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APSYS User’s Manual

Version 2005.11 1st Edition
c
1995-2005 Crosslight Software Inc.

ii

APSYS User’s Manual
Version 2005.11 1st Edition
c
1995-2005 Crosslight Software Inc.

All rights reserved

Printed: Nov. 2005

Trademark Notice

LASTIP, PICS3D, APSYS, PROCOM, SimuCenter, SimuLastip, SimuPics3d,
SimuApsys, LayerBuilder, Layer3d, GeoEditor, CrosslightView, CrosslightEdit are
trademarks of Crosslight Software Inc. and/or Crosslight-CAD Inc.

Copyright Notice

Duplication and distribution of this document are permitted for educational or aca-
demic purposes only.

Contents

0.1 About This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

I User’s Guide 3
1 INTRODUCTION 1-5
1.1 What is APSYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.2 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.3 Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.4 Physical Models and Advanced Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1.5 Computer Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7

2 INSTALLATION 2-9
2.1 Installation for IBM-PC/Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
2.1.1 System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
2.1.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
2.1.3 Installation Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
2.2 Installation for UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
2.2.1 System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
2.2.2 Installation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
2.2.3 Important Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
2.3 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11

3 GETTING STARTED 3-13
3.1 Running APSYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
3.2 Getting Started on Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
3.2.1 Walking Through an Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
3.3 Getting Started for UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
3.3.1 Walking Through an Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15

4 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS 4-17
4.1 Time-Dependent Traveling Wave Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
4.1.1 The Coupled Mode Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
4.1.2 Optical Amplifier Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
4.1.3 Self-consistency Issues of Traveling Wave Model . . . . . . . . 4-19

iv CONTENTS

4.1.4 Implementation in APSYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
4.1.5 Other Related Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
4.2 Theories of Light Emitting Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
4.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
4.2.2 Fabry-Perot Cavity and LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
4.2.3 Internal reflection and LED emission power . . . . . . . . . . 4-26
4.2.4 Far field distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28
4.3 Ray Tracing Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-29
4.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-29
4.3.2 Basic ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-29
4.3.3 Coherent and incoherent lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-31
4.3.4 Reflection and refraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-33
4.3.5 Ray tracing program design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-34
4.3.6 Limitations of the ray tracing method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-40
4.3.7 Illustrative results by ray tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-41
4.3.8 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-43
4.4 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum Well Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-46
4.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-46
4.4.2 Band structure and strain orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-48
4.4.3 Band structure parameterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-50
4.4.4 Mobility enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-52
4.5 Conduction and Recombination in OLED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-54
4.6 Organic Semiconductor Emission Spectrum Model . . . . . . . . . . . 4-55
4.6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-55
4.6.2 The Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-56
4.6.3 Tuning the spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-56
4.7 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-60

5 Overview of All APSYS Examples 5-67
5.1 A tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-67
5.2 3d electrodes/step1 stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-67
5.3 3d electrodes/step2 columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-67
5.4 3d electrodes/step3 shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-68
5.5 3d flow/bjt 3d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-68
5.6 3d flow/led3d thermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-68
5.7 3d flow/PD ext profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-68
5.8 3d flow raytrace/3d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-68
5.9 3d flow raytrace/side contact3d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-68
5.10 3d flow raytrace/side contact3d hot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-68
5.11 3d flow raytrace/Ushape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-69
5.12 basic silicon/diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-69
5.13 basic silicon/hot nmos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-69
5.14 basic silicon/impact mos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-69

CONTENTS v

5.15 basic silicon/jfet temp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-69
5.16 basic silicon/jfet trap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-69
5.17 basic silicon/ldd mosfet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-70
5.18 basic silicon/mini bjt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-70
5.19 basic silicon/pmos/dc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-70
5.20 basic silicon/SOI impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-70
5.21 basic silicon/thermal npn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-70
5.22 HBT/hbt ingaas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-70
5.23 HBT/hbt0 tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-70
5.24 HBT/sige hbt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-71
5.25 HBT/sige hbt2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-71
5.26 HEMT/HEMT selfcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-71
5.27 LED/gan led . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-71
5.28 LED/ganled thermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-71
5.29 LED/led . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-71
5.30 LED/nonsym . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-72
5.31 LED/pumped led . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-72
5.32 LED/tail states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-72
5.33 LED raytrace/dome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-72
5.34 LED raytrace/photon recycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-72
5.35 LED raytrace/rcled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-72
5.36 MOA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-72
5.37 OLED/EL abs spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-73
5.38 OLED/MOA OLED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-73
5.39 OLED/OLED/EL abs spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-73
5.40 OLED/OLED raytrace/OLED bare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-73
5.41 OLED/OLED raytrace/OLED plate3d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-73
5.42 other devices/amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-73
5.43 other devices/exciton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-74
5.44 other devices/franz keldysh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-74
5.45 other devices/HB Varactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-74
5.46 other devices/hot gaas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-74
5.47 other devices/jdos tail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-74
5.48 other devices/mesfet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-74
5.49 other devices/mesfet/mesfet2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-74
5.50 other devices/modulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-75
5.51 other devices/RTD selfcons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-75
5.52 other devices/tunnel junc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-75
5.53 PD raytrace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-75
5.54 photo sensitive/diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-75
5.55 photo sensitive/extern optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-75
5.56 photo sensitive/gaas apd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-76
5.57 photo sensitive/impact apd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-76

vi CONTENTS

5.58 photo sensitive/inp apd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-76
5.59 photo sensitive/msm ac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-76
5.60 photo sensitive/msm155 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-76
5.61 photo sensitive/osc apd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-76
5.62 photo sensitive/PIN cyl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-76
5.63 photo sensitive/solar cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-77
5.64 photo sensitive/surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-77
5.65 photo sensitive/UV PD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-77
5.66 photo sensitive/waveguide pd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-77
5.67 photo sensitive/zener impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-77
5.68 quantum MOS/FINFETs/FINFET bulk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-77
5.69 quantum MOS/FINFETs/FINFET qw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-78
5.70 quantum MOS/multi segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-78
5.71 quantum MOS/npoly experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-78
5.72 quantum MOS/one segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-78
5.73 quantum MOS/poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-78
5.74 quantum MOS/SGT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-78
5.75 quantum MOS/strained Si/0pmos2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-78
5.76 quantum MOS/strained Si/0strain 2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-79
5.77 quantum MOS/strained Si/elec mob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-79
5.78 quantum MOS/strained Si/hole mob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-79
5.79 quantum MOS/strained Si/pmos2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-79
5.80 quantum MOS/strained Si/strain 2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-79
5.81 quantum MOS/uniaxial SSi/pux2d0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-79
5.82 quantum MOS/uniaxial SSi/pux2d1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-80
5.83 quantum MOS/uniaxial SSi/ux comp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-80
5.84 quantum MOS/uniaxial SSi/ux tens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-80
5.85 quantum MOS/uniaxial SSi/ux2d0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-80
5.86 quantum MOS/uniaxial SSi/ux2d1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-80
5.87 qw transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-80
5.88 SUPREM import/LDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-80
5.89 SUPREM import/MESFET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-81

II Examples: Basic Silicon Devices 5-83
6 Camel Diode Simulation 6-85
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-85
6.2 Input files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-85
6.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-88

CONTENTS vii

7 MOSFET Simulation 7-93
7.1 Creating the Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-93
7.2 Refining the Initial Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-96
7.3 Plotting the Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-98
7.4 Running the Main Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-98
7.5 Plotting the Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-100
7.6 AC analysis for a P-MOS transistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-103
7.6.1 Simulation under DC bias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-103
7.6.2 AC analysis results for the P-MOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-103

8 NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor 8-109
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-109
8.2 Creating a Mesh for the NPN Transistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-109
8.3 Refining the Initial Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-112
8.4 Running the Main Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-113
8.5 Plotting the Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-115
8.6 AC analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-119
8.6.1 Simulation under DC bias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-119
8.6.2 Current gain and ft for the NPN transistor . . . . . . . . . . . 8-119
8.6.3 Two-port network parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-120

9 Transient Simulation of a PN Diode 9-127
9.1 Creating a Mesh for the Diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-127
9.2 Running the Transient Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-130
9.3 Plotting the Results of the Transient Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-131

10 Hot Carrier Effects in N-MOS 10-135
10.1 To Run the Main Solver for Hot Carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-136
10.2 To View the Hot Carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-137

11 Nonisothermal Effects in a Bipolar Transistor 11-141
11.1 How to Run the Main Solver with Nonisothermal Model . . . . . . . 11-143
11.2 Viewing the Nonisothermal Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-144

12 Low Temperature Simulation for a JFET 12-149
12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-149
12.2 Input files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-150
12.3 Analysing the Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-156

13 Lightly Doped Drain MOSFET 13-161
13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-161
13.2 Mesh Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-162
13.3 Run the Main Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-166
13.4 The DC State Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-166

viii CONTENTS

13.5 AC Analysis Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-167

14 Small Size BJT 14-173
14.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-173
14.2 Setting Up the Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-173
14.3 Gummel Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-176
14.4 Ic − V ce Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-177
14.5 AC Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-178

III Examples: Quantum MOS 181
15 Quantum MOS Simulation 15-183
15.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-183
15.2 Quantum Effects in Small MOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-183
15.3 Analysis of Input Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-184
15.4 Results of a Simple MOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-191
15.5 Quantum-MOS with Polysilicon Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-192

16 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum MOSFET Examples 16-199
16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-199
16.2 Band structure preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-199
16.3 Strained mobility model for 2D simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-203
16.4 Strained Si/relaxed-SiGe p-MOSFET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-207
16.5 Uniaxially Strained Si MOSFET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-207
16.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-209

IV Examples: Photo-Sensitive Devices 219
17 Transient/AC Simulation of an MSM Photo-detector 17-221
17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-221
17.2 Input Files for MSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-222
17.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-225
17.4 AC Photo-Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-225

18 Transient Simulation of an Avalanche Photodiode 18-231
18.1 Junction Breakdown Due to Impact Ionization . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-231
18.2 Avalanche Photodiode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-234

19 InGaAsP Avalanche Photodiode 19-243
19.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-243
19.2 Input Files and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-244

CONTENTS ix

20 Zener Tunneling 20-249
20.1 Comparative Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-249
20.2 Results and Discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-249

21 Solar Cell Simulation 21-253
21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-253
21.2 Input Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-254
21.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-256

V Examples: 3D Current Flow Model 259
22 3D Tapered GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Diode 22-261
22.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-261
22.2 3D Structure Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-262
22.3 Results and Discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-267
22.4 Adding more planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-268

23 3D Model of Edge Effect in BJT 23-279
23.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-279
23.2 Input File Set Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-280
23.3 Results and Discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-285
23.4 AC Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-285
23.5 Comparison with 2D BJT simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-286

VI Examples: Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors 291
24 InGaAs/InP HBT Simulation 24-293
24.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-293
24.2 To Create a Mesh for the HBT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-293
24.3 To Run the Main Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-295
24.4 To plot the results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-296
24.5 Tunneling Effects on HBT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-297

25 SiGe HBT Simulation 25-305
25.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-305
25.2 Setting Up the Geometry Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-305
25.3 Steady State Simulation for Gummel Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-307
25.4 Steady State Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-309
25.5 AC Analysis for the HBT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-310

. . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Applicable Products and Options .6 Bandgap Narrowing Effect . . . . . . 27-337 VIII Examples: Miscellaneous Devices 341 28 Optical Amplifier 28-343 28. 26-321 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 29-353 29. . . . . 29-354 29. . . . . . .2 Refining the Initial Mesh . 27-331 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 AC Analysis . . 26-315 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-333 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 More Advanced Models of HEMT . . . . . . .4 Results of GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . 31-373 32 Waveguide Photodetector 32-379 . . . . 27-330 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-344 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x CONTENTS 26 Selective-Epitaxial SiGe HBT 26-315 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Wurtzite Structure Material HEMT’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-357 30 Resonant Tunneling Diodes 30-365 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Input Files and Discussions . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Simulation for IC − VCE characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-317 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-343 28. . 27-329 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Results and discussions . . . 26-320 26. . . . . . . 26-315 26. . . . . . . . 27-329 27. . . . .3 Results and Discussions . . . . . . .2 Use of Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . .3 Exciton Effects . . 30-365 30. . . 30-368 31 Electro-Absorption Modulator 31-371 31. . . . . . . . . . . 31-371 31. . . . . . . . . . 30-365 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-347 29 A GaN Light Emitting Diode 29-353 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Simulation . . . . . . 31-371 31. . . .3 Results and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Input Files and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Input files . . . .3 Simulation for Gummel Plot . . . . . 26-323 VII Examples: HIGH MOBILITY ELECTRON TRAN- SISTORS 327 27 High Electron Mobility Transistor 27-329 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 36-401 36. . . .11 Three-Dimensional Simulation of GaN LED . . . . . . . 35-395 35. . . . . . . . 33-385 34 Heterostructure Barrier Varactor 34-387 34. . . . 37-431 37. . .2 Critical Statements . . . . . . 36-409 36. . . .3. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-406 36. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-415 IX Examples: RAY-TRACING SIMULATIONS 419 37 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples 37-421 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-441 37. . 34-388 35 Import Csuprem Doping Profiles 35-393 35. . . . .1 Key Statements . . .6 Truncated-Inverted-Pyramid LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-387 34. . . . . . . . 35-399 36 Using Multilayer Optical Analyzer for OLED and Asymmetric Mi- crocavity 36-401 36. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Emission from Mesh Points .1 Introduction . 36-409 36. .3 Using Refractive Index Wavelength Dependencies . . . . . . . . . . .3 Files.6 Using MOA to Analyze Asymmetric Multilayer Structure . . . . . . .2 Generate doping profile from CSUPREM output . . .10LED Photon Recycling Effect . .3 Simulation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Simulation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Monitoring the Ray Tracing . . .4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xi 33 Interband Tunneling: Tunneling Junction 33-383 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-442 . 34-387 34. . . . 37-421 37. . . . . . . . . . .4 Conclusion . Statements and Parameters for 2D Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-383 33. . . . . . . 35-393 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-421 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-406 36. . . . . . . .7 Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode . .3. . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 36-413 36. . . . . . 33-383 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-401 36. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 How to Use Optical Analyzer Module . . . . .9 Photodetector . . 36-408 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-427 37. . . . . . . . .2 Layered structure of AlGaAs/GaAs HBV . . 37-428 37. .4 Plotting the MOA result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Results . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-421 37. . 35-393 35.2 Key Input Files for OLED example . . . . . . . . 36-406 36. . . . . . . . . . .8 Domed LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .2 How to Use Ray Tracing Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-435 37. . . . . . 37-429 37. . .5 Using MOA to analyze OLED . .2 MOA Related Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-438 37. .

. . . . . . .6 Green’s Function for an AR Coated Waveguide . . . . . A-464 A. . . .4 The Green’s Function . . . . . . A-461 A. . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . .5 Longitudinal Green’s Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-464 A. . . . . . . . A-467 A. . . . . . . . . . . A-465 A. . . . . . . . .2 Solution of Inhomogeneous Equation . . . . . . .1 Maxwell Equations . . . . . . . A-461 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Diffusion Coefficient of the Langevin Forces . . . . . .3 Basic Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Three-Dimensional Simulation of AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet LED . . . . . . . . . . . . A-459 A. . A-464 A. 37-449 A BASIC THEORIES RELATED TO LED A-459 A. . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Wronskian . . . . . . . . . . A-469 .2 Conventions . . . . .xii CONTENTS 37. . . . .

0. Then in each subsequent chapters. There has been no attempt to put together all available models implemented in the software on a single device to make it impressive because we believe that using too many sophisticated models all at once may only distract the users from the main issues of design and analysis.crosslight. Only part of the input files which are related to the capability we wish to demonstrate will be shown and discussed. APSYS Reference Manual. User of APSYS simulator should also consult the following documents: Crosslight Software General Description. and User’s Guide to Crosslight Graphic User Interface Since some of the capabilities are illustrated through examples of another product of Crosslight Software. The APSYS examples and this document may serve two purposes: First we wish to illustrate various capabilities of APSYS using the examples. Model description unique to APSYS is also given while most of physical and nu- merical models have already been described in the Crosslight Software General Description. we shall explain the structure.com.1 About This Document This manual contains user’s guide for installing and running the APSYS program. and strategies of the simulation. Secondly we wish to provide as many device structures as possible so that users may copy and modify for their own use. . we shall first give a thorough introduction of the input files through a tutorial example. In the example parts.1 About This Document 1 0. the purpose. users should be prepared to consult the LASTIP User’s Manual or PICS3D User’s Manual which is available from www.

2 CONTENTS .

Part I User’s Guide .

.

Devices involving multiple quantum wells.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1. GaAs MESFET’s and Photodectors. 1. • 5. .3 Capabilities APSYS solves self-consistently the hydrodynamic equations. Advanced features include hot carrier transport. 1. Data generated by APSYS include the following: • 1)Current versus voltage (I-V) characteristics.2 Applications APSYS can be applied to the modeling and analysis of almost all devices except semi- conductor lasers (which are simulated by our other products LASTIP and PICS3D). heterojunc- tion models and nonisothermal analysis. SiGe HBT’s and HBT’s of AlGaAs and InGaAsP. These include the following devices based on silicon and compound materials. Silicon MOSFET’s. Light Emitting Diodes (LED’s). bipolar transistors and CCD’s. • 1. the heat transfer equa- tions as well as the conventional drift-diffusion equations.1 What is APSYS APSYS is a general purpose two-dimensional (2D) finite element analysis and model- ing software program for semiconductor devices. • 3. It includes many advanced physical models and offers a very flexible modeling and simulation environment for modern semiconductor devices. • 2. • 4.

the Pois- son’s equation. the current continuity equations.1-6 INTRODUCTION • 2)2D potential. • 10)2D optical field distribution for photonic devices such as photodetectors. • 3)2D distributions of electron and hole concentrations. and the scalar wave equation for photonic waveg- uiding devices (such as waveguide photo-detectors). • 2. • 3. APSYS includes the following physical models and advanced features: • 1. • 13)All of the above at different environment temperatures. • 4. the heat transfer equations.4 Physical Models and Advanced Features APSYS is a full two dimensional simulator which solves. • 7)Results of AC small signal analysis for any frequency range. • 5)2D distributions of lattice temperature for the heat transfer model.and Y. 1. . • 8)Quantum well subband structure with valence mixing model for quantum devices. the carrier energy transport equa- tions. or a quantum well. electric field and current distributions. • 6)Band diagrams under various bias conditions.parameters. • 12)All of the above as a function of time (transient model). Hydrodynamic models for hot carriers with either field or energy dependent mobility. self-consistently. • 4)2D distributions of hot carrier temperatures in the hydrodynamic model. Thermionic emission model for carrier transport across a graded or abrupt heterojunction. • 9)2D distributions of occupancy and concentration of deep level traps in a semiconductor. Heat transfer equations with flexible thermal boundary conditions and ar- bitrary temperature dependent parameters. Impact ionization model with either field or energy dependent impact ion- ization coefficients. • 11)Spontaneous emission spectrum as a function of current for LED’s. Extraction of 2-port AC parameters such S.

1. • 8. Deep level trap and trap dynamic models are implemented to allow for the accurate model of semi-insulating and insulating materials. . A large number of material models have been implemented. Quantum well subbands are solved using a k. the PC-version has become more popular lately. Guided optical modes (multimode model) may be solved for arbitrary com- plex refractive index distribution. SiGe. Flexible format for material parameter input enables the user to create his/her own material models using standard syntax of Fortran and C. • 9.5 Computer Platforms 1-7 • 5. InGaAsP and others new compound materials. • 6. • 10. Low-temperature simulation can be performed down to 77K and below. These include Silicon.5 Computer Platforms APSYS was originally developed on the UNIX platform and was later ported to the IBM-PC/Intel platform. 1. Frenkel-Poole model of field induced impurity ionization is implemented for some new compound materials. AlGaAs. Because of increased PC speed and availability of PC-based graphic user interface.p theory. • 11. • 7.

1-8 INTRODUCTION .

1.1 Installation for IBM-PC/Windows 2. Versions specific instructions may come with installation CD or with downloads.1.1 System Requirements The basic system requirements are IBM-compatible PC with 50 Meg of memory. The program may be launched from the Start-¿Programs menu. It is recommended that memory of over 250 Meg be available since virtual memory/swap space is much slower.2 Installation The installshield will guide you through the installation process.1. later versions of Windows 2000 or XP be used. 2.3 Installation Directories The simulation package consists of several excutables and a number of auxiliary files under directory c : \crosslig\apsys\ The examples are under c : \crosslig\apsys examples\ The graphic user interface (GUI) program files are placed under c : \crosslig\GUI\ .Chapter 2 INSTALLATION 2. 150 Meg of hard disk space on c: drive and 250 Meg of swap space. It is also recommended that the more stable. 2.

Change to such a directory and type the following command Apsys < inputf ile > [enter] where < inputf ile > (say. apsys.gz. The minimum free disk space is 50 Mb. To set the path. it does require the system to reserve a fairy large amount of hard disk space for swapping purposes. The virtual memory requirement (run-time memory) is 32 Mb or higher. hard disk space is very inexpensive these days. For details on how to create an input-file with statements.z) for the convenience of data transfer. you may need to use the UNIX command pwd (for print working directory) to find out absolute path of the installation directory.tgz or apsys. Although APSYS does not use a lot of RAM in run time.2-10 INSTALLATION 2.2 Installation for UNIX 2. copy the shell script Apsys to a directory where example input files are placed.tar.tar” (or the compressed version: apsys. A common error message for insufficient swap space is “not enough memory”. . Fortunately.2. consult the remaining part of the manual. The swap space is very important for APSYS to run properly. APSYS is supported on the following UNIX OS: Solaris.tar. camel. 2.2.geo) is a file containing input statements recog- nized by APSYS. You will also need to give executable permission to the shell script as follows chmod u+x Apsys [enter] chmod u+x Layer [enter] To run the simulator. It really means not enough swap hard disk space. Expansion of this file results in an installation directory named APSYS/. HP-UX and LINUX. The executables and auxiliary files are placed under AP SY S/bin/ The examples are in AP SY S/apsys examples/ You need to edit the shell script file AP SY S/Apsys The purpose is to set the path so that the computer may find the executables and related files. The minimum swap space is 250 Mb.1 System Requirements Presently.2 Installation Procedure The APSYS package is usually contained in a single file named “apsys.

2.mac and more. APSYS Reference Manual.crosslight. However. it is useful to pay attention to the following files: crosslight.3 Important Files You will not need to understand or modify most of the files that come with installa- tion.com and permision for copying is given for educational or academic purposes.2.3 Documentation The APSYS software package comes with the following documents: Crosslight Software General Description. All Crosslight Software manuals and documents are available for download in electronic form from the website www. You may modify these files to enter your own material parame- ters.tab contains a list of statements recognized by Crosslight simualtors. users should be prepared to consult the LASTIP User’s Manual or PICS3D User’s Manual. .3 Documentation 2-11 2. crosslight.2. APSYS User’s Manual. and User’s Guide to Crosslight Graphic User Interface Since some of the capabilities are illustrated through examples of another product of Crosslight Software.mac contains a material macros libraries used by Crosslight software.

2-12 INSTALLATION .

Applying the exe- cutable of the APSYS program on these input files activates the numerical simulation. 3. These are described in the following sections. The statements have been invented by the programmers of APSYS to allow the user to interact with the program. Here [fullpath] is the full path of executable (for example c:\crosslig\apsys\).exe <inputfile> [enter] on MS-DOS prompt for Windows or Shell prompt for UNIX. These are used to input the device geometry and generate the mesh. .Chapter 3 GETTING STARTED 3.exe. If the the GUI is bothering you or not functioning for any reason.exe.) that comes with the package to run the input files. it is recommended that you use the shell scripts (Such as Apsys. a Graphic User Interface (GUI) is used to help running the program so that most actions can be controlled using point and click. An input file contains a collection of statements (or commands) recognized by the APSYS program. layer. you have to type the full path of the executable program correctly (or use a batch file to avoid repeated typing).plt . etc. On UNIX. solve the equations and plot the results. For Windows.1 Running APSYS An APSYS simulation is controlled by one or more input files.) have been created to facilitate the creation of these input files. respectively. A number of interface programs (setupapsys.geo. you can always go back to the basics and use the MS-DOS prompt. This means simply: [fullpath]apsys. There are three basic input file types with different file extensions: . However. These are used to set the environmental variables and set the paths before running the program. Layer.2 Getting Started on Windows IMPORTANT : PLEASE ATTACH THE SUPPLIED SECURITY KEY TO YOUR .sol and . You may also request and use the a GUI on X-windows to help create the input files. etc.

sol input files?” Our advise is to study the devices included in the examples and in many cases you can simply cut and paste them to your own input files.geo . We will simulate a simple camel diode device which has been included with this package.layer from the left window. Launch the SimuCenter. 9. The example should have been installed in the directory drive letter : \crosslig\apsys examples\A tutorial\ 1.std 00# choose ”Open with CrosslightView”. you can then start the simulator. It may take a while for the simulation to finish.layer . Go to the folder drive letter : \crosslig\apsys examples\A tutorial\ 3.geo file) we need to generate mesh points later needed by the main simulator. 5. 7.layer to import all files of this project into the SimuCenter. 3. 2. User right-key to select camel. ”how do I create those .layer . which are input files needed by the main simulator.1 Walking Through an Example The fastest way of learning a new software package is to follow some simple examples. or b) User right-key to select camel. Also you can setup most of the input files using auxiliary programs that comes with the installation.geo from a .geo . If the mesh looks fine.sol.geo and choose ”Generate Mesh” from the right-key pop up menu. Click on the camel.2. That’s it! You may be asking yourself. THE PROGRAM WILL NOT RUN WITHOUT IT.layer file. Let us go through an example with you. right-key menu may prompt you to use the command line program SetupApsys to set up an input file from scratch. This may be done by clicking start-¿programs- ¿APSYS-¿SimuApsys. you can view your results using one of the following approaches: a) User right-key to select camel. Choose ”Process layer file”. 6. To do this: User right-key to select camel. Once the SimuCenter is open. To do this : Use right-mouse-key to select camel. 4. You can generate . choose ”File” from the menu bar and scroll down to ”Open”. User right-key to select camel. To view the mesh points.3-14 GETTING STARTED PARALLEL (PRINTER ) PORT. Given device geometry (. Once the main simulation is finished. 8. then click on ”Open”. You should see files with extension .mplt and choose ”View Mesh” from the right-key pop up menu. a right-key menu will pop up. .sol and choose ”Start the simulation” from the right-key pop up menu.plt and choose ”View Restuls” from the right-key pop up menu. For example.

3. Given device geometry (. To do this. To do this. 3. you can run the main simulator as follows: Apsys camel.sol.3. . You should see files with extension . If the mesh looks fine.geo 5. Files with extension .plt . To plot the the mesh points in Postscript format.geo .plt and change ”postscript” to ”x11” if you wish to view the results directly on X-windows.layer 4.3 Getting Started for UNIX IMPORTANT : BE SURE TO SET THE PATHS IN THE SHELL SCRIPTS Apsys and Layer.geo from a . Once the simulation is finished.plt > camel. 6. which are input files needed by the main simulator. type: Apsys camel. You can generate . Let us go through some examples with you.layer file. we need to generate mesh points later needed by the main simulator. copy the scripts Apsys and Layer to and go to the above example directory. We will simulate a simple camel diode device which has been included in the APSYS/apsys examples/basic examples/camel diode 1.mplt and change ”postscript” to ”x11” if you wish to view the results directly on X-windows.sol 7. 2.ps You may edit camel.mplt > camel m.1 Walking Through an Example The fastest way of learning a new software package is to follow some simple exam- ples. you can view your results in Postscript format as follows: Apsys camel.ps You may edit camel.layer . Please see comments in the scripts on how to set the paths. type Layer camel.3.geo file).mplt contains instructions on how you visualize simulation results and the grid distributions.3 Getting Started for UNIX 3-15 3. type: Apsys camel.

Also you can use the utility SetupApsys to help setup the input files.3-16 GETTING STARTED 8.layer .geo . . ”how do I create those .sol input files?” Our advise is to study the devices included in the examples and in many cases you can simply cut and paste them to form your own device input files. That’s it! You may be asking yourself.

1. we can replace R(z. the original R(z.1) The optical oscillation term exp(jω) did not appear in the equations for CW because they all cancel out. t) = [R(z. t) = RΩ (z)exp(jΩt)dΩ (4. we are able to decouple the slow and fast terms and only consider the component for one slow frequency Ω << ω. t)exp(jβ0 z)]φ(y)exp(jωt) + ∆E(y. t)exp(−jβ0 z) + L(z. 4. t) by RΩ (z)exp(jΩt). while a typical external modulation biasing source is no more than 10 GHz ( 1 × 1010 Hz). the mode amplitude varies slowly. t) = [RΩ (z)exp(−jβ0 z) + LΩ (z)exp(jβ0 z)]φ(y)exp[j(ω + Ω)t] . As we mentioned earlier. We assume that the external bias source has a frequency much smaller than the optical frequency ω. We derive the large signal model along the same lines as for CW. t)exp(jωt) (4. z. This assumption is reasonable since the typical optical frequency is 3 × 1014 Hz.Chapter 4 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS This chapter provides a description of the theories unique to the APSYS simulation software.1 Time-Dependent Traveling Wave Equations 4. z. The propagating field becomes: E(y. We consider a propagating field of the following form: E(y. t) can be obtained by an inverse Fourier transfer: Z R(z. Therefore.2) Similar arguments can be used for all other slow varying quantities. Physical and numerical models common to all simulation packages of Crosslight are detailed in a separate Crosslight Software General Description. That is. z. Once we have solved RΩ (z).1 The Coupled Mode Theory In this section we consider a time-dependent (or large signal model) situation where the mode amplitude varies with time as a result of external time dependent bias.

5) ∂z vg vg 2 where gm is the modal gain.4) ∂z vg vg 2 ( ) ∂ ∆Ω ∆ω gm − αi −j −j + − h1 LΩ (z) − (h1 + jh2 )RΩ (z) = 0 (4.2 Optical Amplifier Model Optical amplifier is a special case where the coupling coefficient is negligible so that we only consider the traveling wave in one direction.1. t) = 0 (4. t) − (h1 + jh2 )R(z. All we need to do is to replace ω by (ω + Ω) everywhere in the derivation. we multiply the above equations with exp(jΩt) and integrate over Ω. h1 and h2 are coupling coefficient from 1st and 2nd (if applicable) oder diffractions. . We consider the much simplified equation as follows: ( ) ∂ 1 ∂ gm − αi + − R(z. t) = 0 (4.6) ∂z vg ∂t vg 2 ( ) ∂ 1 ∂ ∆ω g − αi − −j + − h1 L(z. For an optical amplifier. t) = 0 (4. we are only interested in a single optical frequency so that ∆ω = 0 in the above equations.8) ∂z vg ∂t 2 If we assume that the optical gain and the internal loss are constants. Since the slow frequency Ω is much smaller than ω. t) = FR (z − vg t)exp z (4. To perform the inverse Fourier transform. all the derivation steps for CW applies to our large signal analysis here.7) ∂z vg ∂t vg 2 4. the above expression is identical to that for CW except ω is replace by (ω + Ω). z)exp[j(ω + Ω)t] (4. we have the following simple solution: gm − αi   R(z. t) + (h1 + jh2 )L(z.4-18 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS + ∆EΩ (y.9) 2 where FR (z − vg t) is the envelop function determined by the initial boundary condi- tion of the wave guide. We end up with the following coupled mode theory for one slow frequency component: ( ) ∂ ∆Ω ∆ω gm − αi +j +j − + h1 RΩ (z) + (h1 + jh2 )LΩ (z) = 0 (4. We obtain the following time dependent coupled wave equations: ( ) ∂ 1 ∂ ∆ω g − αi + +j − + h1 R(z.3) Formally.

Therefore. zk )|φk (y)|2Sl (zk ) (4.4. t − ∆t)exp (gm (z) − αi (z))dz .11) here the integral affects all of the yz-mesh points between zk−1 to zk . we just use linear interpolation. . z)s(y. zk ) = vg g(y. We then choose the next time internal as ∆t = ∆z/vg . z) = vg g(y.13) Then we can use the linear density to express the stimulated recombination as follows: Rst (y. At each subsection at zk .1 Time-Dependent Traveling Wave Equations 4-19 In general. For example. For the drift-diffusion solver. The optical power propagates according to the following formula: "Z # zk Sl (zk . To obtain a self-consistent solution. The coupling is mainly through the stimulated recom- bination term which we must work out in detail: Rst (y. We divide the longitudinal direction into many uniform subsections with distance of ∆z. If the time interval is different from ∆z/vg . then we must take linear interpo- lations.. 4. For simplicity.10) ∂z vg ∂t where Sl is the linear photon density. t) = Sl (zk−1 .. t) = 0 (4. we ignore the phase part of the traveling wave equation and only consider the power or photon density traveling wave: ( ) ∂ 1 ∂ + − (gm − αi ) Sl (z. Nz (4. we can use the following numerical technique to solve the above equation.1. 2. if the time interval is much smaller than ∆z/vg .12) where g is the local gain and s is the local bulk photon density. . we solve for the transverse mode as φk (y) so that Z |φk (y)|2 dxdy = 1 (4. Suppose we have solved for the wave at t0 as R0 (zk ) where k is the subsection label. the gain and loss are functions of position and time. z) (4.3 Self-consistency Issues of Traveling Wave Model We consider a simple case of wave propagation in yz-plane and solve the drift- diffusion equation on this 2D plane. we must enhance the matrix by an order of Nz and derive new Jacobian matrix with dependence on Sl (zk ). The distribution of wave at Zk for the next time interval is determined by R0 (zk−1 ) times the exponential factor which depends on the local gain (thus the importance of self-consistency). zk−1 k = 1.. we must solve the above Nz equations with the drift-diffusion equation. then the propagation of wave at Zk is from a point between Zk−1 and Zk .14) If a yz-mesh point is between two z-mesh points.

5 Other Related Documents The optical amplifier module uses the optical gain function as a function of carrier density and optical frequency. In this section. Interested readers are encouraged to consult Ref. current. For amplifier model. 3) Continuous emission spectrum must be considered for LED while longitudinal modes of laser only requires a limited number of lasing wavelengths. ie. 4. In APSYS transient simulation we need to use the multiple variable scan capability to variable time. Once the basic formulas are established.1. These are denoted “light” and “light2”. Also we use stimulated recombination term to describe both gain and loss of the guided traveling wave. All of the above documentation can be obtained free of charge for our customers from Crosslight Software Inc.1 Introduction Light emitting diode (LED) is different from laser diode (LD) and deserves special treatment for the following reasons: 1) LED operates well below lasing threshold while theories of lasers almost always assumes lasing condition.4 Implementation in APSYS Implementation of the optical amplifier model is rather convenient in APSYS because APSYS has already had model for photo sensitive devices with light as input.2. emission vertical to the semiconductor surface. Many of the theories here were initially formulated by Henry [61] for laser diode and semiconductor optical amplifiers. The optical mode solution along the y-direction using the effective index method can also be found in the above Manual.. we attempt to establish the basic theories for LED emission for emission in one direction.1. The detailed derivation of the coupled mode theory can be found in the PICS1D or PICS3D User’s Manuals. we will extend it to emisison in other directions. .2 Theories of Light Emitting Diodes 4. This allows us to use a simple 1D model to formulate our theory.. up to two wavelengths of input light source can be used. light and light2 simultaneously. 4) The randomness of spontaneous recombination in LED in contrast to the coherence of laser modes which affects the near and farfield models. 2) Absence of simu- lated recombination in LED.4-20 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS 4. We find that the same theories are also appli- cable for LED’s. 4. The user is refer to the LASTIP User’s Manual for a detailed description of the optical gain function. This is convenient if one light source is pulsed and the other is CW background light. [61]. The difference is that we use guided traveling wave to describe the optics.

4. We consider a waveguide with well confined lateral / transverse modes ( we will call it xy-mode model). Also pardon our detailed. we must treat as many modes as possible since they all contribute to the emission power because of the non-coherent nature of spontaneous emission. The theoretical bases regarding the wave function. We later relax this con- dition to include the case with no optical confinement. Finally.16) We construct the following Wronskian: W = Z1 (z)Z20 (z) − Z2 (z)Z10 (z) = [r1 exp(jkz) + exp(−jkz)] [jkexp(jkz) − jkr2 exp(2jkL − jkz)] −[exp(jkz) + r2 exp(2jkL − jkz)] [jkr1 exp(jkz) − jkexp(−jkz)] = −r1 exp(jkz)jkr2 exp(2jkL − jkz) +exp(−jkz)]jkr1 exp(jkz) +r1 exp(jkz)jkexp(−jkz) −r2 exp(2jkL − jkz)jkr1 exp(jkz) = 2jk[1 − r1 r2 exp(2jkL)] (4. the Wronskian and the “Dif- fusion” coefficient and its relation to semiconductor spontaneous recombination are covered in Appendix A.15) Z2 (z) = exp(jkz) + r2 exp(2jkL − jkz)] (4. LED may be regarded as a special case of Fabry-Perot laser. only a limited number of highly coherent and highly powered modes are considered. while in the case of LD.18) .2 Fabry-Perot Cavity and LED This section is devoted to power emission for light emitting diodes (LED’s).2 Theories of Light Emitting Diodes 4-21 4.17) Consider the solution of the field in terms of the Green’s function: g(z. For simplicity. For a Fabry-Perot cavity from 0 to L. Please note that in LED.2. Later. we consider the following device configuration: The z-direction has a waveguiding structure which supports confined lateral/traverse modes. step-by-step derivation here since we wish to ensure the correct algebra as well as to educate our readers. We shall only use the results here. zs )Wn = Z1 (z)Z2 (zs )θ(zs − z) + Z2 (z)Z1 (zs )θ(z − zs ) (4. Without loss of generality. we assume throughout this section that the LED does not have any optical coatings so that light emitts directly from the semiconductor to the air. the two basic wave functions Z1 and Z2 are as follows: Z1 (z) = r1 exp(jkz) + exp(−jkz) (4. we consider a case where there are no confined modes (we call it uniform model). we will relax this constrain and consider a case only confined transverse modes in y direction exist (we call it y-mode model).

we ignore the interference terms when we consider energy flow so that |Z1 (z)|2 ≈ r12 exp(−2k 00 z) + exp(2k 00 z) (4. To a good approximation.23) We note that |Wn |2 varies between 4k 2 (1 − r1 r2 )2 and 4k 2 (1 + r1 r2 )2 rapidly.19) z 0 where f (zs ) is the noise term due to spontaneous emission the details of which can be found in Appendix A. The linear photon density (in units of 1/m) is given by 2ε0 nng < |E(z)|2 > X s(z)h̄ω∆ω = (4.21) 0 As usual. we take |Wn |2 = 4k 2 to simplify matters. The power emission spectrum may be calculated from left and right facets as follows: 1 − r12 X PL (ω)Deltaω = 2 vg 2ε0 nng < |E(0)|2 > (4.25) 1 + r1 n .24) n where the summation n is over different lateral modes. Consider the squared ensemble average Z L 2 < |E(z)Wn | > = < [Z1 (z) Z2 (zs )dzs f (zs ) z Z z + Z2 (z) Z1 (zs )dzs f (zs )] 0 Z L [Z1∗ (z) Z2∗ (zt )dzt f ∗ (zt ) z Z z + Z2∗ (z) Z1∗ (zt )dzt f ∗ (zt )] > (4.4-22 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS Z E(z)Wn = dzs f (zs )[Z1 (z)Z2 (zs )θ(zs − z) + Z2 (z)Z1 (zs )θ(z − zs )] Z L Z z = Z1 (z) Z2 (zs )dzs f (zs ) + Z2 (z) Z1 (zs )dzs f (zs ) (4.22) |Z2 (z)|2 ≈ exp(−2k 00 z) + r22 exp(−2k 00 (2L − z)] (4.20) 0 We note that the cross terms of the above four terms are zero since noise sources are uncorrelated. Z L < |E(z)Wn |2 > = |Z1 (z)|2 |Z2 (zs )|2 dzs f0 (zs ) z Z z 2 + |Z2 (z)| |Z1 (zs )|2 dzs f0 (zs ) 0 Z L = |Z1 (z)|2 |Z2 (zs )|2 dzs 2DF F (zs ) z Z z 2 + |Z2 (z)| |Z1 (zs )|2 dzs 2DF F (zs ) (4.

