. Language
Development in Bilingual Children: A Primer for Pediatricians. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 12 August 2013].
Gallagher , C., 1999. Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 22 August 2013]. Gines,
A. C. et al., 1998. Developmental Psychology: A Textbook for College Students in Pschology and
Teacher Education. Manila: Rex Bookstore, Inc.. Magpantay, C. D. & Danao, R. R., 2014. General
Psychology. Rizal: Jenher Publishing House. Mastin, L., 2010. The Human Memory. [Online] Available
at: [Accessed 25 August 2013]. McLeod, S., 2012. Zone of Proximal
Development. [Online] Available at:
Development.html [Accessed 22 August 2013]. Meece, J. L., 2002. Child and Adolescent Development
for Educators. 2nd ed. New York : McGraw-Hill. O'Niel, S., n.d. Department of Education and Training.
[Online] Available at: file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/Effective%20Teaching.pdf [Accessed 9 August
2014]. Owens, K. B., 2006. Child and Adolescent Development: An Integrated Approach. Singapore:
Thomson - Wadsworth. Wikipedia, 2013. Imitation. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 2 August 2013]. Psychological Foundations of
Education 25
26. 26. Wikipedia, 2013. Information Processing Theory. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 22 August 2013]. Zulueta, F. M. &
Maglaya, E. M., 2012. Foundations of Education. Mandaluyong City: National Book Store. Zulueta, F.
M. & Malaya, E. M., 2012. Historical, Anthropological, Philosophical, Legal, Psychological, Sociological
Foundations of Education. Mandaluyong City: National Bookstore. Psychological Foundations of
Education 26

Historical foundations of education


2. 2. 7000 BC 5000 BC Pre-literate societies (before writing) Educational Goals: To teach survival
skills, teach group harmony Students: Children Instructional Methods: Informal, children imitate
adults Curriculum: Practice hunting, fishing, songs, poems, dances. Agents: Parents, tribal elders,
religious leaders Influence on education: Informal, transmission of skills
3. 3. China 3000 bc 1900 ad China Educational Goals: Prepare elites to govern the empire according
to Confucian principles Students: Males of upper class Instructional Methods: Memorization and
recitation Curriculum: Confucian classics Agents: Government officials Influence on education:
Written examinations for civil service
4. 4. INDIA 3000 BC to present India Educational Goals: To learn behavior and rituals based on Vedas
Students: Males of upper castes Instructional Methods: Memorizing and interpreting sacred texts
Curriculum: Vedas and religious texts Agents: Brahmin priest scholars Influence on education:
Cultural transmission and assimilation, spiritual detachment
5. 5. Egypt 3000 bc 300bc Egypt Educational Goals: To prepare priests according to scribe for the
empire Students: Males of upper class Instructional Methods: Memorization and copying texts
Curriculum: Religious or technical texts Agents: Priests and scribes Influence on education:
Restriction on educational controls to priest elites
6. 6. Greek 1600 bc 300 bc Greece Educational Goals: To cultivate civic responsibility Students: Male
children ages 7-20 Instructional Methods: Memorization and recitation in primary schools, lecture,
discussion and dialog in higher schools Curriculum: Athens: reading, writing, arithmetic, drama, poetry,
music. Sparta: Drill, military songs and tactics Agents: Athens: private teachers, philosophers. Sparta:
Military teachers Influence on education: Athens: well rounded, liberally educated person. Sparta:
Concept of military state.
7. 7. Roman 750 bc 450 ad Roman Educational Goals: Develop civic responsibility for the empire,
administrative and military skills Students: Male children ages 7-20 Instructional Methods:
Memorization and recitation in ludus; declamation in rhetorical schools Curriculum: reading, writing,
arithmetic, law, philosophy Agents: Private schools and teachers, schools of rhetoric Influence on
education: practical administrative skills, relate education to civic responsibility
8. 8. Arabic 700 ad 1350 ad Arabic Educational Goals: Cultivate religious commitment to Islamic
beliefs; expertise in mathematics, medicine and science Students: Male children of upper class ages
7-20 Instructional Methods: Memorization and recitation in primary schools, imitation and discussion in
higher schools Curriculum: Reading, writing, arithmetic, religious literature, scientific studies Agents:
Mosques, court schools Influence on education: Arabic numerals and computation, medicine and
science materials
9. 9. Medieval 500 ad 1400 ad Medieval Educational Goals: Develop religious commitment,
knowledge, and ritual; establish social order, prepare for appropriate roles Students: Male children of
upper class, girls and women entering religious community ages 7-20 Instructional Methods:
Memorization and recitation in lower schools, text analysis discussion in higher schools and
universities Curriculum: Athens: reading, writing, arithmetic, philosophy, theology, military and chivalry
Agents: Parish, chantry, cathedral schools, universities, knighthood Influence on education: structure
and organization of the university, institutionalization of knowledge
10. 10. Renaissance 1350 ad - 1500 Renaissance Educational Goals: Cultivate humanist expert in Greek
and Latin classics; prepare people to serve dynastic leaders Students: Male children of aristocracy and
upper class, ages 7-20 Instructional Methods: Memorization and translation and analysis of Greek and
Roman classics. classical literature, poetry and art. Curriculum: Latin and Greek classical literature,
poetry and art. Agents: Classical humanist educators and schools like lycee, gymnasium and Latin
school Influence on education: Emphasis on literary knowledge, excellence and style in classical
literature, two track system of schools
11. 11. Reformation 1500 ad 1600 ad Reformation Educational Goals: Cultivate a commitment to a
particular religious denomination, and general literacy Students: Boys and girls ages 7-12 in
vernacular schools, young men of upper class in humanist schools Instructional Methods:
Memorization drill, indoctrination, catechetical instruction in vernacular schools, translation and analysis
of classical literature in humanist schools Curriculum: Reading, writing, arithmetic, catechism, religious
concepts and rituals. Latin and Greek theology Agents: Vernacular elementary school for general
public, classical schools for upper class Influence on education: Commitment to universal education to
provide literacy for everyone; origins of school systems, dual track school system based on socio
economic class and career goals
12. 12. View of human nature: Humans define themselves by self- examination Philosophical idealism,
political conservatism Philosophy SOCRATES Human beings need the order of a stable society.
