INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION Development Phase

Introduction to Hydrocarbon Exploitation
Development Phase
Cementing By Pratap Thimaiah

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Cementing It is the process by which cement slurry is placed in the annulus ,bonding the casing to the formation. Conventionally the cement is pumped down the casing and displaced around the shoe into the annulus.

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Cementing

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Functions of Cements  Primary functions are :
– Provide support to the casings – Zonal isolation-prevent fluid movement between zones – Casing protection against corrosive fluids – Support wellbore – Protect water zones

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Cement Job Planning  Each cement job must be carefully planned to ensure correct additives are being used and suitable placement technique is being employed for that application.

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 The cement engineer must ensure that
– Cement can be placed correctly using the available equipment – Cement achieves adequate compressive strength – Cement will isolate zones and support casing throughout the life of well.

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Classification of Cement  Several classes have been approved by API

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Classification of Cement  Class A
– Intended to use from surface to 6000ft (1,830m) – When no special properties are required. – Similar to ASTM (American Society of Testing materials) Type I – Cheaper than other classes of cements

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 Class B
– – – – Intended to use from surface to 6000ft (1,830m) Moderate to High sulphate resistance Similar to ASTM Type II Has lower C3A content than class A

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Classification of Cement  Class C
– Intended to use from surface to 6000ft (1,830m) – When conditions require early strength – Available in all 3 degrees of sulphate resistance and similar to ASTM Type III.

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 Class D
– Intended to use from surface to 6000ft (1,830m) to 10,000ft (3050m). – Moderate and High sulphate resistance types available – Under moderately high temperatures and pressures conditions.
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Classification of Cement  Class E
– Intended to use from 10,000ft (3050m) to 14,000ft (4720m) – Under conditions of High temperature and pressure. – Available in MSR and HSR types

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 Class F
– Intended to use from surface to 10,000ft (1,830m) to 16,000ft (4880m). – Moderate and High sulphate resistance types available – Extremely 09High temperatures and pressures conditions.
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Classification of Cement  Class G and H
– Intended to use from surface to 8,000ft (2440m) – Can be used with accelerators and retarders to cover a wide range of well depths and temperatures – Class G Available in MSR and HSR Types, while Class H is available in MSR Types only.

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Properties of Cement
 Compressive strength – To support the casing string a compressive strength of 500 psi is generally adequate – ‘WOC’ ( Waiting on Cement)-The time required for the cement to attain strength and settle behind the casing. – The casing shoe should not be drilled out until strength is attained. – Compressive strength depends upon
Temperature Pressure Amount of water mix Elapsed time

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Properties of Cement  Thickening Time (Pump ability)
– Time required for cement slurry to be pumped and displaced in the annulus. – Slurry should have enough thickening time to allow mixing ,pumping and displacement before hardening. – Generally 2-3 hours thickening time which includes safety factor to allow for delays and interruptions in operations.

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Properties of Cement
 Water Loss – If water is lost before cement reaches its intended position??? – Amount of water loss depends upon the type of cement job
Squeeze cement jobs require low water loss since the cement must be squeezed before filter cake builds up Primary cementing is not so critical

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 Corrosion resistance – Formation water may contain Na and Mg sulphates which react with lime to form calcium sulphoaluminate. – These crystals expand and cause cement to crack. – Lowering C3 A content increases sulphate resistance types  Slurry Density – Vary between 11 to 18.5 ppg ,depending upon the type of formation – Density is varied for a low to high strength formation.
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Cementing Additives
 Most slurries contain additives to modify the properties of the slurry to produce a better cement job.  Cement additives can be used to – Vary slurry density – Change compressive strength – Accelerate and retard setting time – Control filtration and fluid loss – Slurry viscosity  Additives may be granular or liquid form, added with the cement or mixed with water.