At the left facet Z L < |E(0)|2 >= |Z1 (0)|2 /|Wn |2 |Z2 (zs )|2 dzs 2DF F (zs ) (4. X PL (ω) = vg 2ε 0 nng n 1 + r12 4k 2 ε0 vg n2 0 (4. (4. the allow- able lateral states are confined within a circle of kx2 + ky2 < (ωn/c)2 (4. It can be adapted for different circumstances as follows.4. .30) n n 4k 2 0 The above formula is applicable for a waveguide with limited number of lateral / transverse modes (the xy-mode model).27) 1 + r12 4k 2 0 As we derived in Appendix A that the diffusion coefficient πh̄ 2DF F = h̄ω < n|rsp (ω)|n > . We assume all the modes overlaps with a uniform active region perfectly (uniform model) so that < n|n >= 1. Let us now count the number of allowable lateral modes at frequency ω. Please note the following relations: If we assume a large rectangular device active cross section.2 Theories of Light Emitting Diodes 4-23 where vg and ng are the group velocity and group index.29) Our key result for spontaneous emission power for an ω interval is as follows: 2ng π 1 L Z (1 − r12 ) |Z2(zs )|2 dzs (h̄ω) < n|rsp (E)|n > ∆E. X PL (ω)∆ω = (4. 1 − r12 (1 + r12 ) πh̄ L Z |Z2 (zs )|2 dzs h̄ω < n|rsp (ω)|n > . We consider a device cross section with active region large enough to accommo- date many different lateral modes in both x and y direction (the plane wave model or uniform model). respectively.32) Thus.26) 0 1 − r12 (1 + r12 ) L Z PL (ω) = vg 2ε 0 nng |Z2 (zs )|2 dzs 2DF F (zs ) (4. (ω/c)2 = kz2 + kx2 + ky2 (4. |n > is used to denote the wave function integral for the nth lateral mode.33) n where A is the active region cross section. if we consider all emissions in ±z direction. = Aπk 2 /(4π 2 ) = Ak 2 /(4π) X (4.28) ε0 vg n2 where rsp is the spontaneous emission rate at a photon frequency.31) At a fixed emission frequency.

the efficiency goes up as gain is increased.38) 6n 0 The integral is evaluated as follows: Z L Z L |Z2(z)|2 dz/L = dz/L[exp(−2k 00 z) + r22 exp(−2k 00 (2L − z)] 0 0 1 = [1 − exp(−2k 00 L)] 2k 00 L 1 2 − r exp(−4k 00 L)[1 − exp(2k 00 L)] (4. Thus ng Z L PL (ω)∆ω = (1 − r12 ) A |Z2(zs )|2 dzs (h̄ω)rsp (E)∆E.37) 6n 0 and the external efficiency for a case of uniform spontaneous emission medium is ng L Z ζext = (1 − r12 ) |Z2 (zs )|2 dzs /L (4.4.4-24 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS So far.34) 2n 4 < kz >2 0 The internal emission power from spontaneous emission is Z L Pspon (ω)∆ω = A dzs (h̄ωrsp(E))∆E. If we assume that rsp is reasonably uniform in z-direction.35) 0 The ratio of ζext = PL /Pspon gives us the LED external efficiency at a frequency in the left direction for such a highly multimode device. all of our models based on the Green’s function are one-dimensional. as it should be if the device is in a cubic shape. 4.1. the external efficiency for one facet is 1/6. As expected.36) 2n 4 < kz >2 0 We choose k 2 / < kz >2 = 4/3 so that in the limit of zero facet reflectivity and transparent material. We make a further approximation to replace kz by a certain average < kz > and remove the summation altogether: ng k2 L Z PL (ω)∆ω = (1 − r12 ) A |Z2 (zs )|2 dzs (h̄ω)rsp (E)∆E. (4. n = ng = 3. the external efficiency in one direction can be written as ng k2 L Z ζext = (1 − r12 ) |Z2 (zs )|2 dzs /L (4. we plot the single facet external efficiency of an LED with large active region cross section supporting many lateral modes (uniform model).39) 2k 00 L 2 To gain some insight into how the external efficiency of an LED depends on the gain/loss of the material.3. At . The result is shown in Fig. Thus the wave number k should be understood as kz if the actual propagation direction is not in z-direction. (4. (4. Parameters are chosen as follows: r12 = r22 = 0.

the external efficiency amounts to 1/6 for a single facet which accounts for 100 percent of light emission in one direction.8 -0.42) L 1 2 Z exp(−2k 00 L) |Z1 (z)|2 dz/L = r1 exp(−2k 00 L)[1 − exp(−2k 00 L)] 0 2k L 00 1 + [1 − exp(−2k 00 L)] 2k L 00 .3 External Efficiency 0.05 -1 -0.1: External efficiency versus relative gain (gL) of an LED with large active region cross section supporting many lateral modes.2 Theories of Light Emitting Diodes 4-25 0.15 0.35 0.41) 2k 00 L 2ng π 1 L Z (1−r22 ) |Z1 (zs )|2 dzs (h̄ω) < n|rsp (E)|n > ∆E. X PR (ω)∆ω = exp(−2k 00 L) n n 4k 2 0 (4. transparency. For example 2ng π 1 L Z (1−r12 )/(1+r22) |Z1 (zs )|2 dzs (h̄ω) < n|rsp (E)|n > ∆E.8 1 Relative Gain gL Figure 4.25 0.4 0.40) The integral is evaluated as follows: Z L Z L |Z1 (z)|2 dz/L = dz/L[r12 exp(−2k 00 z) + exp(2k 00 z)] 0 0 1 2 = r [1 − exp(−2k 00 L)] 2k 00 L 1 1 − [1 − exp(2k 00 L)] (4.2 0. Similar expression can be written for traveling waves in other directions.2 0.6 0.6 -0. X PR (ω)∆ω = Z2 (L) n n 4k 2 0 (4.4 0.4 -0.2 0 0.1 0.4.

However.2. Z k/ne1 Adkr2 /(4π) X = (4. only a small fraction of the light in ±z can escape from the LED simply because of the internal reflection anlge is much smaller than 90 degrees. we should only consider the wave vectors within this angle. 4.44) For the uniform model. 4.2: Schemtics showing the angle of refraction for an LED. 4. If the effective refractive index of the material is ne1 .30 taking into account the internal reflection angle.2): sinθmax = 1/ne1 (4. the efficiency from this result is overestimated because in reality.37 is obtained under rather ideal condition and assumes that all emission in ±z can escape from the LED. For a more acccurate theory. 4. 1 = [1 − exp(−2k 00 L)] 2k 00 L 1 2 − r exp(−4k 00 L)[1 − exp(2k 00 L)] (4. Thus we will only consider emission in one direction without loss of generality. the maximum internal reflcetion angle θmax (see also Fig.45) n 0 .3 Internal reflection and LED emission power The result in Eq.43) 2k 00 L 1 which is completely consistent with our result for the left facet. The result is useful for qualitative analysis regarding the dependence of gain/loss. we will re-evaluate Eq.4-26 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS Y Emission Air θ2 direction θ Semiconductor X Air Figure 4.

We need to evaluate the numerical factor as follows: fcone = 1 k/ne1 2 2 Z = dkr /(k − kz2 ) 8 0 n2e1 ! 1 = ln (4.49) 8 n2e1 − 1 It is clear that for an LED with simple configuration.46) Please note that the wave number in Eq. (4. Most of the emission power is lost due to internal facet reflection and absorption. The simulation program has switch to allow the user to include or exclude the effect . 4. The reduction factor in Eq. Only a small fraction (around 10 percent) escapes through a small cone vertical to the LED surface. the size of the active region facing the top is large enough to use the uniform model and thus Eq.2 Theories of Light Emitting Diodes 4-27 where kr2 = kx2 + ky2 (4. Therefore. 4. the main power limitation is set by the internal reflection angle. 4. For most applications in LED emission to the top surface.47) has a problem of consistency with the factor of 1/6 because the former does not reduce to the latter if the index of refraction tends to unity.50 is our model of choice.4.30 is to be understood as kz . (4.37 because the new numerical factor is much smaller: n2e1 ! 1 ln < 1/6 (4.48) 8n n2e1 − 1 0 Please note that the above emission power is much smaller than the ideal case in Eq. we should use the same approximation of < kz2 > /k 2 = 3/4 and obtain: fcone = 1 k/ne1 Z = dkr2 8 < kz2 > 0 1 = (4.47) 8 n2e1 − 1 The power emission from facet 1 (left) is n2e1 !Z Ang L PL (ω)∆ω = (1 − r12 ) ln |Z2 (zs )|2 dzs (h̄ω)rsp (E)∆E.50) 6n2e1 The above formula of cone reduction factor is preferred because it reduces to the idea case of no internal reflection if the index tends to unity.

the more power absorption occurs.50.4-28 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS of total internal reflection. Recall our basic result 2ng π 1 L Z (1−r12 ) |Z2 (zs )|2 dzs (h̄ω) < n|rsp (E)|n > ∆E. More details are discussed as follows. use of total reflection to assume that all lights being totally reflected are lost is an under- estimate because modern LED’s often have special geometric design to enable the lights being totally reflected to change directions and to escape the device. We can simplify mode summation in the x- direction as follows. In some cases. On the other hand.) The optical path is different (longer) when the emission angle is not vertical.53) 4 0 1 ne1 + 1  = ln 8 ne1 − 1 Then we obtain our result for y-mode model: Lx gl ng L Z r12 ) |Z2 (zs )|2 dzs (h̄ω) < n|rsp (E)|n > ∆E. (4. This represents an overestimate of emission in one direction. We consider three effects: • 1. • 2.4 Far field distribution We use a rather simple model to evaluate the far field distribution. it is useful to consider a case where only one direction (say y-direction) has confined modes (y-mode model) while the x-direction is unconfined with a large device dimension Lx . The longer the optical path.2. . • 3.) The power reflection r12 is a function of emission engle. 4.52) nx 0 Thus we need to evaluate the integral: 1 k/ne1 Z gl = dkr /(k 2 − kr2 ) (4.) Light direction change due to refraction causes a solid angle within the semicondcutor to be magnified upon refraction. such as emitting from the sides of a thin device with single mode confining waveguide.54) ny n k 0 4. the idea case of no internal reflection is used so that the power emission is calculated by setting index to unity in Eq. X PL (ω)∆ω = (1 − (4. By default.51) XX PL (ω)∆ω = nx ny n 4k 2 0 The number of available modes in the x-direction is simply X Z k/ne1 = Lx dkr /(2π) (4.

4.55) Thus the solid angle is amplified and the light intensity is reduced by a factor ! ! cosθ2 sinθ (4. An absorbed photon can produce a electron-hole pair. This process can continue on and on and is named photon recycling effect. 4. 4. reflection.3 Ray Tracing Simulation 4-29 It is reasonable to assume that the spontaneous emission is random and have uni- form intensity in all directions within the semiconductor.3. The θ angle is is determined by the following equation (see also Fig. Consider emission within a solid angle ∆θ∆φ. we shall describe the theoretical backgrounds of the RT technique in the APSYS software. The photon recycling effect is taken into account through interaction of the RT results with the generation-recombination terms of the drift-diffusion module of the main APSYS solver. Let us put in the center a point source of light which emits rays of light in the form of many straight lines.3 Ray Tracing Simulation 4. In this section. and light energy flux distribution inside a device for further computation by main APSYS module.3. A unique feature of our ray tracing technique is the geometrical treatment com- bined with a wave optics approach. For simplicity consider a simple cubic crystal. ab- sorption and interference effects. Our model is able to simulate in 2/3 dimensions the angular distribution of the transmitted power of an LED. Then the electron-hole pair can produce a photon again through spontaneous emission.2 Basic ideas The basic assumption in RT is that a ray of light travels in a straight line within a uniform medium.4. as we will describe in later subsections.1 Introduction Ray tracing (RT) is a modeling technique based on treating light waves as an ensem- ble of geometrical rays reflected and refracted off material boundaries.2): ne1 cosθ∆θ = cosθ2 ∆θ2 (4.56) ne1 cosθ sinθ2 where the 2nd factor is due to angular integration in ∆φ. taking into account refraction. This technique is most suitable for optical systems where geometrical nature of the optics is more important than the wave nature. A good example is light emitting diode where the light source is spontaneous emission with randomized phase information while the coherent effect is not significant since the dimension of the cavity is much larger than the wavelength. The following can happen to a ray: . domed LED.

polarized light as a function of angle of incidence For light source from spontaneous emission. the ray is said to have transverse magnetic (TM) polarization.and TM. For example. the reflection coefficient (amplitude ratio) of the TE. The last outcome is possible only when the external medium has the same refrac- tive index as the crystal. • It splits into reflected and transmitted rays.and magnetic.5 (typical for GaAs). If the electric field vector is normal to the plane of incidence.3: The reflection coefficient (amplitude ratio) TE. Such an angle is called critical or total internal reflection angle. if the magnetic field vector is normal to the plane of incidence. it is totally reflected back. Also due to the wave nature of light there is a dependence on polarization of the electro.polarized light as a func- tion of the angle of incidence can be plotted as Figure 4.5 degrees in our case. On the other hand. Figure 4.4-30 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS • It returns back into crystal completely due to total internal reflection and no fraction of light power goes outside. As you can see if light impinges a surface at an angle greater then around 16. if our crystal has a refractive index of 3. as is the case in an LED.3.field vectors with respect to the plane of incidence. The first two depend on incident light angle and relative refractive indices of the external medium and the crystal. the ray is said to have transverse electric (TE) polarization. the light wave does not have a definite polarization. • It transmits to the outside completely.and TM. A ray emitted from such a source should .

we can express the coherence length of the wave as follows c λ2 L= =− (4.4) must be considered. the second is the treat it as having fifty-fifty TE-TM model (i. 50% TE-portion and 50% TM-portion in wave).57) ∆f ∆λ . Figure 4. It is even difficult to imagine how a single ray of light undergoes multiple reflection and refraction in a multi-box structure. two ap- proaches can the used: The first is to treat a ray as having random polarization. Metal contacts of different kinds can also be supported.4: The rays undergo multiple reflections/refractions within a device until some of them will are absorbed and others emitted outside.3 Coherent and incoherent lights Our RT model needs to treat both coherent and incoherent waves and we shall start with some discussion about the coherence of light here. the RT program can handle a multi-box structure with some boxes containing distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR). The latter approach was implemented because both of them produce the same results. The RT model tracks down all those rays within the multi-box structure until they are either absorbed by the material or emitted outside of the device. 4. Presently.3 Ray Tracing Simulation 4-31 be regarded as having random polarization. Based on Fourier transform theories in the analysis related to the Wiener-Khintchine theorem[68].e. To simulate such as source.3.4. The situation is more complicated if multiple rays from multiple source points (see Figure 4. Most real optoelectronic devices consist of a multi-box structure rather than a single crystal box.

complex refractive indexes. We thus conclude that geometrical optics approach treating rays as independent and non-interfering waves is valid.5 shows a ray being traced in an absorbing media. which is smaller than the dimension of a typical LED.angular frequency of this wave. .05 µm. Figure 4. The coherence length using the above formula works out to be about 14 µm.5: Ray tracing in an absorbing media When dealing with coherent waves. The following equation shows the electric field of a simple plane-polarized plane wave propagating along Z-axis: E = E exp(i(ωt − (2πN/λ)Z)) (4. λ is the wavelength of the light in free space. ω . The coherence length may be used to judge the suitability of geometric or wave approaches of the simulation. k is the extinction coefficient defined as the imaginary part of the complex refractive (optical) index. Figure 4.4-32 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS where ∆f (and thus ∆λ) is the spectral line-width of the quasi-monochromatic ra- diation. Take the example of a GaAs LED emitting at 0.59) where E is the vector amplitude. field strength and phase factor. A typical line-width of the spontaneous emission of the LED is 0. Its intensity can be written as a function of distance Z as follows: I = I0 exp(−4πkZ/λ) (4.58) where I0 is the wave intensity of the light source. N .85 µm. The optical power carried by a ray traveling in a semiconductor decays due to the absorption by the material. The resultant amplitudes of transmitted waves are converted back into units of power [69]. we use a ray model that carries polarization (TE/TM).

let us consider a single ray carrying with it some initial power (Figure 4. we combine the geometrical treatment of the non-coherent light ray propagation and coherent interactive plane-polarized har- monic waves.3.7) The following is Fresnel amplitude reflection and transmission coefficient at oblique incidence for TE-polarized wave [69]: N1 cos α − N2 cos β re = (4.6: The difference in simulation for two physical approaches To compare two physical approaches in our simulation.4.3 Ray Tracing Simulation 4-33 Figure 4.60) N1 cos α + N2 cosβ 2N1 cos α te = (4.4 Reflection and refraction Let us consider simple boundary (Figure 4.6).62) N1 cos β + N2 cosα . and metal contacts. multi- layer structures. 4.61) N1 cos α + N2 cosβ for TM-polarized wave: N1 cos β − N2 cos α rm = (4. To simulate the complicated structures that consist of a main structure.

9 show in general how the program works.66) N1∗ cos β where ∗ denotes complex conjugate.63) N1 cos β + N2 cosα The resultant amplitude transmission and reflection coefficient t and r are con- verted into transmittance and reflectance using the expressions: Re = Rm = rr ∗ (4. it is efficient to separately simulate such substructures as DBR’s and store the substructure response to incident rays to a special data base. Re .3.5 Ray tracing program design Since a large number of rays needs to be generated and traced. the substructure may be used by the main RT program as a black-box with well defined input/output. . 4.real part of complex numbers. 4. This way. Figures 4.64) tt∗ Re(N2 ) cos β Te = (4.8.4-34 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS Figure 4. The above power transmittance and reflectance here are used in both approaches mentioned above.65) N1∗ cos α tt∗ Re(N2 ) cos α Tm = (4.7: Propagation of a light ray from a dense to a rarer medium (n1 > n2) 2N1 cos β tm = (4.

4.3 Ray Tracing Simulation 4-35 Figure 4.8: Flow-chart shows in general how the RT program works .

9: Flow-chart of the main RT module. .4-36 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS Figure 4.

This can enhance the simulation accuracy. Another model is to consider the metal electrode as semi-transparent with a certain complex refractive index and to treat it as a thin layer. If the thickness of metal film is comparable with light wavelength we should take into account interference between two reflected waves . 2. Also there is an option to emit the power from every active mesh- point generated by the APSYS main simulator. When an electromagnetic radiation is incident from semiconductor onto the surface of a significant absorbing medium such as metal contact. It is well known that the internal efficiency of an LED is usually high (close to unity) while the external efficiency is only a small fraction of unity. One is a model of an opaque mirror with user defined power reflectance. There is also interference between transmitted waves. the formulas mentioned previously using complex index of refraction of absorbing media are applicable. we need to consider the re-absorption carefully. This is due to the fact that a large fraction of the generated light is never emitted from the device. Table 4. we have implemented a multiple layer metal contact model as part of the transparent contact description. another from metal-air interface. but trapped by total internal reflection and eventually reabsorbed by the semiconductor. 3. Let us analyze the three major events of while a ray travels within a device: 1. Two different models are implemented to simulate metal contacts.3 Ray Tracing Simulation 4-37 Different models are implemented to simulate the emission source of a LED in the 2D ray tracing module. A certain fraction of photons will be reflected back at the semiconductor-air interface. Taking into consideration that multiple layers of metals may be used to improve both the optical transmittance and the electrical conductivity for the contacts.4. . The emitted photons can be reabsorbed in the semiconductor by creating electron-hole pairs in the active layer. The light source can be a point source.one reflects from semiconductor- metal interface.1 presents a list of refractive indices for some materials that can be used for the semi-transparent contact model. In our 3D ray tracing module. the reflection. Therefore. Some photons impinge upon the surface with angles greater than the critical angle thus suffering total internal reflection. Let us consider the first event. According to this model light emits from a few equal-spaced points with uniform spatial angular distribution of rays directions. absorption and transmittance of con- tacts are calculated using the 2x2 matrix method for monochromatic plane waves [68]. a line source or continuous source. The line source model in the 2D ray tracing module becomes a model of plane source in the 3D ray tracing module.

4-38 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS Table 4.1: Complex index of refraction of some metals and semiconductors by wave- length .

0. the reflection coefficient for vertical incident light is ns − na 2   R= (4.g.. The formula (4. the governing semiconductor model of all Crosslight’s device simulation software packages.71) ns + na For a GaAs LED. As it was mentioned before. The optical generation rate is equal to the number of the injected photons per second. For non-vertical incident light the situation .68) j ∂t ∂t Where Gphr is the photon recycling generation rate component. of photons injected per unit area per second).70) V Let us consider the second and third events. We refer to the chapter of DRIFT-DIFFUSION MODEL of the General Manual.69) is just the definition of the absorption coefficient: α = (No. of photons absorbed per unit volume per second) / (No. Φs is the light intensity or the flux density of the light energy. i. this is the photon recycling effect.69) for the electron-hole pairs generation rate is correct if the absorption coefficient is not too large and the variables are not changing with co- ordinates too sharp.4. (4.67) j ∂t ∂t ∂p ∂fA Rptj + Rsp + Rst + Rau − Gopt (t) − Gphr = − X ∇ · Jp + + NA . An expression for Gphr can be calculated using the formula [?]: Φs Gphr = α (4.e.66. (4. na =1. 33% of the photons cannot get through.33. These equations govern the electrical behavior (e.3 Ray Tracing Simulation 4-39 The absorbed emitted photons can produce the electron-hole pairs. I-V characteristics) of a semiconductor device that in turn influence the internal and external efficiency.. ∂n ∂fD Rntj − Rsp − Rst − Rau + Gopt (t) + Gphr = X ∇ · Jn − + ND . Otherwise it would be better to use the exact formula. If ns is the refractive index of the semiconductor and na the index of air. if we choose ns =3.69) h̄ω Where α is the absorption coefficient. we get a reflectance of 0. The equation (4. The photon recy- cling effect may be taken into account with addition of a new term Gphr in the recombination-generation term in the drift-diffusion as follows. That is why the electrical-optical simulation should be self-consistently. or photon flux (Popt /h̄ω) per unit volume (V ) multiplied by the quantum efficiency η: Popt /h̄ω Gphr = η (4. Gphr depends on the light energy absorbed per volume of semiconductor.

4.4-40 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS Figure 4.10 shows an example of the Gaussian power distribution depending on the incident angle for the beam with angle deviation equals 20 degrees. or create completely scattered beam using a big enough value of the devi- ation. the maximum light spectra of spontaneous emission. radius of curvature of the emitted side.3. . this model allows us to create also rigorously parallel beam by using a small enough value of the deviation. At internal reflection. The Ray Tracing technique is appropriate where the refractive index varies slowly over the wavelength of light.10: An example of the Gaussian power distribution depending on the inci- dent angle for the beam with angle deviation equals 20 degrees is even worse. However. and the dome refractive index. That is why we have implemented a capability to simulate LEDs encapsulated into epoxy dome. As a rule for most devices where the Ray Trace method is applicable the error due to such approximations is insignificant. all power is reflected. Figure 4. height. the device can be encapsulated in a dielectric dome which has a lower refractive index than the semiconductor. To build a dome around a LED a few simple parameters are used.6 Limitations of the ray tracing method Using the geometrical optics or ray optics is adequate where wave or quantum nature of light can be neglected. such as dome width. For photodetectors the main model of the incident light beam is Gaussian distri- bution with variable standard deviation of the incident angle. To avoid this excessive reflection. Our Ray Tracing Simulator deals with only one wavelength of light.

7 Illustrative results by ray tracing This subsection is to help better understand the ray tracing technique advantages. the number of secondary rays due to multi-reflection can reach more than a few million. The portion of power emitted into spatial angle measured in Watts per stereo-radian (with scaling factor) depending on angles of spherical coordinate system (θ and φ) is used in three dimensions LED simulation. according to [69]. showed that acceptable error (less than 1%) for the ray tracing simulation can be reached at the value of the imaginary part of the optical refractive index less then 0. For comparative analysis we assign source of light with relative 100% of the power.10−1 which is sufficient to cover most of most of the multi-layer structures in a semiconductor device. It should be noted that in order to simulate the metal contact properly one should choose parameters model taking into consideration the existence of an interface layer. That puts a huge demand on memory and runtime. Calcu- lation. At a small absorp- tion. It is a portion of power in Watts per one degree depending on directional angle in two dimensions simulation. 4. Such data can be generated by Ray Tracing program. the num- ber of the secondary ray will also be increased. one can use the value of the percentage of the transmitted power.3 Ray Tracing Simulation 4-41 The most difficult part of the ray tracing simulation is to get accurate results for multi-layer structures in absorbing medium using wave optics approach. Other than the absolute value of the transmitted power. The demo diagrams presented in this subsection were made on the base of Ray Tracing Simulator’s results with some additional treatment in order to lighten understanding. One is to compare simplified structures with similar sizes and different shapes. Simply running the program cannot reproduce some of them directly. that truncated- .. Our model for the domed LED uses the simplification that emitted light does not come back from the dome into semiconductor again.4. That is why at a small absorption. the error can be large due to accumulation of the calculation errors.2. It was reported before [70]. It gives accurate results in most cases when the dome refractive index is less then semiconductor refractive index or/and dimensions of the dome are large compare with device dimensions. The first restriction is that the incident medium must be sufficiently free of absorption for acceptable small errors. It is useful when there is a need to optimize geometry of a certain structure in order to get the most efficient output. Let us consider some simple examples.. If we increase given program precision. Analysis that was carried by [69] showed the difficulties in getting accurate results by solving Maxwell’s equation under some conditions. Please note the following. In our RT program. Also each reflection adds a small error to the final sum. One of the used output data is the angular distribution of the transmitted light power.3. an acceptable value of the imaginary part of the optical refractive index is in a range 10−6 . Two other problems appear when the absorption is too small.

11: Angular distribution of the transmitted power: the cubic (a) and TIP (b) structures inverted-pyramid (TIP) chip geometry provided substantial improvement in light extraction efficiency.4-42 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS Figure 4. Figure 4. We compared cubical and TIP geometry cross-section. These simulations al- lowed us to define how much the difference in optical extraction for domed and non-domed LED due to the Fresnel loss. there are significant differences in the angular distribution and transmitted power for these two struc- tures. Figure 4. We simulated resonant cavity LED (RCLED) with different DBR-substructures.13 shows an example of the ray tracing simulations for the non-encapsulated and the same encapsulated LED.6 shows results of such simulations.14 presents the comparative analysis of the ray tracing simulations for the LEDs with different shape domes. Figure 4. As you can see. Fig- ure 35.12 shows the angular distribution of the transmitted power for the sim- plest multi-box structure with different complex optical indexes. . Also we simulated LEDs encapsulated into epoxy dome.

. Using our software can decrease such unwanted effects.3 Ray Tracing Simulation 4-43 Figure 4.17 shows results of our simulations for some DBR structure. Another useful result one can get is from distribution of the light energy flux density. and emission distribution. As you can see from figures 4. It can differ distinctly depending on form of the structure. Figure 4.15 shows the reflectance deviation of some DBR- structure depending on distance between the edge and incident ray summed for all angles.16 explains the origin of the channeling effect. where most of the power gets lost as a result of material absorption while undergoing multiple internal reflections. refractive index. In photodetectors the loss of optical power during ray tracing appears at the transmission of the light into device.3. One can see the optical leakage due to channeling effect. As well our simulations of different DBR-structures allowed us to reveal a signif- icant optical leakage due to channeling effect [71. Figure 4.18. The ray tracing technique is an effective method to get detailed light energy distribution for the structures with complicated geometry. 4.12: A sample of the simplest structure with three different boxes The simulations were done also for DBR structures separately and allowed us to estimate edge effects. Figure 4. The channeling. or so-called waveguide effect appears near the angle of total internal reflection.8 Conclusions In LEDs the extraction of light from the device is the final step of the ray tracing. absorption. 72]. We analyzed simplified artificial structure to compare the boxes with different refractive indexes. the larger density is in the box with the larger real part of refractive index.4.

13: An example of the comparative analysis of the ray tracing simulations for the non-encapsulated and encapsulated LED .4-44 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS Figure 4.

14: An example of the comparative analysis of the ray tracing simulations for the LEDs with different shape domes Figure 4.3 Ray Tracing Simulation 4-45 Figure 4.15: Reflectance deviation of some DBR-structure depending on distance between the edge and incident ray summed for all angles .4.

4-46 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS Figure 4.4 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum Well Model 4.16: Explanation of the channeling effect The ray tracing simulation may be used in the following ways: • To design the LED structures with a certain angular distribution of the emitting power • To optimize structures to get the most efficient output of the emitting power for LEDs • To get the most sensitive photodetectors • To obtain accurate results for structures with complicated geometry • To discover important physical properties of the optoelectronic devices • To investigate new optoelectronic devices 4. The mobility of the strained MOS has been found to depend on the .1 Introduction MOSFET design based on strained Si or Si/SiGe quantum well in the conduction channel has been demonstrated to provide enhanced mobility and thus extend the performance of existing MOS technology[74]. The silicon channel may be strained using a relaxed SiGe material or through stress induced by thin films deposited on the MOS device.4.

4.17: Reflectance and transmittance (a). absorption and leakage (b) depend- ing on angle of incident ray for some DBR-structure .4 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum Well Model 4-47 Figure 4.

This will cause the lower and upper conduction band valleys to split from the other .18: Distribution of the light energy flux density inside of device for simplified artificial structure. Real part of refractive index for ”y”=0-50 equals 2.5. and for 70-120 equals 3. Thus it is necessary to establish a detailed anisotropic band structure model and associate the mobility enhancement effect with it.7.2 Band structure and strain orientation Let us consider the symmetry of silicon crystal when under stress.0 (active region). 4.4. This section is dedicated to the discussion of how Crosslight’s simulator takes into account the strain dependence in the band structure and mobility of a quantum MOS device. A common con- figuration of strained silicon is to use lattice constant difference between SiGe and Si to apply biaxial tensile stress in the plane of < 001 > (x-y plane in real space).4-48 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS Figure 4. orientation of the strain tensor[75][76]. for 50-70 equals 3.

the valence band is also anisotropic[81]. Crosslight’s simulator allows a maximum of three different valleys for the conduction band. In the linear approximation. the two valleys along the direction of the strain will have different energy than the others and we shall label these two valleys as ∆2 . Figure 4. For uniaxial in the (001) direction. a biaxial strain induces an uniaxial strain of opposite sign and vice versa[77][78].771 (4. it can be converted to those for uniaxial strain. It was found that the higher valence band in (001) direction is light hole while the effective mass appeared to be larger in other directions.72) Therefore. 4.4. D001 = 0. the six valleys may split into more than two energies. 4. Based on a recent theory. Then. We shall label these two valleys as ∆2 and other four as ∆4 with the subscript denoting the degeneracy. if data are available for biaxial strain. The other four valleys lying on a plane perpendicular to the direction of uniaxial stress is labeled ∆4 (see Fig.19: Schematics of conduction band valleys of silicon under biaxial in-plane stress. If the silicon crystal is not gown in (001) direction or if the uniaxial strain is not applied to directions of high symmetry. In general the valence band under strain is highly non-parabolic and this prevents a simple definition of curvature mass[77].20). It is also common to apply uniaxial stress in the plane of MOS interface grown in (001) direction. There was confusion in the literature whether the higher valence .4 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum Well Model 4-49 four valleys. Such a situation is represented by Fig. the relationship is eb = −D001 eu .19. The strained band structure parameters and mobilities are less well known for the valence band.

or general cx strain macro has been created to provide a tool to describe the strained silicon bands within the effective mass theory.4. 4. A special type of material macro. The strained silicon macro allows the specification of up to three conduction band and valence band valleys with anisotropic effective masses. [79] had already parameterize its results using second order polynomial which can easily be incorporated into our macros. For strained silicon grown on unstrained SiGe. For example Richard [81] and Fischetti and Laux [77] labeled the upper valence band as LH while other papers did it otherwise (see for example.p theory[81].4-50 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS Figure 4.22 and 4. 4.22 over a full range . Therefore. called the general complex strain macro. [82] and [83]). we mostly depend on the work of Rieger and Vogl [79] for band edges and electron effective masses. Ref. The lower and higher bandgaps based on parameter- ization by Rieger and Vogl[79] are plotted in Figs. At this time. band under tensile biaxial strain should be light hole (LH) or heavy hole (HH). the band structure of strained silicon is more difficult to model within the k. we prefer to treat the strain dependence of the valence band mass as a fitting parameter so that the hole mobility behavior can be understand within the frame work of our mobility model as detailed in later subsections. we rely on band theories described in the literature and parameterize the band structure as a function of strain or composition over a large range.20: Schematics of conduction band valleys of silicon under uniaxial in-plane stress.3 Band structure parameterization As compared with its strained counterparts in zincblende and wurtzite crystals.

.4. Figure 4. For silicon under uniaxial strain. of composition of SiGe/relaxed-SiGe.21: Lower bandgap parameterized over a full range of composition for Si(1- x)Ge(x)/relaxed-Si(1-y)Ge(y). we mostly rely on theoretical calculation of Fischetti and Laux [77]. Thus the current model for Si/relaxed-SiGe is just a special case and can easily be extended to research on strained SiGe/relaxed- SiGe.22: Lower bandgap parameterized over a full range of composition for Si(1- x)Ge(x)/relaxed-Si(1-y)Ge(y).4 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum Well Model 4-51 Figure 4.

4.4-52 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS 4. Both parts are complicated functions of subband levels and energy split of the valleys. It has been found that for electron mobility in a quantum well (as formed by the potential of the inversion layer in MOS).77) . respec- tively. [84] to [89].5 k + Bop m∗k exp(−γEspt ) (4. F() represents a numerical integral. From energy conservation point of view.74) 3md m∗ Dop 2 where Dac and Dop are acoustic and optical phonon deformation potentials.75) and the mobility can be written using the Drude model[90]: µ = qτ /m∗ (4. To reduce the complexity but still maintain the physical intuition needed for understanding mobility enhancement. It is commonly believed that mobility enhancement comes from change of conduction mass and suppression of inter-valley optical phonon scattering due to split of valley energies.76) It is important to notice that the acoustic term and optical term have different dependence on conduction mass. ρ is crystal density and ωs and ω0 are phonon frequencies.4 Mobility enhancement Interest in mobility enhancement by strain has been the driving force behind research in strained silicon. We start with bulk silicon mobility due to acoustic intra-valley acoustic phonon scattering: √ 23/2 πh̄4 ρωs2 µac = 2 (k T )3/2 (4. Therefore.73) 3m∗5/2 Dac B and that due to inter-valley optical phonon scattering: √ 4 2πeh̄2 ρsqrth̄ω0 µop = ∗3/2 F (x0 ) (4. carrier transition from one valley to the other via optical phonon scattering will be more difficult as energy difference between valleys are increased. md is the density of state mass and m∗ is the conduction mass. one due to intra- valley acoustic phonon scattering and the other due to inter-valley optical phonon scattering[80]. However. For background materials related to the above formulas. we propose the following phenomenological model. please refer to Refs. the mobility model is also the most complex especially when quantum confinement effect is taken into account. the mobility can be separated into two parts. The scattering time constant can be expressed as two terms due to acoustic and optical phonon: 1/τ = 1/τac + 1/τop (4. we propose the following valley dependent mobility model as follows: 1/µk = Aac m∗2. The complexity of a rigorous theoretical model makes it difficult for experimental data analysis and for CAD purposes.

we solve for the distribution of carriers in each valley k as nk (or pk for holes) and the total mobility can be expressed as the following: nk µk P k µ= P (4. Such a procedure has been demonstrated and documented in the example chapter related to strained silicon. Experimental data here are based on Refs. Repeat 1) to 4) until good agreement with experiment.77) can be conveniently written as 1/µk = Aac [m∗2. [91] and [74].24). the 3- parameter model can easily be extended to include temperature dependence effect since acoustic and optical phonon terms have different temperature behaviors. 4. Also. . We shall refer to the above phenomenological model as Crosslight’s 3-parameter mobility model.78) to determine Aac • 4) Compared with experimental strain dependence of mobility. Once a reasonable set of parameters are established for strained silicon.5 k + rba m∗k exp(−γEspt )] (4. as more sophisticated mobility models are available. the simple model can be ex- tended to include subband dependence. say between the first two subbands which are more populated than higher subbands. • 1) Start with a guess of rba and γ (both of the order 1).4 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum Well Model 4-53 where k is the valley index (denoting one of the six valleys or the HH or LH valleys). Bop and γ are valley independent fitting parameters assume to be indepen- dent of the strain. Using our quantum-MOS model. we need to calibrate the fitting parameters using the following procedure. Espt is the valley split between the first and second valleys.79) k nk To set up the 3-parameter model in a simulation. Aac . • 3) Compute the valley occupancy and use formula Eq. • 2) Set up an unstrained quantum well subband structure preview (quick simu- lation requiring no mesh) simulation assuming a typical quantum well carrier concentration (say 1 × 1018 cm−3 ). until a reliable anisotropic effective mass parameterization is achieved. we need to calibrating the mass-strain dependence in addition to the above procedure.23 and 4. The calculated mobility enhancement as a function strain shows good agreement with experiment without much fitting effort (see Figs. (4. For hole mobility. The above formula states that mobility enhancement due to strain comes from two terms: an acoustic term depending on conduction effective mass only and another term depending on effective mass and valley splitting.4. (4. The 3-parameter model in Eq.78) where rba = Bop /Aac is a ratio representing the relative importance of acoustic and optical terms in the silicon system.

1 0.1 0.05 0.8 1.5 1.6 1.35 0.4 Substrate Ge Fraction Figure 4.3 1.4-54 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS 1.2 0.6 1.2 1 0.15 0.45 Substrate Ge Fraction Figure 4.3 0.7 Mobility Enhancement Factor 1.8 0 0.2 1. 4.5 Conduction and Recombination in OLED A detailed description of conduction carriers in organic semiconductor requires the knowledge of molecular orbitals which can be complicated due to the complexity of the atomic configurations of large organic molecules. However.35 0.1 1 0 0.4 0.23: Comparison with experiment for Crosslight’s 3-parameter mobility model averaged over valley densities in a typical n-MOSFET quantum well.25 0.25 0.3 0. 2.05 0.9 Experiment 3-Parameter Model 1.8 1.4 1.4 1. it is possible to .2 0.2 Experiment 3-parameter Model 2 Hole Mobility Enhancement Factor 1.15 0.24: Comparison with experiment for Crosslight’s 3-parameter mobility model averaged over valley densities in a typical p-MOSFET quantum well.

one does not have to understand all the details related to Frenkel exciton to be able to alter and optimize the spectrum. we can introduce the concept of density of states for the HOMO and LUMO so that quasi-Fermi levels and Fermi statistics can be used. Carriers are statistically independent. . The model is based on the model of Langevin Recombination of carriers [P.80) where Fpf is an activation field. 289 (1903)]. therefore. However from the view point of engineering design. q B = (µn + µp ) (4. Phys. we use a Poole-Frenkel-like field dependent mobility based on Ref.6 Organic Semiconductor Emission Spectrum Model 4-55 use a simplified energy picture to consider only the highest occupied molecular or- bitals (HOMO) describing the electron carriers and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) describing the hole carriers.6 Organic Semiconductor Emission Spectrum Model 4. The main mechanism of recombination is that electron and holes are attracted to each other via Coulombic forces while the carrier mobility determines the rate at each the recombination occurs.1 Introduction Organic semiconductor emits light via Frenkel exciton recombination and the mech- anism for absorbing and emitting light is different than conventional semiconductor theories based on free-carrier/many-body interband transition. Simpli- fied exciton models with few adjustable parameters correlating to molecular-crystal structure will enable design engineers to achieve such objectives. In many cases the carriers will have to go over a high potential barrier and quantum tunneling option must be used. [92]. Chem.6. the e-h recombination is a ran- dom process and kinetically bimolecular.4. Similarly.81) ε For more details. Having intro- duced quasi-Fermi levels. q µ = µ0 exp( F/Fpf ) (4. In spite of this difference. Mechanism of carrier conduction is different than conventional semiconductor in that conduction is based on a hopping model. 28. The bimolecular recombina- tion coefficient depends on the mobility as follows. Since the transport is activated by electrical field in a hopping-like model. Optical spectrum theory for organic material is generally rather complicated due to the complexity in molecular structure and the advance physical models involved. we refer to Ref. The model considers total current attracted by a charge into a certain volume by Coulombic forces. Langevin. the drift-diffusion equation can be established in a similar way as for conventional semiconductors. Ann.[92]. 4. we can still approximate the transport using drift diffusion equation if we choose a low value for the mobility.

The smooth and broadened shape corresponds is the results of broadening of tens of spectrum lines as a solution of the Hamiltonian equation. Consider the absorption and EL spectra of Alq3 in Figures 4. To view the actual spectrum lines before broadening.6.4-56 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS We find that the simplified exciton model based on the Holstein model (see Ref. We see several major lines due to the intra-molecular vibrational ex- citations. 96. A Holstein Hamilto- nian is established to include intra-molecular and inter-molecular electronic and vi- bronic interactions. 97. we have established optical spectrum model based on exciton-phonon interaction within an organic crystal. input parame- ters are few and fitting to experimental spectrum is easy. We use a simple example to provide some insight and a guideline on how to alter the shape of the spectrum. Typical input/adjustable parameters: exciton bandgap. Bias and current injection dependent spectrum may be simulated to fine tune the color of the OLED. 98]) is suitable for such purposes. 96. We have integrated the spectrum model into APSYS-OLED option so that optical extraction may be calculated based on the spectrum.2 The Model Following Refs. Doped organic semiconductor may easily be modeled as combination of emission from the host and the dopant separately. Although mechanisms involved in the Hamiltonian are complex. 4. The advantage of this model is that one may easily alter the optical spectrum by tuning the few physical parameters. 98]. All excited states of the molecular crystal are solved and optical transition dipole moments computed between all states. 95. we limit our discussion here to the absorption spectrum which is more simple and it directly correlates to the basic solutions of the Hamiltonian. Please refer details to the above references. 94.26 which were obtained by fitting the EL spectrum to experiments. 94. and inter-molecular hopping parameter. Since the EL spectrum is related to the absorption spectrum.27. 95. These lines correspond to the major absorption spectrum lines when the .3 Tuning the spectrum The implementation of the spectrum model is numerically efficient: several minutes per spectrum. [93. The Holstein model assumes a one-dimensional molecular chain with electronic and vibronic interactions between a limited number of nearest neighbors.25 and 4. For example if we find increasing the interaction parameter between neighours alters the optical spectrum in a desirable manner.6. we may be motivated to alter the real organic material to increase the number of neighboring molecules. [93. 4. 97. we reduce the Gaussian broadening width (using parameter ox gaussian sd1) and obtain the spectrum in Figure 4. intra-molecular exciton- phonon interaction constant. molecular vibronic quanta. A phonon cloud of several unit cells is used to represent exciton- phonon interaction.

.3 0.5 0.45 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.9 0. obtained by fitting exciton parameters with EL spectrum.6 0.55 0.7 Wavelength (um) Figure 4.4 0.26: EL spectrum of Alq3.2 0.E23 to 5.6 0. ranging from 5.7 0. obtained by fitting exciton parameters with experimental EL spectrum.25: Absorption spectrum of Alq3.Rate 10^26 (1/cm^3/s/eV) 0.65 0.6 Organic Semiconductor Emission Spectrum Model 4-57 File:t1.1 0 0.55 0.45 0.5 0.4 0.35 0.8 Sp.4. File:t1.3 0.4 0.E24 1/m3 .gain 0. Different curves correspond to different carrier injection levels.65 0.gain 100000 90000 80000 70000 Absorption (1/cm) 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0.7 Wavelength (um) Figure 4.35 0.

45 0.3 0. Another way to alter the spectrum is to change the inter-molecule interaction.35 0.29).27: Absorption spectrum with reduced Gaussian broadennig. we may be motivated to alter the real organic material to increase the number of neighboring molecules.65 0. the spectrum tends to peak in longer wave lengths (see Figure 4.4 0.5 0. we may be motivated to alter the Franck-Cordon energy of the organic material. Higher inter-molecule interaction simply causes a mixture of all the vibrational states and thus tend to equalize the density of states. To achieve such type of tuning. For such type of tuning.) The interpre- tation of such a change in shape is that the vibrational energy is much smaller than the electronic energy and a stronger coupling with phonons pulls down the overall energy of the excitations.55 0. the systems prefers to stay at its lowest vibrational state. We increase the hopping energy to find that the spectrum tends to peak at higher energies (Figure 4.gain 100000 90000 80000 Absorption (1/cm) 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0. This can be done by either changing electronic hopping energy (parameter ox hopping energy) or by varying the number of interacting nearest neighbors (parameter ox phonon cloud). One way to alter the spectrum is the change the electron-phonon interacton con- stant (parameter ox xp coupling). We see many lower intensity lines (there are tens of those) arising from electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions within the same unit cell and between the cells.7 Wavelength (um) Figure 4. If we increase the electron-phonon interaction. unit cell is isolated. .6 0.4-58 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS File:t2_lines. This can be understood as follows: in the limit of zero inter-molecule interaction.28.

