You are on page 1of 27

The MAES pilot on marine ecosystems

:
conceptual approach and initial steps

Francesca Somma
Chiara Piroddi

EC – Joint Research Centre

Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES) in the marine environment
DG ENV – Brussels - 19 June 2013

Six thematic pilots to test the framework
SCOPE: The objective of the pilots is to identify available
knowledge that can be used to map marine ecosystems and
assess their condition and the services they provide.

WHAT: Each pilot will examine and report data needs to complete
the ecosystem assessments

WHO: Each pilot is led by a Member State and an EC service and
draws on the active contributions of EU and MS working
together.

WHEN: Final delivery by September 18th (VI WG MAES meeting)

1 2 3 4 5 6 Nature Agriculture Forest Freshwater Marine Natural Capital Accounting EU Lead ENV JRC JRC JRC JRC EEA MS Lead LT BE SE FR FR BG PT EU members EEA EEA EEA EEA EEA ENV JRC ENV ENV ENV ENV ESTAT RTD AGRI AGRI MARE AGRI ESTAT RTD MS members BG AT AT AT EE DE EE BE BE EE PT EE FI DE BG UK BE FR HU FR FI UK PT HU FR SK SK LT UK UK Stakeholders CEEweb ELO ELO WWF Coastwatch WWF FACE FACE Oceana Forest Europe WWF .

ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK: Typology of ecosystems. Refinement of the EU 2010 Biodiversity Baseline (EEA 2012) 4 .

ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK: .

Quantify the ecosystem services provided by this ecosystem.COMMON FRAMEWORK: •1. Assess the condition of this ecosystem. •3. •2. Map the concerned ecosystem. •4. Integrated ecosystem assessment .