People accept duties that come with their station in life View of Human nature Developed ethical
system based on hierarchy.: human relations and roles, emphasized order and stability Philosophy:
CONFUCIUSImportant educational theorists
13. 13. Humans have the power of rationality to guide their conduct View of human nature: Realist,
views society based on realism and observation Philosophy ARISTOTLE Humans can be classified
on intellectual capabilities View of human nature: Philosophical idealist, social conservative, added
intuition Philosophy PLATOImportant educational theorists
14. 14. Humans have a soul and body View of human nature Christian theology and Aristotelian
philosophy Philosophy: AQUINAS Only certain people have capacity for leadership based on their
oratory skills View of human nature: Rhetorician, oratory for personal gain and public service. Plays
role in child development Philosophy: QUINTILIANImportant educational theorists
15. 15. Human nature is corrupt, weak, self-centered, and in a state of rebellion from God View of human
nature Reformed theology by stressing faith and individual conscience Philosophy: LUTHER
Humans are capable of great achievements and also profound stupidity View of human nature
Christian orientation, educator as a social and intellectual critic Philosophy: ERASMUSImportant
educational theorists
16. 16. ANCIENT TURKS Alp concept was widespread. Alp Human being: Defined as warrior, wise,
extroverted, nomad, gaining knowledge from ancestors and old wise people. Oldest Turkish written
texts go back to a period before Islam In ancient Turks (before Islam) there is no gender difference in
educating youngsters When Western Education is being influenced by Christianity, the Eastern
education was being influenced by Islam. The God and theology concepts encapsulated education
In this period, an absolute truth concept gained importance and taught to people in a dogmatic way
17. 17. Ancient turks Turks accepted Islam in 10. Century Medreses opened in Semerkant, Buhara,
Taskent, Kasgar Education was organized and structured in these schools Subjects: Religion and
social studies were taught Agents: Farabi, Ibn-I Sina, Biruni were some examples that were raised in
these institutions They synthesized philosophies from Turk-Islam traditions, Ancient Greek and Rome
philosophers as well This period lasted for Gokturks, Uygurs, Karahanlis, Selcuks, and Ottomans
18. 18. Eastern philosophers FARABI (870 950) Philosophy: Base for human nature is knowledge.
Human mind can distinguish right from wrong through wisdom. View of human nature The ultimate
knowledge is innate Educational philosophy Distinguished teaching from education Teaching: Reveal
scientific knowledge and art Education: Create theoretical virtues in society Education must be easy
to hard, simple to complex near to far
19. 19. Eastern philosophers IBN-I SINA (980 1037) Philosophy: Moral virtues are as important as
knowledge itself View of human nature Children are innocent and clean from the start, should be
taught moral virtues from birth Educational philosophy Children should be taught without pressure.
Children should be taught from ages 6-14 Agents: Should be religious, honest, wise person that can
recognize childrens abilities
20. 20. Eastern philosophers BIRUNI (973 1051) Philosophy: In order to love each other humans
should learn and respect each others language, religion, traditions and thinking View of human nature
Humanist perspective Educational philosophy He was expert in astronomy, physics, botanic,
pharmacology, geography Biruni believed scientific work should be cleaned of magic, superstition and
anything that opposes logic.