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Cementing Additives

 Accelerators – Chemicals that reduce thickening time of slurry and increase early strength – Used in conductors and surface casings to reduce WOC – Common types of accelerators are :
Calcium chloride (CaCl2 )1.5-2% Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 2-2.5% Sea water

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 Retarders – extends thickening time of cement slurry to aid proper placement before hardening. – Used in HT wells with Intermediate and production casings and squeeze cement jobs – Avoids cement setting prematurely – Common types are:
Calcium lignosulphonate 1-1.5% Saturated Salt solutions Cellulose derivatives Hydroxycarboxylic acids

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 Weighting Agents( Heavy additives) – Increases slurry density. – Used when cementing over pressurized zones – Types are: Barite Hematite
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Cementing Additives

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 Extenders (Light weight) – Materials that lower slurry density and increase yield to allow weak formations to be cemented without fracturing. – Allows more mix water to be added – Types are: Bentonite Pozzolan Diatomaceous earth gilsonite

Source: Drilling Data Handbook, Editions Technip

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 Mud Contaminants

Cementing Additives

– To Improve slurry properties additives such as Diesel Oil ,thinners etc are added. – Prevents undesirable side effects caused by mud on cements etc. – Negatively charged polymer molecules that attach themselves to positively charges in cement grains. – Improves flow properties of slurry – Lowers the viscosity so that turbulence will occur at lower circulating pressure. – Types are Polymers 0.3-0.5 lb / sx of cement Salt Calcium lignosulphonate 0.5-1.5 lb / sx

 Dispersants (Friction Reducing Additives)
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– Excessive fluid loss can cause ineffective cement setting – Prevents slurry dehydration ,premature setting or reduces fluid loss to formations – Types are: Organic polymers 0.5 -1.5 % Abalt CMHEC (Carboxy Methyl Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose) 0.3 Solutions
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 Fluid Loss Additives

Cementing Hardware Guide Shoe – Used to guide the casing through the hole with its rounded nose. – Avoiding jamming casing in washed out zones or deviated wells Float Shoe
– Prevents the back flow into the casing once cement is displaced behind casing. – Built in check valve that is flapper or ball type. – Float shoe takes extra time to run casing in hole
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Cementing Hardware  Float Collars
– The purpose of these landing collars is to serve as a seat for cement plugs. – Run normally 2 or 3 joints above the shoe, known as shoe track.

 Centralizers
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– Centring the casing string for the success of cement job. – Types Rigid-Positive centralizers are designed for a casing-casing annular space Flexible or spring bow type are used in centring in uncased holes. There are two types: straight and spiralled – They help to Keep casing out of key seats Prevent differential sticking Improve displacement efficiency

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 Cement Plug – Designed to separate the different fluids when pumped through the casing. – Plugs prevent contamination and wipe casing from mud – Prevent over displacement of cement – Give surface indication that cement placement is complete. – Allow casing to be pressure tested.  Bottom Plug  Bursts when slight over pressure is exerted.  Besides seperating,it scrapes walls as it moves  Top Plug  Provides seal and withstand high pressures  Pumped on the tail end of slurry and comes to rest on bottom plug  Scratchers – Run on casing to remove mud cake and break up gelled mud. – Promotes a better bond between cement and formation – Types  Rotating Scratchers  Reciprocating Scratchers
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Cementing Hardware

Source:weatherford

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Cementing Hardware  Cementing Heads
– Provides connection between discharge line from cement unit and top of casing – Designed to hold cement plugs – Releases bottom plug, mix and pump down cement slurry – Release top plug and displace cement without making connection. – Cement plug need to installed correctly in the heads.

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Cementing Hardware  Cementing Baskets
– Equipment to minimise losses of cement slurry in weak zones – Used in shallow to medium depths – Curb fluid passage considerably, but do not prevent pressure transmission.