Entertainment Ex-situ viewing/experience of natural world through different media Aesthetic Sense of place. GEBCO 08 Grid. Resolution of 30 arc-seconds. sacred /seascapes [environmental plants and animals and their parts settings] Other cultural outputs Existence Enjoyment provided by wild species. by denitrification. (phyto)degradation. and land. sea Liquid flows Hydrological cycle and water flow maintenance Capacity of maintaining baseline flows for water supply and discharge.g. by denitrification. Indicators Data sources. algae and their outputs Wild berries. rivers. Physical use of land-/seascapes in different environmental Walking. Heritage. algae and animals for agricultural use Plant. Micro and regional climate regulation Modifying temperature. interactions different environmental settings ecosystems. re- mobilisation/re-mineralisation of phosphorous. freshwater Regulation & Maintenance and other nuisances animals and marine systems including sediments. algae and animals for Fibres.gebco. 2009. adsorption and binding of heavy metals and organic compounds in ecosystems (combination of biotic and abiotic factors) Dilution by atmosphere. biological and gene pool protection animals conditions Maintaining nursery populations and habitats Habitats for plant and animal nursery and reproduction e. etc.g. Decomposition and fixing processes Maintenance of bio-geochemical conditions of seafloor structure/soils by decomposition/mineralisation of dead organic material. ecosystems. crustaceans. chemical. algae and animals for biochemical industrial and pharmaceutical processes e. eel etc. erosion N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A protection of coasts and sediments by mangroves. symbolic and Spiritual and/or emblematic Symbolic Emblematic plants and animals e. services Nutrition Biomass Cultivated crops Cereals (e.e. wheat. land-/seascapes Bequest Willingness to preserve plants. Chemical condition of salt waters Maintenance / buffering of chemical composition of seawater column and sediment to ensure favourable living conditions for biota e. hiking. physical or cultural type or physical and cultural processes that can be linked back to components could change by region or ecosystem. lakes. recharge by appropriate land coverage that captures effective rainfall. salicornia (saltwort or samphire). national symbols such as American eagle. shells. Water conditions Chemical condition of freshwaters Maintenance / buffering of chemical composition of freshwater column and sediment to ensure favourable living conditions for biota e. N-fixing and other bio-geochemical processes. etc. denitrification etc. e. cultural Historic records. Water Surface water for non-drinking purposes Industrial use (processes and cooling). vegetables. Constraints. barely). mushrooms. seal and bird watching. chemicals extracted or synthesised from algae. boating. carrageenan) and animals such as whale oil. includes biological. fruits. and land. kelp as fertilizer).ne http://www.). Available at: Version 20091120. water from desalination plants at sea. The GEBCO 08 Grid. (rhizo)degradation etc. macroalgae. salmon. fruits etc. freshwater fish (trout. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Provisioning Reared animals and their outputs Meat. algae and animal material for acquaculture feed in aquaculture or fertilizer in agriculture (e. Cultural interactions with biota. inland aquaculture of marine N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A species. which are not direct use or processing further processed. Ground water for non-drinking purposes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Energy Biomass-based energy sources Plant-based resources Wood fuel. snorkelling. dairy products (milk. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A mobilisation/re-mineralisation of phosphorous. (supplementary to coastal protection by N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A wetlands. sea grass. coastal flood prevention by mangroves. fat. plants. categories into biological or material outputs and bio. yoghurt). animals and land-/seascapes in In-situ whale. water cress. preserved in water bodies and soils (coastal communities whose identity and cultural is strictly linked to the marine environments). chondritin from sharks).g.g. corals. wood.g. lakes and other open N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A water bodies for drinking. sponges. shellfish aquaculture (e. fluids and solid waste. bio-prospecting activities e. The Centre).g. cheese. Genetic materials from all biota Genetic material (DNA) from wild plants. rock).g. elephants etc. and other products. Sacred and/or religious Spiritual. Buffering and attenuation of mass flows Transport and storage of sediment by rivers. honey etc. Indicators Data sources. resin. and Bio-chemical detoxification/decomposition/mineralisation in land/soil. molluscs). Welsh daffodil biota.). natural remedies and medicines (e.g.g.g.g. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A seaweed (e. poles Water Surface water for drinking Collected precipitation.ne http://www. lakes. decomposition/detoxification of waste and toxic materials e. Resolution of 30 arc-seconds.g. diving etc.ne t t t Ecosystem assessment (status)____ Ecosystem biodiversity assessment (status)____ Section Division Group Class Examples This column lists This column divides section The group level splits division The class level provides a further sub-division of group the three main categories into main types categories by biological. nitrification. seagrasses. wilderness. Includes consumptive ornamental uses. Available at: Version 20091120. algae. Educational Subject matter of education both on location and via other media (e. fostering groundwater. sea and sediments Mediation of smell/noise/visual impacts Visual screening of transport corridors e.) and shellfish (i. ecosystems. Resolution of 30 arc-seconds.) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Mediation of waste. as well as equinoderms or honey harvested from wild populations. dyes and colours.g. etc. other interactions with British rose. vegetation on slopes also preventing avalanches (snow. coastal and marine ecosystems. artistic representations of nature Spiritual. fermentation. Indicators Data sources. maintenance of rural and urban N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A climate and air quality and regional precipitation/temperature patterns Physical and intellectual Physical and experiential Experiential use of plants. sea grass. Atmospheric composition and Global climate regulation by reduction of greenhouse gas Capacity of maintaining baseline flows for water supply and discharge. Includes commercial and subsistence fishing and hunting for food Plants and algae from in-situ aquaculture In situ seaweed farming N/A N/A N/A Animals from in-situ aquaculture In-situ farming of freshwater (e. Palmaria palmata = dulse. climbing. nutrient storage. MAES Matrix models data/knowledge gaps models data/knowledge gaps models data/knowledge gaps models data/knowledge gaps Land Cover Classes CLC2006 Bathymetry BODC (British Bathymetry BODC (British Bathymetry BODC (British Oceanographic Data Oceanographic Data Oceanographic Data Centre). including sediments. oysters or crustaceans) in e. rye. sea bass etc. medicines. wild species used in breeding programmes etc. and animals freshwater and marine biota (e. moral/ethical perspective or belief . freshwater and marine ecosystems Bio-physico-chemical dilution of gases.MAES MATRIX: MARINE INLETS AND TRANSITIONAL COASTAL WATERS SHELF WATERS OPEN OCEAN Indicators DataWATERS sources. Lifecycle maintenance. climate regulation concentrations fostering groundwater. 2009. Available at: http://www. abstracted surface water from rivers. Constraints. Filtration/sequestration/storage/accumulation by micro.g. birds and other N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A chemical. GEBCO 08 Grid. Constraints. dillisk) for food Wild animals and their outputs Game. ambergris (from sperm whales used in perfumes). algae.gebco. soap (from bones).g. oils. Constraints. e. Key categories of of output or process. detoxification. recharge by appropriate land coverage that captures N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A effective rainfall. marine fish (plaice. or soil structure. concrete identifiable service sources. macroalgae. water and marine animals for burning and N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A energy production Mechanical energy Animal-based energy Physical labour provided by animals (horses. Isles of Scilly interactions as pristine location for research). freshwater and marine ecosystems. holy places. microstructures of rivers etc. cadavers from land. includes drought and water scarcity aspects. The Centre). Note: this section is not complete and for illustrative purposes only. straw. cultural heritage e. Flood protection Flood protection by appropriate land coverage. proxies. re. swimming. Pest and disease control Pest control Pest and disease control including invasive alien species Disease control In cultivated and natural ecosystems and human populations Soil formation and composition Weathering processes Maintenance of bio-geochemical conditions of soils including fertility. dunes) Gaseous / air flows Storm protection Natural or planted vegetation that serves as shelter belts N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Ventilation and transpiration Natural or planted vegetation that enables air ventilation N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Maintenance of physical. dunes. degrading oil spills by marine bacteria.g. coastal wetlands. 2009. proxies. seed dispersal by insects. timber.g. Materials from plants.g. alginate.gebco. Isles of Scilly as pristine location for research). includes drought and water scarcity aspects. proxies. land-/seascapes for the experience and use of future generations. Biological filtration/sequestration/storage/accumulation of pollutants in land/soil. plants.g. toxics Mediation by biota Bio-remediation by micro-organisms. leisure fishing (angling) and leisure /seascapes [environmental settings hunting settings] Intellectual and representative Scientific Subject matter for research both on location and via other media (e. Ground water for drinking Freshwater abstracted from (non-fossil) groundwater layers or via ground water N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A desalination for drinking.g.g. adsorption and binding of heavy metals and organic compounds in biota Mediation by ecosystems Filtration/sequestration/storage/accumulation by Bio-physicochemical filtration/sequestration/storage/accumulation of pollutants ecosystems in land/soil. humidity. proxies. vegetation cover protecting/stabilising terrestrial. crops and algae for burning and energy production N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Animal-based resources Dung. 'dream paths' of native Australians. habitat Pollination and seed dispersal Pollination by bees and other insects. trout) and marine fish (e. wind fields.g. by trees. waste water cleaning. irrigation. wastewater in atmosphere. ritual identity e. ecoystems. animals. organisms. seaweeds (agar. tuna) also in N/A N/A N/A floating cages. energy plants. Materials Biomass Fibres and other materials from plants. etc. Green infrastructure to reduce N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A noise and smells Mediation of flows Mass flows Mass stabilisation and control of erosion rates Erosion / landslide / gravity flow protection. squalene. ecosystem process. physical weathering and pedogenesis. Ecosystem mapping____ Version 20091120.g. by filter-feeders). N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Wild plants.