4.gain 50000 45000 40000 35000 Absorption (1/cm) 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0.35 0.55 0.35 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.29: Absorption spectrum with increased inter-molecule interaction.65 0.5 0.7 Wavelength (um) Figure 4.3 0.55 0.4 0.45 0. File:t4_j.45 0.28: Absorption spectrum with increased electron-phonon interaction. showing shift of absorption peak to shorter wavelengths.6 0. .gain 90000 80000 70000 60000 Absorption (1/cm) 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0.5 0. show- ing shift of absorption peak to longer wavelengths.7 Wavelength (um) Figure 4.6 Organic Semiconductor Emission Spectrum Model 4-59 File:t3_g.65 0.

Eij0 Energy minimums of the i th and the j th levels. c12 Elastic constants. Ej0 . D v Density of states of the conduction and valence band. c11 . ftj Occupancy of the j th deep trap level. EA Shallow donor (D) and acceptor (A) levels.Bz Complex wave amplitudes of the optical wave propagat- ing from right to left in a laser. for electrons (n) and holes (p). a Lattice constants of GaAs (a0 ) and InGaAs (a). B1 . δEsh Energy associated with shear strain. cpj Electron (n). Cn . cnj . F1/2 Fermi integral of order one-half. F0n . and the difference between them.4-60 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS 4. E. Ef n . fi . Dc .F0p Threshold electric field used in the electron (n) and hole (p) mobility models. F Electric field intensity. a0 . Eg0 Unstrained bandgap. fD . b Shear deformation potential. Ei0 . The i refers to the valence band sub-band levels and j refers to the conduction band sub-band levels. c Velocity of light in vacuum. Ef p Quasi-Fermi energies of electrons (n) and holes (p). Cp Auger recombination coefficients. Bk Constant used in mathematical fittings. hole (p) capture coefficients of the j th deep trap. fj Fermi functions for the i th and the j th level.B2 . fi0 . . . ED . δEhy Hydrostatic strain energy. Fl Lorentzian shape function. ∆EP F Shift in ionization energy of a dopant due to Poole- Frenkel effect. Eij Photon energy and energy difference between the i th and j th levels. fj0 Integrated Fermi functions for the i th and the j th levels.7 Nomenclature Symbol Definition Ax Coefficient for band-gap narrowing effects. fA Occupancy of the donor (D) and acceptor (A) levels. Eg Bandgap. B Radiative recombination coefficient.

Jhp Electron (n) and hole (p) current flux densities across the heterojunction. Mij . mvx . respectively. respectively. me . y and z direction.mh The same as mn and mp . mj . mij Relative effective masses of the i th and the j th level and the reduced effective mass between the i th and the j th level. mn . Indices i and j refer here to quantum well sub-bands. ND . h. L Laser cavity length. Jhn . Their relation is defined by 1/mij = 1/mi + 1/mj . Jn . m0 Electron mass mi . NA Doping density of shallow donors (D) and shallow accep- tors (A). mvy . I2 The integrals needed to evaluate the quantum well gain and spontaneous emission rate. Jp Electron (n) and hole (p) current flux densities. gd .4. mzl Relative effective mass of the L-band used in the quantum level calculation. involving light.and heavy- hole transitions. . Jsp Electron (n) and hole (p) current flux densities on the surface.h̄ Plank’s constants. Mlh . g Local gain due to transition between the i th and the j th levels. and the local gain of the material. M0 . L() Lines shape function for gain broadening. mbn . Mhh Momentum matrix elements for bulk material. h(x) step function of variable x. Also used for the total number of longitudinal layers. ga Degeneracies of the shallow donor (d) and acceptor (a). gij . Jsource Current flux source. Jsn . Nb Number of grid points associated with a boundary of in- terest.mp Bulk effective masses for electrons (n) and holes (p). N Total number of grid points in the simulation space. Hij Hamiltonian matrix element between the i th and the j th states. mvz Effective hole masses in the x.7 Nomenclature 4-61 g Interband local gain. between the i th and the j th states. k Boltzmann constant. I1 .mbp Bulk effective masses for electrons (n) and holes (p) on the barrier side of the heterojunction.

t Thickness of the quantum well. Qjcav Energy density of the jth longitudinal mode within the laser cavity. Rptj Electron (n) and hole (p) recombination rates per unit volume through the j th deep trap. also called the radiative recombination rate. qw rsp Frequency dependent spontaneous recombination rate for the quantum well. Rntj . Rsp . ns Electron concentration or density on the surface. T Absolute temperature. Rsp Spontaneous recombination rate per unit volume. Pij Probability of a transition from the i th to the j th level. and the same quantity in bulk (b) and in the quantum well (qw). pb0 Hole concentration or density on the barrier side of the heterojunction when its quasi-Fermi level coincides with that on the other side. n2D The surface concentration of a quantum well. p Hole concentration or density. nb Electron concentration or density on the barrier side of the hetero-junction. Nrn . pb Hole concentration or density on the barrier side of the heterojunction. . n Electron concentration or density. Tscat The scattering kernel for carrier-carrier scattering. Rst Stimulated recombination rate per unit volume. Nrp Reference doping density in electron (n) and hole (p) mobility equations.rm Single facet reflectivity and effective reflectivity of a laser. n Real part of refractive index. V Electrical potential. nb0 Electron concentration or density on the barrier side of the hetero-junction when its quasi-Fermi level coincides with that on the other side. Rau Auger recombination rate per unit volume. b qw Rsp . ni Intrinsic carrier density. Qjem Energy density of the jth emitted longitudinal mode. equal to the bulk density times the layer thickness. q Electronic charge. ps Hole concentration or density on the surface.4-62 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS Ntj Density of the j th deep trap. ef f rm . Rs Resistance associated with a boundary condition. Vs Electrical potential on the surface.

W Carrier energy. The average is taken only over the dimensional of interest. The average is taken over all three dimensions. v n . vsn . vp Average thermal velocity of electrons (n) and holes (p). v therm n . α αqw Local loss coefficient due to loss other than interband recombination. respectively. The x-axis is par- allel to the quantum well. Wn Electron energy. Wje . v Volume. . y Spatial coordinates used in the model. x. x is also used elsewhere as the Al composition in AlGaAs or the In composition in InGaAs. Wih Effective width of the wave functions for electron and hole in the jth and ith subbands. v therm bp Average thermal velocity of electrons (n) and holes (p) located on the barrier side of the heterojunction. The average is taken only over the dimensional of interest.vsp Saturation velocity for electrons (n) and holes (p).4. Wn Hole energy.7 Nomenclature 4-63 Vapplied Applied electrical potential. and local loss in the quantum well. v therm p Average thermal velocity of electrons (n) and holes (p). v therm bn .

They are also considered effective indices. αf p Coefficients of the free carrier absorption for electrons (n) and holes (p) in the quantum well. αemj Optical loss coefficient due to emission of light in the jth longitudinal mode. dc Relative DC or low frequency dielectric constant. for non-linear gain coefficient. ∆aij Transition energy shift term in the Asada broadening model. α0 Absorption coefficient for regions outside the quantum well. δ Constant.  is also used. Also used as a δ-function. αn . β1 . β2 Complex eigenvalues of the wave equation and its real (1) and imaginary (2) parts.4-64 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS αint Internal loss defined as the weighted average of the local loss α. 2 Complex optical dielectric constant and its real (1) and imaginary (2) parts. β. Value is 1 for deep donors and 0 for deep acceptors when used to represent electrical charge. ∆ Spin-orbit splitting of the valence band energy. . 1 . αf n . . under a completely context. 0 Dielectric constant of vacuum. βp Constant used in the hole mobility equation. αem Optical loss coefficient due to emission of light in the lasing mode. αp Constants used in doping dependent mobility functions for electrons (n) and holes (p).

as used in the Asada’s broadening model.γp Adjustable constants for the electron (n) and hole (p) thermionic emission model. or the half width of the Lorentzian broadening function. γ1 . Γ Energy level broadening parameter. or the half width of the Lorentzian broadening function. λj Optical wavelength of the jth longitudinal mode. λ Optical wavelength. ε Strain. χ Affinity of a reference material. used to account for tunneling and other effects. used to account for tunneling and other effects. γ3 Luttinger numbers. Γ0 The maximum energy level broadening parameter. χ Affinity. γn .7 Nomenclature 4-65 g2 . respectively. or the half width of the Lorentzian broadening function. .γhp Adjustable constants for the electron (n) and hole (p) thermionic emission model for heterojunctions. α2 Imaginary parts of the dielectric constant corresponding to gain due to interband transition and loss due to other mechanisms. γ2 . Γa The energy level broadening parameter.4. γ Constant relating the optical wave amplitude to electric field. γhn .

µ1p Minimum electron (n) and hole (p) mobilities. ρ0i . ω Angular frequency of the optical wave. µ0n . < > Average with | W |2 as weight. and reduced density of states for transition between the i th and the j th levels. µ2n . . φb Schottky barrier height. ρ0j . φn .4-66 APSYS SPECIFIC MODELS µn .τpj Electron (n) and hole (p) life time due to the jth trap.φp Quasi-Fermi potential for electrons (n) and holes (p). τv Hole-hole scattering life time for the Asada gain broad- ening model. σpj Electron (n) and hole (p) capture cross sections of the j th deep trap. τnj . ζp Variable related to the effective masses. µ0p Low field electron (n) and hole (p) mobilities. ωa . ζ is also used for half the shear strain energy for a different context. For example ρ0i = mi /πh̄2 t . τh . ρij Density of states for the i th and the j th levels.ωβ SOR parameters used for the wave equation. and the reduced density of states for transition between the j th and the i th levels. ζn . ξ Function used in the Fermi-Dirac statistics. τh = 2τv . ζ. τ Intra-band scattering lifetime. ν Function used in the Fermi-Direct statistics. µ2p Maximum electron (n) and hole (p) mobilities. ρi . µ1n . σnj . ρj . µp Mobility of electrons (n) and holes (p). ρ0ij Constants for the two-dimensional density of states for the i th and the j th levels.

This manual chooses to analyze some of the examples in detail for the purpose of explaining the how-to’s. A complete listing of all available examples along with a brief description is given as follows. [comment] 5. . They are there so that users may choose to copy and modify them for setting up a customized simulation quickly. Step 1 [structure] Simple layer stacks of InGaN/GaN MQW [comment] Demo of setting up MQW and electrode parallel on x-y planes in 3D. More examples with similar modeling approach are listed without detailed explanation. 5.2 3d electrodes/step1 stacks [title] 3D Electrodes and QW’s on x-y Plane.1 A tutorial [title] Simulation of a camel diode-a tutorial. 5.3 3d electrodes/step2 columns [title] 3D Electrodes and QW’s on x-y Plane. Step 2 [structure] Layer stacks of InGaN/GaN MQW planes with column divisions [comment] Division of each layer stack based on step1\_columns. [structure] Silicon camel diode.Chapter 5 Overview of All APSYS Examples The APSYS example files are placed under the release directory apsys examples according to their capability or purpose.

[comment] Use of self-consistency model in multiple segment 3D structure 5. [comment] 3D ray tracing demonstrated for 2 segments.8 3d flow raytrace/3d [title] 3D LED ray tracing simulation with multiple segments [structure] LED with contacts variation in z-direction. 5. 5. [comment] The edge effect makes significant difference. [comment] Use of different forms of external optical field profile 5. Step 3 [structure] Layer stacks of InGaN/GaN MQW planes with rounded geometry [comment] Division of each layer stack based on step2\_columns.7 3d flow/PD ext profile [title] 3D Simulation of Photodetector with External Light Profile [structure] Tapered ridge waveguide SQW PD.10 3d flow raytrace/side contact3d hot [title] 3D AlGaN/AlGaN MQW LED simulation with ray-tracing [structure] AlGaN/AlGaN MQW emitting at 0. [comment] Self-heating due to current crowding. [structure] LED with contacts variation in z-direction. 5.34 micron.5 3d flow/bjt 3d [title] Full 3D simulation of BJT.6 3d flow/led3d thermal [title] 3D thermal simulation.9 3d flow raytrace/side contact3d [title] 3D AlGaN/AlGaN MQW LED simulation with ray-tracing [structure] AlGaN/AlGaN MQW emitting at 0. 5.34 micron.5-68 Overview of All APSYS Examples 5. [structure] 3D structure of BJT with edge effect. .4 3d electrodes/step3 shapes [title] 3D Electrodes and QW’s on x-y Plane.

[comment] Break down effect due to impact ionization. 5. 5. 5. [comment] Set up of simulation at different temperatures. [structure] N-type MOS transistor. [structure] Silicon JFET. 5.15 basic silicon/jfet temp [title] JFET simulation.5. mobility is used. 5. [structure] N-type MOS transistor. [comment] Deep trap model at low temperature.16 basic silicon/jfet trap [title] Deep level traps in JFET. [comment] Different I-V is obtained if energy dep.14 basic silicon/impact mos [title] Impact ionization effect to MOS.13 basic silicon/hot nmos [title] Hot electron simulation. [structure] Simple p-n junction diode. .11 3d flow raytrace/Ushape [title] 3D Simulation of LED with U-shape contact [material] InGaN/GaN/AlGaN MQW. [comment] Set up of transient simulation.12 basic silicon/diode [title] Turn-on characteristics of pn junction diode.11 3d flow raytrace/Ushape 5-69 [comment] Use of self-heating model in 3D LED with ray-tracing 5. [structure] Silicon JFET with deep traps. [comment] Set up of complex electrode configuration.

5. 5.19 basic silicon/pmos/dc [title] Steady state simulation of a P-MOS.17 basic silicon/ldd mosfet [title] LDD MOS simulation. [structure] Lightly Doped Drain MOS transistor. [comment] Switch to current control before snap back in I-V curve. [structure] Silicon p-channel MOSFET. [comment] Use of "outfile\_label" to generate a family of IV curves. 5. [comment] Basic procedures of HBT simulation. 5. [structure] Silicon bipolar junction transistor. .5-70 Overview of All APSYS Examples 5. [structure] HBT based in InGaAs/InP material.22 HBT/hbt ingaas [title] Simulations of compound semiconductor HBT. [comment] DC and AC simulations of LDD MOS. 5.18 basic silicon/mini bjt [title] Small size BJT.21 basic silicon/thermal npn [title] Thermal analysis of a BJT. [structure] InGaAs/InP. [structure] Silicon NPN BJT [comment] Substantial difference when self-heating effect is included.23 HBT/hbt0 tunnel [title] InGaAs/InP HBT models. [structure] SOI with gate length of 1.20 basic silicon/SOI impact [title] Impact ionization in SOI. 5. [comment] Show how to generate a family of I-V curves.6 um and poly gate.

5.28 LED/ganled thermal [title] Thermal effects in LED. 5.24 HBT/sige hbt 5-71 [comment] Effect of tunneling in HBT simulation. [comment] Demo of MQW LED simulation. [comment] Basic use of "led\_control". [structure] MQW GaN LED.5. [structure] Bulk DH AlGaAs LED. [structure] GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT with 2D gas system.29 LED/led [title] AlGaAs LED simulation. [comment] Set up of DC and AC simulation for SiGe HBT. [structure] SiGe HBT. 5. 5. . 5.25 HBT/sige hbt2 [title] Analysis of SiGe HBT Performance [structure] Selective-epitaxial SiGe [comment] Study of bandgap narrowing effects in SiGe HBT. 5.24 HBT/sige hbt [title] SiGe HBT simulation. [structure] GaN based MQW system. [comment] Use of "complex MQW" to define the 2D gas.27 LED/gan led [title] GaN based LED. [comment] Hot spots due to current crowding.26 HEMT/HEMT selfcs [title] AlGaAs HEMT simulation with selfconsistent method.

[structure] MQW GaN LED.36 MOA [title] Multilayer-optics analysis of an electrically pumped DBR stack. [comment] Note the treatment of DBR stacks in ray tracing. 5. [comment] Demo of MQW LED simulation with incident light.34 LED raytrace/photon recycle [title] GaN based LED.33 LED raytrace/dome [title] Epoxy domed LED simulation [structure] GaN LED with epoxy dome. [comment] Use of non-symmetric wurtzite QW in LED simulation. .30 LED/nonsym [title] InGaN/AlGaN non-symmetric QW LED simulation.35 LED raytrace/rcled [title] Ray tracing model of resonant cavity LED. [comment] Demo of MQW LED Raytrace Photon Recycling simulation. [structure] MQW GaN LED.32 LED/tail states [title] Effects of exponential tail states in the bandgap [structure] Bulk and MQW InGaN/GaN LED/LD [comment] Shape of spectrum depends on the tails 5. [comment] Demonstration of setting up ray tracing with dome-packaging. [structure] GaN/InGaN/AlGaN QW structure. 5. 5. 5. 5. [structure] Three column RCLED with implanted current confinement regions.31 LED/pumped led [title] GaN based LED with optical pumping. [structure] GaAs/AlGaAs DBR stack with electrical contacts.5-72 Overview of All APSYS Examples 5.

46 micron [comments] Demo. [comment] Transient simulation of traveling wave amplifier.37 OLED/EL abs spectra [title] EL/Absorption Spectrum Model for Organic Light-Emitting Diode [structure] Single active layers of Alq3 and Alq3:DCM [comments] Use of Frenkel exciton model to generate EL/absorption spectrum 5. [structure] MQW InGaAsP/InP structure at 1.5.46 micron [comments] Demo.38 OLED/MOA OLED [title] Multilayer-optics analysis of an OLED [structure] Alq3/Alq3:DCM/TPD/ITO [comment] To perform both electrical and optical analysis of an OLED stack 5.41 OLED/OLED raytrace/OLED plate3d [title] Organic Light-Emitting Diode Simulation [structure] Bilayer (Alq3/TPD) OLED emitting at 0.42 other devices/amplifier [title] Guided wave amplifier on y-z plane.39 OLED/OLED/EL abs spectra [title] EL/Absorption Spectrum Model for Organic Light-Emitting Diode [structure] Single active layers of Alq3 and Alq3:DCM [comments] Use of Frenkel exciton model to generate EL/absorption spectrum 5.55 um. . of 1D and 3D OLED simulation with 3D ray tracing study 5.37 OLED/EL abs spectra 5-73 [comment] To study optical property of a multilayer system under injection 5. of 1D and 3D OLED simulation with 3D ray tracing study 5.40 OLED/OLED raytrace/OLED bare [title] Organic Light-Emitting Diode Simulation [structure] Bilayer (Alq3/TPD) OLED emitting at 0.

[comment] Use of "self\_consistent" and "exciton".45 other devices/HB Varactor [title] Simulation of a heterostructure barrier varactor.49 other devices/mesfet/mesfet2 [title] Simulation of GaAs MESFET. [comment] Set up of a basic MESFET simulation.46 other devices/hot gaas [title] Hot carriers in AlGaAs devices. JDOS and shape of gain/PL spectrum. [structure] SQW and bulk AlGaAs system. [material] Bulk InGaAsP at 1.5-74 Overview of All APSYS Examples 5.43 other devices/exciton [title] Exciton model for Electro-Absorption Modulator spectrum [structure] SQW EAM of AlGaAs. [structure] AlGaAs/GaAs symmetrical heterostructure barrier varactor [comment] Use of self-consistent. [structure] GaAs MESFET. . 5. 5. 5.48 other devices/mesfet [title] Simulation of GaAs MESFET. tunneling. [structure] 1D p-n junction EAM 5. [structure] GaAs MESFET.47 other devices/jdos tail [title] Adding tail states in joint density of states [structure] 1D quantum well and bulk active layers. complex-MQW models. 5. [comment] Study of tail states.3 micron bandgap. 5. [comment] Display of carrier temperature distribution within AlGaAs system.44 other devices/franz keldysh [title] Franz-Keldysh in Bulk DH Device.

5.50 other devices/modulator 5-75 [comment] Set up of a basic MESFET simulation. [comment] Shows how to set up a single slit diffraction model. 5. [comment] Use of ray tracing technique to generate photo-carriers. [comment] Use of different forms of external optical field profile . [comment] Use of "self\_consistent" needed to update potential profile. [structure] InGaAsP/InP APD.55 photo sensitive/extern optics [title] 2D Simulation of Photodetector with External Light Profile [structure] Ridge waveguide SQW PD. [comment] Simultanous use of self-consistent MQW and tunneling model.54 photo sensitive/diffraction [title] Single Slit Driffraction in Photo-sensitive Devices [structure] MSM with 0. 5.52 other devices/tunnel junc [title] Tunneling junction with heterojunction and MQW [structure] Fused junction InGaAlAs/InP/AlGaAs. the use of tunneling junction to achieve injection. Also GaN junction [comment] Demo.50 other devices/modulator [title] Electro-Absorption modulator simulation.53 PD raytrace [title] Photodetector Ray Tracing simulation of InGaAsP/InP APD. [structure] SQW EAM of AlGaAs. 5.5. 5.8 um inlet slit for light power. [structure] 1D RTD with two barriers. 5.51 other devices/RTD selfcons [title] RTD simulation using tunneling model with self-consistent treatment.

[comment] Use of bandgap\_reduction technique. [comment] DC and AC simulation with bandgap\_reduction technique. [comment] AC response analysis for external light input.5 um epi GaAs/AlGaAs/SI-GaAs.5-76 Overview of All APSYS Examples 5. [comment] Illustrate basic techniques of modeling break-down effects.56 photo sensitive/gaas apd [title] A simple 1D example of GaAs/AlGaAs APD [structure] GaAs/AlGaAs. [structure] Silicon p-n-i-p-n structure. [structure] InGaAsP/InP APD.59 photo sensitive/msm ac [title] MSM PD simulation . 5. 5.58 photo sensitive/inp apd [title] 2D simulation of InGaAsP/InP APD. [structure] InGaAs/InP PD . 5. [structure] InGaAs/InAlAs/InP. [structure] Simple silicon pn-junctons.57 photo sensitive/impact apd [title] Basic impact ionization model for silicon. 5. [comment] Use of auxiliary contact to force convergence.60 photo sensitive/msm155 [title] Modeling optical absorption in active regions of PD.61 photo sensitive/osc apd [title] P-n-i-p-n structure APD. [structure] MSM with 0. 5.62 photo sensitive/PIN cyl [title] Cylindrical PIN PD simulation. [comment] Declaration of active region to allow interband transition model. 5.AC photo-response analysis.

5.63 photo sensitive/solar cell 5-77

[comment] Demo of use of cylindrical coordinate system.

5.63 photo sensitive/solar cell
[title] Silicon solar cell simulation.
[structure] 1D silicon p-n junction.
[comment] Use of AM15 solar spectrum to achieve accuracy.

5.64 photo sensitive/surface
[title] Fermi level pinning effect due to surface states.
[structure] MSM PD.
[comment] Surface effects reduces dark current of PD.

5.65 photo sensitive/UV PD
[title] GaN Ultra-violet photo-detector using
[structure] Bulk InGaN/AlGaN for 0.28 micron meter wavelength.
[comment] Demo of short wavelength photo-detector.

5.66 photo sensitive/waveguide pd
[title] Waveguide photodetector simulation.
[structure] GRINCH-SQW-SCH waveguide PD.
[comment] Optical modes must be solved to compute carrier generation.

5.67 photo sensitive/zener impact
[title] Junction breakdown due to Zener effect and impact ionization.
[structure] Silicon pn-junction.
[comment] Comparison of Zener and impact ionization effects.

5.68 quantum MOS/FINFETs/FINFET bulk
[title] FINFET simulation using bulk model
[structure] FINFET with SiO2 and Air as confining barriers.
[comment] For the purpose of comparison with the quantum finfet model.

5-78 Overview of All APSYS Examples

5.69 quantum MOS/FINFETs/FINFET qw
[title] Quantum effects in FINFET
[structure] FINFET with SiO2 and Air as confining barriers.
[comment] Quantum effects in FINFET are significant.

5.70 quantum MOS/multi segment
[title] Multiple Segment Model in Quantum-MOS Simulation.
[structure] Silicon N-MOS and P-MOS
[comment] Use of multiple segment in .layer.

5.71 quantum MOS/npoly experiment
[title] Quantum MOS gate current study
[structure] Silicon N-MOS with n+ polysilicon gate.
[comment] Use of direct tunneling model with quantum confinement in channel.

5.72 quantum MOS/one segment
[title] Quantum effects in MOS with thin gate oxide
[structure] Silicon N-MOS and P-MOS
[comment] Quantum effects in MOS are significant.

5.73 quantum MOS/poly
[title] Quantum effects in MOS with thin gate oxide and poly-gate
[structure] Silicon N-MOS and P-MOS with polysilicon gates
[comment] Quantum effects in MOS are significant.

5.74 quantum MOS/SGT
[title] Simulation of a surrounding gate transistor.
[structure] cylndrical MOSFET.
[comment] Quantum effects are included using APSYS.

5.75 quantum MOS/strained Si/0pmos2d
[title] 2D simulation of unstrained p-MOSFET.
[structure] Si MOSFET

5.76 quantum MOS/strained Si/0strain 2d 5-79

[comment] To compare strained MOSFET in pmos2d

5.76 quantum MOS/strained Si/0strain 2d
[title] 2D simulation of unstrained MOSFET with quantum effects.
[structure] Conventional MOSFET for comparison purpose.
[comment] Use of tiny amount of Ge in SiGe substrate.

5.77 quantum MOS/strained Si/elec mob
[title] Study of mass induced mobility enhancement.
[structure] Strained Si/SiGe(relaxed)
[comment] A series of preview files are used to conc. average valley mobility

5.78 quantum MOS/strained Si/hole mob
[title] Study of hole mobility enhancement.
[structure] Strained Si/SiGe(relaxed)
[comment] A series of preview files are used to conc. average valley mobility

5.79 quantum MOS/strained Si/pmos2d
[title] 2D simulation of strained p-MOSFET.
[structure] Strained Si on relaxed Si(0.7)Ge(0.3).
[comment] Use of enhanced mobility model.

5.80 quantum MOS/strained Si/strain 2d
[title] 2D simulation of strained MOSFET.
[structure] Strained Si on relaxed Si(0.7)Ge(0.3).
[comment] Use of enhanced mobility model.

5.81 quantum MOS/uniaxial SSi/pux2d0
[title] Quantum p-MOSFET with zero uniaxial compressive strain
[structure] Si MOS structure with zero mechanical uniaxial compressive strain.
[comment] Setup for comparison purpose.

5-80 Overview of All APSYS Examples

5.82 quantum MOS/uniaxial SSi/pux2d1
[title] Quantum p-MOSFET with uniaxial compressive strain
[structure] Si MOS structure with mechanical uniaxial compressive strain.
[comment] Demo of use of uniaxially strained silicon material in 2D simulation.

5.83 quantum MOS/uniaxial SSi/ux comp
[title] Study of hole mobility enhancement under uniaxial strain.
[structure] Si MOS structure with mechanical uniaxial compressive strain.
[comment] A series of preview files are used to conc. average valley mobility.

5.84 quantum MOS/uniaxial SSi/ux tens
[title] Study of mass induced mobility enhancement under uniaxial strain.
[structure] Strained Si with uniaxial tensile strain.
[comment] A series of preview files are used to conc. average valley mobility

5.85 quantum MOS/uniaxial SSi/ux2d0
[title] Quantum n-MOSFET with zero uniaxial tensile strain
[structure] Si MOS structure with zero uniaxial tensile strain.
[comment] To for comparison purpose.

5.86 quantum MOS/uniaxial SSi/ux2d1
[title] Quantum n-MOSFET with uniaxial tensile strain
[structure] Si MOS structure with mechanical uniaxial tensile strain.
[comment] Demo of use of uniaxially strained silicon material in 2D simulation.

5.87 qw transport
[title] Study of non-equilibrium quantum well transport effect
[structure] MQW layer stacks of InGaN/GaN MQW LED
[comment] Comparison of IQE/IV curves with and without non-equil. effects.

5.88 SUPREM import/LDD
[title] Simulation of N-Channel MOSFET using Suprem doping profile
[structure] N-MOSFET

5.89 SUPREM import/MESFET 5-81

[comment] To show how SUPREM data is imported.

5.89 SUPREM import/MESFET
[title] Simulation of GaAs MESFET using SUPREM doping profile.
[structure] GaAs MESFET.
[comment] To show how SUPREM data is imported for a basic MESFET simulation.

5-82 Overview of All APSYS Examples

Part II

Examples: Basic Silicon Devices

Chapter 6

Camel Diode Simulation

6.1 Introduction
The LAYER program is most useful for devices with many layers of different materi-
als or doping. The use of the LAYER program is demonstrated in this chapter for a
silicon diode of many layers of different dopants with well defined interfaces between
layers defined by MBE growth. This example is taken from Ref. [1].
The applications of a camel diode include high speed switches, mixers, fast pho-
todiodes, BARRITT devices and thermionic emission transistor. The schematics of
the camel silicon diode is shown in Fig. 6.1,which is captured from our GUI Layer3D.
The triangle barrier is formed by the narrow and heavy p+ doping in the middle of
an intrinsic region. The injection contacts are of n+ type.
This example is a tutorial for all Apsys ones. Therefore it is placed at
Apsys/apsys examples/A tutorial/

6.2 Input files
The device structure is best described by the .layer input file format as follows:

begin_layer
$
$ We have a one column structure. In the simulation,
$ we set the device width to be 1 micron. For the real device,
$ the area of the contact is 20 ,mil, or 20*(100 um)**2. This means
$ the third dimension for the simualtion should be about 200,000 um
$ or 0.2 meter.
$
column column_num=1 w=1. mesh_num=2 r=1.
$

1: Schematics of a silicon camel diode. .6-86 Camel Diode Simulation Figure 6.

layer geometry and doping of $ all the layers from the bottom to the top. The mesh is generated by running Apsys on camel.mplt camel.layer file using the script Layer produces the following files: camel.2 Input files 6-87 $ Define the bottom contact here.0039 n=15 r=1. contact_num=1 $ $ Define the material.geo camel.1 n_doping1=4.e2 layer_mater macro_name=si column_num=1 layer d=1.5e24 layer_mater macro_name=si column_num=1 $ $ Be sure to allocate enough mesh points around the $ p+ layer because it is important to have a well defined $ interface for the p+.0480 n=32 r=1.6.e2 layer_mater macro_name=si column_num=1 layer d=0. $ bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=1. $ layer d=0.mater These files contain statements to describe the geomtetry.9 n_doping1=1.geo.2 n_doping1=1. n=15 r=1.0001 layer_mater macro_name=si column_num=1 layer d=0.doping camel.2480 n=32 r=0. $ top_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=1. $ layer_mater macro_name=si column_num=1 layer d=1. p_doping1=2. n=15 r=0. Then the following main input file can be used to run the numerical simualtion. the doping and material in a format accetable to the main input file.9e24 && gaussian_tail=0.8 n_doping1=1. . contact_num=2 $ end_layer Running the above camel.e24 $ $ Define the top contact.

more_output ac_data=yes $=> Set Newton parameters for equilibrium solution.out $=> To prepare for AC analysis.3 Results The following plotting input file is used to generate the graphics outputs for the camel diode: $file:camel. specify more output.2 && init_step=0.msh include file=camel.5 print_step=2. equilibrium $=> Set Newton parameters for solution under bias. newton_par damping_step=5.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 $=> Solve for equilibrium.6-88 Camel Diode Simulation $file:camel. load_mesh mesh_inf=camel.mater output sol_outf=camel.doping include file=camel.e-9 res_tol=1.sol $*********** begin $=> Define the mesh. var_tol=1.plt $ ************** begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=camel.05 end 6. var_tol=1.2 min_step=1.out && xy_data=(1 1) .sol sol_inf=camel.e-4 res_tol=1. using negative or positive sign to $=> control the polarity of the bias.e-5 max_step=0. scan var=voltage_1 value_to=1. newton_par damping_step=1.e-5 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=15 print_flag=3 && change_variable=yes $=> Apply a voltage bias. material and output files.

Fig. 6. .2 is the band diagram at equilibrium. 6.sol sol_inf=camel. Fig.1) d1 + d2 + t 0 Using the numerical values given in Ref. 6.out && scan_data=(1 2) plot_scan scan_var=voltage_1 variable=total_curr_1 $ AC analysis as a post-processing step get_data main_input=camel. [1] when the size of properly scaled. the barrier height can be approximated by d1 d2 q φb = (6.4.sol sol_inf=camel.3) get_data main_input=camel. 1984.6.5 0.” IEEE Electron Device Letters.G Allen “Silicon triangular diodes by MBE using solid- phase epitaxial growth. 6.5.0) to=(0. [1].4 is the reverse current characteristics. 354-6.out && xy_data=(2 2) ac_voltage output_file=camel.5.out && xy_data=(2 2) plot_1d variable=band from=(0. Again. EDL-5.72 eV which agrees with our results in Fig. As pointed out in [1].sol sol_inf=camel. 2. [1]. pp.ac variable=capacitance_1 end_pstprc The graphics output for DC simulation is given in Figs. 2.3 Results 6-89 plot_1d variable=band from=(0.5 0. • [1] D. Here we plot the AC capacitance as a function of frequency (see Fig. [1] is excellent. Our simulation shows a total capacitance of around 72 pF. this is estimated to be 0. vol. 6.2 to 6.5) in order to compare with the results in Ref. in agreement with the theoretical estimate in Ref.C Streit and F.0) to=(0. Please note that the above file is also used to post-process the AC data generated in the solution phase. the agreement with experi- mental data in Ref.2.3) get_data main_input=camel.ac log_freq1=1 && log_freq2=6 contact_num=1 plot_ac_curr input_file=camel.

4 0.5 -3 0 0.6-90 Camel Diode Simulation File:camel.5 Energy (eV) -1 -1.5 2 2.2: Energy band diagram for the camel silicon diode at equilibrium showing the triangular barrier.5 0 -0.2 Energy (eV) 0 -0.6 -0.3: Energy band diagram for the camel silicon diode at reverse bias.5 1 1.8 -1 -1.5 2 2.2 -0.4 -0.plt 1 0.8 0.6 0.5 Distance (micron) Figure 6.2 0 0.5 Distance (micron) Figure 6. File:camel.5 1 1. .5 -2 -2.plt 1 0.

353 1 2 3 4 5 6 Log (Freq) Figure 6. .8 1 1.355 0. File:camel.4 1.6 0.5e-005 total_curr_1 (A/m) -2e-005 -2.36 AC Capacitance (nF/m) 0.361 0.plt 0.4: Current-voltage characteristics for the camel diode at reverse bias.3 Results 6-91 File:camel.6 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 6.5: AC capacitance as a function of frequency.5e-005 -4e-005 -4.362 0.356 0.4 0.6.2 0.359 0.plt 0 -5e-006 -1e-005 -1.5e-005 0 0.357 0.358 0.354 0.5e-005 -3e-005 -3.2 1.

6-92 Camel Diode Simulation .

In this section. main equation solver and the post-processor (result plot) are given in files “mos.geo file is given in Fig. and “mos.geo”. These are listed here together with comments.1.“mos.sol”. The polygons used in the .0) point label=a2 xy=( 0. 2. 0.mplt”. The general rule therefore is to put more node in areas where physical quantities change rapidly. more mesh lines are allocated near the two ends of the gate electrode and at the channel-substrate interface. 7. The major concern of the meshing scheme is to make sure the mesh is matched with the non-linear variations of semiconductor physical quantities. 7.5) $ .Chapter 7 MOSFET Simulation The metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effects-transistor (MOSFET) is the most im- portant device for very-large-scale integrated circuit.“mos. $file:pmos. In the following example.plt”. mesh plot. $ point label=a1 xy=( 0.1 Creating the Mesh Meshing is an important step to ensure a convergent solution can be obtained. The schematic of the MOSFET transistor is given in Fig. The corresponding in- put files for mesh generation.geo $***********GEOMETRY DESCRIPTION******************* begin_geometry $ $ We define the points first. an example of MOSFET simulation using APSYS is presented. The example is placed at the directory: Apsys/apsys examples/basic si/dc/pmos/ 7.2.

0.1: Schematic of the p-channel MOSFET with 0.0 2.7 2.0) point label=c2 xy=( 2.0 2.52) $ point label=d1 xy=( 4.5 N 2.6) polygon name=p2 4_points=(b1 c1 c2 b2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(b1 c1) limits_1=(0.1 0.6 0.5) point label=c3 xy=( 2.0e16cm-3 Silicon 4.9) .2 P P 1.0) point label=d2 xy=( 4.6) && boundary_2=(a2 b2) limits_2=(0.0 0.5) point label=b3 xy=( 0.0 Figure 7.0) && boundary_3=(c2 d2) limits_3=(0.7-94 MOSFET Simulation SiO2 0.4) polygon name=p3 4_points=(c1 d1 d2 c2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(c1 d1) limits_1=(0.52) $ point label=c1 xy=( 2.6 2.02 micron SiO2 thickness point label=b1 xy=( 0.0 1.0) point label=b2 xy=( 0.0 2.5) $ $ We define the polygons and boundary conditions.0 1.0e21cm-3 0.0 2.0 0. $ contact 1=backgate $ contact 2=source $ contact 3=drain $ contact 4=gate $ polygon name=p1 4_points=(a1 b1 b2 a2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(a1 b1) limits_1=(0.6 2.

It is important to devide a complicated device into simple polygons (either tetrahedrons or triangles).0 point_to=2.3 && number=9 ratio=-0.95 point_to=1.4 point_to=0.02 && number=5 ratio=1. $ put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0. These polygons constitute the basis for the mesh generation in the next statement section.95 && number=6 ratio=1.geo shows how the mesh is created according to the division of polygons and the labels in Fig. . The second statement section begins with begin meshgen and ends with end meshgen.6 && number=5 ratio=0.7.1 Creating the Mesh 7-95 polygon name=p4 4_points=(b2 c2 c3 b3 ) material=2 && boundary_4=(b3 c3) limits_4=(0. The purpose is to allocate the mesh in each polygon using the statement putmesh. double mesh[optional] and multi double[optional].msh order=yes $ end_meshgen The file pmos.92 put_mesh polygon=p3 edge=(c1 d1) point_from=0.1 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=0. The statements in this section are point and polygon.1 point_to=0.9 put_mesh polygon=p2 edge=(b1 c1) point_from=0.85 put_mesh polygon=p2 edge=(b1 c1) point_from=0.3 && number=10 ratio=0.15 put_mesh polygon=p4 edge=(b2 b3) point_from=0.15 mesh_output mesh_outfile=nmosA.4) $ end_geometry $***********MESH GEN****************************** begin_meshgen $ $ We allocate mesh points on some of the polygon edges.0 1. These are used to define the coordinates of the points and the corresponding polygons. The first section begins with begin geometry and ends with end geometry.0 point_to=0.3 point_to=2.0 point_to=0.75 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=2.4 && number=6 ratio=-0.0 point_to=2. Tetrahe- drons are recommended as they are easy to refine. 7. The input file has two sections.2.0 put_mesh polygon=p2 edge=(b1 c1) point_from=0.5 && number=4 ratio=1.0 && number=10 ratio=1.

$file:newmesh. The .sol file must define the doping distribution and the material as in any .5 $ $ We define the contacts and dopings here. 7.sol file with the statement refine mesh.msh var diff=6.msh output sol_outf=newmesh. The mesh in the channel region is much denser than elsewhere since we are mainly interested in this region. These labels are invented by the user and can be renamed freely. b2.2.sol files are given in the next section...2: Division of polygons for the mesh generation of the p-channel MOSFET The points a1.7-96 MOSFET Simulation b3 G c3 S p4 D a2 d2 b2 c2 p1 p2 p3 BG a1 d1 b1 c1 Figure 7.msh var_diff=5.3. the user can refine the initial mesh based on variations of semiconductor physical quantities. This can be done with a . .2 Refining the Initial Mesh Optionally. 7. a2. p3 are shown in Fig. The initial mesh is shown in Fig. .sol begin load_mesh mesh_inf=pmos. p2.out refine_mesh variable=acceptor_conc mesh_outf=pmos.sol files.0 The acceptor concentration is used as the refinement criteria for this p-MOS example. More details regarding . Fig. Here we allocate more mesh lines near the source and drain junctions. 7. and polygons p1. 7.4 is the refined mesh created by using the refine statement : refine mesh variable=acceptor conc mesh outf=pmos1. b1.

4.geo $ contact type=ohmic num=1 contact type=ohmic num=2 contact type=ohmic num=3 $ $ The gate is regarded as a Schottky contact becasue we need $ to define its built-in potential (or barrier potential) based on $ the work function of the gate contact material.001D0.5 1 1..0 0.001D0 ) && . 0.002D0.001) && edge1_prof=(4.5 4 x (micron) Figure 7. 0.90D0.5 0.5 2 2.001D0.3: Initial mesh generated by pmos. 2.5 3 3.50D0. 0.2 Refining the Initial Mesh 7-97 3 2.30D0.7.002D0 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=1. 0.5 0 0 0.0 0.5 1 0. 0.0 0.001) doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=1.001) && edge1_prof=(4.e16 && shape=polygon && edge1_prof=(0. $ doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=2.90D0.001) && edge1_prof=(0.5 2 y (micron) 1.0 2.5 0.001D0 ) && y_prof= 2.12 num=4 $ $ Define the doping here.0D0.e21 && x_prof=(0. 0.e21 && x_prof=(1.0 0. $ contact type=schottky barrier=-0. 0.60D0.0 2.

geo file.msh plot_device=x11 end_plotmesh 7. If the simulation result is different with a small change to the mesh. The input file for solving the basic equations is usually given an extension .mplt $*************PLOTMESH************************** begin_plotmesh plot_mesh mesh_infile=pmos. There should be a balance between simulation accuracy/convergence and available computer resources.sol and starts with begin and ends with end. In the . $file:pmos. 7.mplt as follows.3 Plotting the Mesh It always helps to view the mesh to ensure mesh allocation is what you expect.30D0. 2. 0. 0. it should show up in the mesh display. It may not help if you simply put as many nodes as you can. A good mesh should yield stable results. the APSYS is ready to find the solutions of these basic semiconductor equations on the nodes of the mesh. just enough to get convergence.002D0.4 Running the Main Solver As mentioned previously.50D0. The user can view the results of the small mesh to decide whether or not the mesh is adequate. We suggest that the user start with a small number of mesh points. The input file used to display the mesh is usually given a file extension of .sol file there are mainly three things the user needs to take care of. By default APSYS solves the Poisson equation for the electric field and the carrier continuity equations for the carrier densities.7-98 MOSFET Simulation y_prof= 2. $ load_macro name=si mater=1 load_macro name=sio2 mater=2 end Please note that it is not easy to determine what the optimal number of mesh points should be. If major error occurs in the . The reason is that it takes less time to use a small mesh. the main function of APSYS is to solve the basic semi- conductor equations.002D0 $ ***************************** $ Load the material parameters from the user-accessible macro library. Once the mesh is created. . the mesh number may be too small.