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Lowering Casing
 The casing must be lowered as fast as possible as time spent is NPT.  Casing string lowering speed is controlled according to surge pressures on wall and bottom.  Carefully organized to prevent casing from being stuck.  Spider and casing elevators are often used.  Lengths of casing are screwed b means of hydraulic tongs.  Driller monitors as casing string is filled up.  Mud can be reconditioned and circulated while string is manoeuvred and scratchers put to work.  Circulation is stopped when – mud returns contains no more cuttings – Low gas content – No kicks or lost returns – Homogeneous volume of circulating mud

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 Primary Cementing

Cementing Operation

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– Cement plugs placed correctly in cement head. – Pump spacer ahead of cement. – First plug (wiper) pumped down ahead of cement to clean inside of casing. – Landing collar acts as shoulder for bottom plug. – Pressure surge ruptures bottom plug and allows slurry to pass through and circulate into annulus. – Slurry displaces mud and washes the outside wall of casing as it flows. – When slurry pumped down, top plug is released and is pushed along down by drilling mud (flushing) – Pressure increases and top plug bumps against landing collar (not to exceed burst pressure) – Displace with spacer and low density mud.

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Cementing Operation

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Source: drilling,NGUYEN
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 Stage Cementing – Carried out usually in longer strings in which the annulus need to filled completely. – Requirements of high pump pressures, longer pumping times and excessive hydrostatic pressure from cement column leads to cementing

Cementing Operation

 First stage  Similar to earlier procedure, except that a smaller volume is used to cement lower part of annulus depending upon fracture gradient.  Second Stage • Involves a stage collar, which is made up into casing string at pre determined depth. • Stage collar are initially closed by inner sleeve, held by retaining pins. • After first stage is complete, a special dart is released from surface opening ports allowing communication between casing and annulus. • Circulate through stage collar and pump spacer • Pump secondary stage slurry and release closing plug. • Displace cement with mud. • Top plug closes by moving a second sleeve

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Cementing Operation

Risk of channelling and poor cement bond may arise ???

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Cementing Operation

 Inner String Cementing – Large diameter casing result in ??????  Large displacement volumes  Long pumping times – Cement casing through tubing or drill pipe  Casing run as before  Special float shoe-allows drill pipe to be stabbed  Cement job can then proceed as before.  Inner string can be retrieved  Suitable for casings of 13 3/8” and larger  Disadvantage of NTP for running and retrieving inner string.

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Cementing Operation
– Has a full length float collar , landing collar and shoe installed. – Landing collar catches the cement wiper plug. – Wiper plug is held on end of the tail pipe by means of shear pins. – Liner is run on drill pipe and hanger set at correct point inside previous casing string. – Mud is circulated out to ensure it is free of debris. – Before cementing, setting tool is backed off. – Pump spacer ahead and followed by slurry. – Release pump down plug and displace cement out of liner. – Pump down plug releases wiper plug. – Both move down until Landing collar. – Bump plugs with 1000 psi pressure. – Bleed off and check for back flow. – Excess cement used to seal top of liner. – Once cement is set, setting tool is picked up out of liner – With tail pipe above liner, excess cement is reversed circulated

Liner cementing

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Cementing Operation

Liner Cementing

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Source: drilling,NGUYEN

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Cementing Operation  Problems with cementing Liners
– Minimal annular spaces
Clearance between 7” OD liner and 8-1/2” hole. Difficult to run liner Lost circulation problems
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Difficult to centralise Cement placement poor (channelling)

– Mud contamination – Lack of pipe movement-due to risk of setting tool sticking

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Cementing Job
– Use centralisers at critical points along the casing string – Moving the casing-rotation rather than reciprocation – Before cementing, ensure mud has good flow properties – Displace cement under turbulent conditions if possible – Spacers to prevent mud contamination in annulus.

Recommendations

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Secondary Cementing Operation Squeeze Cementing “Process by which hydraulic pressure forces cement slurry through holes in casing into annulus and formation”  Often used as a remedial operation in work overs

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Secondary Cementing Operation  Applications
– To seal off gas and water producing zones and maximize oil production from completion interval. – Repair casing failure through leaking joints and corrosion. – Seal off lost circulation zones. – Remedial work on a poor primary cement job. – Abandonment.