proxies. MARINE INLETS AND COASTAL WATERS SHELF WATERS OPEN OCEAN TRANSITIONAL WATERS Indicators Data sources. Indicators Data sources. proxies. Assess the condition of this ecosystem. proxies. proxies. models models models models Ecosystem mapping Ecosystem assessment (status) Ecosystem biodiversity assessment (status) . Indicators Data sources. Map the concerned ecosystem.COMMON FRAME è MAES MATRIX 1. 2. Indicators Data sources.

Map the concerned ecosystem. models proxies. models proxies. 2009. models proxies.ne http://www. 2009.gebco. The Centre). of 30 arc-seconds. GEBCO 08 Grid.ne t t t Ecosystem assessment (status) Ecosystem biodiversity assessment (status) . proxies. Assess the condition of this ecosystem. Resolution 20091120. of 30 arc-seconds.gebco. Resolution of 30 arc-seconds. 2. Indicators Data sources. The GEBCO 08 Grid. Indicators Data sources. The Centre). GEBCO 08 Grid. Ecosystem mapping Available at: Available at: Available at: http://www. COMMON FRAME è MAES MATRIX 1. Version Version Version 20091120.gebco. models Land Cover Classes CLC2006 Bathymetry BODC (British Bathymetry BODC (British Bathymetry BODC (British Oceanographic Data Oceanographic Data Oceanographic Data Centre).ne http://www. MARINE INLETS AND COASTAL WATERS SHELF WATERS OPEN OCEAN TRANSITIONAL WATERS Indicators Data sources. 2009. Resolution 20091120. Indicators Data sources.

Quantify the ecosystem services provided by this ecosystem.COMMON FRAME è MAES MATRIX 3. .