5 0 y (micron) Figure 7. Nmax is the maximum surface density and ∆y is projected straggle. • 2) bias conditions for each electrode with statement scan. the user must convert junction depth and the maximum surface density into the appropriate Gaussian distribution parameters if the Gaussian profile is chosen.5 0 2 3 2.5 1 0. . doping is distributed in the following Gaussian function.5 x (micron) 1. • 3) nonlinear iteration control parameters using statement newton.4: Refined mesh • 1) doping profiles for each junction with statement doping. the statement output is used in the . The definitions for each boundary in the . such as terminal currents and voltages. To specify the doping distribution. ∆dy reflects the depth (or width) of the Gaussian tail of the doping profile.1) 2∆y 2 Where y is the junction depth.4 Running the Main Solver 7-99 4 3.7.sol file to store the simulation results in files.5 2 1.sol file must be consistent with the definitions in . and the position dependent data such as electron and hole densities can both be stored. −y 2 N(y) = Nmax exp( ) (7.5 3 2. The terminal characteristic results.5 1 0. projected straggle ∆y can then be decided. According to the expected junction shape. In addition. Once the junction depth and the maximum surface density are known.geo file.

Please note that.2 && init_step=0.5 output sol_outf=pmosB.e-4 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=10 print_flag=3 scan var=voltage_4 value_to=-1 print_step=1. 2.5) . var_tol=1.0.out && xy_data=(1 1) plot_1d variable=band from=(0. doping and material here as in the previou $ input file newmesh.e-5 max_step=0.sol.15 2.5) && to=(4. We are ready to plot the data now. several data files are generated. 2.2 min_step=1.15 2.5) plot_1d 2_variables=(elec_conc hole_conc) from=(0.7-100 MOSFET Simulation $file:pmos. var_tol=1.5 scan var=voltage_3 value_to=-5 print_step=1. $file:pmosB.plt can easily be generated with the SetupApsys program. 2.msh newton_par damping_step=5.5 Plotting the Results After the simulation main solver is finished.15 2.e-9 res_tol=1.sol $*********** begin load_mesh mesh_inf=pmosB.out $ ************************** $ We define the contact.sol sol_inf=pmosB.e-5 max_step=0.5) to=(4. the . $ $ end 7.e-4 res_tol=1.5) to=(4.plt $ ************** begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=pmosB.5) var_num=2 plot_1d variable=potential from=(0.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $stop newton_par damping_step=1. These are pmosB.out and pmosB.out ##. The input file that control the simulation data graphic display (also called post-processor) is given as follows.0.2 && init_step=0.0.2 min_step=1.

0 .5 1 1.52) end_pstprc As shown in the above plotting input file.5: p-MOS band diagram . many plotting options are provided (i.8 are the p channel MOSFET simulation results which are typical p-MOSFET characteristics.52) plot_3d variable=potential point_ll=(.6 -0.4 Energy (eV) 0.2.plt 1.0) point_ur(4.5 3 3.5 Plotting the Results 7-101 get_data main_input=pmosB.2.2 0 -0.2 -0.5 2 2.out && xy_data=(19 19) scan_data=(1 19) plot_scan scan_var=voltage_3 variable=total_curr_3 scanline=3 && scale_horizontal=-1 merge_next=yes plot_scan scan_var=voltage_3 variable=total_curr_3 scanline=5 && scale_horizontal=-1 merge_next=yes plot_scan scan_var=voltage_3 variable=total_curr_3 scanline=7 && scale_horizontal=-1 plot_2d variable=total_curr point_ll=(.0.0. 7.5) plot_3d variable=hole_conc point_ll=(.5 4 Distance (micron) Figure 7. We use ”merge next” to put several curves in the same figure.e.5-7.7.2 1 0. File:pmosB.8 0.0) point_ur(4.6 0.0 2.0) point_ur(4.5) plot_2d variable=potential point_ll=(.0) point_ur(4.4 -0.0 2.0 .2.sol sol_inf=pmosB.0.8 -1 0 0. Figs. bias data or position dependent data).2.0.

8 -0.5 Potential (volt) -0.6: p-MOS carrier distributions File:pmosB.2 -0.5 4 Distance (micron) Figure 7.7-102 MOSFET Simulation File:pmosB.5 3 3.7 -0.5 2 2.9 -1 -1.3 -0.1 -1.5 2 2.plt -0.5 1 1.5 1 1.7: p-MOS potential .5 3 3.5 4 Distance (micron) Figure 7.plt 20 18 16 Log (Hole_Conc/cm^3) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.2 0 0.6 -0.4 -0.

ac log_freq1=6.7.msg file after the simulation. 7. && contact_num=3 freq_point=20 plot_ac_curr input_file=pmosB.sol input file to apply one DC volt to the gate (contact 4) and 5 DC volts to the drain (contact 3).sol sol_inf=pmosB. the DC data corresponding to Vg = −1 volt and Vd = −5 volt are numbered as data set number 7.2 AC analysis results for the P-MOS We wish to generate the AC analysis data for data set number 7 with AC voltage applied to the gate.6.6 AC analysis for a P-MOS transistor 7-103 7.ac scale_2=linear variable=capacitance_3 plot_ac_curr input_file=pmosB.ac2 log_freq1=6.sol.6.2 min_step=1. The DC bias for each data set is also indicated in the .ac2 end_pstprc . This is done in two steps: First we use the following input file with ac voltage: $file:pmosB. && contact_num=4 freq_point=20 plot_ac_curr input_file=pmosB.1 Simulation under DC bias To obtain data for AC analysis.ac scale_2=log variable=ratio2_i3/i3 && input_f2=pmosB.ac scale_2=log variable=ratio_i3/i4 ac_voltage output_file=pmosB. scan var=voltage_4 value_to=-1 print_step=1.2 && init_step=0.out && xy_data=(7 7) ac_voltage output_file=pmosB.plt $ ************** begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=pmosB.5 scan var=voltage_3 value_to=-5 print_step=1.2 && init_step=0.ac scale_2=linear variable=conductance_3 plot_ac_curr input_file=pmosB. log_freq2=12. We use the following two statements in the .e-5 max_step=0.5 Based on the data printing steps. we need to perform DC simulation first.2 min_step=1.6 AC analysis for a P-MOS transistor 7. log_freq2=12.e-5 max_step=0.

14.ac2. The current gain is the current ratio of drain over gate. 7. capacitance.10. which is shown in Figure 7. We find that all AC behaviors (conductance. [1].ac.13 and 7. The output is stored in a different file pmosB. we use two statements of plot ac curr to plot the drain capacitance and the AC drain conductance with respect to gate AC bias.7-104 MOSFET Simulation The above input file generates the AC current corresponding to one volt AC bias at contact 4 (gate) and from 1MHz to 1THz.11. && freq_point=30 input_contact=4 output_contact=3 plot_ac_parameters parameter_type=s smith_chart=yes zdim=10 The corresponding S-parameters are presented in Figs. In the second part. To plot 2-port parameters. . Finally we use plot ac curr to plot the ratio of the drain currents from those two different files. one in pmosB. The above current ratio is just the voltage gain because: i3 /v4 = v3 /v4 i3 /v3 The voltage gain is shown in Figure 7. The AC data are stored in file pmosB. we use ac voltage to apply one AC volt to the drain (contact 3). Here. current and voltage gains) as a function of frequency are similar to those published in Ref. with the following statements: ac_parameters log_freq1=6.9 and 7. Please note that the parameter value ratio2 is used to extract AC current from two different files. log_freq2=12.12.ac and the other in pmosB. we need to specify the input/output contacts. The drain-gate voltage gain requires another set of ac voltage and plot ac curr statements.ac2. The results are given in Figures 7. respectively.

.8 0.5 5 voltage_3 (volt) Figure 7.05 1 0.5 1 1.plt 120 100 80 total_curr_3 (A/m) 60 40 20 0 0 0.6 AC analysis for a P-MOS transistor 7-105 File:pmosB.9 0.9: AC Capacitance for the P-MOS transistor.8: p-MOS Id-Vd characteristics File:pmosB.7.7 0.5 4 4.plt 1.85 0.65 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Log (Freq) Figure 7.5 2 2.5 3 3.95 AC Capacitance (nF/m) 0.75 0.

11: AC current gain for the P-MOS transistor. .7-106 MOSFET Simulation File:pmosB.1 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Log (Freq) Figure 7.10: AC Capacitance for the P-MOS transistor.plt 1800 1600 AC Conductance (Siemens/m) 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Log (Freq) Figure 7. File:pmosB.plt 10000 1000 AC Current Ratio 100 10 1 0.

Ratio 1 0.0 1.0 Figure 7.7.0 S11 S22 0.2 5.6 AC analysis for a P-MOS transistor 7-107 File:pmosB. .5 1.5 2.0 2.1 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Log (Freq) Figure 7.13: S11 and S22 ploted on Smith chart.0 0 0.0 5.12: AC voltage gain for the P-MOS transistor. HF=Higher Frequency 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 HF 0.2 HF 5. or Volt.plt 10 AC Curr.5 2.

2 HF -0.2 0 -0.7-108 MOSFET Simulation HF=Higher Frequency S21 S12 0.4 Figure 7.4 0.4 -0.2 0. .14: S21 and S12 presented as polar plot.2 0 0.4 -0.

0 90.2 Creating a Mesh for the NPN Transistor $file:npn. “npn.0) point label=b2 xy=( 300. The corre- sponding input files for mesh generation.1 Introduction We use APSYS to simulate a bipolar transistor in this chapter.0 0. 0.1 and 2. mesh plot. main equation solver and the result plot are given in “npn. 90.sol”.0) $ point label=b1 xy=( 300.0) $ $ contact 1 = collector $ contact 2 = emitter $ contact 3 = base $ Please note that the top edge of the polygon has a reference $ direction from right to left (or counterclockwise) $ polygon name=p1 4_points=(a1 b1 b2 a2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(a1 b1) limits_1=(0.0) point label=a2 xy=( 0.0) && . “npn.geo”. This example is placed at the directory: apsys example/basic silicon/npn/dc/dc 8. 300. and “npn.mplt”.Chapter 8 NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor 8. The simulated structure [1] and the corresponding polygons are shown in Figs.geo $***********GEOMETRY DESCRIPTION******************* begin_geometry point label=a1 xy=( 0.plt”.

1: Schematic of NPN bipolar transistor a2 b2 N+ P N P1 a1 b1 Figure 8.8-110 NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor Emitter Base 10 N+ N+ 25 P P 90 N N 300 300 Collector Figure 8.2: Polygons for the mesh of the NPN bipolar transistor .

0 && number=4 ratio=-0.0 && number=10 ratio=-0.0 && number=5 ratio=0.msh order=yes $ end_meshgen 90 80 70 60 y (micron) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 x (micron) Figure 8.0 point_to=90.9 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=90.0 point_to=82.0 && number=5 ratio=-0.0) && boundary_3=(a2 b2) limits_3=(0.6 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=82.0 && number=5 ratio=1.7 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=78.0 point_to=78.0 && number=9 ratio=1.8.6 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=80.3: Initial mesh of the NPN bipolar transistor .0 point_to=90.0 point_to=80 && number=5 ratio=0.2 Creating a Mesh for the NPN Transistor 8-111 boundary_2=(a2 b2) limits_2=(230 300.0 point_to=52.9 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=0.0 point_to=300.0 30.0) $ end_geometry $***********MESH GEN****************************** begin_meshgen put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0.5 mesh_output mesh_outfile=npn.8 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=52.

Projected straggle for emitter junction can be decided in the same way.0 × 1019 cm−3 and the depth of the BE junction is 10µ. we must convert the junction depth into projected straggle (or standard deviation) of the Gaussian profile. [1].0×1015 cm−3 .msh var_diff=2. the emitter surface donor maximum density is 5. Therefore.0 × 1017 cm−3 and the N-type collector concentration is 5.geo is generated geometrically according to the structure of the device (see Fig.msh output sol_outf=newmesh. it is more convenient to use Gaussian profile. the junction position is where the emitter doping level equals the base doping level. The following input file. [1].3) 2∆ye2 $file:newmesh. However.3).02 refine_mesh variable=acceptor_conc mesh_outf=npn. The projected straggle can be decided from the junction depth as follows.8-112 NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor 8. In Ref.3 Refining the Initial Mesh The initial mesh produced from npn. In our simulator.5 . APSYS provides an option to refine an existing mesh adaptively based on the physical variables distribution. the doping profiles are given in terms of junction depths.msh var_diff=0. Similarly the following equation can be used to determine the straggle ∆ye for the emitter Gaussian profile: −(10)2 ! Ne (10) = Nmax exp (8.1) 2∆yb2 where Ncoll = 5.sol is used to refine the existing mesh according to doping concentrations. the base surface acceptor maximum density is 5. In Ref.2) 2∆yb2 which allows us to determine the donor concentration at the BE junction.sol begin load_mesh mesh_inf=npn. the mesh generated geometrically may not be good enough. [1].0 × 1015 cm−3 with the depth of BC junction being 25µm. or −(10)2 ! Ne (10) = Pb (10) = Pmax exp (8. newmesh.out $refine_mesh variable=potential mesh_outf=npn1. The above equation allows us to determine the straggle ∆yb . 8. According to Ref. The junction depth is the position where the Gaussian profile of the base equals the constant doping level of the substrate (collector): −(25)2 ! Ncoll = Pmax exp (8. due to the high non-linearity of the semiconductor equations. Again.

e23 && x_prof=(0.0D0.001D0.0D0.0D0.2376D0.0D0.0D0.8.4 Running the Main Solver 8-113 load_mesh mesh_inf=npn.1. 80. 90.0D0. 0.e21 && x_prof=(0. 3. 0.0D0.1 $ ***************************** load_macro name=si mater=1 $ end 90 80 70 60 y (micron) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 x (micron) Figure 8.2376D0) && y_prof= 90.e25 && x_prof=(0. 90.msh refine_mesh variable=donor_conc mesh_outf=npn. 3.000001D0 ) && y_prof= 0.4: Refined mesh of the NPN bipolar transistor 8. 8. 0. 350. The main input file for Gummel plot is given as follows: . 3.0D0. 120.0D0.msh var_diff=2.0D0.1.002D0 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=5. 8.0D0.0D0.23760D0 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=5.002D0. 350.4 Running the Main Solver We wish to generate the Gummel plot and the Ic-Vc characteristics in this chapter.2376D0. 3. 8.5 contact type=ohmic num=1 contact type=ohmic num=2 contact type=ohmic num=3 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=5.1 ) && y_prof= 90. 0. 8.

var_tol=1.002D0.0D0.e-3 res_tol=1.0D0.23760D0 ) && y_prof= 90. 8. 8.2 min_step=1.e-3 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=10 print_flag=3 && change_variable=yes $ bias the collector first scan var=voltage_1 value_to=18 print_step=5.0D0. 3.8-114 NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor $file:npn.e-9 res_tol=1. && init_step=0.0D0. 350.0D0.2 && hot_electron=no .0D0.2376D0. 0. 90. 8. 3.1 ) && y_prof= 90.0 print_step=1. 0.5e-7 newton_par damping_step=5. 120.1 min_step=1.0D0. 8.out $ $ contact 1 = collector $ contact 2 = emitter $ contact 3 = base $ ************************** contact type=ohmic num=1 contact type=ohmic num=2 contact type=ohmic num=3 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=5.2376D0. 90. 3.1. 0.23760D0 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=5.0D0.e-5 max_step=1.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $stop newton_par damping_step=1.1 $ ***************************** load_macro name=si mater=1 lifetime_p value=3.e25 && x_prof=(0.0D0. 0.0D0.0D0.002D0 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=5. 3.1. 80.sol $*********** $ Calculation of the Gummel plot for an NPN transistor $ begin load_mesh mesh_inf=npn.001D0.e23 && x_prof=(0. && init_step=0.000001D0 ) && y_prof= 0. 350.msh output sol_outf=npn.0D0.5 && hot_electron=no scan var=voltage_3 value_to=1.e-4 max_step=0.e21 && x_prof=(0. var_tol=1.

. the input file for Ic-Vc at Vb=0.8 && init_step=0.out && xy_data=(1 1) .5 && hot_electron=no end 8.....e-3 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=10 print_flag=3 && change_variable=yes $ bias the collector first scan var=voltage_3 value_to=0...5 Plotting the Results The follwoing .....plt file can be used to plot the distriubtion of physical quantities and electrical characteristics and the Gummel plot. same as above .sol sol_inf=npn... && init_step=0..e-3 res_tol=1.. $file:npn..........e-5 max_step=1....sol1 $*********** $ Calculation of Ic-Vc characteristics $ begin load_mesh mesh_inf=npn.out1 ...2 && hot_electron=no scan var=voltage_1 value_to=18 print_step=5. .msh output sol_outf=npn..plt $ ************** begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=npn... ......8 is given as follows: $file:npn..5 Plotting the Results 8-115 $ end Similarly...8.... $ newton_par damping_step=1..e-4 max_step=0.2 min_step=1.1 min_step=1.8 print_step=0.. var_tol=1..

8-116 NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor plot_1d variable=band from=(40.sol sol_inf=npn. $file:npn2.0) point_ur(300.90.sol sol_inf=npn2.0) to=(40.out && scan_data=(3 6) $ Ib vs. We may use the following input file to plot a curve family on the same figure as shown in Fig.0 90) get_data main_input=npn. Vb .0.0 0.sol sol_inf=npn.out && scan_data=(1 16) plot_scan scan_var=voltage_1 variable=total_curr_1 scanline=3 && scale_vertical=-1 merge_next=yes plot_scan scan_var=voltage_1 variable=total_curr_1 scanline=5 && scale_vertical=-1 merge_next=yes plot_scan scan_var=voltage_1 variable=total_curr_1 scanline=7 && scale_vertical=-1 end_pstprc .Gummel plot plot_scan var_num=2 2_variables=(total_curr_3 total_curr_1) && scan_var=voltage_3 scale_2=log end_pstprc Please note that in the above input file.out && xy_data=(6 6) plot_2d variable=total_curr point_ll=(.8. we use ”2 variables” to plot two variables on the same figure. Please note the use of ”merge next” here.0 .plt $ ************** begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=npn2.0) get_data main_input=npn. 8.

.5: Energy band diagram at equilibrium File:npn.plt 100 90 80 70 60 y (micron) 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 x (micron) Figure 8.5 -1 -1.8.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Distance (micron) Figure 8.5 0 -0.6: Current flow distribution.5 Plotting the Results 8-117 File:npn.plt 1 Energy (eV) 0.

8: Output characteristics . 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 0 0.plt 3 2 1 Log [total_curr_1 (A/m)]+.8-118 NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor File:npn.2 0...plt 400 300 200 total_curr_1 (A/m) 100 0 -100 -200 -300 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 8.8 1 voltage_3 (volt) Figure 8.6 0.7: Forward current characteristics (Gummel plot) with Vce=18v File:npn2.4 0.

0 print_step=1. which is just the current gain of the power transistor.e-4 max_step=0. we use the statement plot ac curr to plotsthe AC current ratio of electrode 1 (collector) over electrode 3 (base).sol input file to apply one DC volt to the base (contact 3) and 10 DC volts to the collector (contact 1). Since .1 Simulation under DC bias For the purpose of AC analysis. In the second step. We use the following two statements in the .6. the DC data corresponding to Vb = 1 volt and Vc = 10 volt are numbered as data set number 4.ac log_freq1=3. The DC bias for each data set is also indicated in the .6.9. && init_step=0.msg file after the simulation. && init_step=0.sol sol_inf=npn.1 min_step=1.5 && hot_electron=no Based on the data printing steps. This is done in two steps: First we use the following input file with ac voltage: $file:npn.plt $ ************** begin_pstprc $plot_data plot_device=x11 plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=npn.e-5 max_step=1.2 && hot_electron=no scan var=voltage_1 value_to=10 print_step=5. log_freq2=8.6 AC analysis 8.2 min_step=1.out && xy_data=(4 4) ac_voltage output_file=npn.ac scale_2=log variable=ratio_i1/i3 end_pstprc The above input file generates the AC current corresponding to AC voltage bias at contact 3 (base) and from 1kHz to 100MHz.8.6 AC analysis 8-119 8.sol. The result of the current gain is given in Figure 8.2 Current gain and ft for the NPN transistor We wish to generate the AC analysis data for data set number 4 with AC voltage applied to the base. 8. we need to bias the device to a desirable DC bias. && contact_num=3 freq_point=10 plot_ac_curr input_file=npn. scan var=voltage_3 value_to=1.

13. respectively. A conciseness we present the real part. 8.15. the unity gain (ft ) is around several MHz. and 8. S-parameters can be generated with the same statements with a choice of parameter type=s.8-120 NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor we are dealing with a power transistor with large dimensions. 8.6. imag- inary parts and magnitudes. 2-port Y-parameters can be obtained directly using the following statements if we know the input and output contacts: ac_parameters log_freq1=3. Similarly.3 Two-port network parameters AC voltage excition is most convenient for evaluting Y-parameters all contacts are assumed AC-grounded unless AC voltage is applied. 8. twelve plots altogether. Please note that since convertion of Y-parameter to S- parameter requires absolute value of admittance.14. we only presented the three components of Y11 in Figs. Due to limited space.1 0. we need to supply the length of the device for a 2D simulation. 8. log_freq2=8. && freq_point=30 input_contact=3 output_contact=1 plot_ac_parameters parameter_type=y smith_chart=no zdim=300 The above statements will generate all the Y-parameters in their real parts. and 8. .01 3 4 5 6 7 8 Log (Freq) Figure 8.12.9: AC Current gain for the NPN bipolar transistor.10.plt 100 10 AC Current Ratio 1 0.11. imaginary part and the magnitude of S11 in Figs. File:npn. 8.

6 AC analysis 8-121 File:npn. File:npn.8.plt 14 12 10 Y11-Imag (Siemens/m) 8 6 4 2 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 Log (Freq) Figure 8.plt 110 105 100 Y11-Real (Siemens/m) 95 90 85 80 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 Log (Freq) Figure 8. .11: Imaginary part of Y11 2-port parameter versus frquency.10: Real part of Y11 2-port parameter versus frquency.

13: Real part of S11 2-port parameter versus frquency.8-122 NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor File:npn.18 -0.16 -0. File:npn.08 -0.24 3 4 5 6 7 8 Log (Freq) Figure 8.14 S11-Real -0.plt 110 105 100 |Y11| (Siemens/m) 95 90 85 80 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 Log (Freq) Figure 8.2 -0.12: Magnitude of Y11 2-port parameter versus frquency. .plt -0.1 -0.22 -0.12 -0.

03 -0.plt 0.06 -0.07 3 4 5 6 7 8 Log (Freq) Figure 8.05 -0.04 -0.1 0.14: Imaginary part of S11 2-port parameter versus frquency.plt 0 -0.12 0.22 0.14 0. File:npn.16 0.18 |S11| 0.01 -0.2 0.6 AC analysis 8-123 File:npn.24 0.15: Magnitude of S11 2-port parameter versus frquency.8.08 3 4 5 6 7 8 Log (Freq) Figure 8. .02 S11-Imag -0.

0 5.0 Figure 8.0 HF 0.0 0. HF=Higher Frequency 15 S21 S12x820 10 5 HF 0 -5 -10 -15 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Figure 8.5 1.0 0.0 HF 0 0.5 2.2 5.2 5.5 2.0 S11 S22 0.17: S21 and S12 plotted on polar coordinate system. .0 1.16: S11 and S22 plotted on Smith chart.0 2.2 0.8-124 NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor HF=Higher Frequency 1.

??. IEEE Trans. S. 1976 .50-57.P and D.8.Navon. ??. ED- 23. References [1] Gaur. “Two-Dimensional Carrier Flow in Transistor structure Under Nonisothermal Conditions”. on Electron Devices.6 AC analysis 8-125 Finally we plot S11 and S22 of the S-parameter on a Smith chart by setting smith chart=yes as shown in Fig. The S21 and S12 are shown in Fig. PP.H.

8-126 NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor .

Chapter 9 Transient Simulation of a PN Diode A transient simulation for a PN diode is described here as an example.0) $ point label=b1 xy=( 5. The simulated structure and the corresponding polygons are shown in Figs.1 Creating a Mesh for the Diode In this example.0) && .0) $ $ polygon name=p1 4_points=(a1 b1 b2 a2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(a1 b1) limits_1=(0.3 and shows truncated mesh lines generated by the multi double statement. “diod.geo”. This example is taken from the directory: apsys examples/basic si/diode 9. “diod.plt”.“diod.geo $***********GEOMETRY DESCRIPTION******************* begin_geometry point label=a1 xy=( 0. The input files for mesh generation.1 and 9. mesh plot.0 5.0) point label=b2 xy=( 5.0) point label=a2 xy=( 0.sol”. we use multi double to put additional mesh lines in the junction area.mplt”. $file:diod. 0. The graphic output produced by these files are given in the figures to follow. main equation solver and the result plot are given in “diod.2. 5. 9. 5. The structure consists of a n-type silicon with p-implant or diffusion in the top contact region. The mesh is plotted in Fig.0 0. 9.

1: Schematic of a PN diode a2 b2 P: 5E19 N: 2E14 a1 b1 Figure 9.5 5 Figure 9.0e14 2.9-128 Transient Simulation of a PN Diode 1 P 5.2: Polygons used to define the PN diode .0e19 5 N 2.

8 2.0 && number=15 ratio=1.msh mesh_outfile=dio.msh order=no $ multi_double mesh_infile=dio.7 4.0 p1 2 0.5 5) $ end_geometry $***********MESH GEN****************************** begin_meshgen put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0.0 3.0 p1 1 0.3 3.0 3.3: Mesh of the PN diode boundary_2=(a2 b2) limits_2=(3.3 3.7 5.0 && number=20 ratio=1.8 2.8 2.7 4.0 mesh_output mesh_outfile=dio.8 2.7 5.3 3.0 smooth end_multi_double end_meshgen .2 p1 1 2.8 2. put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=0.1 Creating a Mesh for the Diode 9-129 5 4 3 y (micron) 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 x (micron) Figure 9.9.8 2.7 4.msh && order=yes p1 2 0.0 point_to=5.0 3.7 5.0 point_to=5.2 p1 2 2.2 p1 1 2.

For this reason. The rise time of the voltage step is chosen to be 1 ps. Running a transient simulation means scanning both the time variable and one or more other variables. The parameter “other” is used to specify the final value of the second variable being scanned. Here we scan both the time and the voltage.e-9 res_tol=1.2 Running the Transient Simulation Our purpose is to see how the diode current can be turned on by a voltage as a function of time. Rise time is 1 ps.msh $ $ Solve for equilibrium condition. Please do not forget to set the “var num” parameter so that more than one variable can be accepted by APSYS. $ newton_par damping_step=5.05e-12 min_step=1. $ newton_par damping_step=1.9-130 Transient Simulation of a PN Diode 9. The top contact is assumed to have a external contact resistor attached to it. $ scan 2_variables=(time voltage_1) var_num=2 && value_to=20e-9 other=-2.e-4 res_tol=1.sol $*********** begin load_mesh mesh_inf=dio. we apply a voltage step function to the device and follow the evolution of the current in response to the voltage step.0e-14 max_step=0.3e-12 $ $ Allow 20 ns for the diode to relax $ back to steady state.0 print_step=2e-9 && .e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $ $stop $ $ Turn on the voltage pulse for the bottom contact. $file:diod.0 print_step=1e-12 && init_step=0. var_tol=1.e-4 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=10 print_flag=3 scan 2_variables=(time voltage_1) var_num=2 && value_to=1e-12 other=-2. The parameter “value to” is used to give the final value of the time in the present scan. The contact resistance is important for transient simulation because one may consider the the device as an RC circuit. var_tol=1. This can be used to model finite contact resistance of the top contact.

0.5e-12 min_step=1.9) . 15. 2.0D0. $file:diod. 0.3 Plotting the Results of the Transient Simula- tion To view a terminal variable as a function of time.000001D0 ) && y_prof= 4. 0. 5. and potential at different time intervals in Figs. 0.5 0. We show the turn on current as a function of time in Fig. 15.0D0.0D0.4.0) to=(1.9) plot_1d variable=elec_conc from=(1.out && xy_data=(2 12) $plot_1d variable=band from=(1. 0.50D0.e25 && x_prof=(0.0e-14 max_step=1e-9 output sol_outf=diod.0D0.plt $ ************** begin_pstprc $plot_data plot_device=x11 plot_data plot_device=postscript $plot_data plot_device=data_file get_data main_input=diod.00002D0.00001D0. external_cir type=resistor value=1. respectively. 0.0e5 z_dim=1 contact=2 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=2. 9.00002D0 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=5.00002D0 $ ***************************** load_macro name=si mater=1 $ end 9.9.e20 && x_prof=(0. we need to use “plot scan” with time as scan variable.00002D0.0D0.5 4.5 0. We also plot the distribution for electron.7.000001D0 ) && y_prof= 0. 9.3 Plotting the Results of the Transient Simulation 9-131 init_step=0.0D0.0D0. hole concentrations.0) to=(1.sol sol_inf=diod. The potential distribution shows that substantial amount of transient voltage is across the top contact resistor.out $ ************************** contact type=ohmic num=1 contact type=ohmic num=2 $ attach a resistor on the top contact.5 to 9.5 4. 0.5 0.00001D0. 0.9) plot_1d variable=hole_conc from=(1.0) to=(1. The result show a behavior of charging a junction capacitor through the contact resistor and the internal resistance of the pn junction.5 4.

plt 20 18 16 14 total_curr_1 (A/m) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 time (ps) Figure 9.5 4.4: Current vs time (beginning of the diod turn-on process) .out && xy_data=(12 12) scan_data=(1 12) plot_scan scan_var=time variable=total_curr_1 end_pstprc File:diod.sol sol_inf=diod.9-132 Transient Simulation of a PN Diode plot_1d variable=potential from=(1.9) get_data main_input=diod.5 0.0) to=(1.

5 5 Distance (micron) Figure 9.5 2 2.5 3 3.plt 18 16 14 Log (Elec_Conc/cm^3) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.5 1 1.plt 20 18 16 Log (Hole_Conc/cm^3) 14 12 10 8 6 0 0.5 4 4.6: Hole concentrations across the pn-junction at different time intervals of every 2 ns.9. .3 Plotting the Results of the Transient Simulation 9-133 File:diod.5 2 2.5 1 1. File:diod.5 5 Distance (micron) Figure 9.5: Electron concentrations across the pn-junction at different time intervals of every 2 ns.5 4 4. The curves evolve from the lower to upper ones.5 3 3. The curves evolve from the lower to upper ones.

5 2 2.5 4 4. The lowest curve is the result immediately after the rise time.5 5 Distance (micron) Figure 9. . The other curves evolve from the upper to lower ones.4 -2.8 -2.5 -2.5 1 1.7: Potential distribution of the pn-junction at different time intervals of every 2 ns.7 -2.1 -2.6 -2.plt -2 -2.2 -2.3 Potential (volt) -2.5 3 3.9-134 Transient Simulation of a PN Diode File:diod.9 -3 0 0.

0e21cm-3 0.0e16cm-3 Silicon 4. the distribution of higher energies can be seen.1. Typical examples of hot carrier effects are an increase in the threshold voltage(for N-MOSFET transistor) and a decrease in drain current drive. In the hot carrier model. 10.7 2.5 P-2. we present the hot-carrier effect simulation for a N-MOSFET.1: Schematic diagram of N-MOSFET .2 N N-1. so we emphasize the main solver and ingore the structure setup.0 Figure 10.Chapter 10 Hot Carrier Effects in N-MOS Hot carriers are of interest because they are implicated in a type of device degradation known as hot-carrier degradation. From the simulation results. the mobility is an energy dependent function and the result of the output characteristics may be different as a consequence. This example is placed under the directory: apsys examples/basic si/hot nmos/ SiO2 0. The schematic of the MOSFET transistor is given in Fig. In this chapter. The dimensions of the N-MOSFET is taken directly from the P-MOSFET structure in chapter 7 excetpt for the type of doping.

2 && init_step=0. var_tol=1.44 num=4 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=6.0 2.sol $*********** begin load_mesh mesh_inf=nmosA.e27 && x_prof=(0. 0.00002D0 $ ***************************** load_macro name=si mater=1 load_macro name=sio2 mater=2 .00002D0.000001D0 ) && y_prof= 2. parameter hot electron=yes should be added up in the scan statement.0 0. 0.2 min_step=1.001D0.e-9 res_tol=1. $file:nmosA.e-5 max_step=0. 0.50D0.out $ ************************** contact type=ohmic num=1 contact type=ohmic num=2 contact type=ohmic num=3 contact type=schottky barrier=-0. 0.001) && edge1_prof=(4.10-136 Hot Carrier Effects in N-MOS 10.e-4 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=10 print_flag=3 scan var=voltage_4 value_to=1.e22 && shape=polygon && edge1_prof=(0.0D0. var_tol=1.001) && edge1_prof=(0.00001D0 ) && y_prof= 2.001) && edge1_prof=(4.30D0. 0.1 To Run the Main Solver for Hot Carriers For hot carrier simulation. 14. 0.90D0.0000001D0. 0.5 print_step=1. 2. 0.5 && hot_electron=yes scan var=voltage_3 value_to=5 print_step=1.e27 && x_prof=(1.002D0.001) doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=1.0 2.5 && hot_electron=yes output sol_outf=nmosA.2 && init_step=0.0 0. 2.30D0.0 0.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $stop newton_par damping_step=1.0 0.002D0 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=1.60D0. 0.50D0.msh newton_par damping_step=5.5 0.2 min_step=1.5 0.e-4 res_tol=1.e-5 max_step=0.0D0.

52) plot_3d variable=elec_energy point_ll=(0.sol sol_inf=nmosA. 10.plt $ ************** begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=x11 $plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=nmosA.2 To View the Hot Carriers 10-137 $ end 10.0) && point_ur=(4.0 0.5) var_num=2 plot_1d variable=potential from=(0. 2.0. 10.5) to=(4.out && xy_data=(1 1) plot_1d variable=band from=(0. 2. we can use plot device=data file to store the I-V curves in different ASCII data files.out && $ xy_data=(13 13) scan_data=(1 13) plot_2d variable=elec_curr point_ll=(0. From Fig.0.5) && to=(4.52) $plot_scan scan_var=voltage_3 variable=total_curr_3 end_pstprc The purpose of this simulation is to provide insights into how hot carriers are generated and they vary as a function of bias.15 2.0 0.2 shows the change in drain current characteristics caused by hot carrier effects in comparison with the drain characteristics without hot carrier effects.10.5) to=(4.15 2. These data files can be used to plot a family of curves on the same figure for comparison.0. 2. 10.5 provides the evidence that some carriers are truely “heated up”.2 is generated in this way.0. 2. 2. Fig.0) && point_ur=(4. As mentioned in the previos chapters. We believe that the difference mainly comes from a different mobilty model since we are using the energy dependent mo- biltiy function here. .2 To View the Hot Carriers $file:nmosA.5) $get_data main_input=nmosA.0.sol sol_inf=nmosA.15 2.5) plot_1d 2_variables=(elec_conc hole_conc) from=(0. The example in Fig.

hot" 200 150 Id (A/m) 100 50 0 -50 0 1 2 3 4 5 Vd (volt) Figure 10.25 -0.05 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.10-138 Hot Carrier Effects in N-MOS 250 "nmos.35 -0.cool" "nmos.5 1 1.2: N-MOSFET drain characteristics with and without hot-carrier effects File:nmosA.1 Potential (volt) -0.05 -0.5 4 Distance (micron) Figure 10.45 0 0.15 -0.3 -0.5 2 2.plt 0.5 3 3.3: N-MOSFET electric potential distribution under equilibrium condition .

5 x (micron) 3 3.5 2 0 1.2 To View the Hot Carriers 10-139 File:nmosA.5v and Vd=5v .5 0.5: N-MOSFET electron energy distribution with Vg=2.5 4 0 Figure 10.5 1 1 y (micron) 1.5 1 1.5 0.4: N-MOSFET hole and electron distribution under equilibrium condition File:nmosA.5 2 2.5 3 3.plt 20 18 16 Log (Hole_Conc/cm^3) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.5 4 Distance (micron) Figure 10.5 2 2.plt Elec_Energy (kT) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 3 2.10.

10-140 Hot Carrier Effects in N-MOS .

We demonstrate how APSYS handles the nonisothermal effects in this example. Fig.11. A cur- rent passing through a semiconductor material creates a temperature distribution which may affect the device performance significantly.1: Schematic diagram of NPN bipolar transistor $file:npn. The mesh gener- ation steps are describled in the following . This example is placed at the directory: apsys examples/basic si/thermal npn Emitter Base 10 N+ N+ 25 P P 90 N N 300 300 Collector Figure 11.geo file.geo $***********GEOMETRY DESCRIPTION******************* begin_geometry .1 is the schematic of a npn power bipolar transistor [1].Chapter 11 Nonisothermal Effects in a Bipolar Transistor The electrothermal interactions within a device considered in this example.

0 196.0 && number=10 ratio=0.msh order=no $ double_mesh mesh_infile=npn.0) point label=a2 xy=( 0.msh order=yes end_meshgen .0 point_to=115.0 205.0 point_to=195.0 && number=8 ratio=-1.0 double_mesh && polygon=p1 dir=2 range1= 0.0 range2= 193.0 range2= 195.0 point_to=300. 205.0) $ polygon name=p1 4_points=(a1 b1 b2 a2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(a1 b1) limits_1=(0 300) && boundary_2=(a2 b2) limits_2=(230 300) && boundary_3=(a2 b2) limits_3=(0.8 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=82.0 point_to=82 && number=9 ratio=0.0 point_to=205.0) $ $ point label=b1 xy=( 300.0 && number=4 ratio=0.0 double_mesh && polygon=p1 dir=2 range1= 78.75 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=115.0 point_to=180.0 30) $ end_geometry $***********MESH GEN****************************** begin_meshgen put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0.0 double_mesh && polygon=p1 dir=1 range1= 78.0 181.11-142 Nonisothermal Effects in a Bipolar Transistor point label=a1 xy=( 0.msh && polygon=p1 dir=2 range1= 0.0 82.0 0.2 mesh_output mesh_outfile=npn.0 boundary_smooth mesh_outfile=npn.1 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=195.0 82.0 range2= 175.0 205.0 82.08 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=180.0 205.0 range2= 195.9 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=0.0 && number=7 ratio=-1.0 && number=10 ratio=1.0) point label=b2 xy=( 300. 0.0 300.

var_tol=1.001D0.e26 && x_prof=(0.e21 && x_prof=(0.2 other=18.e-9 res_tol=1. 0. var_tol=1.002D0.0D0.0D0.0D0. 350. 0.D0 newton_par damping_step=5. 8.0D0.2 min_step=1.e-4 max_step=0. 115.0D0. 80.1.e25 && x_prof=(0. 8.0D0.0D0.2376D0.e-4 max_step=0.002D0. && init_step=0.000001D0 ) && y_prof= 0.1 min_step=1.0 var_num=2 && output sol_outf=npn.out $ ************************** temperature temp=300 contact type=ohmic num=1 thermal_type=1 contact type=ohmic num=2 thermal_type=2 heat_flow=0.0D0. 0.001D0. && init_step=0.1 How to Run the Main Solver with Nonisother- mal Model To be able to simulate the lattice heating effects.002D0 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=5.9 print_step=5.23760D0 ) && y_prof= 205.e23 && x_prof=(0. && $ init_step=0. 8.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $stop newton_par damping_step=1. doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=5.e-5 max_step=1.9 print_step=1.2 scan var=voltage_1 value_to=20. 350. 0.0D0. 205.002D0 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=5. 0.0 print_step=5. 3. $file:npn.0D0.0D0.1 How to Run the Main Solver with Nonisothermal Model 11-143 11.sol $*********** begin load_mesh mesh_inf=npn. heat flow statement and the ther- mal boundary decription in the contact statement are needed. 3. 0.0D0.0D0.msh heat_flow damping_step=2. 8.23760D0 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=5. heat flow turns on the nonisothermal solver and additional parameters in the contact statement are used to define the boundary condition for the heat flow equation. 250. contact type=ohmic num=3 thermal_type=2 heat_flow=0. 0.e-4 res_tol=1.e-4 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=10 print_flag=3 scan var=voltage_3 value_to=0.5 $scan 2_variables=(voltage_3 voltage_1) value_to=1. 0. 350.000001D0 ) && y_prof= 0.1 min_step=1.0D0.2376D0.1 ) && .11.

0 0.0 205) plot_1d variable=lattice_temp from=(0.0.0) to=(40.0 180.0 180.0D0.1.205.1 $ ***************************** load_macro name=si mater=1 lifetime_p value=3.0) point_ur(300.0) to=(300.out && xy_data=(7 7) scan_data=(1 7) plot_scan scan_var=voltage_1 variable=total_curr_1 plot_2d variable=total_curr point_ll=(.0 205.0 0. 205.205.0) get_data main_input=npn1. [1].0) plot_3d variable=lattice_temp point_ll=(.0 205.0D0.plt $ ************** begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=x11 $plot_data plot_device=postscript $get_data main_input=npn.0) to=(40.0) $plot_1d variable=hole_conc from=(40.sol sol_inf=npn1. 3.0 . $file:npn.0 205) $plot_1d variable=elec_conc from=(40.out && $ xy_data=(1 1) $plot_1d variable=band from=(40.2 Viewing the Nonisothermal Effects The following input file is used to plot and view the nonisothermal effects.0) to=(40.0 0.0) end_pstprc .11-144 Nonisothermal Effects in a Bipolar Transistor y_prof= 205.5e-7 $ end 11. 3.0 0.0) to=(40.0) plot_1d variable=lattice_temp from=(40.0) point_ur(300.0.sol sol_inf=npn. The results are very similar to those in Ref.0 .

9v .2 Viewing the Nonisothermal Effects 11-145 File:npn.(K) 312 310 308 306 304 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Distance (micron) Figure 11.9v File:npn.3: Lattice temperature distribution along the collector-base junction with Vce=20.(K) 310 308 306 304 302 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 Distance (micron) Figure 11.plt 318 316 314 312 Lattice Temp.9v and Vbe=0.2: Vertical lattice temperature distribution x=40 with Vce=20.9v and Vbe=0.11.plt 318 316 314 Lattice Temp.

5: Output characteristics with and without lattice heating effects .(K) 318 316 314 312 310 308 306 304 302 300 250 200 0 150 50 100 y (micron) 100 150 50 200 x (micron) 250 300 0 Figure 11.plt Lattice Temp.hot" -150 0 5 10 15 20 25 Vc (volt) Figure 11.9v and Vbe=0.11-146 Nonisothermal Effects in a Bipolar Transistor File:npn.4: 3d lattice temperature distribution with Vce=20.cool" "npn.9v 250 200 150 100 Ic (A/m) 50 0 -50 -100 "npn.