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Secondary Cementing Operation

Processes of squeezing cement
– High Pressure – Low Pressure

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Secondary Cementing Operation High Pressure Squeeze
– Breaking down the formation and allowing cement slurry into fractured zone. – Carried out by solids free fluids – water or brine. – Fracture occurs along plane perpendicular to direction of least compressive stress. At depths >3000 ft, vertical stresses are greater than horizontal stresses. – After breaking formation, slurry of cement is spotted adjacent to formation and pumped slowly. – Injection pressure gradually builds up. – Pressure released for back flow. – High Pressure squeeze jobs are recommended for very dense and impermeable formations.

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Secondary Cementing Operation  Low Pressure Squeeze
– Efficient method to seal unwanted zones – Slurry of finely divided solids in liquid is forced into formation without fracturing. – Liquid is forced into formation and solids build up cake. – Reverse circulate out excess cement. – Often used for repairing primary cement job.

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Secondary Cementing Operation

Placement Techniques
– Braden head Squeeze – Retrievable squeeze packer – Drillable cement retainer
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Secondary Cementing Operation Braden head Squeeze
– Pumping cement through drill pipe without the use of packer. – Cement stopped at required depth and pressure build up is obtained by closing BOPS at surface. – Displacing fluid is then pumped down, forcing cement into perforations – Generally used for low pressure cement squeeze job. – Disadvantages It is difficult to place cement accurately. Cannot be used for squeezing off one set of perforations if other are still open.
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Secondary Cementing Operation Retrievable Packer
– Can be set and released as many times on one trip. – Isolate casing and well head while high pressure is being applied. – Can be either compression set or tension set. – By pass ports allow annular communication – Generally set 30-50ft above perforations. – Sometimes tail pipe is used below packer to ensure only cement is squeezed

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 Procedure for squeezing  Run packer on drill pipe and set at depth to with bypass open  Pump cement slurry ,displace cement and allow fluid to flow through by pass ports  Close port when cement slurry reaches packer.  Apply squeeze pressure  Release pressure and check back flow  Release packer, pick up and reverse circulate.
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Secondary Cementing Operation  Drillable Retainer
– Contains two way valves to prevent flow in either or both directions. – Used for primary cement jobs as well as closing water producing zones. – Run on drill pipe or wireline, once cement has been squeezed, the drill pipe can be removed, closing back pressure valve. – Can be used once then drilled out. – In multiple zones, retainer isolates lower perforations

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Cement Plugs Cement Plugs – Designed to fill a length of casing or open hole to prevent vertical fluid movement – Used for:

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Abandoning depleted zones Seal lost circulation zones Providing KOP for directional wells Isolating zone for formation testing Series of plugs for well abandonment

– Precautions
Selection of clean hole to prevent contamination Condition mud prior to placing plug Pre-flush fluid ahead of cement Densified slurry to be used.
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Cement Plugs

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Cement Plugs
– Method achieves an equal level of cement in the drill pipe and annulus. – Preflush, cement slurry and spacer fluid are pumped down the drill pipe and displaced with mud. – Displacement continues until level of cement inside and outside is same. – Drill pipe retrieved leaving plug in place.
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Balanced Plug

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Dump Bailer Method

Cement Plugs

Develop me nt Phase - Cementing

– Set permanent bridge plug below plug back depth – Cement bailer containing slurry is then lowered down the well – When bailer reaches bridge plug the slurry is released and set on top – Advantages Better depth control Reduced risk of contamination – Disadvantages Only small volume of cement can be dumped and therefore several runs required Not suitable for deep wells unless retarders used.

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Cement Evaluation Tools  Cement job can be considered a failure if:
– Cement does not fill annulus to required height. – Cement does not provide good seal at shoe. – Cement does not isolate undesirable zones.

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Cement Evaluation Tools  Temperature surveys
– Running a recording thermometer in the casing after cementing. – Thermometer responds to heat generated by cement hydration to detect top of cement.

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Cement Evaluation Tools

 Radioactive surveys – Radioactive tracers can be added to cement slurry before it is pumped. – Carnolite is commonly used and detects the top of cement in annulus.
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 Cement Bond Logs – Indicate presence of cement and bond. – Tool emits sonic signals and receives at receiver. – Amplitude indicates whether bond is strong or weak. – Channelling can also be detected.

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