g.g. DG MARE (d) Provisioning salmon. EUROSTAT harvested from wild (€/a) [B] JRC-DCF (c) (€/a) [B] (b). 1) Harvested fish and 1) FAO Fishstat (a). ornamental medicines (e. EUROSTAT (€/a) [B] DG MARE (d) (€/a) [B] (b). DG MARE (d) Animals from in. shells. wood. fish and shellfish landing (t/a) surveys (Mediterranean) (d). trout) and marine fish (e. EUROSTAT (b). 1) Harversted cultured 1) FAO Fishstat (a). 3) Fish and shellfish sales 2) FAO Fishstat (a). type.) and shellfish (i. EUROSTAT (b). EUROSTAT (b). algae Includes and animal material 1) Abundance/biomass (t/a) 1) Abundance/biomass (t/a) plants. fish oil. sea 2) Commercial and artisanal SEALIFEBASE (c). DG MARE bass etc. EASIN-JRC as echinoderms or honey 3) Fish and shellfish sales 2) FAO Fishstat (a). marine fish (plaice. ambergris (from sperm whales used in Materials from perfumes). Net materials: ornamental. ornamental (€/a) [B] (€/a) [B] Materials Biomass chondritin from sharks). from marine organisms (€/a). 2) Cultured seaweed sales 2) FAO Fishstat (a). DG MARE (d) (e. fish and shellfish landing (t/a) Medits surveys crustaceans. media ( products. algae and use. models Indicators Data sources.g. timber. OBIS their outputs amount.e. which are not further artisanal landing (t/a) [F]. 3) FAO Statistics 1) Abundance/biomass (t/a) 2) FAO Statistics. 2) Fish and shellfish sales 2) FAO Fishstat (a). JRC-DCF (c) fishing and hunting for food Nutrition Biomass Plants and algae Plants.). OBIS (b).g. Animals by In-situ farming of freshwater 1) Harvested fish and 1) FAO Fishstat (a). fishmeal). models [C] = CAPACITY [F] = FLOW [B] = BENEFIT Section Division Group Class Class type Examples Wild animals and Animals by Game. 3) animals for direct marine) processed. JRC-DCF (c) populations. seaweeds (agar. SEALIFEBASE (c). type eel etc. resin. 3) FAO materials from amount. EUROSTAT (b). DG MARE Medits 2) Commercial and artisanal (b). tuna) also in floating 2) Fish and shellfish sales 2) FAO Fishstat (a). Plant. 2)Commercial and [C]. Market value of raw Market value of raw carrageenan) and animals such materials: ornamental. 1) Fish abundance [C] 1) PANGAEA (GBIF) (a). type (e. corals. kelp/seagrass artisanal landings (t/a) [F]. algae by In situ seaweed farming 1) Harversted cultured 1) FAO Fishstat (a). as well [F] EASIN-JRC [F] (Mediterranean) (d). fishmeal (€/a) [B] fishmeal (€/a) [B] . MARINE INLETS AND TRANSITIONAL MAES Matrix WATERS COASTAL WATERS Indicators Data sources. Net as whale oil. freshwater fish (trout. 3) as fertilizer. chemicals extracted Net present values of drugs Net present values of drugs use or processing or synthesised from algae. dyes and colours. EUROSTAT cages. and other [C]. algae and for acquaculture feed in [C]. sponges. EUROSTAT (b). pearls. 2)Commercial and Statistics plants. type seaweed (t/a) [F] DG MARE (d) seaweed (t/a) [F] (b). [C]. proxies. molluscs). seaweed. oysters or crustaceans) in e. shellfish aquaculture (€/y) [B] DG MARE (d) (€/y) [B] (b). alginate. soap (from value added of raw value added of raw materials: bones). 3) artisanal landings (t/a) [F]. from marine organisms (€/a). proxies. 1) Abundance/biomass (t/a) 2) FAO Statistics. forage fish for Market value of seaweed. shellfish (t/y) [F] DG MARE (d) shellfish (t/y) [F] (b). DG MARE (d) aquaculture 2) Cultured seaweed sales 2) FAO Fishstat (a). Includes 3) FAO Fishstat (a).g. natural remedies and materials: seaweed. 3) artisanal landing (t/a) [F]. EUROSTAT (b) 4) Fishing fleet (total engine 3) FAO Fishstat (a). Market value of seaweed. animals for aquaculture or fertilizer in 2) Commerical and/or 2) Commerical and/or agricultural use agriculture (e. squalene. fish oil. EUROSTAT from in-situ amount. poles Fibres and other Material by Fibres. EUROSTAT situ aquaculture amount.g. 1) Fish abundance [C] 1) PANGAEA (GBIF) (a). EUROSTAT commercial and subsistence power (b).

poles . 1) Fish abundance [C] 1) PANGAEA (GBIF) (a). SEALIFEBASE (c). marine fish (plaice. shellfish aquaculture (€/y) [B] DG MARE (d) (€/y) [B] (b). EUROSTAT (e. fish and shellfish landing (t/a) surveys (Mediterranean) (d). 2) Cultured seaweed sales 2) FAO Fishstat (a). 1) Fish abundance [C] 1) PANGAEA (GBIF) (a). trout) and marine fish (e. 2) Fish and shellfish sales 2) FAO Fishstat (a). EASIN-JRC as echinoderms or honey 3) Fish and shellfish sales 2) FAO Fishstat (a). EUROSTAT (b). JRC-DCF (c) populations. fish and shellfish landing (t/a) Medits surveys crustaceans. 1) Harvested fish and 1) FAO Fishstat (a). EUROSTAT commercial and subsistence power (b). shellfish (t/y) [F] DG MARE (d) shellfish (t/y) [F] (b). EUROSTAT (b). JRC-DCF (c) fishing and hunting for food In situ seaweed farming 1) Harversted cultured 1) FAO Fishstat (a). models = BENEFIT Examples Game. 1) Harversted cultured 1) FAO Fishstat (a). EUROSTAT (€/a) [B] DG MARE (d) (€/a) [B] (b). EUROSTAT cages. EUROSTAT seaweed (t/a) [F] DG MARE (d) seaweed (t/a) [F] (b). 3) Fish and shellfish sales 2) FAO Fishstat (a). DG MARE (d) (e. MARINE INLETS AND TRANSITIONAL COASTAL WATERS WATERS Indicators Data sources. molluscs).g. DG MARE Medits 2) Commercial and artisanal (b). OBIS (b). tuna) also in floating 2) Fish and shellfish sales 2) FAO Fishstat (a).g. oysters or crustaceans) in e. EUROSTAT (b). OBIS eel etc.) and shellfish (i. models Indicators Data sources. proxies. as well [F] EASIN-JRC [F] (Mediterranean) (d). DG MARE (d) 2) Cultured seaweed sales 2) FAO Fishstat (a). sea 2) Commercial and artisanal SEALIFEBASE (c). DG MARE (d) salmon. Includes 3) FAO Fishstat (a).g. EUROSTAT (b). DG MARE bass etc.). proxies. EUROSTAT (b). DG MARE (d) In-situ farming of freshwater 1) Harvested fish and 1) FAO Fishstat (a).g. freshwater fish (trout. EUROSTAT (b) 4) Fishing fleet (total engine 3) FAO Fishstat (a).e. EUROSTAT harvested from wild (€/a) [B] JRC-DCF (c) (€/a) [B] (b).