P and D.H.2 Viewing the Nonisothermal Effects 11-147 References [1] Gaur. S.50 -57. :Two-Dimensional Carrier Flow in Transistor structu re Under Nonisothermal Conditions”.1976 .PP. on Electron Devices. ED-23.Navon. IEEE Trans.11.

11-148 Nonisothermal Effects in a Bipolar Transistor .

This way also be done with the GUI. we must use the temperature dependent version of silicon macro.1 Introduction This examples uses a silicon Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) to demonstrate the following features of APSYS: • Low temperature simulation down to 77K and below. 12. We will look at the simulation at 300K and at 90K. • Useful simulation techniques for devices involving current blocking junction. The doping pro- files for the source. Please note that the heavily doped p+ in the gate implant region is used to deplete the control the current flow in the n-channel. Therefore.Chapter 12 Low Temperature Simulation for a JFET 12.msh3. The structure of the JFET is shown in the Schematics of Fig. gate and substrate regions are shown in Figs.msh2 . the p+ gate region is a current blocking junction. The doping profiles in each regions are measured experimentally.msh2 or jfet1. The refined mesh is saved in jfet1.doping according to the experimental data.geo. The following steps are involved: • 1) defined the geometry of the JFET in jfet. We shall use jfet1.2.msh with jfet. this type of device requires change of basic variables for solving the differential equations in order to achieve convergence.1.sol to refine initial mesh according to doping and/or carrier densi- ties.3 and 12. To accurately simulate the pinch off voltage at different temperatures. As the existence of current blocking junction. 12. 12. • 3) Use jfet1 ref. • Use of experimental doping profile in device simulation.geo. but find it more convenient to use the input file approach. • 2) Define the doping profile in jfet1.4 respectively. Generate an initial mesh jfet1.

mplt . The dash lines are used to indicate the segment for doping profile date. 12. • jfet90. • jfet1.plt to plot the simulation results.sol .sol to run the simulation at 300K.solving the equation at 90K.doping .sol and jfet90.plt .simulation results in postscript at 300K.1: Schematics of JFET.sol . • jfet1. profile gate src implant implant Contact 4 (Back gate) Figure 12. • jfet300. • jfet1 ref. .2 Input files The input files in this examples include the following: • jfet1.12-150 Low Temperature Simulation for a JFET which is obtained by refining mesh based on doping profile.sol .doping profile. • jfet300. • jfet1 m.plotting the simulation results at 300K. Ramp up the drain to 5 volts and then.solving the equations at 300K. The Id-Vg plot gives the pinch off voltage at 300K.plt) . the top gate ( and bottom gate) to -2 volts. • 5) Use jfet300. This example is placed under the directory: apsys examples/basic si/jfet temp/ Contact 1 Contact 2 Contact 3 (Drain) (Gate) (Source) n+ p+ n+ n-epi p++ subs. • 4) Use jfet300.refining the mesh.ps .device geometry.plotting the mesh.geo .ps . • jfet90.plotting the simulation results at 90K. • jfet300.plt .mesh plot in postscript. • 6) Following 4) and 5) above for 90K (with jfet90.

5 0.1 0.3 0.8 0.6 0.8 Distance (um) Figure 12.12.4 0.2 0.2: Source/Drain implant doping profile for JFET 1e+26 1e+25 1e+24 Gate Implant m**(-3) 1e+23 1e+22 1e+21 1e+20 0 0.9 Distance (um) Figure 12.2 Input files 12-151 1e+26 1e+25 Src Implant m**(-3) 1e+24 1e+23 1e+22 1e+21 0 0.7 0.4 0.1 0.6 0.3: Gate implant doping profile for JFET .5 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.

simulation results in postscript at 90K.) point label=a2 xy=( 0.8 0.) $ $ define the contacts along the edges.ps . 0.) point label=b2 xy=( 10. • gate.substrate up-diffusion profile. $ drain=contact 1 $ top gate=contact 2 $ source=contact 3 .geo $***********GEOMETRY DESCRIPTION******************* begin_geometry $ $ define the corner points of the device. • src. • sub. We will go through three of the key input files. jfet1.) $ point label=b1 xy=( 10.geo.source implant profile. jfet1.sol as follows: $file:jfet1.4: Substrate implant doping profile for JFET • jfet90. $ point label=a1 xy=( 0.gate implant profile.doping and jfet300. 6. Profile m**(-3) 1e+23 1e+22 1e+21 1e+20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Distance (um) Figure 12.implant .8 6.implant .12-152 Low Temperature Simulation for a JFET 1e+25 1e+24 Subs.implant .

point_to=6. x2.9 point_to=6.8 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=2.5) && boundary_4=(a1 b1) limits_4=(0.9 point_to=8. 10.9 6.8) $ end_geometry $***********MESH GEN****************************** begin_meshgen $ $ put mesh points along the edges in the y-direction $ put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0.2 $ $ output the mesh data to jfet1. point_to=2. dx2) .5 point_to=3.2 Input files 12-153 $ bottom=contact 4 $ polygon name=p1 4_points=(a1 b1 b2 a2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(a2 b2) limits_1=(8.8 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=4.4 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=3.8) && boundary_2=(a2 b2) limits_2=(3.3 && number=5 ratio=-1. && number=15 ratio=1.4 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=8.12.3 point_to=10. 2.4 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=6.msh order=yes $ end_meshgen $ Use of Gaussian profile: $ x_prof=(x1.9 && number=5 ratio=-1.8 && number=4 ratio=1. point_to=4.0 $ $ put mesh points along the edges in the x-direction $ put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=0.3 10.9 && number=5 ratio=-1.5 && number=4 ratio=0.9) && boundary_3=(a2 b2) limits_3=(0.msh $ mesh_output mesh_outfile=jfet1. && number=6 ratio=0. dx1.

12-154 Low Temperature Simulation for a JFET $ where x1. $ $ $ uniform field region type n (As) doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor level=0. we must $ define the origin of the data. the activation energy of $ of impurities is proportional to the effective mass and also $ related to the dielectric function.044 at 90K.dx2=Gaussian tail $ $ According to standard theory (Sze). 0. 0. 6. $ $ Since the effective mass reduces by about 10 % from 300 to 90K. $ Since the carrier freez out effect is important only at low temperature.e25 && x_prof=[0..045 && max_conc=1. direction=negative log_scale=no $ $ source region type n+ (As) doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor level=0.x2=uniform range.8.01.8. 0. 10.e25 && x_prof=[8.1 ] $ $ To use the numerical data as doping profile. dx1.217 ] && y_datafile=src.044 && max_conc=2. 0.217. direction=negative log_scale=no $ $ gate region type p+ (B) doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor level=0.044 && max_conc=4.217.1. 0. 10.3.01 ] && y_prof=[4. Here the origin is at y=6 um. 0. direction=negative log_scale=no $ $ substrate diffusion region type p+ (B) . The direction of the profile $ is downward (negative)..138. $ $ drian region type n+ (As) doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor level=0. 2. $ on the top of the silicon. $ we expect the activation energy to do the same.054 at 300K to 0.5.8. 0.implant origin=6. $ we reduce the As level from 0.5e25 && x_prof=[5. 0.. 0..implant origin=6.. 5.044 && max_conc=2.217 ] && y_datafile=src.implant origin=6. 0.138 ] && y_datafile=gate. $ It seems to fit experiment better this way.5e21 && x_prof=[0.

e-5 max_step=0.e-5 max_step=0. direction=negative log_scale=no $file:jfet300.out load_mesh mesh_inf=jfet1. $ newton_par damping_step=5.9e24 && x_prof=[0.profile origin=6.3 $ $ Ramp up the drain to 5 volts $ scan var=voltage_1 value_to=5 print_step=5 && init_step=. var_tol=1.e-3 res_tol=1. print_step=2.e-4 && max_iter=60 opt_iter=25 stop_iter=15 print_flag=3 && change_variable=yes ratio_max=0..20 $ $ ************************** $ $ define doping.sol $*********** begin output sol_outf=jfet300. This will help $ the convergence of the JFET simulation. && init_step=. contacts and materials .0 var_tol=1. especially at $ low temperature.e-9 res_tol=1. 0. 0.5 $ $ Ramp down the top gate and bottom gate to -1 volts $ scan var_num=2 2_variables=(voltage_2 voltage_4) && value_to=-2. $ Change vaiable to n and p.msh2 $load_mesh mesh_inf=jfet1. other=-2.12.617.045 && max_conc=2.8.1 min_step=1.2 Input files 12-155 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor level=0.2 min_step=1.617 ] && y_datafile=sub.msh3 $ $ solve for equilibrium $ newton_par damping_step=5. 10.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $ $ Solve for bias.

temp macro $ so that material parameters are evaluated at this temperatrue.3 Analysing the Results In this example. As pointed out by Ref. Thereforem the enchanced conduction in the conduc- tion state and increased depletion in the pinch off state leads to a steeper pinch off characteristics curve and a more efficeint JFET switching at low temperature. low temperature causes partial freeze out for the acceptors in the substrate and leads to increased depletion width. The drain output and the pinch off characteristcs at 300 K are shown in Figs. Then we lower the date voltage until pinch off.temp var1=300 mater=1 $ end 12. respectively. This is done by ramping up the drain voltage first until saturation.12-156 Low Temperature Simulation for a JFET $ contact type=ohmic num=1 contact type=ohmic num=2 contact type=ohmic num=3 contact type=ohmic num=4 include file=jfet1. we will take a close look at the drain conduction current and the pinch off characteristics. $ temperature temp=300 $ $ Define the temperature as a variable of the si.5 and 12.doping $ $ Define the environmental temperture here. The increased channel current at conduction state can be attributed to increased mobility and saturation velocity. $ This will set all the kT’s in the equations to the right $ temperature.7 and 12. The second is the steeper pinch off curve and a smaller pinch off voltage. The steeper slope (or more efficient pinch off) is due to increased channel deple- tion by the p++ substate in the pinch off state. 12. [1]. respectively. Please see the mate- rial macro in the Appendix for temperature dependence in mobility and saturation velocity. 12. The first is the increased channel current at low temperature.8. $ load_macro name=si. We notice two remarkable difference at low temperature. The corresponding curves at 90 K are shown in Figs. .6. The corresponding statements are given in the previous section for these procedures. $ The details of the material macro are given in the Appendix.

12.3 Analysing the Results 12-157

File:jfet300.plt
0

-2

-4
total_curr_1 (A/m)

-6

-8

-10

-12
0 1 2 3 4 5
voltage_1 (volt)

Figure 12.5: Drain out characteristics at Vg=0 for 300K. The negtive sign for the
current is used to indicate the current flow direction

File:jfet300.plt
0

-2

-4
total_curr_1 (A/m)

-6

-8

-10

-12
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0
voltage_2 (volt)

Figure 12.6: Pinch off characteristics at Vd=5 for 300K.

12-158 Low Temperature Simulation for a JFET

File:jfet90.plt
0

-2

-4
total_curr_1 (A/m)

-6

-8

-10

-12

-14
0 1 2 3 4 5
voltage_1 (volt)

Figure 12.7: Drain out characteristics at Vg=0 for 90K.

File:jfet90.plt
0

-2

-4
total_curr_1 (A/m)

-6

-8

-10

-12

-14
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0
voltage_2 (volt)

Figure 12.8: Pinch off characteristics at Vd=5 for 90K.

12.3 Analysing the Results 12-159

We show the 1D plot of the band diagram, doping concentrations and channel
carrier distribution in Figs. 12.9 to 12.12. Interested user may produce the corre-
sponding results for 300 K so that the analysis stated above may be verified.
[1] S. Selberherr, “MOS device modeling at 77 K,” IEEE Trans. Electron. De-
vices, vol. 36, No. 8, pp. 1464-1474, 1989.

File:jfet90.plt
1.5

1

0.5
Energy (eV)

0

-0.5

-1

-1.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Distance (micron)

Figure 12.9: Band diagram for a 1D segment under the gate. The temperature is
90K.

File:jfet90.plt
16

14

12
Log (Donor_Conc/cm^3)

10

8

6

4

2

0

-2

-4
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Distance (micron)

Figure 12.10: Donor distribution for a 1D segment under the gate. The temperature
is 90K.

12-160 Low Temperature Simulation for a JFET

File:jfet90.plt
20

19

18

17
Log (Acceptor/cm^3)

16

15

14

13

12

11

10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Distance (micron)

Figure 12.11: Acceptor distribution for a 1D segment under the gate. The tempera-
ture is 90K.

File:jfet90.plt
16

14

12
Log (Elec_Conc/cm^3)

10

8

6

4

2

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Distance (micron)

Figure 12.12: Channel carrier distribution for a 1D segment under the gate. The
temperature is 90K.

Chapter 13

Lightly Doped Drain MOSFET

13.1 Introduction
The lightly doped drain MOSFET (LDD-MOSFET) as a way of reducing the high
field in the drain junction of small-geometry devices has been widely used. We
present a LDD-MOSFET simulation example using APSYS in this chapter. The
structure and schematic of the LDD-MOSFET transistor are given in Fig. 13.1 and
Fig. 13.2 respectively. The corresponding input files for mesh generation, mesh
plot, main equation solver and the result plot are given as follows in “ldd.geo”,
“ldd.mplt”, “ldd.sol”, “ldd.plt”. The graphic output produced by these files are
given in the figures to follow. We shall go through some of the input file here.
This example is placed under the directory:
apsys examples/basic si/ldd mosfet/

0.3
0.1
0.12 N- N-
0.22 N+ N+

0.1

0.8

Psub

0.7

LDD - MOSFET Structure

Figure 13.1: LDD-MOSFET structure

13-162 Lightly Doped Drain MOSFET

b3 c3

a2 b2 c2 d2

a1 d1
b1 c1
Figure 13.2: Schematic of LDD-MOSFET

13.2 Mesh Generation

$file:nanyan.geo
$***********GEOMETRY DESCRIPTION*******************
begin_geometry
$
$ Define the points and the polygons here.
$
point label=a1 xy=( 0. 0.0)
point label=a2 xy=( 0. 0.8)
$
point label=b1 xy=( 0.2 0.0)
point label=b2 xy=( 0.2 0.8)
point label=b3 xy=( 0.2 0.806)
$
point label=c1 xy=( 0.5 0.0)
point label=c2 xy=( 0.5 0.8)
point label=c3 xy=( 0.5 0.806)
$
point label=d1 xy=( 0.7 0.0)
point label=d2 xy=( 0.7 0.8)
$
$ Contact 1 is the substrate contact or the back gate.

13.2 Mesh Generation 13-163

$ Contact 2 is the source and contact 3 is the drain.
$
polygon name=p1 4_points=(a1 b1 b2 a2 ) material=1 &&
boundary_1=(a1 b1) limits_1=(0. 0.2) &&
boundary_2=(a2 b2) limits_2=(0.1 0.2)
polygon name=p2 4_points=(b1 c1 c2 b2 ) material=1 &&
boundary_1=(b1 c1) limits_1=(0.0 0.3)
polygon name=p3 4_points=(c1 d1 d2 c2 ) material=1 &&
boundary_1=(c1 d1) limits_1=(0.0 0.2) &&
boundary_3=(c2 d2) limits_3=(0.0 0.1)
$
$ p4 is the oxide and contact 4 is the gate.
$
polygon name=p4 4_points=(b2 c2 c3 b3 ) material=2 &&
boundary_4=(b3 c3) limits_4=(0.0 0.3)
$
end_geometry
$***********MESH GEN******************************
begin_meshgen
$
$ Allocate mesh on the edges of the polygons.
$
put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0.0 point_to=0.6 &&
number=10 ratio=0.65 extra_point_2=0.0001
put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0.6 point_to=0.7 &&
number=7 ratio=-1.25 extra_point_1=0.0001 extra_point_2=0.0001
put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0.7 point_to=0.8 &&
number=7 ratio=-1.25 extra_point_1=0.0001 extra_point_2=0.0001
put_mesh polygon=p4 edge=(b2 b3) point_from=0.0 point_to=0.006 &&
number=4 ratio=1.1 extra_point_1=0.0001 extra_point_2=0.0001
put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=0.0 point_to=0.1 &&
number=5 ratio=0.55 extra_point_2=0.0001
put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=0.1 point_to=0.2 &&
number=6 ratio=1.55 extra_point_1=0.0001
put_mesh polygon=p2 edge=(b1 c1) point_from=0.0 point_to=0.03 &&
number=4 ratio=0.8 extra_point_2=0.0001
put_mesh polygon=p2 edge=(b1 c1) point_from=0.03 point_to=0.27 &&
number=9 ratio=1.0 extra_point_2=0.0001
put_mesh polygon=p2 edge=(b1 c1) point_from=0.27 point_to=0.3 &&
number=4 ratio=1.2 extra_point_1=0.0001
put_mesh polygon=p3 edge=(c1 d1) point_from=0.0 point_to=0.1 &&
number=5 ratio=0.55 extra_point_2=0.0001
put_mesh polygon=p3 edge=(c1 d1) point_from=0.1 point_to=0.2 &&

13-164 Lightly Doped Drain MOSFET

number=5 ratio=1.45 extra_point_1=0.0001
mesh_output mesh_outfile=nanyan.msh order=yes
end_meshgen

The following input file may be used to refine the mesh according to the doping
profile.

$file:newmesh.sol
begin
$
$ We first rea in the initial mesh generated by .geo.
$
load_mesh mesh_inf=nanyan.msh
output sol_outf=newmesh.out
$
$ Refine mesh here.
$
refine_mesh variable=acceptor_conc mesh_outf=new.msh var_diff=3.0
$
$ Define the contacts and doping.
$
contact type=ohmic num=1
contact type=ohmic num=2
contact type=ohmic num=3
$
$ The gate is regaded as Schottky contact so that a built-in
$ potential or barrier poitential can be defined.
$
contact type=schottky barrier=0.12 num=4
$
$ Put a uniform n- doping everywhere.
$
doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=5.e22 &&
shape=polygon &&
edge1_prof=(0.0 0.0 0.0001) &&
edge1_prof=(.7 0.0 0.0001) &&
edge1_prof=(0.7 0.8 0.0001) &&
edge1_prof=(0.0 0.7 0.0001)
$
$ Lightly doped regions.
$

13.2 Mesh Generation 13-165

doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=1.e24 &&
x_prof=(0.0D0, 0.230D0, 0.001D0, 0.001D0 ) &&
y_prof= 0.70D0, 0.80D0, 0.002D0, 0.002D0
doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=1.e24 &&
x_prof=(0.470D0, 0.70D0, 0.001D0, 0.001D0 ) &&
y_prof= 0.70D0, 0.80D0, 0.002D0, 0.002D0
$
$ Heavily doped regions.
$
doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=1.e26 &&
x_prof=(0.0D0, 0.10D0, 0.001D0, 0.001D0 ) &&
y_prof= 0.58D0, 0.80D0, 0.002D0, 0.002D0
doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=1.e26 &&
x_prof=(0.60D0, 0.70D0, 0.001D0, 0.001D0 ) &&
y_prof= 0.58D0, 0.80D0, 0.002D0, 0.002D0
$ *****************************
$ Define the material from the macro libary.
$
load_macro name=si mater=1
load_macro name=sio2 mater=2
end

The initial mesh is shown in Fig. 13.3.

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5
y (micron)

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
x (micron)

Figure 13.3: Initial mesh for the LDD-MOSFET.

2 && init_step=0.2 min_step=1.msh $ $ Solve for equilibrium.e-5 max_step=0. var_tol=1.out $ ************************** $ The definitions for contact.2 && init_step=0. doping and material are $ the same as in the previous input file and will not be $ repeated here. $ load_mesh mesh_inf=nanyan.13-166 Lightly Doped Drain MOSFET 13.2 min_step=1.plt file.5 $ $ Save all the output date to a file. $ end 13. The meaning of the statements are quite obvious and will not be explained.e-5 max_step=0. Furhter details may .sol $*********** begin $ $ Load the initial or the refined mesh here. $ output sol_outf=nanyan. $ newton_par damping_step=1.e-4 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=10 print_flag=3 scan var=voltage_4 value_to=-1 print_step=1. var_tol=1. $file:nanyan.e-4 res_tol=1.4 The DC State Results The steady state results may be plotted using the following .3 Run the Main Solver The main simulation is performed by the following input files.e-9 res_tol=1.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $ $ Aply 1 volt to the gate and 5 volts to the drain. $ newton_par damping_step=5.5 scan var=voltage_3 value_to=-5 print_step=1.

out && xy_data=(1 1) plot_1d variable=band from=(0.13. 13.sol sol_inf=nanyan.78) point_ur(.01 0.7.0 .806) plot_2d variable=potential point_ll=(.4 to 13.01 0.0.0.806) end_pstprc Some of the graphic outputs are given in Figs.7.78) plot_1d 2_variables=(elec_conc hole_conc) from=(0.5 AC Analysis Results 13-167 be found in the Reference Manual.78) to=(0.7.0) point_ur(0. log_freq2=12.0.0 0.78) && to=(0.806) plot_3d variable=hole_conc point_ll=(.0 0.7. 0.0.78) var_num=2 plot_3d variable=hole_conc point_ll=(.sol sol_inf=nanyan.0.ac log_freq1=6.0) point_ur(0. $file:nanyan.0 .78) point_ur(0.806) get_data main_input=nanyan.plt file.0 .7.806) plot_3d variable=potential point_ll=(. 0.0.ac scale_2=log variable=ratio_i3/i4 .5 AC Analysis Results The AC small signal analysis is performed by adding the following statements to the .0) point_ur(0.7.78) to=(0. 13.7.78) plot_3d variable=potential point_ll=(. 0.ac scale_2=linear variable=capacitance_3 plot_ac_curr input_file=nanyan.0 0.806) plot_1d variable=potential from=(0. ac_voltage output_file=nanyan.plt $ ************** begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=x11 $plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=nanyan.0 .7. && contact_num=4 freq_point=20 plot_ac_curr input_file=nanyan.7.0) point_ur(0.ac scale_2=linear variable=conductance_3 plot_ac_curr input_file=nanyan.7.out && xy_data=(7 7) scan_data=(1 7) plot_scan scan_var=voltage_4 variable=total_curr_4 plot_scan scan_var=voltage_3 variable=total_curr_3 plot_2d variable=total_curr point_ll=(.

0.6 0.plt 1.6 0.8 0. File:ldd.3 0.2 -0.2 0 -0.1 0.2 1 0.2 0.8 -1 0 0.5: LDD-MOSFET carrier distributions at equilibrium.6 -0.13-168 Lightly Doped Drain MOSFET File:ldd.7 Distance (micron) Figure 13.4 -0.2 0.1 0.4: LDD-MOSFET band diagram at equilibrium produced by plot 1d variable=band from=(0.7 Distance (micron) Figure 13.plt 20 18 16 Log (Hole_Conc/cm^3) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.0 0.78).4 0.6 0.5 0.78) to=(0.3 0.7.4 Energy (eV) 0.4 0. .5 0.

9 0.8 0.6 0.plt 20 18 16 14 total_curr_3 (A/m) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 voltage_3 (volt) Figure 13.1 0.4 0.3 0.6 0 0.4 0.2 x (micron) 0.7: LDD-MOSFET output characteristics at Vg=-2 volts.5 AC Analysis Results 13-169 File:ldd.7 0.5 0. .3 y (micron) 0.plt Log (Hole_Conc/cm^3) 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.1 0.6: LDD-MOSFET 3D hole distributions at equilibrium.5 0. File:ldd.7 0 Figure 13.2 0.13.

9: AC drain conductance of LDD-MOSFET as a function of frequencies. . File:ldd.13-170 Lightly Doped Drain MOSFET File:ldd.8: AC drain capacitance of LDD-MOSFET as a function of frequencies.1 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Log (Freq) Figure 13.plt 100000 10000 1000 AC Current Ratio 100 10 1 0.plt 110 100 AC Conductance (Siemens/m) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Log (Freq) Figure 13.

13. Ratio 10 1 0.10. Capaci- tance. We plot the frequency response of the device at Vg=-1v and Vd=-5v. . 13. The 2-port network parameters can be obtained using the statement ac parameters. or Volt.13.11 and 13.10: AC current amplification of LDD-MOSFET.12. The S-parameters are plotted from 1 MHz to 1 THz in Figs. conductance and AC current amplification are given in Figs.plt 100 AC Curr.8 to 13.5 AC Analysis Results 13-171 File:ldd.1 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Log (Freq) Figure 13.

5 2.05 0. from 1 MHz to 1 THz.0 5.1 0.1 -0.0 S11 S22 0.5 2.2 5.0 0.0 2.12: S21 and S12 plotted on polar graph.15 Figure 13.0 HF HF 0.2 0.11: S11 and S22 plotted on Smith chart.15 -0.0 Figure 13.2 5.05 0 0.15 HF S21 S12 0.5 1.1 0.13-172 Lightly Doped Drain MOSFET HF=Higher Frequency 1.0 0.15 -0.0 0 0. .05 0 -0.1 -0.05 -0. HF=Higher Frequency 0. from 1 MHz to 1 THz.0 1.

5 ] $ end_geometry .5 ] && boundary_3=[ a02 b02 ] limits_3=[ 0 7.geo begin_geometry point label=a01 xy=[ 0.000000E+00 10.000000E+00 1.000000E+00 ] point label=a02 xy=[ 0.1. The device structure is based on Yamaguchi’s 0.Chapter 14 Small Size BJT 14.000000E+00 ] point label=b02 xy=[ 10. .5 ] && boundary_2=[ a02 b02 ] limits_2=[ 8 10. $bi_mi.5 0.6 ] $ point label=b01 xy=[ 10. A simulation for 0.5 micron bipolar transistor is presented. we demonstrate a small dimension BJT simulation using APSYS. Since the above reference does not specify the full details of the device.5 1.2 Setting Up the Device Due to the simplicity of the device. 14. 14.geo file is used to set up the transistor’s geom- etry.6 ] $ polygon name=p01 4_points=[ a01 b01 b02 a02 ] material= 1 && boundary_1=[ a01 b01 ] limits_1=[ 0.[1]. some of the doping and dimensions used here are arbitrary.000000E+00 0. The schematic of the device is shown in Fig.1 Introduction In this chapter.5um bipolar transistor as described in Ref.

1: Schematics of a Small Dimension Bipolar Transistor .14-174 Small Size BJT Figure 14.

5e+24 shape=polygon && .0 0.1E-02] && edge2_prof=[ 10.0 0.9 point_to= 1.5 && number= 16 ratio= 1.5 0.6 && number= 20 ratio= 1.2 Setting Up the Device 14-175 begin_meshgen put_mesh polygon=p01 edge=[ b01 b02 ] && point_from= 0.2 && extra_point_1= 0.3 point_to= 1.500000E-05 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ put_mesh polygon=p01 edge=[ b01 b02 ] && point_from= 0.5 point_to= 10.100000E-03 put_mesh polygon=p01 edge=[ a01 b01 ] && point_from= 2.9 0.700000E+00 && extra_point_2= 0.1E-02] && edge4_prof=[ 0.5 && number=8 ratio= 0.0 0.1 extra_point_1=0.2 && extra_point_1= 0.1E-02] && edge3_prof=[ 10.9 && number=25 ratio= 0.000000E+00 point_to= 0.500000E-05 extra_point_2= 0.500000E-05 put_mesh polygon=p01 edge=[ b01 b02 ] && point_from= 1.1E-03 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $ mesh_output mesh_outfile=bi_mi.9 0.0 0. so we list the .1E-03 extra_point_2=0.doping file below as well: $bi_mi.500000E-05 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ put_mesh polygon=p01 edge=[ a01 b01 ] && point_from= 0.000000E+00 point_to= 2.8 extra_point_2= 0.3 && number= 14 ratio= -1.doping $N Substrate doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor && max_conc= 3.msh order=yes end_meshgen The device’s property is mainly dependent on the doping’s profile and concentra- tion.0E+24 shape=polygon && edge1_prof=[ 0.1E-02] $P Base doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor && max_conc= 1.5 0.14.

6 0.1E-02] && edge2_prof=[ 10.0 1.6 0.e-3 res_tol=1.0E+26 shape=polygon && edge1_prof=[ 0.14-176 Small Size BJT edge1_prof=[ 0.3 0.0 1.3 Gummel Plot First.6 0. we drive the main solver to get the Gummel plot by applying voltage on base and collector electrode gradually.sol file: $file:bi_mi. var_tol=1.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $stop $ $ contact 1 = collector $ contact 2 = emitter $ contact 3 = base $ contact num= 1 type=ohmic contact num= 2 type=ohmic contact num= 3 type=ohmic $ newton_par damping_step=1.e-9 res_tol=1.0 1.1E-02] && edge4_prof=[ 0.doping load_macro name=si mater= 1 output sol_outf=bi_mi.out newton_par damping_step=1.9 0.1E-02] $ N+ Emitter doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor && max_conc= 1.5 1. var_tol=1.1E-02] && edge3_prof=[ 2.1E-02] && edge4_prof=[ 0.0 0.5 0.9 0.msh include file=bi_mi.1E-02] && edge3_prof=[ 10.5 1. The following lists the corresponding .1E-02] && edge2_prof=[ 2.5 1.e-3 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=10 print_flag=3 && change_variable=yes .sol begin load_mesh mesh_inf=bi_mi.3 0.6 0.1E-02] 14.

4 Ic − V ce Plot In order to plot the transistor’s Ic − V ce characteristic.4 Ic − V ce Plot 14-177 $bias the collector electrode scan var=voltage_1 value_to=2. Since these .01 && hot_electron=no end Please note that we use plot device=data file in the . 14.e-4 max_step=0.14. The .9 print_step=0.icvb scale_2=log end_pstprc The Gummel plot is shown in Fig.plt file is listed as follows: $ bi_mi. we only list the essential part as an example below: Please note how we keep the base current constant in such a simulation.ibvb scale_2=log plot_scan scan_var=voltage_3 variable=total_curr_1 && data_file=bi_mi.2 && hot_electron=no $bias the base electrode scan var=voltage_3 value_to=0.sol file is used to stimulate different base current conditions.2.01 min_step=1.plt file to generate data in two diffenrent files—-bi mi.e-5 max_step=0.ibvb. 14. one more . and bi mi.sol sol_inf=bi_mi. Then we use gnuplot to plot Gummel characteristic. $file:b1.sol files are similar.01 min_step=1.plt begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=data_file get_data main_input=bi_mi.sol begin .out && xy_data=(13 17) scan_data=(13 17) plot_scan scan_var=voltage_3 variable=total_curr_3 && data_file=bi_mi.1 && init_step=0.icvb.1 print_step=0.3 && init_step=0.

scan var_num=2 2_variables=(voltage_1.4 0.e-5 max_step=0.05 && hot_electron=no scan var=current_3 value_to=-1.1 0.. the breakdown voltage does not appear in our simulation. followed by plotting statements to plot various AC quantities of interests.e-4 max_step=0.e-7 && hot_electron=no $ from here. The Ic − V ce plot is shown in Fig.5 AC Analysis AC analysis can be performed from .. 14.2 hot_electron=no && other=-1.0001 min_step=1.6 voltage_3 (volt) Figure 14.3.05 min_step=1.e-10 max_step=1.5 0.plt -2 -3 -4 Log [total_curr_3 (A/m)]+..4 && init_step=0.3 && init_step=0.14-178 Small Size BJT File:bi_mi. -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 0 0. current_3) && value_to=3 print_step=0.1V .3 0..e-6 print_step=1.2 0. 14. bias the collector voltage while $ keep the base current from changing. $ bias the base first scan var=voltage_3 value_to=0.e-6 end Since impact ionization is not involved in this example.2: Gummel Plot of the Bipolar Transistor at V c = 2.e-7 min_step=1.. For con- .4 print_step=0.e-6 && init_step=1..plt file by specifying ac voltage and/or ac parameters.

.plt 3 2.5 1 0. we only present the S-parameters in Figs.5 1 1.3: Collector Current versus Collector voltage curves ciseness.14.5 AC Analysis 14-179 File:bi_mi2.5.4 and 14.5 3 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 14.5 0 -0.5 2 2.5 0 0. 14.5 2 total_curr_1 (A/m) 1.

3 -0.3 -0.2 5.2 -0.0 0 0.0 HF 0.3 0.1 -0.4 S21 S12 HF HF 0.0 1.2 0.4: S11 and S22 plotted on Smith chart. up to 10 GHz.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 0 -0.0 HF 0.1 0 0.0 S11 S22 0.5 2. .0 Figure 14.5: S21 and S12 up to 10 GHz.4 -0.4 Figure 14.5 1.0 2.5 2.2 5.14-180 Small Size BJT HF=Higher Frequency 1.3 0. HF=Higher Frequency 0.2 -0.4 -0.0 5.2 0.

Part III Examples: Quantum MOS .

.

2D quantum well density of states prevails whereas in the classical region. separate heavy hole (HH) and light hole (LH) subbands are considered. 15. carriers in the conducting channel may tunnel through the oxide to become gate leakage current.Chapter 15 Quantum MOS Simulation 15. The quantum particles described by wave functions penetrate into the oxide and escape into the gate via thermionic emission. self-consistent MQW.1 micron) silicon MOS device application in mind. The oxide is no longer treated as a pure insulator.1 Introduction APSYS/Quantum-MOS is a special edition of the APSYS simulator with small scale (around 0. It combines several advanced options of APSYS together to provide an accurate model of the quantum effects associated with submicron MOS silicon devices with ultra-thin gate oxide. . To be more specific. APSYS/Quantum-MOS divides the MOS device into a classical region and a quantum one with the latter being a narrow region under the gate oxide. complex-MQW. quantum tunneling. In the quantum region. For confined hole states.5 eV. It is treated as a semiconductor with a huge bandgap over 7. Quantum mechanical wave equations are solved for the confined states taking into account electron masses parallel and normal to the oxide interface.2 Quantum Effects in Small MOS It has been well known that when MOS device is scaled down and oxide thickness is reduced. conventional bulk carrier statistics applies. the tunneling carriers are initially confined in a quantum well formed between the oxide and the silicon channel. To provide a realistic physical model. the APSYS/Quantum-MOS combines the following options: MOS quantum well. To make things more complicated.

. The structure of a quantum MOS is best set up using the LayerBuilder graphic tool. 15.2. • The most complicated column is the column in the center. the quantum well is the part beneath the oxide. Thus the silicon under the oxide is divided into three parts: The bottom part is the bulk silicon. the 2nd part is the zero-height barrier of the quantum well. please note the following points when setting up a quantum-MOS structure: • The quantum well under the gate is divided into three columns since doping along the well is different.layer file should declare it so that generation of material data base will have the correct ordering for material numbers. Referring to the input file below.15-184 Quantum MOS Simulation 15.1 with an oxide thickness of 2 nm. The oxide is regarded as the right-barrier of the quantum well. Figure 15.3 Analysis of Input Files We consider a simple N-MOS structure in Figure 15. The example of N-MOS as viewed from LayerBuilder is shown in Figure. The analysis of P-MOS is completely similar and will not be presented here. a triangular well should be considered a rectangular well with a left barrier of zero height. The .1: A simple n-channel MOS device with an oxide thickness of 2 nm. • By Crosslight convention.

3 Analysis of Input Files 15-185 Figure 15. Figure 15.2: Structure of the N-MOS as viewed from LayerBuilder.3: Conduction band profile near the quantum region of an MOS. .15.

column_num=6 layer_mater macro_name=si.2 column column_num=3 w=0.2 contact_num=1 bottom_contact column_num=5 from=0 to=0.15-186 Quantum MOS Simulation $ MOS-QW model $********************************************* begin_layer complicated_column column_num=4 column column_num=1 w=0.03 mesh_num=5 r=1.2 contact_num=1 bottom_contact column_num=7 from=0 to=0.2 column column_num=5 w=0.2 n=10 r=0.02 mesh_num=5 r=-1.temp var1=300.2 contact_num=1 bottom_contact column_num=6 from=0 to=0.2 column column_num=7 w=0.6 && p_doping1= 1. column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=si.temp var1=300.temp var1=300.2 contact_num=1 bottom_contact column_num=4 from=0 to=0.05 mesh_num=4 r=0. to=0. column_num=3 layer_mater macro_name=si.E+23 && . column column_num=6 w=0. column column_num=4 w=0. to=0.2 contact_num=4 && contact_type=schottky intern_voltage=-0. column_num=7 layer d=0.2 mesh_num=6 r=1.2 contact_num=2 top_contact column_num=3 from=0.temp var1=300.1 top_contact column_num=7 from=0 to=0.E+23 && p_doping2= 1.2 contact_num=4 && contact_type=schottky intern_voltage=-0.02 mesh_num=5 r=-1.1 mesh_num=6 r=-1. column_num=2 layer_mater macro_name=si. column_num=5 layer_mater macro_name=si.2 contact_num=1 top_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=0. column_num=4 layer_mater macro_name=si.1 top_contact column_num=4 from=0. to=0.temp var1=300.2 contact_num=1 bottom_contact column_num=2 from=0 to=0.2 contact_num=4 && contact_type=schottky intern_voltage=-0.temp var1=300.4 $ bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=0.7 column column_num=2 w=0.2 contact_num=1 bottom_contact column_num=3 from=0 to=0.2 contact_num=3 $ layer_mater macro_name=si.04 mesh_num=5 r=1.1 top_contact column_num=5 from=0.temp var1=300.

E+23 && p_doping5= 1. column_num=4 && active_macro=cx-Si avar1=300.temp var1=300.temp var1=300.E+27 .E+27 $ layer_mater macro_name=si.01 n=10 r=0. column_num=7 layer d=0.temp var1=300. layer_mater macro_name=si.E+27 && p_doping4= 1. column_num=5 && active_macro=cx-Si avar1=300. column_num=6 layer_mater macro_name=si.temp var1=300. column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=si.E+27 && n_doping3= 1.temp var1=300.E+27 && n_doping3= 1.E+23 && p_doping6= 1.temp var1=300.E+27 && n_doping2= 1.temp var1=300.E+27 && n_doping2= 1. column_num=3 && active_macro=cx-Si avar1=300.temp var1=300. column_num=5 && active_macro=cx-Si avar1=300.E+27 && n_doping6= 1.15. && n_doping1= 1.01 n=16 r=1.E+23 && p_doping7= 1.E+23 $ layer_mater macro_name=si. column_num=2 layer_mater macro_name=si. column_num=2 layer_mater macro_name=si. column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=si.E+27 && p_doping4= 1.temp var1=300.E+23 && n_doping5= 1. layer_mater macro_name=si.temp var1=300.E+23 && p_doping4= 1.E+27 && n_doping7= 1. column_num=4 && active_macro=cx-Si avar1=300. column_num=7 layer d=0.E+23 && n_doping5= 1. layer_mater macro_name=si.temp var1=300. layer_mater macro_name=si.temp var1=300.3 Analysis of Input Files 15-187 p_doping3= 1.E+27 && n_doping6= 1.temp var1=300. layer_mater macro_name=si.E+27 && n_doping7= 1. layer_mater macro_name=si.8 && n_doping1= 1.temp var1=300. column_num=3 && active_macro=cx-Si avar1=300. column_num=6 layer_mater macro_name=si.

sol input file below.3). . the gate drags down the oxide barrier. $ $ end_layer Once the . column_num=4 && active_macro=cx-SiO2 avar1=300. confined states may show up and may consume computation time and cause non-convergence condition. As bias changes. column_num=7 layer d=0. please note the following points: • By default. layer_mater macro_name=void var1=300. The reason is further explained in the following point. it should be processed to generate the . • When solving the quantum mechanical wave equation we need to limit the range of solution on the side of the oxide.geo.002 n=8 r=1. column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=void var1=300. layer_mater macro_name=s-sio2 var1=300. At some point. confined states may form in the potential well formed between the infinite wall imposed by the zero wave boundary and the sloped oxide conduction band as indicated in Figure 15. the quantum states in both the conduction band and the valence band are computed. • The self-consistent option must be turned on to allow self-consistent solution of the confined states with the drift-diffusion model. the valence band quantum well will not have any confined states. The potential profile is automatically extended on top of the oxide layer (see Figure 15. we set parameter confine left . Referring to the . Since we are only interested in the confined states within the silicon. Initially.15-188 Quantum MOS Simulation $ layer_mater macro_name=void var1=300.mater and . layer_mater macro_name=s-sio2 var1=300. The zero wave boundary condition is imposed by the right mesh parameter. Thus it is better to force the program to treat the valence band as bulk totally. The situation is such that there are two confined regions in the wave solution: one in the silicon channel and the other on the top side of the barrier. column_num=6 layer_mater macro_name=void var1=300. column_num=5 && active_macro=cx-SiO2 avar1=300.3. using bulk treatment. column_num=2 layer_mater macro_name=s-sio2 var1=300. column_num=3 && active_macro=cx-SiO2 avar1=300.doping files.layer file is set up. . • When positive gate bias is applied.

2 scan var=voltage_3 value_to=5 print_step=2. print_flag=3 scan var=voltage_4 value_to=1 print_step=1.01 sample_distance=0.15. the same anisotropic masses are used for the part from the bulk states.3 Analysis of Input Files 15-189 • The quantum well in the silicon has anisotropic effective masses.e-5 max_step=0. The carrier density consists of two parts: one part from confined states and the other from bulk states above.out bulk_treatment type=p self_consistent wave_range=0.2 newton_par damping_step=5. $file:nmos2d.doping output sol_outf=nmos2d. max_iter=200 print_flag=3 more_output ac_data=yes qw_states=yes equilibrium $ 1-> substrate.msh include file=nmos2d. print_flag=3 . && init_step=0.e-5 max_step=0.sol begin load_mesh mesh_inf=nmos2d.5 && init_step=0. 3-> drain. max_iter=200 print_flag=3 equilibrium newton_par damping_step=3.1 min_step=1.15 set_active_reg qw_print=2 fd_mesh=60 modify_qw right_mesh=0. This may cause a kink between the bulk silicon and quantum well silicon in the density plot if the anisotropic masses are not equivalent to the mass in the bulk silicon at the bottom. We set parameter use bulkmass to eliminate this kink. Usually.1 min_step=1. • We use more output to print data for AC analysis and quantum well wave functions distributions.mater include file=nmos2d. 4-> gain newton_par damping_step=3.005 confine_left=yes use_bulkmass=yes newton_par damping_step=5. 2-> src.