21. 21. Selcuks period Medreses should have a certain period of education Memorization as well as
discussions were methods used to teach Both religious and vocational oriented education Moral
virtues were especially emphasized and taught as well as skills Children were taught Islamic
educational virtues: Cleanliness, generosity, good will, and humility. Famous names in this period
include Mevlana Celaladdin Rumi, Yunus Emre, Asik Pasa ve Haci Bektasi Veli Poetry was an
important part of education and God and human love issues were the main subjects
22. 22. Ottoman period Medreses were important educational institutions and were developed further in
Ottoman period. Rich people as well as government built medreses everywhere The structure was
primary, middle and high school They were free and boarding schools Only sunni muslim males were
accepted in medreses, no girls were allowed The teachers were called muderris Religious,
philosophical subjects as well as literature, science, math and languages were taught Education was
considered as a religious and moral duty
23. 23. Structure of ottoman education 15. Century Ottoman schools were divided into 2: Mektep and
Medrese Mektep: To train people to serve the palace, government and military people These schools
were everywhere and trained workers for the empire These are schools funded by foundations, the
administration was not central Fatih opened Enderun Palace school which included talented children
of non-muslim families The language for education was Arabic, but Turkish and Persian were also
24. 24. industrialization In England and al over Europe after the French revolution, there is an expansion
of technology such as machinery that works with petrol and steam Education was influenced by these
changes Factory workers came about In this period, systems such as Socialism, Communism,
Liberalism and Capitalism started gaining popularity The free thinking brought by the French revolution
combined with industrial revolution caused education to take shape in this direction Education was
needed by large masses New philosophies came about: Materialism, Socialism, Positivism etc.
25. 25. Theorists of this period Pestalozzi (1746-1827) Social Education: Learning through
experimentation, education is for everyone Herbart (1776-1841) Educate, manage and discipline. The
purpose of education is to serve individual. Attention to the individual. Frobel (1782-1852) Pre-school
education, emphasized that children should be educated from 3-4 years. Founded kindergarten
Tolstoy (1828-1910) Education for freedom. Suggested master apprentice relation for teacher-student.
He was extremely against physical punishment and memorizing
26. 26. Theorists of this period Marx and Engels (1818-1883, 1829-1895) Socialist education Education
combined with material production Cognitive and politechnical education Comte and Mill (1796-1857,
1806-1873) Pozitivist education Religious era has ended, scientific era has started Math, astronomy,
physics, chemistry, biology, and sociology sciences developed hierarchically
27. 27. Theorists of this period H. Spencer (1820-1903) Pragmatic and positivist education Pragmatic
and utilitarian evolution Cognitive, moral and physical education as a whole F. Hegel (1770-1831)
State Education: Education must be relevant to culture State can cultivate they type of person
Nietzche (1788-1860) Irrational Education: Industrial revolution made people mechanical. People must
develop their special abilities Evil and virtue is innate, what we learn is limited Instead of
institutionalizing, cultural education
28. 28. Theorists of this period J. Dewey (1859-1952) Education for employment and life Education is life
it is not preparation for life Education teaches a child to think through action Teacher must be a guide
to students not a dictator M. Montessori (1750-1952) Sensory education Used mostly in early
education Learning through self discovery and interest Uninterrupted play/work time, loosely
structured classrooms
29. 29. Ottoman education in 18th c. Between 1779-1839 a reform period in education First in military
education, military schools opened In 1824 II. Mahmut made primary education mandatory Later
middle and high schools and higher education was formed (Rustiye mekteplerie , Idadi, Sultani and
Darulfunun) 1856 Islahat Fermani Primary education is mandatory Rustiye must exist in places with
500 houses Idadiye must exist in places with 100 houses Sultanis must exist in cities Darulfunun
(university) must exist in Istanbul Male teacher and female teacher schools will open Money will be
collected from public for education Education will be centralised
30. 30. Ottoman education in 18th c. Kanun-I Esasi Mandated that education is for everyone There will
be no interference on religious education Education is free for public II. Abdulhamit period After
losing Russian war, education gained importance Vocational and art schools increased Increased
freedom in press Higher education for girls and girls started working in government offices Pre-school
education and professional education
31. 31. In 1950s Skinner with his experiments in education published education findings In 1930s and
40s in America universities took over research activities In 1920s in America individual education was
emphasized, in the east socialist education was popular (Marx influence) First time used education as
an independent field F. Bobbitt20. Century education in europe and america Education in the fields
of psychology and sociology increased Education started using the data from these fields Education
started being considered as a field
32. 32. 20. Century education in europe In 1960 and 1970 the theories of educational research peaked
and the discussion is education applied or theoretical science formed 1957 is the birth of modern
education SPUTNIK!!! Especially in math and science United States and Europe and Russia entered
a competition period Several projects formed to develop these fields In 1970 Blooms Taxonomy
came out as a reference for learning for everyone Since 1980s constructivist, multiple intelligence,
brain based learning nd life based humanist learning gained importance. Education involves not only
schools but throughout life LLL
33. 33. 20th century education in turkey Latin Alphabet 1928 Latin alphabet accepted 1928-1942 Literacy
increased rapidly John Dewey came to Turkey and made recommendations based on Turkish peoples
culture, needs and characteristics Famous people formed Turkish Education Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
Atuf Kansu Hasan Ali Yucel M. Emin Soysal Rasit Oymen and others
34. 34. Latest developments Teacher education 1997 Educational faculties Education in post graduate
education Constructivist approach Multiple intelligences Capital punishment banned at schools 2005
high schools became 4 years 12 years mandatory education Education starts at 66 months
35. 35. End of hstoryfor now THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!