Maintenance Lifecycle abundance and rishness . vegetation cover dunes. oyster reef cover recruitment grounds etc. area population density. vegetation on slopes and properties (density. foraging (abundance/m ). habitat and populations and source 2 2 biological gene pool (abundance/m ). turbidity. maintenance.g. Fishstat (a). 3) FAO Fishstat habitats (seagrass/seaweed MeshAtlantic (c). price of commercial fish species [B] of commercial fish species [B] . coastline stiffness. freshwater. detoxification/decomposition/ 3 chlorophyll-a concentration and 3 phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentration (mg/m ) [C] concentration (mg/m ) [C] organisms. storm surge [F] Mediation of Mass stabilisation By reduction in 3) Indices based on 3) Indices based on flows Mass flows and control of risk. replacement cost for replacement cost for damaged infrastructures. proxies. storm surge [F] sea level. surface. avoided loss of protection. recruitment [F] recruitment [F] 3) Value of ES or habitat 3) Value of ES or habitat based on benefit trasfer (€/a. trophic composition. Heavy metals and organic waste. models Indicators Data sources. foraging habitats conditions protection efficiency for fish. tidal range. trophic diversity. relataive sea level. coastline (snow. €/a) [B] human lives (€/ha. vegetation selected emerged. use. type. oxygen concentration. coastal and marine habitats (seagrass/seaweed habitats (seagrass/seaweed ecosystems. mineralisation in land/soil. artificial surface. erosion protection slope and coastal slope and coastal of coasts and sediments by geomorphology [C] geomorphology [C] mangroves. regional GDP. EUROSTAT (b) cover (%). height)). height)). degrading oil spills by marine bacteria. and marine) freshwater and marine systems removal (t/a) [F] database) (a). sea grass. connectivity. vegetation cover cover (%). Unesco sites. (phyto)degradation. connectivity. abundance. selected emerged. nursery By amount and 2) Juvenile fish density 2) Juvenile fish density chemical. tidal range. waste water cleaning.at Maintaining age [C] age [C] of physical. proxies. models [C] = CAPACITY [F] = FLOW [B] = BENEFIT Section Division Group Class Class type Examples Bio-remediation By amount. fish spawning and condition. EUSeaMap (b). species distribution. 2) Nutrient and heavy metal primary productivity (EMIS 2) Nutrient and heavy metal concentration and primary plants. €/a) [B] Habitats for plant and animal 1) Submerged and intertidal 1) Mediseh (a). damaged infrastructures. condition).g. 2) Indices based on wave 2) Indices based on wave macroalgae. toxics decomposition/detoxification treatment of waste (€/a) [B] (EMEP database) (b) treatment of waste (€/a) [B] pollutants concentration biota and other of waste and toxic materials (EMEP database) (b) nuisances e. Heavy metals and removal (t/a) [F] productivity (EMIS database) Mediation of Mediation by animals including sediments. coastal wetlands. Bio-chemical 1) Nutrient and heavy metal 1) Satellite-derived phytoplankton 1) Nutrient and heavy metal 1) Satellite-derived by micro. also preventing avalanches stiffness. species distribution. (%). Regulation & avoided cost for shoreline avoided cost for shoreline Maintenance protection. 3) Replacement cost for organic pollutants concentration 3) Replacement cost for (a). based on benefit trasfer (€/a. cover protecting/stabilising submerged and intertidal submerged and intertidal terrestrial. turbidity. etc. €/ha/a). cover (%). avoided loss of human lives (€/ha. EUROSTAT (b) rivers. Erosion / landslide / gravity 1) Indices based on extent of Composite indices (e) 1) Indices based on extent of Composite indices (e) flow protection. efficiency for fish. regime. 3) FAO seagrasses. 1) Submerged and intertidal 1) Mediseh (a). algae. diversity. rock). and properties (density. condition). Unesco sites.at abundance and rishness . erosion rates protected infrastructure. oyster reef cover condition. price €/ha/a). MARINE INLETS AND TRANSITIONAL MAES Matrix WATERS COASTAL WATERS Indicators Data sources. regional GDP. artificial infrastructure. (a). media (land. population density. oxygen composition. microstructures of cover (%). habitats (seagrass/seaweed MeshAtlantic (c). abundance. concentration. (%). relataive regime. (rhizo)degradation etc. soil. nursery and reproduction e. EUSeaMap (b).