2 end Plotting the results is relatively straight forward. && init_step=0. $file:nmos2d.15-190 Quantum MOS Simulation scan var=voltage_4 value_to=2.sol && sol_inf=nmos2d.02 yrange=[0.150E+00 0.150E+00 0.2 scan var=voltage_3 value_to=5 print_step=2.2220E+00] plot_1d variable=band && from=[ 0.plt begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=nmos2d.out && xy_data=[ 1 1] scan_data=[1 1] plot_1d variable=band && from=[ 0. print_step=1. The following .35] plot_1d variable=elec_conc && from=[ 0.0000E+00] && to=[ 0.e-5 max_step=0.150E+00 0.150E+00 0.2220E+00] .150E+00 0.8 -0.2220E+00] plot_1d variable=band && from=[ 0.2000E+00] && to=[ 0.150E+00 0.4] plot_1d variable=elec_conc && from=[ 0.15 0.150E+00 0.5 && init_step=0.150E+00 0.2000E+00] && to=[ 0.0000E+00] && to=[ 0.2000E+00] && to=[ 0.150E+00 0.2220E+00] get_data main_input=nmos2d.e-5 max_step=0.out && xy_data=[ 9 9] scan_data=[1 9] plot_1d variable=band && from=[ 0.150E+00 0.1 min_step=1.1 min_step=1.150E+00 0.2000E+00] && to=[ 0.plt file may be used and the user may consult the reference manual for further explanation of the statements.sol && sol_inf=nmos2d.02 yrange=[-0.150E+00 0.2220E+00] qw_wave=1 qw_wave_ht=0.2220E+00] qw_wave=1 qw_wave_ht=0.

AC analysis and plot------ $ Gate cap. This situation is similar to that of quantum well laser diode where the same Fermi level split requires less carrier injection (good for the efficiency of a laser).5 compares the electron distribution with and without quantum effects.15. Figure 15.4 Results of a Simple MOS Figure 15.7 compares the drain current with and without quantum effects. Figure 15. The reduced current indicates less amount of conducting electrons in the channel for the same voltage bias when there is QW. . && contact_num=4 freq_point=10 plot_ac_curr variable=capacitance_4 plot_ac_curr variable=conductance_4 scale_2=log end_pstprc 15. Please note that penetration of electron wave function into the oxide. log_freq2=12.4 shows the confined electron subbands with corresponding wave functions in the quantum well formed under the gate oxide. Figure 15. etc. The large increase is due to thermionic emission of electrons tunneled into and through the oxide.6 compares the gate leakage current with and without quantum ef- fects.4 Results of a Simple MOS 15-191 plot_3d variable=elec_conc $ I-V curve family plot_scan scan_var=voltage_3 variable=total_curr_3 scanline=3 && scale_vertical=-1 merge_next=yes plot_scan scan_var=voltage_3 variable=total_curr_3 scanline=6 && scale_vertical=-1 plot_scan scan_var=voltage_4 variable=total_curr_4 scanline=2 && scale_vertical=1 merge_next=yes && scale_2=log yrange=[-10 0] plot_scan scan_var=voltage_4 variable=total_curr_4 scanline=5 && scale_vertical=1 && scale_2=log yrange=[-10 0] $ --. -.this may take a while if the matrix is large. ac_voltage log_freq1=4.

Finally. File:nmos2d.25 Distance (micron) Figure 15. The . With a frquency range from 1 MHz to 1THz. we wish to point out that AC capacitance can be either increased or decreased depending on the distribution of the quantum wave function under the gate oxide.4: Confined electron subbands with corresponding wave functions under the gate oxide.plt 3 2 1 0 Energy (eV) -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 0 0.15 0.8 compares the AC gate capacitance with and without quantum effects. In out cases here. 3D simulation of this structure is also available as an option of APSYS/Quantum-MOS. The 2-port network parameters can be obtained using the ac parameters state- ment in the .1 0. The reason for a larger AC capacitance is that the distribution of carriers is closer to the gate when using the QW model.15-192 Quantum MOS Simulation Figure 15.9 is for the same reason as for the gate leakage current.plt file.10 is the 2D distribution of electron concentrations within the MOS structures computed with APSYS/Quantum-MOS.11 and 15.2 0. 15. Figure 15. 15. The penetration of carrier towards the gate increases the capacitance whereas quantum wave peaking away from gate reduces the capacitance.05 0.12. we plot the S-parameters in Figs.layer file should be the same as in the previous simple structure except the top layer is the polysilicon as follows: . the quantum confinement effect seem to reduce the AC capacitance.5 Quantum-MOS with Polysilicon Gate A practical MOSFET may come with polysilicon gate and we shall discuss the set up of such a structure here. The increased gate conductance in Figure 15.

8 1 1.025 Distance (micron) Figure 15.15.8 2 Gate Voltage Figure 15.4 0.5: Electron distribution in a 1D cut under the gate with and without quantum effects. .2 0.01 0..6: Gate leakage current with and without quantum effects.4 1.6 0.6 1.005 0. 0 -5 Log [Gate Current (A/m)] -10 -15 "Ig_with_QW" "Ig_without_QW" -20 -25 -30 0 0. $ layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer_mater macro_name=poly column_num=3 layer_mater macro_name=poly column_num=4 .2 1..02 0.015 0.5 Quantum-MOS with Polysilicon Gate 15-193 18 16 14 Log (Elec_Conc/cm^3) 12 10 8 6 "electron_with_QW" "electron_without_QW" 4 2 0 0 0.

E+25 $ . 2.3 2.4 2.15 n=15 r=1.8 2.5 2.7: Drain currents with and without quantum well model.5 1 1.6 AC Capacitance (nF/m) 2.2 "cap_with_QW" "cap_without_QW" 2.15-194 Quantum MOS Simulation 3000 2500 Log [Drain Current (A/m)] 2000 1500 1000 500 "Id_with_QW" "Id_without_QW" 0 0 0. layer_mater macro_name=poly column_num=5 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=6 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=7 layer d=0.1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Log [Freq (Hz)] Figure 15.5 4 4.8: Comparison of the AC gate capacitance with and without quantum effects.E+25 n_doping5= 2.5 2 2.2 && n_doping3= 2.E+25 n_doping4= 2.7 2.5 3 3.5 5 Drain Voltage Figure 15.

15.5 0 Figure 15.3 0.1 0.25 0.2 0 0.15 0.45 0.25 0.35 0. APSYS provides two models of current flow into the gate. File:nmos2d. The simple model mentioned in previous sections takes into account the overlap of carrier wave function .2 0.10: 2D distribution of electron concentrations in the MOS device with two peaks representing the heavy N-doping of the source and drain.plt Log (Elec_Conc/cm^3) 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.5 Quantum-MOS with Polysilicon Gate 15-195 10000 100 AC Conductance (Siemens/m) 1 0.05 0.05 0.1 y (micron) 0.4 x (micron) 0.01 0.9: AC gate conductance with and without quantum well.0001 1e-006 1e-008 "cond_with_QW" "cond_without_QW" 1e-010 1e-012 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Log [Freq(Hz)] Figure 15.15 0.

0 HF HF 0. HF=Higher Frequency 0.1 -0.4 Figure 15.0 0.5 2.1 0 -0.5 2.0 0.4 S21 S12 0.11: S11 and S22 plotted on Smith chart for the quantum MOS with confined states.0 Figure 15.2 5.1 0 0.2 0.3 HFHF 0.2 5.2 -0. penetrating into the SiO2 layer with thermal current through the top of the SiO2 barrier.3 -0.2 0.4 -0.0 0 0.2 0.3 0.15-196 Quantum MOS Simulation HF=Higher Frequency 1.0 S11 S22 0.12: S21 and S12 plotted as polar graph.1 0.3 -0. We may regard it as a type of thermal assisted tunneling in a less rigorous .2 -0.5 1.0 2.4 -0.0 1.0 5.

sol file: tunneling direction=y carrier=electron barrier_type=propagation_matrix && point_ll=(0. vol. and direct tunneling effects in MOSFETs with ultrathin oxides.01 0. 327-337.14. The parameter “use evelop func=no” instruct the simulator to switch off the evelop function for mobile carrier when performing the tunneling model. This appears to generate reasonable gate current over certain bias ranges. Taur. Another more rigorous model is to use direct tunneling from first principle cal- culation. 15. May 1999.04 Distance (micron) Figure 15.” IBM J. D. polysilicon depletion.5 Quantum-MOS with Polysilicon Gate 15-197 manner.025 0.07 0. This is to avoid over counting of the total gate current.24 0. Develop. 15. File:nmos26. .. ”Modeling and characterization of quantiza- tion. 3.005 0.15) with experimental data for a similar structure taken from the following reference: S.plt 3 2 1 0 Energy (eV) -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 0 0. The use of this model is activated by the following statements in the .13 for a gate voltage of 3 volt and the corresponding confined states are shown in Fig. pp.03 0. Res. 43. 15.-H. Buchanan and Y.15.21) point_ur=(0.02 0.A.035 0.015 0. The culculated tunneling gate current compares reasonably well (see Fig.2322) adjust_current use_evelop_func=no The above statement turns on the tunneling calculation with propagation matrix method over a barrier region. The band diagram of the poly-gate MOS is illustrated in Fig.13: Band diagram of the npoly-gate MOS at a gate bias of 3 volts. Lo. No.

0 "Lo_experiment" "Oxide_26A" -1 "Oxide_29A" -2 Gate current (A/cm**2) -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 0 0.2 Energy (eV) 0 -0.5 2 2. .005 0.5 3 Gate voltage (V) Figure 15.4 0.5 1 1.4 0 0.015 0.2 -0.025 Distance (micron) Figure 15.14: Confined states of the npoly-gate MOS at a gate bias of 3 volts.plt 0.01 0.15: Comparison of simulated gate current with published measurement data.02 0.15-198 Quantum MOS Simulation File:nmos26.

30 is listed as follows: begin_layer $ 1D S-Si model. We have set up a series of layer structures with Ge composition ranging from 0 to 0. The ss 30.2 Band structure preview A great deal of information can be obtained by performing a band structure preview simulation without going through a full 2D simulation. $ . we will brief introduce the model of uniaxial strained Si MOSFET by analogy.layer file for Ge=0.1.Chapter 16 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum MOSFET Examples 16.1 mesh_num=2 r=1. Both conventional biaxial strained Si/relaxed-SiGe and mechanically induced uniaxial strained Si MOS- FET are demonstrated. We first demonstrate how to set up and calibrate the strained silicon quantum well model. the calibrated mobility model is used in 2D simulations. Then. Then. to study basic properties column column_num=1 w=0.1 Introduction This chapter is dedicated to simulation of strained Si and Si/SiGe MOS structure us- ing Crosslight’s APSYS simulation program (with quantum-MOS option). subband populations and valley mobility average.4. We shall explain in detail how a conventional Si/SiGe MOSFET model is set up using APSYS. The band structure preview is a meshless simulation offered by APSYS that allows the study of basic property of a quantum well such as confined levels. We start with setting up a 1D layer structure as illustrated in Figure 16. 16.

mater) which are included in a series of preview files (.gain is as follows.01 n=9 r=0.8 p_doping1=1.30 layer d=0.temp column_num=1 layer d=1.e23 layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x grade_var=1 grade_from=0.e23 $ $ relaxed sige layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x var1=0.8 p_doping1=1. they are processed to generate the material files (.8 p_doping1=1. n=9 r=0. For example.e23 $ $ start of bottom /left barrier layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x var1=0. grade_to=0.1 contact_num=1 && contact_type=ohmic $ layer_mater macro_name=si.gain file. named histor- ically to preview optical gain in a preview simulation).st end_gain The statement to activate the preview simulator is in ss band. .8 n_doping1=1.st as follows.16-200 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum MOSFET Examples bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=0.30 && active_macro=cx-Uns-SiGe && avar_symbol1=x avar1=0.e23 Once the layer structures are set up. begin_gain plot_data plot_device=postscript include file=ss_30.30 layer d=1.30 layer d=2. n=9 r=0. n=9 r=0. ss 30.mater include file=ss_band.

16.2 Band structure preview 16-201

more_output cond_valley_prop=1 val_valley_prop=1
self_consistent wave_range=0.005

$ for 0.1 um, 1 volt give 1/(0.1u)=1.e7

band_distance elec_field=-1.e6 cond_valley=1 val_valley=1 &&
qw_wave_ht=0.2 use_fermi_level=no &&
conc=1.e23 pn_ratio=1.e-10 &&
conc_logscale=no cond_valley_prop=1 prop_file=ssmob.txt &&
data_point=60

The above statement of band distance instructs the preview simulator to plot
the band structure for a certain valley as a function of distance and also perform
valley density average over all valleys for a quantity specified in the statements
cond1 valley prop1 and cond2 valley prop1 for conduction valley 1 and 2, re-
spectively. Theses statements are specified in our macro (user-accessible) as follows,
with x and y denoting Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si(1-y)Ge(y).

$ Crosslight 3-parameter mobility model=>
$ u=A_u*(1/m**2.5+b_a_ratio/m*exp(gamma*delta_e))
$ recall:
$ lower conduction band para-mass defined as ext_func5
$ cond_band_split=ext_func3-ext_func1

cond1_valley_prop1 variation=function
function(x,y,temper)
mass=ext_func5; e_split=ext_func3-ext_func1;
$ fitting parameters:
b_a_ratio=1.2; gamma=0.2;
mobility_inv=mass**2.5+b_a_ratio*mass*exp(-gamma*e_split);
1/mobility_inv
end_function

$ similarly:
$ higher conduction band para-mass=ext_func6
cond2_valley_prop1 variation=function
function(x,y,temper)
mass=ext_func6; e_split=ext_func3-ext_func1;
$ fitting parameters:

16-202 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum MOSFET Examples

b_a_ratio=1.2; gamma=0.2;
mobility_inv=mass**2.5+b_a_ratio*mass*exp(-gamma*e_split);
1/mobility_inv
end_function

After setting up all the .gain files, a batch program can be used to run them
all one time. The results of the preview for each .gain file includes band diagram
with subband levels and envelop functions (see Fig. 16.2) concentration distribution
of all subbands (see Fig. 16.4) and concentration weighted property as defined in
condk valley prop1, for kth valley (see Fig. ??).
The valley averaged results of the mobility function is printed in file ssmob.txt
which then can be plotted along with experimental data from [74] and [91]. Af-
ter adjustment of b a ratio and gamma, good agreement with experiment can be
obtained as indicated in Figure 16.5.
The series of simulation files in the preview allow us to determine reasonable
values for the rba and γ parameters in Crosslight’s 3-parameter mobility model.
However, we need to determine also the Amu parameter at zero strain condition
since the mobility is well known at zero strain. To do this, we need to look into the
information printed in ss 00.gain.msg when running the case of zero strain in the
preview. The message file looks like the following:

MQW Reg.# 1 Densities (n&p)= 0.1000E+24 0.1000E+24
Cmplx.# 1 Levels: Gamma= 1 L= 0 HH= 5 LH= 2
MQW Reg.# 1 Densities (n&p)= 0.1000E+24 0.1000E+14
Cmplx.# 1 Levels: Gamma= 1 L= 0 HH= 5 LH= 2
MQW Reg.# 1 Densities (n&p)= 0.1000E+24 0.1000E+14
Cmplx.# 1 Levels: Gamma= 4 L= 2 HH= 3 LH= 2
Band_distance spatial integral results
Conduction band
-----------------------------------------
valley conc conc*prop mass_para
1 0.555167E+15 0.218320E+16 0.197494E+00
2 0.165995E+16 0.263854E+16 0.425760E+00
-----------------------------------------
Total= 0.221511E+16 0.482173E+16
Conc. Average Property=
0.217675E+01
Valence band
-----------------------------------------

16.3 Strained mobility model for 2D simulation 16-203

valley conc conc*prop mass_para
1 0.173208E+06 0.000000E+00 0.855100E+00
2 0.293368E+05 0.000000E+00 0.256750E+00
-----------------------------------------
Total= 0.202545E+06 0.000000E+00
Conc. Average Property=
0.000000E+00

The first few lines are the number of confined levels in different valleys. Here we
used the convention in direct bandgap semiconductor and let Gamma and L valleys
to denote first and 2nd conduction band valleys in strained silicon. Similarly HH
and LH are used to denote 1st and 2nd valence band valleys.
The important information we need to calibrate Aµ is the band distance spatial
integral results for the conduction band printed in the 2nd and 4th columns above.
They are the valley concentration in 1/m2 and the corresponding conductivity mass
parallel to the MOS interface. The data above are sufficient to determine the constant
Aµ as we will show in 2D simulation shortly.

16.3 Strained mobility model for 2D simulation
Based on the simple 1D structure in the preview section, we can add more columns to
the .layer file to form a 2D n-MOSFET. The doping can be specified directly in .layer
as piece-wise Gaussian profile or can be imported using the doping statement. For
simplicity, we define the doping profile analytically within each layer in the following
.layer file.

begin_layer
$ 2D S-Si model, to study basic properties
$ gate length=0.2 um, oxide=0.003 um
column column_num=1 w=0.05 mesh_num=3 r=1.
column column_num=2 w=0.15 mesh_num=5 r=1.
column column_num=3 w=0.2 mesh_num=6 r=-1.2
column column_num=4 w=0.15 mesh_num=5 r=1.
column column_num=5 w=0.05 mesh_num=3 r=1.
$
$ set extra point mesh, a reasonable atomic scale mesh size.
internal_xpoint xp_size=0.0002
complicated_column column_num=3

bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=0.5 contact_num=1 &&

16-204 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum MOSFET Examples

contact_type=ohmic
bottom_contact column_num=2 from=0 to=0.5 contact_num=1 &&
contact_type=ohmic
bottom_contact column_num=3 from=0 to=0.5 contact_num=1 &&
contact_type=ohmic
bottom_contact column_num=4 from=0 to=0.5 contact_num=1 &&
contact_type=ohmic
bottom_contact column_num=5 from=0 to=0.5 contact_num=1 &&
contact_type=ohmic

$ src=2
top_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=0.5 contact_num=2 &&
contact_type=ohmic

$ gate=4
top_contact column_num=3 from=0. to=0.2 contact_num=3 &&
contact_type=schottky intern_voltage=-0.5 use_schottky_xp=no

$ drain=4
top_contact column_num=5 from=0 to=0.5 contact_num=4 &&
contact_type=ohmic
$
layer_mater macro_name=si.temp column_num=1 p_doping=1.e23
layer_mater macro_name=si.temp column_num=2 p_doping=1.e23
layer_mater macro_name=si.temp column_num=3 p_doping=1.e23
layer_mater macro_name=si.temp column_num=4 p_doping=1.e23
layer_mater macro_name=si.temp column_num=5 p_doping=1.e23
layer d=1. n=5 r=0.8

layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=1 &&
var_symbol1=x grade_var=1 grade_from=0. grade_to=0.30 p_doping=1.e23
layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=2 &&
var_symbol1=x grade_var=1 grade_from=0. grade_to=0.30 p_doping=1.e23
layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=3 &&
var_symbol1=x grade_var=1 grade_from=0. grade_to=0.30 p_doping=1.e23
layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=4 &&
var_symbol1=x grade_var=1 grade_from=0. grade_to=0.30 p_doping=1.e23
layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=5 &&
var_symbol1=x grade_var=1 grade_from=0. grade_to=0.30 p_doping=1.e23
layer d=2. n=5 r=0.8

$
$ relaxed sige

16.3 Strained mobility model for 2D simulation 16-205

layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=1 &&
var_symbol1=x var1=0.30 p_doping=1.e23
layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=2 &&
var_symbol1=x var1=0.30 p_doping=1.e23
layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=3 &&
var_symbol1=x var1=0.30 p_doping=1.e23
layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=4 &&
var_symbol1=x var1=0.30 p_doping=1.e23
layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=5 &&
var_symbol1=x var1=0.30 p_doping=1.e23
layer d=1. n=5 r=0.8

$ relaxed sige
layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=1 &&
var_symbol1=x var1=0.30 p_doping=1.e23 n_doping=1.e27
layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=2 &&
var_symbol1=x var1=0.30 p_doping=1.e23 n_doping=1.e26
layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=3 &&
var_symbol1=x var1=0.30 p_doping=1.e23
layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=4 &&
var_symbol1=x var1=0.30 p_doping=1.e23 n_doping=1.e26
layer_mater macro_name=sige column_num=5 &&
var_symbol1=x var1=0.30 p_doping=1.e23 n_doping=1.e27
layer d=0.03 n=9 r=0.8

$

The structure may be visually edited using the LayerBuilder program as indicated
in Fig. 16.6
The main simulation can be activated with the following ss 30.sol file.

$file:ss_30.sol
begin
load_mesh mesh_inf=ss_30.msh
include file=ss_30.mater
include file=ss_30.doping
output sol_outf=ss_30.out

strained_mobility carrier_type=n vsat_factor=0.8 &&

16-206 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum MOSFET Examples

b_a_ratio=1.2 gamma=0.2 &&
unstrained_conc1=0.555e15 unstrained_conc2=0.166e16 &&
unstrained_mass1=0.1975 unstrained_mass2=0.4257

bulk_treatment type=p
self_consistent wave_range=0.01
set_active_reg qw_print=2 fd_mesh=60
modify_qw right_mesh=0.005 confine_left=yes use_bulkmass=no

more_output ac_data=yes qw_states=yes &&
elec_conc_subb=2 cond_valley_prop=1

newton_par damping_step=5. max_iter=200 print_flag=3 mf_solver=2
equilibrium

newton_par damping_step=3. print_flag=3 mf_solver=2
scan var=voltage_3 value_to=1. print_step=1. &&
init_step=0.1 min_step=1.e-5 max_step=0.2

scan var=voltage_4 value_to=3 print_step=5 &&
init_step=0.1 min_step=1.e-5 max_step=0.2

end

The above input file looks like a usual quantum-MOS simulation except for the
strained mobility statement which uses the calibrated b a ratio and gamma pa-
rameters. Also, valley concentrations and parallel masses for all valleys of unstrained
structure must be entered based on information from ss 00.gain.msg as explained in
the preview section. The parameter of vsat factor allows different enhancement
factors to apply to the low field mobility and the saturation velocity.
The simulation results may be displayed using the .plt file or from CrosslightView
graphic tool. We shall only present the results of 2D distribution of first subband
concentration from the lower conduction band valley and the comparisons of Id-Vd
and AC transconductance in Figs. 16.7 to 16.9. Please note that the difference in
the final 2D simulation takes into account spatial variation of the enhanced mobility
since it is a function of valley occupancy which may vary in space. Also, structural
and material difference also contributes to the difference in final 2D simulation results
comparing strained and unstrained structures. Thus it is not accurate to interpret
the differences in Id-Vd and transconductance as due to mobility enhancement alone.

16.4 Strained Si/relaxed-SiGe p-MOSFET 16-207

16.4 Strained Si/relaxed-SiGe p-MOSFET
The simulation for p-MOSFET is completely analogous except for the valence band
effective mass. Our macro allows for anisotropic effective masses in directions parallel
and perpendicular to the MOS interface. However, due to uncertainty in valence
band parameters, we have decided to set effective hole masses to be the same for all
directions. However, this simplification causes a problem when we tried to use the
parameterization of valence band masses by Fischetti and Laux [77] who predicted
the upper valence band to be LH.
Valence splitting in such a model would imply strong increase in mobility due
to strong decrease in averaged valley masses (since LH would be more populated
than the lower HH) even at a small amount if strain. Such a behavior is not seen
in experiment which leads us to conclude that if isotropic valence band model is to
be used, the assignment of upper valence band should be HH with effective masses
decreasing as a function strain. Treating the strain dependence as a fitting parameter,
we used the following variation of hole effective masses in the macro:
mhh = 0.856 − 0.9y; mlh = 0.25585 + 0.9y (16.1)
where y is the Ge composition in relaxed SiGe. With such as model, good agreement
of hole mobility enhancement with experiment can be obtained as indicated in Fig.
16.10.
To avoid repeating the description of procedures of n-MOSFET, we will only
present the results of comparison for different strains in Figs. 16.11 and 16.12.
Please note that the same remarks can be made for the difference in 2D simulation
results and one should be careful since the 2D simulation includes many other effects
than mobility enhancement.

16.5 Uniaxially Strained Si MOSFET
Mobility enhancement may also be achieved using in-plane uniaxial strain (see for
example [75] and [76]). As we explain previously in APSYS specific models that
uniaxial strain may converted into biaxial strain in a plain perpendicular to the
direction of the uniaxial stress. Therefore, the calibrated mobility parameters as well
as band structure parameters developed in preview sections can be mostly borrowed
without such modification. We only have to take into account the biaxial directions
are different.
There are many ways to mechanically induce in-plane uniaxial strain and we
shall consider two cases as illustrated in Fig. 16.13. Uniaxial compressive strain
is translated into biaxial tensile strain. As we have discussed in previous sections,
biaxial tensile strain enhances both electron and hole mobility. Thus configuration
in Fig. 16.13 (a) can easily be understood based on our previous results. The hole
mobility enhancement curve from band preview simulation is shown in Fig. 16.14
which gives similar trend and magnitude as in Fig. 16.10.

16-208 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum MOSFET Examples

However, tensile uniaxial situation is different because it translates into compres-
sive biaxial strain which we have not dealt with before. Based on our parameteri-
zations of the conduction band, the two valleys along the uniaxial strain direction
will be elevated in energies and the ∆4 valleys will be more populated. Since the low
transverse mass of the ∆4 valleys will be used for conduction, valley split will result
in enhance electron mobility. We expect the mobility enhancement to be strong for
the same amount of strain since we have high degeneracy for the more populated
∆4 valleys. Indeed using the same 3-parameter mobility model, we found from band
preview simulation that the magnitude of enhancement is stronger as indicated in
Fig. 16.15. Please note that 30 percent Ge in Si/relaxed-SiGe provides 0.0157 uniax-
ial strain. Therefore, we conclude that uniaxial tensile strain is more effective than
conventional biaxial tensile strain for n-MOSFET due to a higher degeneracy for the
former case as far as mobility enhancement is concerned.
Using the same set up procedure as for conventional biaxial strained MOS, we
have demonstrated the use of strained mobility model for uniaxially strained MOS-
FET. The simple 2D structure is shown in Fig. 16.16 which is identical to a conven-
tional unstrained MOSFET except the quantum well material is replaced by strained
silicon. The results of comparison for strained and unstrained cases are presented
for n-MOSFET and p-MOSFET in Figs. 16.17 to 16.20.

Figure 16.1: A simple 1D layer structure of the Si/relaxed-SiGe under the gate as
created by LayerBuilder.

16.6 Conclusions 16-209

File:ss_30.gain
0.1

0

-0.1
Energy (eV)

-0.2

-0.3

-0.4

-0.5
-0.005 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025
Distance (um)

Figure 16.2: Band structure and quantized states in Si/SiGe with 30 percent Ge
plotted for the lower conduction band valley.

File:ss_30.gain
0.1
Subb. 01
0.09 Subb. 02
Subb. 03
0.08 Subb. 04
Elec. Subb. Conc. (1.e18/cm^3)

Subb. 05
Subb. 06
0.07 Subb. 07
Subb. 08
0.06 Subb. 09
Bulk
0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0
-0.005 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025
Distance (um)

Figure 16.3: Subband concentration distribution for Si/SiGe with 30 percent Ge
plotted for the lower conduction band valley.

16.6 Conclusions
We have developed a phenomenological 3-parameter mobility model based on val-
ley occupancy average procedures easily performed by the APSYS quantum-MOS
option. We have shown that the 3-parameter model is easy to interpret using in-

9 Experiment 3-Parameter Model 1.05 0.4 Subb. Subb.05 0 -0.16-210 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum MOSFET Examples File:ss_30.005 0 0.15 0.3 1. Conc. 01 Subb.2 0.015 0.3 Subb.2 1.01 0.4 1.25 0.25 Subb.1 0. 05 0.8 1.2 0. Examples in this chapter demonstrates that such a model can be used for uniaxially strained MOS as well as for conventional biaxially strained MOS.02 0.gain 0. .3 0.5: Comparison of Crosslight’s 3-parameter model with experimental elec- tron mobility enhancement for Si/relaxed-SiGe MOS. 02 0.1 1 0 0. formation of valley occupancy.35 0.4: Strain dependent mobility factor multiplied by subband concentration distribution for Si/SiGe with 30 percent Ge plotted for the lower conduction band valley. 06 Subb.5 1.025 Distance (um) Figure 16.4 Substrate Ge Fraction Figure 16.1 0.005 0. 09 Bulk 0. 07 0.35 [Elec. 04 Subb.7 Mobility Enhancement Factor 1.6 1. effective mass anisotropy and valley energy splitting. 03 Subb. 1. 08 Subb.15 0. Experimental data taken from [74] and [91].]*Prop (1.e18/cm^3) Subb.

4 Figure 16.05 0.6 Conclusions 16-211 Figure 16.25 4.035 x (micron) 4.055 0.06 4.04 0.2 4.7: 2D distribution of subband concentration plotted for the lower conduc- tion valley.3 4.35 4.16. File:ss_30. Structure is Si/relaxed-SiGe with 30 percent Ge.6: Schematic of the 2D n-MOSFET with strained Si/SiGe quantum well.045 y (micron) 0. .03 0.plt Elec_Conc (E18/cm^3) 18 16 18 14 16 12 14 10 12 8 10 6 8 4 6 2 4 2 0 0 4.

Gate voltage is set at 1 volt.9: Comparison of AC transconductance Id-Vd characteristics of unstrained structure with strained Si/relaxed-SiGe n-MOSFET with 30 percent Ge. Conductance (Siemens/m) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 Unstrained Strained 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Drain Bias (V) Figure 16.5 3 Drain Bias (V) Figure 16.5 2 2.16-212 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum MOSFET Examples 600 Unstrained Strained 500 Drain Current (Amp/m) 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.8: Comparison of Id-Vd characteristics of unstrained structure with strained Si/relaxed-SiGe n-MOSFET with 30 percent Ge. . 1000 900 Trans.5 1 1. Gate and drain voltages are at 1 and 3 volts. respectively.

Gate voltage is set at -1 volt. .5 3 Drain Bias (V) Figure 16.4 0.3 0. 160 Unstrained Strained 140 120 Drain Current (Amp/m) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.15 0.5 2 2.2 Experiment 3-parameter Model 2 Hole Mobility Enhancement Factor 1.5 1 1.8 1.35 0.16.11: Comparison of Id-Vd characteristics of unstrained structure with strained Si/relaxed-SiGe p-MOSFET with 30 percent Ge.6 1.4 1.45 Substrate Ge Fraction Figure 16.2 1 0.25 0.05 0.6 Conclusions 16-213 2.2 0. Experimental data taken from [74] and [91].8 0 0.10: Comparison of Crosslight’s 3-parameter model with experimental hole mobility enhancement for Si/relaxed-SiGe MOS.1 0.

16-214 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum MOSFET Examples 800 700 Trans. Conductance (Siemens/m) 600 500 400 300 200 "Unstrained_Trans_Con" "Strained_Trans_Con" 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Drain Bias (V) Figure 16. Gate and drain voltages are at -1 and -3 volts. .12: Comparison of AC transconductance characteristics of unstrained structure with strained Si/relaxed-SiGe p-MOSFET with 30 percent Ge. respectively.13: Schematics of PMOS and NMOS structure with uniaxial strains con- sidered in this chapter. Figure 16.

6 Conclusions 16-215 2.4 1.014 0.015 0. 2.004 0.6 1.4 1.018 Uniaxial Tensile Strain Figure 16.002 0.03 Uniaxial Compressive Strain Figure 16.02 0. .8 2.006 0.2 2 1.008 0.005 0.15: Electron mobility enhancement factor as a function of uniaxial tensile strain for uniaxially strained NMOS.8 1.14: Hole mobility enhancement factor as a function of uniaxial compressive strain for uniaxially strained PMOS.2 2 Mobility Enhancement Factor 1.012 0.025 0.4 2.016 0.8 1.16.6 1.01 0.2 1 0 0.01 0.2 1 0 0.6 Hole Mobility Enhancement Factor 2.

.17: Comparison of Id-Vd characteristics of unstrained structure with uni- axially strained Si NMOS.16: Schematic of a quantum MOS with uniaxial strain along the direction of the channel.5 5 Drain Bias (V) Figure 16. Gate voltage is set at 1 volt.5 4 4.16-216 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum MOSFET Examples Figure 16.5 3 3. ux-SSi is used to denote uniaxially strained Si.5 1 1. Figure is captured from the LayerBuilder GUI program.5 2 2. 1800 Unstrained Strained 1600 1400 Drain Current (Amp/m) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0.

18: Comparison of AC transconductance characteristics of unstrained structure with uniaxially strained Si NMOS. Gate and drain voltages are at 1 and 3 volts. 900 Unstrained Strained 800 700 Drain Current (Amp/m) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0. respectively. .16.5 1 1.5 4 Drain Bias (V) Figure 16. Conductance (Siemens/m) 1600 1400 1200 Unstrained Strained 1000 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Drain Bias (V) Figure 16.19: Comparison of Id-Vd characteristics of unstrained structure with uni- axially strained Si PMOS. Gate voltage is set at -1 volt.5 3 3.6 Conclusions 16-217 2000 1800 Trans.5 2 2.

respectively. Conductance (Siemens/m) 850 800 750 700 650 600 550 Unstrained Strained 500 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Drain Bias (V) Figure 16.16-218 Strained Si or Si/SiGe Quantum MOSFET Examples 950 900 Trans. Gate and drain voltages are at -1 and -3 volts. .20: Comparison of AC transconductance characteristics of unstrained structure with uniaxially strained Si PMOS.

Part IV Examples: Photo-Sensitive Devices .

.

0 µm.1 Introduction This examples is used to illustrate the basics of simulation for high speed photosen- sitive devices. • Dark current • Depletion of epitaxial layer material by surface states.5 µm epi GaAs grown on AlGaAs.5 µm. The issues of photo-detector design that may be treated using APSYS are as follows: • Multilayer optical interference effects.1. The current blocking layer of AlGaAs is used to prevent photon generation deep in the generation. The MSM device has a 0.83 eV. This converts to 100 ohms of resistor connected to one of the electrode. Finger width is 1. The schematics of the device is given in Fig. This may be simulated by high density of mid-gap traps near the surface. 17. We analysis the input files in the following section. The optical pulse used has FWHM (full width and half the maximum) of 4 pico second.Chapter 17 Transient/AC Simulation of an MSM Photo-detector 17. The MSM is operated at a DC bias of 5 volts. • Hot carrier effects. We use a Metal-Semiconductor-Metal(MSM) photo-detector to illustrate some of the features of APSYS. Co-axial cable of 50 ohms is used. To run the simulation: . Carriers generated in these areas takes a long time to reach the electrodes and may cause a long tail in the photon current response. The whole structure is grown on semi-insulating GaAs (SI-GaAs). Length of MSM device is 1000 µm based on the above configuration. The total device area is 50*50 µm2 with finger spacing of 1. The Schottky barrier height is taken to be 0. • External circuit for high speed cabling.

$ column column_num=1 w=0. The surface state (use of deep level traps near surface) depletion may also be important. begin_layer $ $ Define three columns so that extra mesh lines $ can be allocated near the electrodes.plt > msm.ps The example can be found at the directory: apsys examples/photo sensetive/msm/ 17.sol Apsys msm.layer Apsys msm.geo Apsys msm.layer format to establish the device structure. For AaPSYS simulation $ Schottky contacts require extra mesh lines so that $ the barrier height can be accurtely defined. The device is divided into three columns so that the electrode can easily be defined.2 Input Files for MSM It is most convenient to use the .1: Schematics of a MSM photodetector Layer msm.17-222 Transient/AC Simulation of an MSM Photo-detector Incident Light Optical Coating(s) GaAs AlGaAs Current Blocking Layer Figure 17. Please note that the doping in GaAs determines mostly the dark current in the de- vice.5 mesh_num=4 r=0.8 && .

5 n=8 r=0.msh $ $ Equilibrium solution.e21 n_doping2=1.e21 && xp2=1 $ $ The main part of the GaAs MSM.17. && n_doping1=1. $ newton_par damping_step=5.2 Input Files for MSM 17-223 xpoint_right=yes column column_num=2 w=1. $ top_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=0.5 contact_num=2 $ end_layer The main solution input file is explained as follows: $file:msm. $ layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=2 layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=3 layer d=0.2 && xpoint_left=yes $ $ The lower current blocking layer.e21 && xp1=1 xp2=1 $ $ These are the two electrodes. $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.3 column_num=3 layer d=0.5 mesh_num=19 r=-1.e21 n_doping3=1.e-9 && .e-9 res_tol=1.5 contact_num=1 top_contact column_num=3 from=0 to=0.8 && n_doping1=1.sol $*********** begin load_mesh mesh_inf=msm.e21 n_doping3=1.e21 n_doping2=1.3 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.3 && xpoint_left=yes xpoint_right=yes column column_num=3 w=0. var_tol=1.5 mesh_num=4 r=1.15 n=4 r=1.3 column_num=2 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.

2.D-12 $ ***********incident light****************** $ $ Define the incident light here.29e7 wavelength=0. $ It may be used to optimize the optical interference inside $ the MSM.D-12 && relation=gaussian gsn_dt=4.D-12 min_step=1.05 imag_index=0. if you wish. $ newton_par damping_step=1.D-14 min_step=1.83 num=1 contact type=schottky barrier=-0. 0.D-12 print_step=50.D-12 && init_step=1.2 min_step=1. output sol_outf=msm.d-15 max_step=10. $ light_power incident_power=3. imag_refl=0.17-224 Transient/AC Simulation of an MSM Photo-detector max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $ $ Ramp up the DC bias to 5 volts.e-12 $ $ We wait some more time until the MSM settles down.e-4 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=15 print_flag=3 scan var=voltage_1 value_to=-5.5.0. $ $optic_coating thickness=0. 0. The profile is used $ to block out the light for the area under the metal electrodes. $ scan var=time value_to=300. && init_step=0. $ contact type=schottky barrier=-0.147 real_index=2. $ scan var_num=2 2_variables=(time light) && value_to=50.e-5 max_step=1.out $ ************************** $ Define the barrier potential for the Schottky contacts.D-12 && init_step=1.d-18 max_step=1.D-12 print_step=300. print_step=5.82 && profile=(0. var_tol=1.83 num=2 .01.01) $ $ Put optical coatings on top of device.0 $ $ Turn on the Gaussian optical pulse with $ pulse width of 4 ps. $ back_reflection real_refl=0.e-4 res_tol=1.

6 which is also our main result of simulation. Otherwise $ there will be no response from the detector $ absorption value=1. 17.4 AC Photo-Response This section consider case of the MSM device under the lumination of AC modulated input light. 17. Referring to the following input file. 17.17. $ include file=msm. we note that the statement more output is needed to activate the AC light response.5 shows that the current is mostly concen- trated near the surface region.1e6 mater=2 $ end 17.4 which indicates a reasonable depletion of the photo-sensitive region.mater $ $ $ Be sure to define the absorption for the GaAs layer. $*********** begin load_mesh mesh_inf=msm_act.layer. The transient photo-response is shown in Fig.2 and 17. The 2D current flow diagram in Fig. 17. A high speed response of about 40 ps.msh output sol_outf=msm_act.3 Results 17-225 $ $ Include the doping and material description generated $ by msm.doping include file=msm. $file:msm_act.out . pulse width is obtained.3.sol $ MSM device with absorption layer declared as "active" so that $ interband absorption spectrum can be calculated. The 2D potential distribution at 5V is illustrated in Fig. 17.3 Results The band diagram near the Schottky contacts at equilibrium and at forward bias are given in Figs.

17-226 Transient/AC Simulation of an MSM Photo-detector File:msm.2 0.5 0 Figure 17.4 0.6 0.2: The band diagram near the Schottky contact at equilibrium File:msm.7 Distance (micron) Figure 17.5 0.1 0.4 0.1 0 0.plt 1 Energy (eV) 0.3 y (micron) 1 0.5 -1 -1.5 0.3: The band diagram near the Schottky contact at 5V.plt Relative Power 0.1 x (micron) 2 2.6 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 -0. The forward biased contact is shown here.7 0.5 0 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.2 1. .3 0.5 0 0.2 0.

6 0 0.5 0 Figure 17.5 0.3 y (micron) 1 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.plt Relative Power 0.3 0.2 1 0.1 x (micron) 2 2.5: The 2D current distribution in the MSM device.2 -0.7 Distance (micron) Figure 17.1 0.4 0.2 0.17.6 0.1 0 0.5 0.8 Energy (eV) 0. .plt 1.6 0.6 0.2 1.4 -0.4 AC Photo-Response 17-227 File:msm. File:msm.5 0 0.6 0.4: The 2D potential distribution for the MSM at 5V.4 0.7 0.4 1.4 0.4 0.5 0.2 0 -0.3 0.

5 0.plt 17-228 Transient/AC Simulation of an MSM Photo-detector Potential (volt) 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 0.01) $ $Put optical coatings on top of device.147 real_index=2. var_tol=1. $ back_reflection real_refl=0.5 0. $optic_coating thickness=0.3 y (micron) 1 0.doping include file=msm_act. $ ************************** $ more_output ac_data=yes ac_light_input=yes newton_par damping_step=5.6 0.e-9 res_tol=1.05 imag_index=0. 0. 0. var_tol=1. 2.0.2 1.29e7 wavelength=0.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium newton_par damping_step=1.01.e-4 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=15 print_flag=3 && .e-4 res_tol=1.7 0.1 x (micron) 2 2. if you wish.4 0. imag_refl=0. $ In msm_act.5 0 Figure 17.5.6: Transient photo-response of the simulated MSM device.mater. we declare absorption layer to be active so that $ absorption spectrum is calcualted.82 && profile=(0. File:msm.5 0 0.mater $ ***********incident light****************** light_power incident_power=3. $ include file=msm_act.

out && xy_data=(3 3) scan_data=(3.sol sol_inf=msm_act.e-3 min_step=1. Please note that the unit of the current is A/m per unit variation of input light in the scan.17.sol file.ac variable=t_magn_1 end_pstprc As expected.8 is consistent with the DC photo-current in Figure 17.65) plot_3d variable=potential grid_sizes=(30.4 AC Photo-Response 17-229 change_variable=yes scan var=voltage_1 value_to=-2. log_freq2=12.sol sol_inf=msm_act.2.plt $ ************** begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=msm_act.2 min_step=1.65) get_data main_input=msm_act. print_step=1. && freq_point=16 plot_ac_curr input_file=msm. print_step=2.7. the photon-current at zero frequency in Figure 17. 0. $file:msm_act. && init_step=0.) to=(2.2 0. To convert to A/m/(Watt/m**2).3) plot_1d variable=band from=(2. .0 scan var=light value_to=1.out && xy_data=(1 1) plot_1d variable=band from=(2. you need to divide the total DC light input power density as specified in the light power in the above .e-5 max_step=1.) to=(2.ac log_freq1=0. && init_step=1.e-7 max_step=0.30) plot_scan scan_var=light variable=total_curr_1 ac_light output_file=msm.2 0.2. 0.1 end The following input file is used to plot the AC photo-response.