infrastructure. 2) Indices based on wave 2) Indices based on wave macroalgae. also preventing avalanches stiffness. models Examples Erosion / landslide / gravity 1) Indices based on extent of Composite indices (e) 1) Indices based on extent of Composite indices (e) flow protection. etc. avoided loss of protection. vegetation selected emerged. artificial infrastructure. rock). tidal range. coastline stiffness. and properties (density. vegetation on slopes and properties (density. vegetation cover dunes. cover (%). avoided loss of human lives (€/ha. artificial surface. tidal range. MARINE INLETS AND TRANSITIONAL COASTAL WATERS WATERS Indicators Data sources. population density. avoided cost for shoreline avoided cost for shoreline protection. height)). Unesco sites. €/a) [B] . vegetation cover cover (%). coastal wetlands. coastal and marine habitats (seagrass/seaweed habitats (seagrass/seaweed ecosystems. storm surge [F] sea level. erosion protection slope and coastal slope and coastal of coasts and sediments by geomorphology [C] geomorphology [C] mangroves. €/a) [B] human lives (€/ha. regime. surface. coastline (snow. proxies. sea grass. Unesco sites. replacement cost for replacement cost for damaged infrastructures. relataive sea level. relataive regime. storm surge [F] 3) Indices based on 3) Indices based on population density. selected emerged. height)). models Indicators Data sources. cover protecting/stabilising submerged and intertidal submerged and intertidal terrestrial. proxies. damaged infrastructures.

models Indicators Data sources. 3) EUROSTAT aesthetic values based on on marine recreation activities in aesthetic values based on (a). and employment interactions different ecosystem type supported (full-time environmental equivalents) (b) settings Physical and intellectual interactions with biota. FERU-UBC database [F]. FERU-UBC 2) Whale watching. WCMC (b) [C] 2) 2) land-/seascapes in swimming. and employment expert knowledge (b) [B]. 3) Employment rate. FERU-UBC database coverage (a) [C]. of country population) (b). 2) EUROSTAT (a). FishBase (c). equivalents) (b) and employment supported (full-time equivalents) (b) . proxies. activities (mainly whale boating activities. (% of country population) (b) 3) Willingness to pay (a) on marine recreation activities 3) Willingness to pay (a) 3) EUROSTAT (a). possibility recreation activities (mainly whale 2) Whale watching. supported (full-time equivalents) total expenditures generated experiential /seascapes in plants. climbing. and land- /seascapes [environmenta l settings] Physical use of Walking. coverage (a) [C]. presence of SealifeBase (b). swimming. hiking. EUROSTAT (a). annual watching) in regards to yearly number of recreation trips of country population) (b) 3) number of recreation trips participation rate in the activity [F]. presence of (b). swimming. models [C] = CAPACITY [F] = FLOW [B] = BENEFIT Section Division Group Class Class type Examples In-situ fish. MARINE INLETS AND TRANSITIONAL MAES Matrix WATERS COASTAL WATERS Indicators Data sources. 2) EUROSTAT (a). areas (km2) (a). By visits/use data. FERU-UBC database on expert knowledge [B] regards to yearly total expert knowledge [B] marine recreation activities in expenditures generated (USD). watching) in regards to yearly Physical and and land. FERU-UBC different recreational fishing (angling) Recreational fishing activities on marine recreation activities Recreational fishing activities database on marine recreation environmental and leisure hunting (t/a) and yearly participation (mainly recreational fishing (t/a). WCMC (b) [C] 2) 2) 1) Marine protected areas 1) EEA (a). animals. snorkelling. EUROSTAT (a). proxies. iconic species (b) [C]. 3) participation rate in the activity (% population) [F]. (b) (USD). FERU-UBC Importance and specificity of (mainly whale watching) in regards Importance and specificity of database on marine recreation Experiential use of aesthetic values based on to yearly total expenditures aesthetic values based on activities (mainly whale plants. watching) in regards to yearly of snorkeling. diving areas (km2) (a). 3) yearly participation rate in the Employment rate. and regards to yearly total employment supported (full-time expenditures generated (USD). FishBase (c). seal and bird 1) Extent of marine protected 1) WCMC database (a). FERU-UBC database Importance and specificity of population) (b). possibility database on marine recreation of snorkeling. activity (% of country Importance and specificity of EUROSTAT (a). annual participation rate in the activity (% boating activities. boating. SealifeBase 1) Extent of marine protected 1) WCMC database (a). Cultural ecosystems. animals expert knowledge (b) [B]. 2) EUROSTAT (a). generated (USD). yearly participation rate activities (mainly recreational settings rate in recreational activity (% activities) in regards to yearly in the activity (% of country fishing activities) in regards to of country population) [F]. whale. 1) Marine protected areas 1) EEA (a). watching. 2) etc. FERU-UBC database on marine iconic species (b) [C].