) Figure 17.6 0.8 0.17-230 Transient/AC Simulation of an MSM Photo-detector File:msm_act. File:msm_act.8: AC photo-response of the simulated MSM device. .1 0.4 0.2 0. u.5 0.plt 6 5 4 AC Current (A/m) 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Log (Freq) Figure 17.3 0.9 1 light (a.7: DC photo-response of the simulated MSM device.plt 6 5 4 total_curr_1 (A/m) 3 2 1 0 0 0.7 0.

The 2D simulation is completely analogous. 18. This example is used to illustrate the use of impact ionization to model the junction breakdown of a simple p-i-n junction diode (see Fig.1 Junction Breakdown Due to Impact Ioniza- tion To model an avalanche photo diode.1: Schematics of a simple p-i-n diode . For simplic- ity.1 ). we use a one-dimension structure. we must first be able to simulate a junction breakdown. This example is at the directory: apsys examples/photo sensitive/impact apd/ a2 b2 Contact 2 P+ i N+ Contact 1 a1 b1 Figure 18.Chapter 18 Transient Simulation of an Avalanche Photodiode 18.

$ point label=a1 xy=( 0. we use si0.geo $***********GEOMETRY DESCRIPTION******************* begin_geometry $ $ Define the four corner points.geo file. Since the geometry of this device is very simple.18-232 Transient Simulation of an Avalanche Photodiode We shall go through the input files here. point_to=1. 3.sol for the acual simulation.) point label=b2 xy=( 1.) point label=a2 xy=( 0. point_to=3.5) && boundary_2=(a2 b2) limits_2=(0. 0.5 3.7 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=0.5 0.0) $ $ Define the contacts. 1.sol to refine the mesh and si1. $ polygon name=p1 4_points=(a1 b1 b2 a2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(a1 b1) limits_1=(0.0) $ point label=b1 xy=( 1. $file:si0.sol $*********** .5) $ end_geometry $***********MESH GEN****************************** begin_meshgen $ $ Allocate the mesh points $ put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0. && number=35 ratio=-0. 1.5 && number=2 ratio=1 mesh_output mesh_outfile=si0.msh order=yes $ end_meshgen Once the mesh is generated with above .geo input file to describe the structure as follows: $file:si0. we use the .

0.02D0 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=1.e-9 res_tol=1. .out contact type=ohmic num=1 contact type=ohmic num=2 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=1.01D0.1 Junction Breakdown Due to Impact Ionization 18-233 begin load_mesh mesh_inf=si0.D0. 50. 0.e24 && x_prof=(0.01D0 ) && y_prof= 0. 0. 0.0D0.15D0.D0.15D0.e24 && x_prof=(0.msh output sol_outf=si1.0D0.out contact type=ohmic num=1 contact type=ohmic num=2 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=1.02. 50.5 && min_density=16. 0. var_tol=1.msh output sol_outf=si0.65. 5.D0. 0. .35D0. 0. 0.msh variable=2_carriers var_diff=0.0D0.01D0. 5. 0.02 ) $ ***************************** . 0.15D0 && y_prof=( 1. 0.35D0.02D0 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=1.sol $*********** begin load_mesh mesh_inf=new. 0. 1. 1.02D0.D0. 0.02 ) $ ***************************** load_macro name=si mater=1 $impact_chynoweth mater=1 impact_baraff mater=1 $ $ Just need one solution $ newton_par damping_step=5. 0.02D0. 10.0D0.D0. 0. 0.e24 && x_prof= 0.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium refine_mesh mesh_outf=new. end $file:si1.D0. 10.15D0 && y_prof=( 1.01D0 ) && y_prof= 0.02.18.65.e24 && x_prof= 0.

We shall explain this as follows.6. 18.2 to 18. var_tol=1. $ It may be tricky to set the right voltage before switching to $ current control. You may need some trial-and-error. .e-3 res_tol=1.5 min_step=1. 18.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $ newton_par damping_step=5.layer program to set up the input files.e-4 && max_iter=60 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=46 print_flag=3 $ extrapolate=yes adaptive_var=void var_diff=1 scan var=current_1 value_to=-0.e-9 res_tol=1.e-5 max_step=2. print_step=7.e-3 res_tol=1. Please note the sharp increase of the current at breakdown.2 Avalanche Photodiode We consider the avalanche photodiode (APD) as shown in Fig.18-234 Transient Simulation of an Avalanche Photodiode load_macro name=si mater=1 external_cir type=resistor value=100 z_dim=5 contact=2 $impact_chynoweth mater=1 impact_baraff mater=1 $ newton_par damping_step=5.e-2 $ ************************** $ end The results of the p-i-n diode are shown in Figs.7. 18. It is most convenient to use the .1 && init_step=1.1 print_step=0.e-8 min_step=1.5 var_tol=1.5 $ $ Switch to current control $ newton_par damping_step=5.e-4 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=16 print_flag=3 $ $ Turn on the voltage to a point where the current starts $ to increase due to impact ionization.e-11 max_step=1.5 && init_step=0. $ scan var=voltage_1 value_to=13.5 var_tol=1.

2: The band diagram of the p-i-n at equilibrium File:si1.5 1 1.5 Energy (eV) 1 0.5 2 2.2 Avalanche Photodiode 18-235 File:si1.plt 40000 35000 30000 25000 Field_y (V/cm) 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 0.5 3 Distance (micron) Figure 18.3: Electrical field intensity of the p-i-n at equilibrium .5 3 Distance (micron) Figure 18.5 1 1.5 0 -0.5 2 2.18.plt 1.5 -1 0 0.

5 3 Distance (micron) Figure 18.5 1 1.18-236 Transient Simulation of an Avalanche Photodiode File:si1.plt 500000 450000 400000 350000 Field_y (V/cm) 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0 0.5 2 2.5 3 Distance (micron) Figure 18. File:si1.4: The band diagram of the p-i-n at breakdown.5 1 1.5: Electrical field intensity of the p-i-n at breakdown .5 2 2.plt 2 0 -2 -4 Energy (eV) -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 0 0.

n=8 r=1.e18 $ $ The p+ layer. p_doping1=1.2 p_doping1=1. p_doping1=3.5 mesh_num=2 r=1. $ layer_mater macro_name=si column_num=1 layer d=0.18. $ layer_mater macro_name=si column_num=1 layer d=1.e23 $ $ The p.5 contact_num=1 $ $ The n+ layer of silicon.6: Reverse bias breakdown characteristics begin_layer $ column column_num=1 w=1. $ layer_mater macro_name=si column_num=1 layer d=2.2 Avalanche Photodiode 18-237 File:si1.3 n=12 r=1.plt 0 -2 Log [total_curr_1 (A/m)] -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 18. n=12 r=1.8 n_doping1=1.layer. $ layer_mater macro_name=si column_num=1 layer d=0.5 n=12 r=0.e24 . $ bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=1.e24 $ $ The p layer.

5 contact_num=2 $ end_layer Three main input files are used : si apd.e-5 max_step=1. si apd.e-4 res_tol=1.0 scan var=voltage_1 value_to=5. si apd.e-4 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=9 print_flag=3 && . $ newton_par damping_step=5. impact ionization significantly enhances the photo-sensivibility.5 var_tol=1. The first one.sol2.sol is used to determine the breakdown voltage of the device. We show that a bias close to the junction break- down.e-4 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=16 print_flag=3 && extrapolate=yes adaptive_var=2_carriers var_diff=1. si apd.sol2 and si apd.out2 $ $ Solve for equilibrium.18-238 Transient Simulation of an Avalanche Photodiode $ top_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=1.e-4 res_tol=1. $ newton_par damping_step=5. && init_step=0.5 var_tol=1.sol3. $ newton_par damping_step=5. $file:si_apd. var_tol=1. print_step=5. We shall only explain si apd.si apd.e-9 res_tol=1.sol.5 $ $ Bias the APD well below breakdown at 20 volts. The second and the third files.sol2 here. $ load_mesh mesh_inf=si_apd.msh output sol_outf=si_apd. We want bias the APD slight below break down.sol3 are used to study the photo sensitivity of APD under different bias conditions below the breakdown.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $ $ Refine the mesh while we ramp up the voltage.1 min_step=1.sol2 $*********** begin $ $ We start by the mesh file and the output file.

e5 mater=1 end We have also simulated the same structure by biasing the APD up to breakdown voltage so that the effect of impact ionization can be studied.d-15 max_step=10.e5 back_reflection real_refl=0.5 $ $ Turn on light as a function of time.d-18 max_step=2. Define a Gaussian pulse $ of 10 ps of FWHM.mater $impact_chynoweth mater=1 impact_baraff mater=1 $ $ Be sure to set a non-zero absorption coefficeint.0 print_step=15. $ Otherwise.doping include file=si_apd. && init_step=0. $ scan var=time value_to=200.D-12 print_step=200. . imag_refl=0.D-12 && init_step=1. $ absorption value=3.D-12 print_step=50.e-5 max_step=1.D-12 && init_step=1. $ light_power wavelength=0.18.D-12 $ ***********incident light****************** $ $ Define the input light source and back reflection. $ ************************** contact type=ohmic num=1 contact type=ohmic num=2 $ ***************************** $ Material definition. $ scan var_num=2 2_variables=(time light) && value_to=50.2 Avalanche Photodiode 18-239 extrapolate=yes adaptive_var=void var_diff=1. $ include file=si_apd.e-12 $ $ Let it run until 200 ps.0 scan var=voltage_1 value_to=20.D-12 && relation=gaussian gsn_dt=10.1 min_step=1. the APD will not respond to light.D-12 min_step=1.D-13 min_step=1.6 incident_power=1.

18.5 3 3.18-240 Transient Simulation of an Avalanche Photodiode The results of the simulation are given in Figs.11 clearly shows the photo-gain due to the impact ionization effect. .plt 5 0 -5 Energy (eV) -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 0 0.11.5 1 1.5 2 2.8 to 18. Fig. 18.7: Schematics of a simple n+/p/p-/p+ avalanche photodiode File:si_apd. Contact 2 N+ P P- P+ Contact 1 Figure 18.8: The band diagram of the APD near breakdown.5 4 Distance (micron) Figure 18.

10: The dark current of the APD.2 Avalanche Photodiode 18-241 File:si_apd.5 1 1.9: The electric field of the APD near breakdown.plt 700000 600000 500000 Field_y (V/cm) 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 0 0. .5 4 Distance (micron) Figure 18.5 2 2. File:si_apd.plt 1 0 -1 Log [total_curr_1 (A/m)] -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 18.18.5 3 3.

it3" 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Time (ps) Figure 18. repectively. The enhanced photo-sensitivity is clear from the difference here.11: Comparison of the photo transient response of the APD at 20 and 25 volts of biases.18-242 Transient Simulation of an Avalanche Photodiode 10 9 8 7 Current (A/m) 6 5 "si_apd. .it2" "si_apd.

19. the difference is in the different ionization coefficient and the presence of heterojunction.1: Schematics of an InGaAsP APD. The p+ region is formed by diffusion and the top metal electrode is grown on an insulator to avoid contact with the n region. The example can be found at the directory: apsys examples/photo sensitive/inp apd light pulse Contact Insulator InP (p+) (n) InGaAsP (n) InP (n+) Contact Figure 19. It consists of InGaAsP absorp- tion layer sandwiched between InP layers. Fig. From simulation point of view.1 is the schematic of the InGaAsP APD.Chapter 19 InGaAsP Avalanche Photodiode 19. .1 Introduction The simulation of compound semiconductor avalanche photodiode (APD) is similar to to that of silicon.

point_to=6.geo input file to describe the device structure. 4. 8) polygon name=p2 4_points=(a2 b2 b3 a3 ) material=2 polygon name=p3 4_points=(a3 b3 b4 a4 ) material=1 && boundary_2=(a4 b4) limits_2=(3.geo $***********GEOMETRY DESCRIPTION******************* begin_geometry point label=a1 xy=( 0.) point label=a2 xy=( 0.e-4 put_mesh polygon=p3 edge=(b3 b4) point_from=0. 2.) point label=b2 xy=( 8.e-4 $ put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=0.7 extra_point_2=1. && number=10 ratio=-1. 0. The following .0) point label=b4 xy=( 8.19-244 InGaAsP Avalanche Photodiode 19.0) point label=b3 xy=( 8.geo file uses three polygons and two different materials. Please note that the reference direction for measuring distance is counter clockwise. && number=6 ratio=0.3 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=5. 4. && number=8 ratio=1.e-4 extra_point_2=1. 4.e-4 put_mesh polygon=p2 edge=(b2 b3) point_from=0. 3.0) $ $ polygon name=p1 4_points=(a1 b1 b2 a2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(a1 b1) limits_1=(0. 3. && . && number=6 ratio=0. point_to=1.0) $ point label=b1 xy=( 8.) $ end_geometry $***********MESH GEN****************************** begin_meshgen put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0. point_to=4.7 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=4.2 extra_point_1=1.0) point label=a4 xy=( 0. point_to=1.0) point label=a3 xy=( 0.2 extra_point_1=1. point_to=2. 2. $file:inp_apd. 0. The metal contact boundary condition is placed on the top and at the bottom polygons. point_to=5.2 Input Files and Results It is most convenient to use the . && number=4 ratio=-1.

2.53)Ga(0. point_to=8.doping $ Material alpha_n0 F_cn alpha_p0 F_cp $ InP .e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium newton_par damping_step=2 var_tol=1.994e8 1) elec_setnum = 1 && hole_setnum = 1 mater = 1 $ Use linear interpolation for InGaAsP from InP and InGaAs impact_chynoweth elec_set1 =(0.05) tunneling carrier=hole barrier_type=triangle && point_ll=(0.2 Input Files and Results 19-245 number=4 ratio=0.836E+09 . 3. $file:inp_apd.1e9 1) elec_setnum = 1 && hole_setnum = 1 mater = 2 tunneling carrier=electron barrier_type=triangle && point_ll=(0.344E+10 . We use the quantum tunneling model to make sure that the sharp quantum barriers do not cause any undue voltage drops. Please note that the linear interpolation is used to get the ionization coefficient of InGaAsP from those of InP and InGaAs.06e11 0.2 mesh_output mesh_outfile=inp_apd.22e10 0.157e9 0. 2.mater include file=inp_apd.155E+09 .157E+09 .msh output sol_outf=tmp.833E+08 .155e9 1) && hole_set1 =(0.e-9 res_tol=1.msh order=yes $ end_meshgen We use the following input file (inp apd.sol $*********** begin load_mesh mesh_inf=inp_apd.47)As .102E+09 impact_chynoweth elec_set1 =(0.3) $ $ newton_par damping_step=5.sol) to set up a simulation and to generate a mesh suitable for carrier distribution under bias condition.8 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=6.19.9) point_ur=(8.994E+08 $ In(0.out include file=inp_apd. && number=5 ratio=1.125E+11 .7) point_ur=(8. var_tol=1.e-5 res_tol=1. 1.155e9 1) && hole_set1 =(0.e-5 && max_iter=50 opt_iter=25 stop_iter=10 print_flag=3 && .836e9 0.

19-246 InGaAsP Avalanche Photodiode change_variable=yes ratio_max=0.2: The band diagram of the InGaAsP APD under bias near breakdown.e-5 max_step=1.8 $stop $ end The 2nd input . incident light. The band diagram and IV breakdown characteristics are shown in Figs.msh variable=2_carriers var_diff=1..sol is used to simulate the transient response of the APD to optical pulse.5 print_step=2.sol file (inp apd2.sol) is similar to the previous one except that the refined mesh is used. 19.e5 mater=2 absorption value=2. and the transient scan statements are shown as follows. The transient response at 10 volt is given in Fig.5 3 3.4 scan var=voltage_1 value_to=2. absorption value=3.5 -1 -1.5 2 2.5 refine_mesh mesh_outf=new. File:inp_apd2..2 min_step=1.5 4 Distance (micron) Figure 19.5 1 1.sol begin .2 and 19. The fragments of input file with optical absorption. $file:inp_apd3.5 Energy (eV) 0 -0. respectively.plt 1.e5 mater=1 $ ***********incident light****************** . 19.4.3.5 0 0. The input file inp apd3.5 && init_step=0.5 1 0.

e-12 scan var=time value_to=60.e6 $profile=(0.02 min_step=1.D-12 print_step=50. var_tol=1.D-12 print_step=60. $ $ -------------------------------------------------- $ $init_sol sol_inf=inp_apd2.19.5 var_tol=1.3: The IV characteristics showing junction breakdown due to impact ion- ization. imag_refl=0.9 incident_power=1.D-12 end . 4.2 Input Files and Results 19-247 File:inp_apd2.d-18 max_step=2.2) back_reflection real_refl=0. print_step=10. && init_step=0. $ scan var_num=2 2_variables=(time light) && value_to=50.2 0.D-12 && init_step=1.plt 2 0 Log [total_curr_1 (A/m)] -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 19.out data_set=5 newton_par damping_step=5.e-9 res_tol=1.e-4 res_tol=1.d-15 max_step=3.D-13 min_step=1.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium newton_par damping_step=2.e-5 max_step=1.D-12 && init_step=1.e-4 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=19 print_flag=3 && change_variable=yes $ scan var=voltage_1 value_to=10. 0.D-12 min_step=1.D-12 && relation=gaussian gsn_dt=10. light_power wavelength=0.

.5 total_curr_2 (A/m) 0.2 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.19-248 InGaAsP Avalanche Photodiode File:inp_apd3.6 0.1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 time (ps) Figure 19.4: Impulse transient response of the APD.plt 0.

The files are under directory apsys examples/photo sensitive/impact zener.Chapter 20 Zener Tunneling 20.2 indicates the onset of interband tunneling at a much lower reverse bias. Then we turn off the impact ionization model and turn on the Zener tunneling model. .1 Comparative Studies In this chapter. the structures are simple heavily doped p-n junctions. Using both impact ionization and Zener tunneling. 20.4. The result in Fig.2 Results and Discussions We start with the silicon device with impact ionization model as in Chapter 18. we shall conduct a comparative study of devices with and without interband tunneling effects for silicon and GaAs. For both silicon and GaAs devices. 20. 20. The Zener tunneling effect in GaAs is similar to that in silicon as shown in Fig. The rise of current is not as steep as in impact ionization. 20. It is easy to activate the Zener tunneling option with the use of keyword zener. The reverse breakdown characteristic is shown in Fig.3. Since interband tunneling is an intrinsic material property. We shall turn on / off the impact ionization to compare with the effect of Zener tunneling.1. 20. Zener tunneling in all junctions under reverse bias will be activated. We conclude that Zener tunneling effects starts at a lower voltage but it will soon be overtaken by impact ionization as the bias is increased. we get results such as in Fig.

20-250 Zener Tunneling File:si1. .plt 2 0 Log [total_curr_1 (A/m)] -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 20. File:si1_zen.plt 2 0 Log [total_curr_1 (A/m)] -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 5 10 15 20 25 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 20.1: Current-voltage characteristic of the silicon diode with impact ionization only.2: Current-voltage characteristic of the silicon diode with Zener tunneling only.

5 3 3.20.5 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 20.4: Current-voltage characteristic of the GaAs diode with Zener tunneling only. . File:gaas.2 Results and Discussions 20-251 File:si1_zenimp.plt 2 0 Log [total_curr_1 (A/m)] -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 0.5 2 2.3: Current-voltage characteristic of the silicon diode with both Zener tun- neling and impact ionization.plt 2 0 Log [total_curr_1 (A/m)] -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 20.5 1 1.

20-252 Zener Tunneling .

21. Light of photon energy larger than the bandgap can generate electron-hole pairs which are swept to different side of the junction. The (n-) region is made large on purpose so that more sunlight can be absorbed. 21. To understand the operation of a PV cell. The actual efficiency is lower than this figure because some of the sunlight gets reflected from device and never has a chance to enter the device. Since sunlight has a continuous spectrum (see Fig. creating a voltage which can be used to start a current through an external circuit. only a portion of the sunlight with photon energy larger than the bandgap can produce such electron-hole pairs. in which light falling on a two layer semi-conductor device produces a photovoltage or potential difference between the layers. we demonstrate the set up of a silicon based solar cell with structure illustrated in Fig. In this chapter. Also. This voltage is capable of driving a current through an external circuit and thereby producing useful work. Single crystal silicon solar cells can not currently convert more than 25because the radiation in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum does not have enough energy to separate the positive and negative charges in the material. we need to consider both the nature of the material and the nature of sunlight. APSYS simulation can help optimize the solar cell by taking into account various factors mentioned above. The structure may be regarded as a cross section of a cell with top contact lay-out as inter digital fingers so that light can pass . Let us consider a basic silicon solar cell consisting of two types of material.1 Introduction Solar cells are semiconductor devices which convert solar energy directly into elec- tricity directly via the photovoltaic (PV) effect. the electron-hole pairs have a certain chance of getting lost (due to finite carrier life time) before reaching the sides of the junction.2. a built-in potential about the amount of the silicon bandgap forms within the p-n junction.Chapter 21 Solar Cell Simulation 21.1). The structure uses high doping levels near contact to achieve maximum built-in potential. As well known through APSYS simulation. often p-type silicon and n-type silicon.

through between fingers.1: Solar spectrum AM15 used for the simulation input power of the solar cell.out newton_par damping_step=5.sol $*********** begin load_mesh mesh_inf=solar.msh include file=solar.5 1 1.0e5 z_dim=1 contact=2 output sol_outf=solar. var_tol=1.21-254 Solar Cell Simulation AM15 Spectrum 1600 1400 Solar Power (Watt/m**2/micron) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0. 21. .5 3 3.5 Wavelength (micron) Figure 21. $external_cir type=resistor value=1.layer file with simple 3-column structure so that the top contact fingers can be defined with ease.mater include file=solar.2 Input Files The structure is set up as .5 4 4.5 2 2.e-9 res_tol=1.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 $ $ Solve for equilibrium condition. The solution file is listed as follows: $file:solar.doping $ attach a resistor on the top contact.

02 $ $ photo-sensitive device: $ light_power spectrum_file=solar.9 && init_step=0. $ equilibrium newton_par damping_step=1.01 min_step=1.2 Input Files 21-255 Figure 21.e-4 res_tol=1. print_step=1.01 min_step=1.05 index_spectrum spectrum_file=solar.e-5 max_step=0.5 0.1) optic_coating spectrum_file=solar. end .sio2 thickness=0.5 5.e-5 max_step=0.2: Solar cell structure simulated by APSYS.silicon mater=1 back_reflection real_refl=0.21.e-5 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=15 print_flag=3 && change_variable=yes $ $ Turn up the light $ scan var=light value_to=1.am15 light_dir=top profile=(0. imag_refl=0. var_tol=1.1 0.1 $ $ Apply a forward bias to offset the photo current $ scan var=voltage_1 value_to=-0.6 print_step=0. && init_step=0.

To achieve accuracy at all wavelengths. 21. 21.4 0.4 which indicates a substantial amount of sunlight is reflected back outside. The input power is about 1. Fig.6 0. This is to be compared with the ideal efficiency of about 25%. Fig. Split of quasi- Fermi levels indicate the degree of electron-hole pair generation.7. 21. the maximum power output is estimated to be 4. Thus the input power is 5 × 10−3 Watt.3 Results The relative photon density (compared with incident light power) within the cell is plotted in Fig. The maximum power can be estimated from this curve. 21.2 1.6 is the photo-current at zero bias showing how the electron-hole pairs rush to the electrodes under the force of the sunlight. The most important result is the I-V curve of the illuminated cell in Fig.21-256 Solar Cell Simulation Please note that input light power is specified through a separate data file con- taining the AM15 sunlight spectrum.3. × 103 W att/m2 on an area of 5 × 10−6 meter squared. we import the refractive indices of the SiO2 and silicon.2 0. The estimated efficiency is 8%.5 shows the band diagram at a cut through the device.0 × 10−4 Watt.3: Material refractive indices used in simulation. 7 Si (real) Si (imag) SiO2 (real) 6 SiO2 (imag) 5 Refractive Indicses 4 3 2 1 0 0 0. . 21. For a cell width of 5 um and a length of 1 meter. 21.8 1 1. as plotted in Fig.4 Wavelength (micron) Figure 21.

3 0.5 1 0.21.plt Rel.1 0 5 4 0 3 1 2 2 y (micron) 3 1 4 x (micron) 5 6 0 Figure 21. .5 Energy (eV) 0 -0.4 0.5: Band diagram of the solar cell at a cross section. File:solar.3 Results 21-257 File:solar.plt 1.2 0.5 0.5 -1 -1.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Distance (micron) Figure 21. Energy Density 0.4: Relative photon density distribution within the device.6 0.

3 0.plt 6 5 4 y (micron) 3 2 1 0 -1 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x (micron) Figure 21. File:solar.6: Photon-current at zero bias of the cell.1 0.0006 0.21-258 Solar Cell Simulation File:solar.0008 total_curr_2 (A/m) 0.0004 0.7: Current-voltage curve of the solar cell under sunlight illumination of AM15 spectrum.plt 0.5 0.4 0.6 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 21. .0002 0 0 0.2 0.001 0.

Part V Examples: 3D Current Flow Model .

.

We simulate the basic I-V characteristics here to demonstrate the current flow in z-direction. The input files have names a. A single n-type ohmic contact is placed under the n-layer. The different mesh planes are named a1. • (3) Material / bandgap grading.1 Introduction In this example chapter. • (2) Tapered geometry in z-direction. A tapered device with graded index separate confinement heterostruc- ture single quantum well (GRIN-SCH-SQW) is used as a demo. The schematic is shown in Fig.Chapter 22 3D Tapered GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Diode 22. • (6) Insulator / Semiconductor interface. a2. • (5) Multiple electrode in z-direction. etc. we shall consider a 3D simulation demonstrating the basic input data handling techniques for 3D structure.2 respectively.*. Such a device may be used as an LED or a laser diode.1 and the draft drawn by Layer3d in Fig.layer. 22.layer. The example input files are under directory: apsys example/3d flow/taper 3f . Two different electrodes are placed on both ends of the top p-layers. 22. This example includes the following device features: • (1) 3D structure. • (4) Quantum well.

1. Figure 22.22-262 3D Tapered GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Diode Segment 2 Segment 1 Contact 3 Contact 2 Quantum Well Y Contact 1 X Figure 22. 22. The four planes are indicated by the bash lines in Fig. 22.2: Schematic of 3D tapered quantum well device as captured from Layer3D GUI program. The interpolation capability of the simulator automatically handles the tapered segment .2 3D Structure Input To keep the mesh size to a minimum.1: Schematics of 3D tapered quantum well device. we divide the 3D structure into only four planes and two segments.

33 grade_to=0.e24 $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas grade_var=1 && grade_from=0. layer d=0.33 avar3=300. we need to input the mesh and material for the two segments on both ends. The two . Alternatively.1462 n=3 r=0. contact_num=1 bottom_contact column_num=2 from=0 to=7.71 grade_to=0.33 column_num=2 layer d=0. avar2=0.35 n=5 r=0.71 column_num=2 layer d=0. layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=2 && active_macro=AlGaAs/AlGaAs avar1=0.71 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas grade_var=1 && grade_from=0.71 column_num=1 .3.71 column_num=2 layer d=1. mesh_num=5 r=1.8 n_doping1=1. avar2=0.2 3D Structure Input 22-263 in the middle based on the two segments on both ends.33 avar3=300. begin_layer $ column column_num=1 w=1.2 $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.1462 n=3 r=1.0076 n=3 r=1. contact_num=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.2 xp1=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.layer files are as follows: For segment 1: The schematic is shown in Fig.71 column_num=2 layer d=0. 22. we can also insert a number of single-plane segment in the middle tapered segment to produce more accurate simulation at the expense of more computing time.e24 n_doping2=1. mesh_num=4 r=0.71 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.8 column column_num=2 w=7.33 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas grade_var=1 && grade_from=0.0538 n=3 r=1.22.71 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.33 grade_to=0.2 $ bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=1. To completely describe the 3D structure.71 grade_to=0.8 xp2=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=1 && active_macro=AlGaAs/AlGaAs avar1=0.0 xp1=1 xp2=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas grade_var=1 && grade_from=0.

33 avar3=300.0 xp1=1 xp2=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas grade_var=1 && grade_from=0.0076 n=3 r=1.33 avar3=300. layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=2 && active_macro=AlGaAs/AlGaAs avar1=0. layer d=0.33 grade_to=0.33 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas grade_var=1 && grade_from=0.2 $ bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=6.2 xp1=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.22-264 3D Tapered GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Diode layer_mater macro_name=vacuum column_num=2 layer d=1. avar2=0.e24 $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas grade_var=1 && grade_from=0.1462 n=3 r=1.8 n_doping1=1.71 column_num=2 layer d=1.71 grade_to=0.8 xp2=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=1 && active_macro=AlGaAs/AlGaAs avar1=0. contact_num=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0. contact_num=1 bottom_contact column_num=2 from=0 to=2.35 n=5 r=0.2 p_doping1=1. mesh_num=4 r=1.71 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0. mesh_num=5 r=0.e24 $ top_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=1.71 column_num=2 layer d=0.71 grade_to=0.33 column_num=2 layer d=0.33 grade_to=0.8 column column_num=2 w=2.71 column_num=1 .1462 n=3 r=0.71 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas grade_var=1 && grade_from=0.e24 n_doping2=1. contact_num=2 $ end_layer For segment 2: The schematic is shown in Fig.2962 n=5 r=1. begin_layer $ column column_num=1 w=6. 22.4. avar2=0.

The mesh structure for the two segments may be generated from the .sol input file: $file:a.3: Schematics of segmeng 1 layerout of 3D tapered quantum well device.geo.msh and a2.2 p_doping1=1.doping files.layer files as .mater and .22.msh.layer is different from those in a1. respectively. contact_num=3 $ end_layer Figure 22.0538 n=3 r=1.2962 n=5 r=1.71 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=vacuum column_num=2 layer d=1. material and doping files may be generated from the above .sol $*********** begin . Together. The geometry.geo files as a1. The main simulator is controlled by the following a. Please note that the contact numbers in a1. the two .layer.2 $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0. .71 column_num=2 layer d=0.e24 $ top_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=6.2 3D Structure Input 22-265 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.layer files define three electrodes.

22-266 3D Tapered GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Diode

Figure 22.4: Schematics of segmeng 2 layerout of 3D tapered quantum well device.

$
3dflow_segment z_from=0. z_to=20. &&
zseg_num=1 zplanes=2 taper_line=1 taper_points1=(1. 1.)
3dflow_segment z_from=200. z_to=400. &&
zseg_num=2 zplanes=2 taper_line=1 taper_points1=(6. 6.)
load_mesh mesh_inf=a1.msh zseg_num=1
load_mesh mesh_inf=a2.msh zseg_num=2
output sol_outf=a.out
$
begin_zmater zseg_num=1
include file=a1.mater
include file=a1.doping
end_zmater
$
begin_zmater zseg_num=2
include file=a2.mater
include file=a2.doping
end_zmater
$
newton_par damping_step=5. var_tol=1.e-9 res_tol=1.e-9 &&
max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3
equilibrium
$stop
$

22.3 Results and Discussions 22-267

newton_par damping_step=1. var_tol=1.e-3 res_tol=1.e-3 &&
max_iter=50 opt_iter=17 stop_iter=10 print_flag=3
$
$scan var=voltage_2 value_to=1.2 print_step=1.2 &&
$ init_step=1.e-1 min_step=1.e-5 max_step=0.2
$
scan var_num=2 2_variables=(voltage_2 voltage_3) &&
value_to=1.4 print_step=1.4 other=1.2 &&
init_step=1.e-1 min_step=1.e-5 max_step=0.1
$
end

We use 3dflow segment to define the segments and planes in the 3d structure.
Be sure to include the mesh files with the correct segment number. Please note that
correct placement of the taper line to force the generation of mesh along the taper
boundary.
The material doping statements are bracketed using begin zmater and end zmater.
We apply 1.4 and 1.2 volts to contacts 2 and 3 simultaneously using the scan state-
ment.

22.3 Results and Discussions
The results are plotted using the following .plt file. Alternatively, CrosslightView
program may be used to generate colored 3D graphics for the simulation data.

$file:a.plt
$ **************
begin_pstprc
plot_data plot_device=postscript
get_data main_input=a.sol sol_inf=a.out &&
xy_data=(1 1)
lplot_xy variable=band xy_from=(0.5 0.0) xy_to=(0.5, 3.) z=1.
cplot_xy variable=elec_conc z=100.
get_data main_input=a.sol sol_inf=a.out &&
xy_data=(2 2)
lplot_xy variable=band xy_from=(0.5 0.0) xy_to=(0.5, 3.) z=1.
vplot_xy variable=total_curr z=100.
vplot_xy variable=total_curr z=300.
cplot_xyz variable=hole_conc xy_from=(0. 1.9) xy_to=(7.5 1.9)
splot_xyz variable=hole_conc xy_from=(0. 1.9) xy_to=(7.5 1.9)
vplot_xyz variable=total_curr xy_from=(0. 1.9) xy_to=(7.5 1.9)

22-268 3D Tapered GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Diode

vplot_xyz variable=total_curr xy_from=(0. 1.9) xy_to=(7.5 1.9) &&
z_min=195 z_max=205
vplot_xyz variable=total_curr xy_from=(0.5 0.0) xy_to=(0.5 3.) &&
z_min=195 z_max=205
get_data main_input=a.sol sol_inf=a.out &&
scan_data=(1 2)
plot_scan scan_var=voltage_2 variable=total_curr_1
plot_scan scan_var=voltage_2 variable=total_curr_2
plot_scan scan_var=voltage_2 variable=total_curr_3
get_data main_input=a.sol sol_inf=a.out &&
xy_data=(1 2) convert_data=yes
end_pstprc

The postscript output results are displayed in the order as in the .plt file. They
are explained as follows.
Figs. 22.5 and 22.7 are the band diagrams showing a forward bias.
Fig. 22.6 is a contour plot of the electron concentration in log scale at z=100
micron.
Figs. 22.8, and 22.9 are current flow diagrams at z=100 and 300 (µm), respec-
tively. Please note the opposite current flow due to the voltage difference of the top
two electrodes.
Figs. 22.10, and 22.11 show the tapered hole distribution in the structure.
Figs. 22.12 to 22.14 are used to demonstrate the longitudinal current flow along
the tapered structure. Please note Fig. 22.14 shows the current flow change direc-
tions near electrode 3. We see a strong flow upward out of contact 3. This is caused
by the 0.2 volt difference between contact 2 and 3. Since the conductivity for the
top p-layer is higher than the p-n junction, a small 0.2 volt between contacts 2 and
3 is sufficient to cause a strong leakage from contact 2 to 3.
Therefore, for contact 3, the current flows into the contact near the end of the
the device while the current flow out of the device near the middle of the device. the
net effect is for the current to flow out of the device.
The I-V characteristics for the three contacts are shown in Figs. 22.15, 22.16,
and 22.17, respectively. Please note that a negative current means current flowing
into the electrode. It is interesting to note that the non-linear (i.e., exponential)
behavior of the p-n junction causes the current on contact 3 to decrease as the
current on contact 2 increases exponentially.

22.4 Adding more planes
Addin more planes of meshes to achieve better accuracy is rather straightforward.
In the series of input files with file names b.*, we added one single plane segment

22.4 Adding more planes 22-269

File:a.plt
2

1.5

1

Energy (eV) 0.5

0

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Distance (micron)

Figure 22.5: Band diagram at z=1 micron at zero bias.

in the middle of the tapered region. The schematics of this device is shown in Fig.
22.18. The .layer file is as follows:

begin_layer
$
column column_num=1 w=3.5 mesh_num=4 r=0.8
column column_num=2 w=4.5 mesh_num=4 r=1.2
$
bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=1. contact_num=1
bottom_contact column_num=2 from=0 to=7. contact_num=1
$
layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.71 column_num=1
layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.71 column_num=2
layer d=1.35 n=5 r=0.8 n_doping1=1.e24 n_doping2=1.e24
$
layer_mater macro_name=algaas grade_var=1 &&
grade_from=0.71 grade_to=0.33 column_num=1
layer_mater macro_name=algaas grade_var=1 &&
grade_from=0.71 grade_to=0.33 column_num=2
layer d=0.1462 n=3 r=0.8 xp2=1
$
layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=1 &&
active_macro=AlGaAs/AlGaAs avar1=0. avar2=0.33 avar3=300.
layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=2 &&
active_macro=AlGaAs/AlGaAs avar1=0. avar2=0.33 avar3=300.

22-270 3D Tapered GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Diode

Log (Elec_Conc/cm^3): [ 0.0000E+00, 0.1794E+02 ] File:a.plt
3

2.5

2
y (micron)
1
23
456
1.5 897 10
10

1

0.5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
x (micron)

Figure 22.6: Contour plot of electron concentration at zero bias. The scale is log
(cm−3 ).

layer d=0.0076 n=3 r=1.0 xp1=1 xp2=1
$
layer_mater macro_name=algaas grade_var=1 &&
grade_from=0.33 grade_to=0.71 column_num=1
layer_mater macro_name=algaas grade_var=1 &&
grade_from=0.33 grade_to=0.71 column_num=2
layer d=0.1462 n=3 r=1.2 xp1=1
$
layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.71 column_num=1
layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.71 column_num=2
layer d=0.0538 n=3 r=1.2
$
layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.71 column_num=1
layer_mater macro_name=vacuum column_num=2
layer d=1.2962 n=5 r=1.2 p_doping1=1.e24
$
$top_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=1. contact_num=2
$
end_layer

Please note that above .layer file does not have any electrodes. The .sol file now
includes three different segments as follows. Please also note the tape line positions.

22.4 Adding more planes 22-271

File:a.plt
0.5

0

Energy (eV)
-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Distance (micron)

Figure 22.7: Band diagram at z=1 micron at V2=1.4.

$file:b.sol
$***********
begin
$
3dflow_segment z_from=0. z_to=20. &&
zseg_num=1 zplanes=2 taper_line=1 taper_points1=(1. 1.)
3dflow_segment z_from=110. z_to=110. &&
zseg_num=2 zplanes=1 taper_line=1 taper_points1=(3.5 3.5)
3dflow_segment z_from=200. z_to=400. &&
zseg_num=3 zplanes=2 taper_line=1 taper_points1=(6. 6.)
load_mesh mesh_inf=b1.msh zseg_num=1
load_mesh mesh_inf=b2.msh zseg_num=2
load_mesh mesh_inf=b3.msh zseg_num=3
output sol_outf=b.out
$
begin_zmater zseg_num=1
include file=b1.mater
include file=b1.doping
end_zmater
$
begin_zmater zseg_num=2
include file=b2.mater
include file=b2.doping
end_zmater
$

22-272 3D Tapered GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Diode

File:a.plt
3

2.5

2
y (micron)

1.5

1

0.5

0
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
x (micron)

Figure 22.8: Current flow at z=100 micron.

begin_zmater zseg_num=3
include file=b3.mater
include file=b3.doping
end_zmater
$
newton_par damping_step=5. var_tol=1.e-9 res_tol=1.e-9 &&
max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3
equilibrium
$stop
$
newton_par damping_step=1. var_tol=1.e-3 res_tol=1.e-3 &&
max_iter=50 opt_iter=17 stop_iter=10 print_flag=3
$
$scan var=voltage_2 value_to=1.2 print_step=1.2 &&
$ init_step=1.e-1 min_step=1.e-5 max_step=0.2
$
scan var_num=2 2_variables=(voltage_2 voltage_3) &&
value_to=1.4 print_step=1.4 other=1.2 &&
init_step=1.e-1 min_step=1.e-5 max_step=0.1
$
end

The results of the b.* case are similar to those of a.* except that they are more
accurate.

22.4 Adding more planes 22-273

File:a.plt
3

2.5

2
y (micron)

1.5

1

0.5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
x (micron)

Figure 22.9: Current flow at z=300 micron.

Log (Hole_Conc/cm^3): [ 0.0000E+00, 0.1789E+02 ] File:a.plt
400

350

300

250
z (micron)

200
109
5678
1234
150

100

50

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
x/y distance (micron)

Figure 22.10: Contour plot of hole concentration along the tapered structure on x-z
plane.

22-274 3D Tapered GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Diode

File:a.plt

Log (Hole_Conc/cm^3)

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

400
350
300
250
0 200
1
2 150 z (micron)
3
4 100
5 50
x/y distance (micron) 6
7
8 0

Figure 22.11: 3D surface plot of hole concentration along the tapered structure on
x-z plane.

File:a.plt
400

350

300

250
z (micron)

200

150

100

50

0

-50
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
x/y distance (micron)

Figure 22.12: Current flow on the x-z plane.

.5 1 1. File:a.13: Current flow on the x-z plane near the edge of top contact 3.5 2 2.14: Current flow on the y-z plane near the edge of top contact 3.5 3 x/y distance (micron) Figure 22.plt 206 204 z (micron) 202 200 198 196 194 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x/y distance (micron) Figure 22.plt 206 204 202 z (micron) 200 198 196 194 0 0.4 Adding more planes 22-275 File:a.22.

6 voltage_2 (volt) Figure 22.6 voltage_2 (volt) Figure 22.6 0. .0001 5e-005 0 0 0. File:a.4 0.4 1.4 0.2 1.16: I-V curve for contact 2.plt 0 -5e-005 total_curr_2 (A) -0.00015 0.00015 -0.22-276 3D Tapered GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Diode File:a.0001 -0.4 1.8 1 1.2 0.plt 0.0002 0.00025 0 0.8 1 1.2 0.2 1.0002 -0.15: I-V curve for contact 1.6 0. Negative current indicates current flows into the electrode.00025 total_curr_1 (A) 0. Current flows out of this electrode.

Figure 22.17: I-V curve for contact 3.plt 3e-006 2.2 0.5e-006 2e-006 1. .8 1 1.5e-006 0 0.4 0.4 Adding more planes 22-277 File:a.5e-006 -2e-006 -2.6 0.22.18: Schematics of 3D tapered quantum well device with more planes.5e-006 1e-006 total_curr_3 (A) 5e-007 0 -5e-007 -1e-006 -1.4 1.6 voltage_2 (volt) Figure 22. The total current flows out of this eletrode.2 1.

22-278 3D Tapered GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Diode .

1.1 Introduction As a simple demo that edge effects in most of the conventional silicon devices can be studied using the APSYS-3D. Contact 2 (Emitter) (4) Contact 3 (Base) (3) (2) 3D Segments: (1) N+ P Y N Z Contact 1 (Collector) X Figure 23. The collector extends to the whole bottom part of the substrate while the length of the base and emitter arms are limited. 23. . we consider a simple case of bipolar transistor as shown in Fig.Chapter 23 3D Model of Edge Effect in BJT 23.1: Schematics of the bipolar junction transistor as used in APSYS 3D simulation.