swimming. EUROSTAT (a). 2) EUROSTAT (a). areas (km2) (a). watching) in regards to yearly of snorkeling. annual watching) in regards to yearly number of recreation trips of country population) (b) 3) number of recreation trips participation rate in the activity [F]. possibility recreation activities (mainly whale 2) Whale watching. and employment supported (full-time equivalents) (b) . possibility database on marine recreation of snorkeling. proxies. swimming. seal and bird 1) Extent of marine protected 1) WCMC database (a). EUROSTAT (a). presence of (b). generated (USD). models Examples In-situ fish. and employment expert knowledge (b) [B]. FishBase (c). SealifeBase 1) Extent of marine protected 1) WCMC database (a). FERU-UBC database on marine iconic species (b) [C]. annual participation rate in the activity (% boating activities. FishBase (c). diving areas (km2) (a). presence of SealifeBase (b). (% of country population) (b) 3) Willingness to pay (a) on marine recreation activities 3) Willingness to pay (a) 3) EUROSTAT (a). 2) etc. models Indicators Data sources. FERU-UBC 2) Whale watching. whale. MARINE INLETS AND TRANSITIONAL COASTAL WATERS WATERS Indicators Data sources. FERU-UBC Importance and specificity of (mainly whale watching) in regards Importance and specificity of database on marine recreation aesthetic values based on to yearly total expenditures aesthetic values based on activities (mainly whale expert knowledge (b) [B]. watching. iconic species (b) [C]. activities (mainly whale boating activities. watching) in regards to yearly supported (full-time equivalents) total expenditures generated (b) (USD). snorkelling. FERU-UBC database [F]. proxies.

in press . Current status and future prospects for the assessment of marine and coastal ecosystem services: a systematic review Review existing literature on MCES: 567 papers Of those. 145 papers with relevant information on MCES were examined 1st Phase Papers perspective: and habitat analyzed: Ø Environmental Ø Coastal Ø Economic Ø Coastal and Marine Ø Social and Ø Marine Ø Various of the above Ø Terrestrial and Marine Types of assessment: Ø Quantitative Ø Mapping Ø Qualitative Ø Conceptual Ø Various Liquete et al. Plos One.

in press .2nd Phase Of those 145 papers examining type of ecosystem services assessed and the indicators associated to it 18 Liquete et al.

in press . Results 488 Indicators No. indicators MCES Capacity Flow Benefit Food provision 25 27 51 Water 0 3 4 Biotic materials and biofuels 2 10 19 Water purification 22 20 12 Air quality regulation 0 1 0 Coastal protection 16 7 30 Climate regulation 14 10 10 Weather regulation 0 0 0 Ocean nourishment 11 4 3 Life cycle maintenance 27 8 15 Biological regulation 0 3 1 Symbolic and aesthetic values 0 4 12 Recreation and tourism 5 11 36 Cognitive effects 1 3 8 All MCES together 18 0 23 Liquete et al.

fish Harvested mussels (n°) [8] Value of the average daily catch Biological regulation 0 3 1 Symbolic and aesthetic Provisionin g diversity and biomass [7] (USD/ha) [9] values 0 4 12 Fish abundance per site [10] Fish catch (kg/yr) [3] Financial income from fisheries Recreation and tourism 5 11 36 (USD/ha/yr) [11] Cognitive effects 1 3 8 All MCES together 18 0 23 Distribution of fish or larvae [12] Landings of commercial and Value of finfish (weighting factor) [4] recreational fishing (t. 1997 (USD) [72] Coastal protection [94] Plant cover (%) [95] Importance and specificity of storm Liberty index [96] protection based on expert knowledge (scores 0-3) [55] Vegetation properties (marsh width. 1997 (USD) [72] Presence of coralligenous Primary contact recreation (bathing. USD) [13] Fish biomass (standing stock) (t) Commercial fishery landings data Value of fish catch per household [14] [12] (USD/household/yr) [15] Estimates of species abundance Fish catch per household Net present value of shrimp and fish (fish. USD) service based on benefit transfer [13] (EUR/ha/yr) [71] Coral size and substrate cover [7] Vulnerability index based on Value transfer based on Costanza et relaxation time and return interval al. indicators MCES Capacity Flow Benefit Food provision 25 27 51 Water 0 3 4 Biotic materials and MCES indicators found in this review under the cascade scheme biofuels 2 10 19 MCES Capacity Flow Benefit Water purification Air quality regulation 22 0 20 1 12 0 Relative fish abundance based on Artisanal fishery catch [2] Fish sales (USD/yr) [3] Coastal protection 16 7 30 catch per unit effort (CPUE) [1] Climate regulation 14 10 10 Weather regulation 0 0 0 Density of fish (weighting factor) [4] Shrimp landings (t/yr) [5] Economic benefits from fisheries Ocean nourishment 11 4 3 2 (USD/yr or USD/km ) [6] Life cycle maintenance 27 8 15 Coral size. marine mammals and (kg/household/yr) [15] under different management birds) [16] scenarios (USD/ha) [17] Proportion of fishcoral Healthy growing stockreefs. stiffness. equipment in the coast (no. height) [97] equipment lost) [98] Vegetation density (shoots/ha. density. in press . before and after erosion (GBP) [130] Smell of decomposing algae [89] Importance and specificity of Choice and willingness-to-pay by recreation and tourism based on householders [131] expert knowledge (scores 0-3) [55] Physical disturbance on recreational Annual number of recreational trips Value transfer based on Costanza et activities [89] (actual or intended) per person [132] al. %) [99] Perceived benefit from coastal extent (ha) [64] protection (words used most frequently) [61] Size of marine leisure and Beach closure due to bacteria limit. biomass production. Value of the recreational and 2 recreation hotspots (km ) [129] discolored or turbid water [80] aesthetic service based on benefit Recreation and tourism transfer (EUR/ha/yr) [71] Visual cover of algal mats [89] Snorkeling and swimming (weighting Willingness-to-pay for the enjoyment factor) [4] in the beach. shellfish. substrate cover. Annual value of ES based on benefit community or cetacean population diving) [49] transfer (USD/yr) [121] [28] Liquete et al. Wave attenuation (m) [100] Willingness-to-pay of local residents t/ha) [99] (GBP/yr) [79] Temporal changes in mangrove Wave attenuation (m. Loss rates of experimental Gross Domestic Product [96] species. g/m2. Fish Surgecatch (t) [19](cm/km) [5] reduction Shrimp Value ofrevenues (USD/ha) the disturbance [17] regulation mangroves and wetlands (%.Results: S3 Table 488 Indicators No.

water regulation. fish consumption. sediment deposition. disturbance regulation. commercial fishing. wave attenuation Recreation and aesthetic and recreation. leisure and recreation. non-consumptive use of popular observable species. recreational uses. employment as fishermen. fish growth. coastline stabilisation. recreational. natural hazard regulation. recreational benefits. fish production from fisheries. water storage. prawn. aesthetic and recreational values. coastal sea defence. fish take. biosecurity. recreational use of coastal areas. tourism attraction. fishing. reef protection. tourism potential. flood control. provisioning. environmental disturbance prevention. mollusk and crab production. availability for harvest.Results: S2 Table MCES Labels for ecosystem services found in this literature review Food provision agroecosystem productivity. in press . protection of shoreline against erosion and flooding. flood and erosion control. off-shore fisheries. hurricanes protection. industry and tourism. ecotourism. fish sales. recreation and biodiversity. aquaculture potential. bird shooting and wildfowling. wildlife viewing Liquete et al. habitat services. disturbance prevention and alleviation. food. dissipate wave energy. spawning stock production. supporting offshore fisheries Coastal coastal defence. natural barriers to storm events. seafood. fishery. storm protection. food production. tourism and local recreation. shoreline buffering. consumptive use of a fish species. storm. storm surge protection. coastal recreational benefit. land building/retention. recreation and tourism. shoreline stabilization. recreational fishing. recreation and cultural. fish production from aquaculture. recreation service. seafood consumption. amenity. quality of food provided to first-order consumers. food resources. fishery goods. food from fisheries. mangrove-fishery linkages. soil retention. fishing and fishing related activities. supporting fish communities. fish catch. protection from erosion and sand blasting. leisure. coastal fisheries. tourism opportunities. marine leisure and recreation industry. scuba. fish food. fisheries. recreational and aesthetic. amenity from tourism coastal defence. shrimp revenues. wave and wind attenuation. fishery products. ecotourism and environmental education. cultural. reduction of coast erosion. coastal property protection. coastal protection. coastal protection of protection hurricanes. seafood provision. water recycling. shoreline protection. harvest. sediment accumulation. coastal artisanal fisheries. provisioning of protein and other products. quantity of food provision to first-order consumers and O2/CO2 exchange. shrimp and fish harvesting. recreation. fisheries support. captured fish. tourism. food provision. recreational appeal. fishery support. shrimp and fish. shoreline erosion control. hunting and bird watching tourism. aesthetic attraction.

in press . purification values Cultural animal regulation heritage Food Freshwater Dilution and Recreation and Air quality Recreation provision plant and sequestration community regulation and tourism Provisioning animal of wastes activities Marine plant Mass flow Cognitive Information Regulating and maintenance and animal regulation effects and knowledge Potable water Coastal Water flow Water flow protection regulation Water storage regulation Air flow and provision Water quality regulation regulation Climate Biotic Biotic materials regulation Atmospheric materials and Renewable Weather regulation biofuels biofuels regulation Pedogenesis Ocean and soil quality nourishment regulation Lifecycle maintenance Life cycle and habitat maintenance protection Gene pool protection Biological Pest and regulation disease control Liquete et al.Results: Classification This paper CICES This paper CICES This paper CICES Terrestrial Bioremediation Symbolic and Spiritual plant and Water Water quality aesthetic Aesthetic.

/ Ecological Indicators 30 (2013) 205–217 . Assessment of coastal protection services at EU scale Delimitation of study area Liquete et al.

(2013) .Cascade model applied to CP Liquete et al.

In details Liquete et al. (2013) .

(2013) .Results Estimation of the set of indicators proposed in this study along the European shoreline: (A) coastal protection capacity (CPcap). (B) coastal exposure (CPexp) Liquete et al.

Results (A) Coastal protection service flow (CP flow) estimated as a cross-tabulation of CP capacity and exposure (see Table 5A). (2013) . (B) Coastal protection service benefit (CP benefit) estimated as a cross-tabulation of service flow and CP demand Liquete et al.