0) && boundary_3=(a2 b2) limits_3=(0. 23.1.0) point label=a2 xy=( 0.0 0. 10. we set up the simulation as in the following sections.geo $***********GEOMETRY DESCRIPTION******************* begin_geometry point label=a1 xy=( 0.0 8.0 point_to=6.0 && .23-280 3D Model of Edge Effect in BJT Assuming uniform extension of collector and base doping on the x-z plane and truncation of N + emitter implant in the z-direction.0 point_to=7.0 && number=5 ratio=0.0 1.0) $ $ contact 1 = collector $ contact 2 = emitter $ contact 3 = base $ Please note that the top edge of the polygon has a reference $ direction from right to left (or counterclockwise) $ polygon name=p1 4_points=(a1 b1 b2 a2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(a1 b1) limits_1=(0.2 Input File Set Up To keep the simulation mesh to a minimum.5 && number=8 ratio=-1. The following bjt.0) $ point label=b1 xy=( 10.geo file is used to describe the most important segment. 0.0) && boundary_2=(a2 b2) limits_2=(9 10.8 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=6.5 point_to=8. $file:bjt. we only assign four 3D segments as shown in Fig. 8. segment (1).0) $ end_geometry $***********MESH GEN****************************** begin_meshgen put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0.3 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=7. The example input files can be found in directory: apsys example/3d flow/bjt 3d 23.0) point label=b2 xy=( 10.

e25 && x_prof=(0. 0. 1.geo $***********GEOMETRY DESCRIPTION******************* begin_geometry point label=a1 xy=( 0..4 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=9. 10. 8. 1. we reduce the number of contacts.0 point_to=10.0. 10.0 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=0.0 && number=3 ratio=1. 1. 8.0 0.0) $ point label=b1 xy=( 10.0 && number=9 ratio=1. 0.8 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=1.0..5.2 Input File Set Up 23-281 number=5 ratio=1. 0.5 ) && y_prof= 0.0 point_to=1 && number=4 ratio=0..0.5 ) && y_prof= 8.0.. We also reduce the number of mesh in anticipation of a less complex structure.50.0.0D0. 8. 8.e23 && x_prof=(0.0 $ n+ implant of emitter doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=5.2 mesh_output mesh_outfile=bjt.0.5 $ p implant of base doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=5.0) point label=a2 xy=( 0..0.0 1. 0. 0.0) . $file:bjt2.0 point_to=9. 0.5. 1.e21 && x_prof=(0.0) && y_prof= 8. 0.msh order=yes $ end_meshgen The correspinding doping for segment (1) is as follows: $ uniform n-doping of substrate doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=5.23. 0. 0.5.5 For segment (2).

0. 1.4 mesh_output mesh_outfile=bjt2.. 10.0) && y_prof= 8. 0.23-282 3D Model of Edge Effect in BJT point label=b2 xy=( 10.0) $ $ contact 1 = collector $ contact 2 = emitter $ contact 3 = base $ Please note that the top edge of the polygon has a reference $ direction from right to left (or counterclockwise) $ polygon name=p1 4_points=(a1 b1 b2 a2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(a1 b1) limits_1=(0..0D0. 0.5 point_to=8.0.0) $ end_geometry $***********MESH GEN****************************** begin_meshgen put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0.0 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=0.0.0.5 && number=8 ratio=-1.0 $ n+ implant of emitter .8 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=6. 0.5.0 point_to=10. 1.e21 && x_prof=(0. 10.0 && number=5 ratio=0. 10.0 8.e23 && x_prof=(0..0.0 && number=5 ratio=1.0 && number=6 ratio=1.8 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=1.3 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=7. 8.5 ) && y_prof= 0. 0.msh order=yes $ end_meshgen end_layer The corresponding doping for segment (2) shows a reduced emitter doping: $ uniform n-doping of substrate doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=5.5 $ p implant of base doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=5.0 point_to=7. 8.. 1.0 point_to=1 && number=3 ratio=0. 1.0 point_to=6.50.

5 Similar arrangements can be made for segments (3) and (4). && zseg_num=2 zplanes=1 3dflow_segment z_from=13. 0. 8. To ensure accuracy.doping load_macro name=si mater=1 lifetime_p value=3.out $ $ contact 1 = collector $ contact 2 = emitter $ contact 3 = base $ ************************** begin_zmater zseg_num=1 include file=bjt. && zseg_num=4 zplanes=1 load_mesh mesh_inf=bjt. 0.msh zseg_num=4 output sol_outf=bjt. 0.sol $*********** $ Calculation of the Gummel plot for an NPN transistor $ begin 3dflow_segment z_from=0.msh zseg_num=2 load_mesh mesh_inf=bjt3. z_to=11.2 Input File Set Up 23-283 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=0. z_to=10.0. we use bjt..5.0. z_to=20.sol file: $file:bjt. 0. we must include all the segments in the following bjt.5.23.sol0 to refine the mesh for segment (1) as we usually do in 2D simulation. To run the simulation.0 1.5 ) && y_prof= 8.8e25 && x_prof=(0. && zseg_num=1 zplanes=2 3dflow_segment z_from=11. && zseg_num=3 zplanes=1 3dflow_segment z_from=20.5e-7 contact type=ohmic num=1 contact type=ohmic num=2 contact type=ohmic num=3 end_zmater $ begin_zmater zseg_num=2 . z_to=13.msh zseg_num=3 load_mesh mesh_inf=bjt4.msh zseg_num=1 load_mesh mesh_inf=bjt2.

9 && init_step=0.e-5 max_step=1.9 print_step=0. var_tol=1.1 && hot_electron=no $ end Please note that some of the z-planes are far apart and may cause numerical stability if we use carrier density as simulation variable.doping load_macro name=si mater=1 lifetime_p value=3. var_tol=1.23-284 3D Model of Edge Effect in BJT include file=bjt2. .5e-7 contact type=ohmic num=1 end_zmater $ ***************************** newton_par damping_step=5. So we insist in using “change variable=no” (default).5e-7 contact type=ohmic num=1 end_zmater $ begin_zmater zseg_num=4 include file=bjt4.e-4 max_step=0.5e-7 contact type=ohmic num=1 end_zmater $ begin_zmater zseg_num=3 include file=bjt3.2 min_step=1.e-9 res_tol=1.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $stop newton_par damping_step=8.1 min_step=1. && init_step=0.doping load_macro name=si mater=1 lifetime_p value=3.5 && hot_electron=no scan var=voltage_3 value_to=0.e-3 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=10 print_flag=3 && change_variable=no $ bias the collector first scan var=voltage_1 value_to=5 print_step=5.doping load_macro name=si mater=1 lifetime_p value=3.e-3 res_tol=1.

) $ Ib vs. The distributions of phsyical variables on x-y planes (Figs.) splot_xyz variable=potential xy_from=(0.3 Results and Discussions 23-285 23.4. just like in 2D simulations. the spreading of current and potential into the z-direction.) xy_to=(10.plt file.5 0.2.0) xy_to=(0. The distributions of current and potential on y-z and x-z planes (Figs.3 Results and Discussions The results are plotted using the following bjt.5 0. 23.sol sol_inf=bjt. Individual components .) vplot_xyz variable=hole_curr xy_from=(0. 7.0) xy_to=(10. 23.plt file. $file:bjt. 23.4 AC Analysis 2-port network parameters can be obtained using the statement ac parameters.plt file.out && xy_data=(1 1) lplot_xy variable=band xy_from=(0. Vb $ Ic vs. and 23.e. Vb $plot_scan scan_var=voltage_3 variable=total_curr_3 $plot_scan scan_var=voltage_3 variable=total_curr_1 plot_scan scan_var=voltage_3 scale_2=log && var_num=2 2_variables=(total_curr_1 total_curr_3) get_data main_input=bjt. 7..sol sol_inf=bjt.5. 7.5 8. The only difference is that there is no need to specify the length of the device since the length is already known in the 3D simulation. i.sol sol_inf=bjt. 23. followed by 2-port parameter plotting statements in the .plt $ ************** begin_pstprc $plot_data plot_device=x11 plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=bjt.5 8) z=1 get_data main_input=bjt.23.6) clear show the edge effects.0) xy_to=(0.3) are what we expected.out && xy_data=(1 3) convert_data=yes end_pstprc The postscript output results are displayed in the order as in the . and 23.out && xy_data=(3 3) scan_data=(3 3) vplot_xy variable=total_curr z=1 vplot_xyz variable=total_curr xy_from=(0. 7.

The reason for this is that the extension of collector and its electrode in the edge region effectively reduces the resistance of the collector. 23. The comparison of 2D and 3D simulation shows a slightly larger collector current for the same collector and base biases. They use the mesh in bjt.sol and bjt 2d.sol0 for mesh refinement.plt 1 0.23-286 3D Model of Edge Effect in BJT File:bjt.5 -1 -1. of Y and S parameters can plotted as a function of frequency.2: Band diagram normal to the junctions. Thus the Gummel plot shows a slightly larger current amplification. These are presented in Figs.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Distance (micron) Figure 23. respectively.5 Comparison with 2D BJT simulation The files of of bjt 2d. as well as S-parameters on Smith chart and on polar graphs.plt are for the corresponding 2D simulation.8 and 23.9. 23.5 Energy (eV) 0 -0.geo and also bjt. .

.plt 20 15 10 z (micron) 5 0 -5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x/y distance (micron) Figure 23.5 Comparison with 2D BJT simulation 23-287 File:bjt. File:bjt.plt 9 8 7 6 5 y (micron) 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 x (micron) Figure 23.5 micron.4: Current spreading on y-z plane at x=0.3: Current flow on x-y plane at z=1 micron.23.

plt 20 15 10 z (micron) 5 0 -5 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 x/y distance (micron) Figure 23.1 20 15 0 10 2 z (micron) 4 5 6 x/y distance (micron) 8 10 0 Figure 23.09 -0. File:bjt.5: Base current spreading on x-z plane.05 -0.08 -0.04 -0. .plt Potential (volt) -0.07 -0.23-288 3D Model of Edge Effect in BJT File:bjt.06 -0.6: Base potential on x-z plane.03 -0.

5 Comparison with 2D BJT simulation 23-289 File:bjt..8: S11 and S22 plotted on Smith chart for the 3D simulation.6 0.0 1.3 0.0 HF 0 0.0 0. -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 0.5 0.2 5.7: Gummel plot for the 3D BJT simulation.0 0.plt -2 Log [total_curr_3 (A)]+.7 0. .2 5.9 voltage_3 (volt) Figure 23.5 1.0 S11 S22 0.5 2.5 2. HF=Higher Frequency 1.2 0.8 0.0 5.1 0.0 2.0 HF 0.4 0.23.2 0.0 Figure 23..

9: S21 and S12 plotted on polar graph for the 3D BJT model. .23-290 3D Model of Edge Effect in BJT HF=Higher Frequency 4 S21 S12x184 3 2 1 HF 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Figure 23.

Part VI Examples: Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors .

.

2 To Create a Mesh for the HBT The mesh generated by ingaas.geo”.0) point label=b2 xy=( 0. The example can be found at the directory: apsys examples/HBT/hbt ingaas 24.35 0.“ingaas.Chapter 24 InGaAs/InP HBT Simulation 24. Compound semiconductor pairs such as AlGaAs/GaAs and InGaAs/InP are particular attractive for heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT).3×3µ2) high-gain sub-micron HBT with InGaAs/InP compound semiconductor materials [1].pp. The graphic output produced by these files are given in the figures to follow.sol”.geo is given in Fig.mplt”. 24.0) point label=a2 xy=( 0.1 Introduction Heterostructure bipolar transistor is based on the use of a wide-bandgap emitter to remove the tradeoff between current gain and the base doping level in a bipolar transistor. main equation solver and the result plot are given as follows in “ingaas.plt”. In this example. The corresponding input files for mesh generation.geo $ This example follows IEEE ED Vol. 0.9. “ingaas. The schematic of the InGaAs/InP HBT is given in Fig.08) $ point label=b1 xy=( 0.08) .“ingaas.1.35 1.524. we demonstrate the computer simulation for a scaled (emitter dimension is 0.1988 $***********GEOMETRY DESCRIPTION******************* begin_geometry point label=a1 xy=( 0. 1.2. $file:ingaas. 24. mesh plot.

0 point_to=0.InP 0.0 && number=12 ratio=-1.5 InGaAs InGaAs InGas N+ InGaAs 0.58) $ point label=c1 xy=( 0.3 P+ InGaS 0.35) && boundary_2=(a2 b2) limits_2=(0.5 0.08) point label=c3 xy=( 0.5 1. 0.1: Schematic diagram of InGaAs/InP HBT point label=b3 xy=( 0.15) polygon name=p3 4_points=(b2 c2 c3 b3 ) material=2 polygon name=p4 4_points=(b3 c3 c4 b4 ) material=1 && boundary_3=(b4 c4) limits_3=(0.35 1.08 InGaAs InP N.6 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0.5 point_to=1.35 1.5 1.InGaAs 0.2 0.5 Figure 24. 0.38) point label=b4 xy=( 0. 0.0 point_to=1.5 0.1 0.1 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=1.35) polygon name=p2 4_points=(b1 c1 c2 b2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(b1 c1) limits_1=(0.08 && .15) $ end_geometry $***********MESH GEN****************************** begin_meshgen put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0.58) $ polygon name=p1 4_points=(a1 b1 b2 a2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(a1 b1) limits_1=(0.24-294 InGaAs/InP HBT Simulation 0.5 0.15 N+ InGaAs 0.0) point label=c2 xy=( 0.38) point label=c4 xy=( 0.5 && number=10 ratio=0.25 N.5 1.

sol $*********** begin .8 0.0 point_to=0.0 put_mesh polygon=p2 edge=(b1 c1) point_from=0.0 point_to=0.2 0.msh order=yes $ end_meshgen 24.001 put_mesh polygon=p3 edge=(b2 b3) point_from=0.15 0.2 0 0 0.2 1 y (micron) 0.5 x (micron) Figure 24.3 0.0 mesh_output mesh_outfile=ingaas.2: Mesh of InGaAs/InP heterostructure bipolar transistor extra_point_1=0.24.9 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=0.4 0.0 point_to=0.6 0.1 0.001 $ number=10 ratio=1.4 1.05 0.3 To Run the Main Solver 24-295 1.35 && number=6 ratio=1.4 0.25 0.0 point_to=0.3 To Run the Main Solver $file:ingaas.001 extra_point_2=0.45 0.15 && number=4 ratio=1.6 1.35 0.3 && extra_point_1=0.01 extra_point_2=0.1 put_mesh polygon=p4 edge=(b3 b4) point_from=0.2 && number=10 ratio=0.

e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium newton_par damping_step=1.5 && init_step=0.5 && init_step=0.e-5 max_step=0.58) get_data main_input=ingaas.e-5 max_step=15 scan var=voltage_1 value_to=0.002 min_step=1.45 1.75 print_step=0.05 scan var=voltage_1 value_to=3 print_step=0.002 min_step=1.e-5 max_step=0.6 0.1 end 24.0) to=(0.sol sol_inf=ingaas.0) to=(0.31) $plot_1d variable=hole_conc from=(0.002 min_step=1.5 && init_step=0.6 0.0) to=(0.plt $ ************** begin_pstprc $plot_data plot_device=postscript plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=ingaas. var_tol=1.95 print_step=0.2 scan var=voltage_2 value_to=0.45 0.24-296 InGaAs/InP HBT Simulation load_mesh mesh_inf=ingaas.e-5 max_step=0.0) to=(0. var_tol=1.e-4 && max_iter=30 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=10 print_flag=3 $scan var=current_2 value_to=-8536 print_step=853.4 To plot the results $file:ingaas.e-4 res_tol=1.sol sol_inf=ingaas.6 1.out && xy_data=(1 1) plot_1d variable=band from=(0.58) $plot_1d variable=elec_conc from=(0.mater include file=ingaas.6 && $ init_step=0.doping $ newton_par damping_step=5.out include file=ingaas.out && xy_data=(10 10) scan_data=(1 10) plot_scan scan_var=voltage_2 variable=total_curr_2 plot_scan scan_var=voltage_2 variable=total_curr_1 end_pstprc .e-9 res_tol=1.msh output sol_outf=ingaas.002 min_step=1.45 1.31) $plot_1d variable=potential from=(0.6 1.45 0.

4.5 Tunneling Effects on HBT 24-297 File:ingaas. No tunneling.5 1 0.4) at a current density as low as 5-9KA/cm2. 24. With tunneling. we follow the example in Ref. Then we shall modify some of the parameters based on Ref.5 -1 -1. 24. These simulation results clearly show that the HBT with emitter size of 0. We first use all default parameters in APSYS. [2].45 We plot the band diagram and the Gummel plot in Figs.3 and 24. . 24.2 1.5 0 0.5 Energy (eV) 0 -0.5.3*3.plt 1. We study three cases here: • hbt0: A quick set up using default parameters from APSYS. • hbt2: With some modifed parameters from [2].6 0.8 1 1. [2].5 Tunneling Effects on HBT For the purpose of demonstrating the use of tunneling model on InGaAs/InP HBT. 24. This example is under the directory: apsys examples/HBT/hbt0 tunnel/ The schematic of this device is given in Fig.2 0.4 1. • hbt1: With some modifed parameters from [2]. But no tunneling.3: 1d Energy band diagram under equilibrium condition along y direction x=0.6 Distance (micron) Figure 24.4 0.0µm2 has a current gain of order of 100 (see Fig.24. Please note that the symmetric axis is placed on the left hand side of the simulating area. These results match those in the literature[1].

9 1 voltage_2 (volt) Figure 24.. -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 0.7 0.24-298 InGaAs/InP HBT Simulation File:ingaas.plt 2 0 Log [total_curr_2 (A/m)]+.5: Schematic diagram of another InGaAs/InP HBT used to demonstrate the tunneling effects.6 0.5 0. .3 0.4: Gummel plot of the HBT. Emitter InP Base InGaAs InGaAs Collector Figure 24..8 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.

24. we only show the tunneling statement and the parameter modification we made.e-9 mater=3 lifetime_p value=1.5 Tunneling Effects on HBT 24-299 Due to the similarity between this device and the one we described previously in this chapter.doping $ $ Turn on the tunneling model here. 0.e-8 mater=1 $ lifetime_p value=1.e-8 mater=2 lifetime_n value=1.e-8 mater=1 $ auger_n value=1.e-43 mater=2 auger_n value=1. Lopez-Gonzalez and L. 0. $ $ mater 2=emitter(InP).e-9 mater=3 lifetime_n value=1. lifetime_n value=1.28 mater=3 ..07 eV as the reference for InP $ affinity value=4.249) point_ur=(1. 3=base. $ include file=hbt1.25d-41 mater=1 $ $ Using 4.d-43 mater=2 auger_p value=1. 1=collector.25d-41 mater=3 auger_p value=1.e-43 mater=3 auger_n value=1. $ $ We include the material and doping files here.mater include file=hbt1. Prat (1996) (Table 1) $ $ Use of the following parameters will override the ones $ in the macro. M.3) && barrier_type=triangle $ $ Modification of parameters is made based on the paper by $ J. $ tunneling point_ll=(0.e-8 mater=2 lifetime_p value=1.07 mater=2 affinity value=4.e-43 mater=1 $ auger_p value=1.

25 0.6: Band diagram using default parameters.251 mater=2 $ Base Delta_Eg=0.24-300 InGaAs/InP HBT Simulation File:hbt0. We plot the S-parameters in Figs.”High-Current-Gain Submicrometer InGaAs/InP .05 0. [2] indicates that the experi- mantal data are somewhere between cases hbt0 and hbt2.4 Distance (micron) Figure 24.5 -5 0 0. We also show the AC respose in Fig. Reference [1] Richard N.658 mater=3 band_gap value=0.5 -2 -2.5 -3 -3.15 0. 24.104 band_gap value=1.5 0 -0.3 0.5 -1 Energy (eV) -1. Comparison of our results here with those in Ref.75 mater=1 $ end Some of the simulation results are shown in Figs. affinity value=4. Nottenburg et al. The 2-port AC parameters may be obtained using statement ac parameters.1 0.28 mater=1 $ $ InP Eg=1.plt 0.092 band_gap value=0. 24. Fine tuning of parameters should give us good fit to experiment.5 -4 -4.11 and 24.12 for a frequency range from 1 MHz to 1 THz.35 Delta_Eg=0.10 which indicates a high ft .6 to 24.35 0. 24. It can be seen that tunneling makes significant difference to the Gummel plot at lower bias..2 0.9.

.7 0.3 0. 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 0.2 0.2 0.7: Gummel plot using default parameters.5 Tunneling Effects on HBT 24-301 File:hbt0.6 0.6 0.8: Gummel plot using modifed parameters.8 0.1 0.3 0. 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 0.7 0.9 voltage_3 (volt) Figure 24.24.plt 4 Log [total_curr_3 (A/m)]+. File:hbt1...4 0.plt 4 2 Log [total_curr_3 (A/m)]+.5 0..5 0.4 0.1 0. .8 0.9 voltage_3 (volt) Figure 24. No tunneling is involved.

.10: AC current amplication using default parameters.24-302 InGaAs/InP HBT Simulation File:hbt2. 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 0.1 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Log (Freq) Figure 24.4 0. .9 voltage_3 (volt) Figure 24.plt 10 AC Current Ratio 1 0.6 0.5 0. Tunneling model is used.9: Gummel plot using modifed parameters.7 0. File:hbt2.3 0.1 0.2 0..8 0.plt 4 Log [total_curr_3 (A/m)]+.

11: S11 and S22 plotted on Smith chart for the HBT.2 5.2 5.05 0.2 0.12: S21 and S12 plotted on polar graph.0 Figure 24.1 0.05 0 -0.0 0. .5 1.0 5.5 2.05 -0.0 0 0. HF=Higher Frequency HF S21 S12 0.5 Tunneling Effects on HBT 24-303 HF=Higher Frequency 1.0 1.1 -0.0 2.05 0 0.0 0.24.1 -0.0 S11 S22 0.1 Figure 24.5 2.0 HF HF 0.

EDL-9. . 523-527.” IEEE Electron Device Lett.524- 526. Prat. No.vol. 4.” Solid-State Electronics. vol. pp. PP. “Numerical modeling of abrupt InP/InGaAs HBTs. 1996. Lopez-Gonzalez and L. M. 39.24-304 InGaAs/InP HBT Simulation Heterostructure Bipolar Transistor.1988 [2] J.

a3. The key geometry points are label a1. The doping profile is assume to be uniform with a Gaussian tail.a2. so that the geometry input file can be set up. 25. We shall go through some of the input files in the next section.Chapter 25 SiGe HBT Simulation 25. APSYS provides a user accessible material macro so that parameters can be modified freely.. The example is under the directory: apsys examples/HBT/sige hbt 25.geo file referring to Fig. 25. a .. $***********GEOMETRY DESCRIPTION******************* begin_geometry $ $ We define the corners points first. $ point label=a1 xy= 0.2 Setting Up the Geometry Input In this example.. Here we only consider a simple case using default parameters from our existing material library. We shall see that reasonable results can be obtained from these default parameters. The parameters of SiGe layer model need special attention since effects of strain should be taken into account.1. it is reasonably simple to use the conventional approach of input statements.1 Introduction We demonstrate the analysis of a typical Si/SiGe/Si HBT in this chapter. The doping level in the collector and emitter are set to be the same.1 is given as follows. For the geometry description. The schematic of the device is given in Fig. 0.0 .

$ Contact 1=collector. 0.1: The schematic of the Si/SiGe/Si HBT. 3=emitter. 0. 0.1) polygon name=p2 4_points=(a2 b2 b3 a3 ) material=2 polygon name=p3 4_points=(a3 b3 b4 a4 ) material=1 && boundary_3=(a4 b4) limits_3=(0. 0. 0. 2=base.08 $ point label=b1 xy= 1. $ polygon name=p1 4_points=(a1 b1 b2 a2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(a1 b1) limits_1=(0.7 point label=b3 xy= 1.74 point label=b4 xy= 1.0 point label=b2 xy= 1. 1.1) polygon name=q2 4_points=(b2 c2 c3 b3 ) material=2 && .0 point label=c2 xy= 3.74 point label=a4 xy= 0.7 point label=c3 xy= 3.74 $ $ We define the polygons and boundary conditions.7 1.08 $ point label=c1 xy= 3. 0. 1. 2. 1.7 point label=a3 xy= 0. 0.25-306 SiGe HBT Simulation Emitter a4 b4 n+ Base Si n b3 c3 a3 SiGe c2 a2 p+ b2 Si n n+ b1 a1 c1 Collector Figure 25.1) $ polygon name=q1 4_points=(b1 c1 c2 b2 ) material=1 && boundary_1=(b1 c1) limits_1=(0. point label=a2 xy= 0. 0.

$file:sige1.7 && number=15 ratio=0.0 point_to=0.2 point_to=0.3 Steady State Simulation for Gummel Plot 25-307 boundary_2=(b3 c3) limits_2=(1.8 put_mesh polygon=q1 edge=(b1 c1) point_from=0.3 Steady State Simulation for Gummel Plot The basic task is to perform a steady state simulation so that Gummel plot can be produced.2 mesh_output mesh_outfile=sige1.msh output sol_outf=sige1.sol begin load_mesh mesh_inf=sige1.0005 extra_point_2=0.2 point_to=0.2 put_mesh polygon=q1 edge=(b1 c1) point_from=0. point_to=1. point_to=0.0005 put_mesh polygon=p3 edge=(b3 b4) point_from=0.4 put_mesh polygon=q1 edge=(b1 c1) point_from=0.2 extra_point_1=0. The following input file is used. point_to=0.0 point_to=0.7 extra_point_2=0.2 1. point_to=0.2 && number=4 ratio=-1.30 && number=15 ratio=1.out contact type=ohmic num=1 .2 && number=5 ratio=0.0 && number=4 ratio=1.25.0005 put_mesh polygon=p3 edge=(b3 b4) point_from=0.8 point_to=2.8) $ end_geometry $***********MESH GEN****************************** begin_meshgen $ $ We place mesh lines along the edges of the polygons.0005 put_mesh polygon=p2 edge=(b2 b3) point_from=0.8 && number=3 ratio=1.msh order=yes end_meshgen 25. $ put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0.8 put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(b1 b2) point_from=0.0400 && number=8 ratio=-1. $ put_mesh polygon=p1 edge=(a1 b1) point_from=0.0 && number=6 ratio=0.3 extra_point_1=0.04 && number=4 ratio=1.

1.01 0. 0.01] && y_prof=[0.2 0. print_flag=3 scan var=voltage_1 value_to= 0.002.02] && y_prof=[1.02] && y_prof=[0.4000E+01 print_step= 0. 0.02 0. 0.002.01 0. 0.e25 && x_prof=[0. 0.002] $ $ emitter $ doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=5.5000E-03 max_step= 0.737.02] && y_prof=[0.e24 && x_prof=[0.02 0. 0. 3.4000E+01 && init_step= 0. 0.74.02 0.5 .08.02 0.02] $ $ collector $ doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=5. 0. 0. 0.1000E+00 min_step= 0. 0. 0.7 0. max_iter=100 print_flag=3 equilibrium $ $ ramp up the bias for the Gummel plots $ contact 1=collector 3=emitter (ground) 2=base $ newton_par damping_step=1. 3. 3.703. 1.25-308 SiGe HBT Simulation contact type=ohmic num=2 contact type=ohmic num=3 load_macro name=si mater=1 load_macro name=sige var1=0.002] $ $ top contact/emitter $ doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=1.e22 && x_prof=[0. 3.01] $ $ base $ doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor max_conc=4.04.04.02 0.2 mater=2 $ $ substrate/collector $ doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor max_conc=2. 0.002.e22 && x_prof=[0.02] && y_prof=[0.002] newton_par damping_step=5. 3.e24 && x_prof=[0. 0.

0000E+00 0. After the completion of the simualtion.4 Steady State Results 25-309 scan var=voltage_2 value_to= 1.7 && init_step= 0.sol input file in the previous section.0000E+00] && point_ur=[ 0.3000E+01 0. we need to apply the Apsys program on the sige1.4 print_step= 0.25.3000E+01] && yrange=[ 0.0000E+00 0.05 $ end 25.3000E+01 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.4 Steady State Results To run the simulation. $file:sige1.1080E+01] && xrange=[ 0. we use the user-friendly interactive program SetupApsys to generate the following input file for plotting the steady state results.sol && sol_inf=sige1.0000E+00] && point_ur=[ 0.0000E+00 0.3000E+00 0.1080E+01] && xrange=[ 0.1 min_step= 1E-04 max_step= 0.0000E+00 0.3000E+01] && yrange=[ 0.1080E+01] && grid_sizes=[35 35] level=10 plot_2d variable=hole_curr && point_ll=[ 0.0000E+00 0.out && xy_data=[ 3 3] scan_data=[1 4] plot_1d variable=band && from=[ 0.3000E+00 0.1080E+01] && grid_sizes=[35 35] level=10 plot_scan scan_var=voltage_2 && variable=total_curr_1 plot_scan scan_var=voltage_2 && variable=total_curr_2 $ plot_scan var_num=2 scan_var=voltage_2 && .plt begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=sige1.1080E+01] && xrange=[ 0.1080E+01] plot_2d variable=elec_curr && point_ll=[ 0.0000E+00] && to=[ 0.

log_freq2=12.4 0. 25. Figs.2 0.8 1 Distance (micron) Figure 25.25-310 SiGe HBT Simulation File:sige1. 2_variables=[total_curr_1 total_curr_2] scale_2=log && yrange=[-10 5] user_title=Gummel-plot end_pstprc The results are given in Figs.2 to 25. $ plot_ac_curr input_file=sige1.2: The band diagram of hte SiGe HBT at Vb=0. && contact_num=2 freq_point=15 $ $ Plot the AC current ratio of Ic/Ib. $ ac_voltage output_file=sige1.ac log_freq1=6.7 volt.5 AC Analysis for the HBT The task is to plot the AC current amplification as a function of frequency. based on the $ AC data just generated.6 0.ac scale_2=log variable=ratio_i1/i2 .5. The Gummel plot shows the decrease of beta at higher bias as expected. $ $ Apply AC voltage at the base to calculate the AC response.plt file.plt 1 0 -1 Energy (eV) -2 -3 -4 -5 0 0. 25. This can be done by adding the following statement to the .

6 0.8 y (micron) 0.25.5 1 1. File:sige1.5 AC Analysis for the HBT 25-311 File:sige1.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 x (micron) Figure 25.3: The 2D electron current flow of HBT.2 0 0 0.2 0 0 0.8 y (micron) 0.6 0.4 0.plt 1 0. .plt 1 0.5 3 x (micron) Figure 25.5 2 2.4 0.4: The 2D hole current flow of HBT.

5: The Gummel plot at Vb=0. 25.6. 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 0.. The first statement is to generate the AC data.25-312 SiGe HBT Simulation Gummel-plot 4 2 Log [total_curr_2 (A/m)]+.7 and 25.4 0.4 voltage_2 (volt) Figure 25.8 1 1.6 0. The 2-port network parameters can be obtained using the statement ac parameters and the results are shown in Figs. . 25..2 1. The second step is to plot the AC response. As can be seen. about 40 GHz of ft can be obtained in this case.8. The result is shown in Fig.7 volt.2 0.

2 5.6: Frequency dependence of current amplification of the SiGe HBT.5 2.25.5 2.0 2.0 Figure 25.0 1. .0 5.1 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Log (Freq) Figure 25.plt 1000 100 AC Current Ratio 10 1 0. HF=Higher Frequency 1.0 0 0.0 HF 0.0 S11 S22 0.5 AC Analysis for the HBT 25-313 File:sige1.2 0.7: S-parameters on Smith chart for the SiGe HBT.0 HF 0.2 5.0 0.5 1.

2 0 0.4 HF 0.4 -0. .2 0 -0.25-314 SiGe HBT Simulation HF=Higher Frequency S21 S12 0.4 -0.2 -0.2 0.4 Figure 25.8: S21 and S12 on polar graph.

doping file manually. The example is under the directory apsys examples/HBT/sige hbt2 26. we refined the mesh according to acceptor concentration criterion.msh”(Fig. we demonstrate the analysis of a selective-epitaxial SiGe HBT. In this example.doping include file=sige. impurity profile is specified in .5 end .out include file=sige. The impurity profile can be modified by either using GeoEditor or editting . 26. $file:sige0.1 Introduction In this chapter.msh output sol_outf=sige0. In this example.3).1).sol begin load_mesh mesh_inf=sige.mater refine_mesh mesh_outf=sige0. 26. The selective-epitaxial SiGe layer consists of undoped Si-cap and graded Si1−x Gex layers (Fig.2 shows impurity profile of the device.doping file. High cut-off frequency achieved by this class of device has particular importance in the high speed communication technology.msh variable=acceptor_conc var_diff=0. Figure 26. Refined mesh is stored in a file “new.2 Refining the Initial Mesh Initial mesh is refined by using refine statement.Chapter 26 Selective-Epitaxial SiGe HBT 26.

2 0.26-316 Selective-Epitaxial SiGe HBT Emitter(Contact3) Si Base(Contact2) Si x 0 10% 10 15% Si1-xGex layer 15% 15 0% Si Collector(Contact1) Figure 26.1 0.1: The schematic of the selective-epitaxial SiGe HBT 27 10 Impurity concentration (m ) 26 -3 10 Sb B 25 10 24 10 P 23 10 22 10 0 0.2: Doping profile .4 Distance from collector ( mm) Figure 26.3 0.

msh output sol_outf=sige1.mater impact_chynoweth mater=1 elec_set1 =(5.582e+08 2.582e+08 2.7.3 Simulation for Gummel Plot The input file “sige1.doping include file=sige.out include file=sige. The conversion is straight forward. Calculated Gummel plot compared with experiment[1] is shown in Fig.26.3 0.05 0.15 0.3: Refined mesh 26.25 y (micron) 0.2 0.1 0.3 Simulation for Gummel Plot 26-317 0.35 0.036e+08 1) elec_setnum = 1 && .036e+08 1) elec_setnum = 1 && hole_setnum = 1 impact_chynoweth mater=2 elec_set1 =(5.05 0 0 0. we just multiplied current by emitter length used in the experiment.sol begin load_mesh mesh_inf=sige0.0e+07 2.15 0.1 0.2 0. 26. $file:sige1.0e+07 2.4e+08 1) && hole_set1 =(1.4e+08 1) && hole_set1 =(1.25 x (micron) Figure 26.4 0.sol” calculates IC . IB − VBE characteristics. It should be noted that the unit of current is converted from (A/m) to (A) in order to compare with experiment. The calculated value is in good agreement with experiment.

1 0.plt 0.05 end .5000E-03 max_step= 0.0 print_step= 0.2 && init_step= 0.5 0 -0.4 Distance (micron) Figure 26.4: Band diagram hole_setnum = 1 newton_par damping_step=5.1000E+00 min_step= 0.1 min_step= 1E-06 max_step= 0.25 0.5 -2 -2.2 0. max_iter=100 print_flag=3 equilibrium $bandgap_narrow model=slotb $ $ ramp up the bias for the Gummel plots $ contact 1=collector 3=emitter (ground) 2=base $ newton_par damping_step=1.2 && init_step= 0.3 0.5 scan var=voltage_2 value_to= 1.05 0.5 0 0.35 0. print_flag=3 && change_variable=yes $ for Gummel plot scan var=voltage_1 value_to= 1.5 Energy (eV) -1 -1.26-318 Selective-Epitaxial SiGe HBT File:sige1.15 0.2 print_step= 0.

25 y (micron) 0.26.3 y (micron) 0.3 Simulation for Gummel Plot 26-319 File:sige1.15 0.05 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.05 0.5: The 2D electron current flow File:sige1.2 0.35 0.1 0.15 0.25 x (micron) Figure 26.4 0.35 0.25 0.1 0.05 0 0 0.3 0.25 x (micron) Figure 26.4 0.2 0.15 0.plt 0.15 0.6: The 2D hole current flow .05 0.1 0.2 0.plt 0.

$ for Ic-Vce plot scan var=voltage_2 value_to= 0.8 && init_step= 0. IB 10-12 10-14 0.80 print_step= 0. In this simulation.33 && init_step=0.8 1.e-5 max_step=0. then scan collector voltage while fixing base current.5 scan var_num=2 2_variables=(voltage_1 current_2) && value_to=3.4 Simulation for IC − VCE characteristics The IC − VCE characteristics is calculated by using series of scan statements.1 min_step= 1E-06 max_step= 0.2 VBE (V) Figure 26.33 && init_step= 0.7: Gummel plot 26.2 other=-3. Subtle increase of collector current above VCE = 2V is originated from impact ionization effect.26-320 Selective-Epitaxial SiGe HBT 10-2 10-4 10-6 IC.0 print_step=0. IC 10-10 Exp. IB (A) 10-8 Exp.8 shows the result of simulation.5 scan var=voltage_2 value_to= 0.80 print_step= 0.05 outfile_label=vb1 scan var=current_2 value_to= -3.66 && .66 print_step= 6.0 1.6 0. Figure 26.8 && init_step= 0.33 print_step= 3.01 min_step=1.1 min_step= 1E-06 max_step= 0.05 && infile_label=vb1 outfile_label=vb2 scan var=current_2 value_to= -6. we first ramp up base current to particular value.4 0.1 min_step= 1E-06 max_step= 0.

01 min_step=1.33 && init_step=0.5 scan var=voltage_2 value_to= 0.66 print_step= 16.5 AC Analysis 26-321 init_step= 0.05 && infile_label=vb3 outfile_label=vb4 scan var=current_2 value_to= -13.e-5 max_step=0.99 && init_step= 0.80 print_step= 0.0 print_step=0.99 print_step= 9. Scan statements for this operation are read as follows.05 && infile_label=vb2 outfile_label=vb3 scan var=current_2 value_to= -9.0 print_step=0.5 scan var_num=2 2_variables=(voltage_1 current_2) && value_to=3.99 && init_step=0.8 && init_step= 0.1 min_step= 1E-06 max_step= 0.80 print_step= 0.33 print_step= 13.66 && init_step=0.2 other=-16.0V. $ for AC analysis scan var=voltage_1 value_to= 4.1 min_step= 1E-06 max_step= 0.0 print_step=0.01 min_step=1.2 other=-9.8 && init_step= 0.2 other=-13.26.2 other=-6.5 scan var=voltage_2 value_to= 0.5 scan var_num=2 2_variables=(voltage_1 current_2) && value_to=3.5 AC Analysis For the AC analysis.e-5 max_step=0.01 min_step=1.1 min_step= 1E-06 max_step= 0.5 scan var_num=2 2_variables=(voltage_1 current_2) && value_to=3.0 print_step=0.80 print_step= 0.e-5 max_step=0. we ramp up collector voltage to 4.66 && init_step=0.66 && init_step= 0.1 min_step= 1E-06 max_step= 0.1 min_step= 1E-06 max_step= 0.1 min_step= 1E-06 max_step= 0.8 && init_step= 0.5 scan var=voltage_2 value_to= 0.4000E+01 && .1 min_step= 1E-06 max_step= 0.e-5 max_step=0.05 && infile_label=vb4 outfile_label=vb5 scan var=current_2 value_to= -16.0 print_step= 0.33 && init_step= 0.5 26.0V. then ramp up base volt- age to 1.01 min_step=1.5 scan var_num=2 2_variables=(voltage_1 current_2) && value_to=3.

5 scan var=voltage_2 value_to= 1. 26.8: The Ic − Vce characteristics init_step= 0.1 min_step= 1E-06 max_step= 0.5 3 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 26.plt 1200 1000 800 total_curr_1 (A/m) 600 400 200 0 0 0.ac log_freq1=9.7 && init_step= 0.05 A script file sige3. Cut-off frequency is estimated to be 69GHz.5 2 2. is shown below.1000E+00 min_step= 0.ac scale_2=log variable=ratio_i1/i2 end_pstprc Frequency dependence of current amplification IC /IB is shown in Fig.plt.sol sol_inf=sige3. $file:sige3.12.26-322 Selective-Epitaxial SiGe HBT File:sige2. && contact_num=2 freq_point=50 plot_ac_curr input_file=sige3.5000E-03 max_step= 1. which computes frequency data and response. Fine tuning of the impurity profile and material parameter will decrease this deviation.out && xy_data=(4 4) scan_data=(1 4) ac_voltage output_file=sige3.0 print_step= 0. . log_freq2=12.plt $ ************** begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=sige3. which is 20% higher than experimental value(=56GHz).5 1 1.

with and without BGN effect. Figure 26.plt 100 10 AC Current Ratio 1 0.5 11 11. Dig. IEDM Tech.5 12 Log (Freq) Figure 26. 1977. Washio et al.. 26.5 10 10. References [1] K.11.6 Bandgap Narrowing Effect 26-323 File:sige3. 1997. Slotboom.“A Selective-Epitaxial SiGe HBT with SMI Electrodes Featuring 9.3ps ECL-Gate Delay”. 26.1 9 9.9: Frequency dependece of current amplification The corresponding high frequency S-parameters from 1 GHz to 1THz are gener- ated by the ac parameters and are presented in Figs. Solid-State Electron.26.10 and 26. In CROSSLIGHT SIMULATOR.. W.“The pn-Product in Silicon”.. . bandgap narrowing effect based on the Slotboom model[2] can be taken into account by bandgap narrow statement. [2] J. 30.6 Bandgap Narrowing Effect Bandgap narrowing(BGN) effect is not negligeable in highly doped semiconductor devices.13 shows Gummel plot of two different simulations. BGN effect yields collector current little bit higher than the default calculation.

0 0.2 HF 5.26-324 Selective-Epitaxial SiGe HBT HF=Higher Frequency 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.2 5.0 HF 0.5 1.0 Figure 26.0 0.5 2.0 S11 S22 0.0 S11 S22 0.2 HF 5.0 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.10: S-parameters on Smith chart for the HBT.5 2.5 2.0 Figure 26.2 5.0 0.5 1.5 2.0 5.2 0. .0 HF 0. HF=Higher Frequency 1.11: S-parameters on polar graph for the HBT.0 0.2 0.0 2.

8 1 1.plt 100 10 AC Current Ratio 1 0.1 9 9.2 VBE (V) Figure 26.26.13: Comparison of Gummel plot .5 11 11.6 0.4 0.12: Frequency dependece of current amplification 104 102 100 Ic.5 12 Log (Freq) Figure 26. IB (A/m) 10-2 10-4 Without BGN With BGN 10-6 10-8 10-10 0.6 Bandgap Narrowing Effect 26-325 File:sige3.5 10 10.

26-326 Selective-Epitaxial SiGe HBT .

Part VII Examples: HIGH MOBILITY ELECTRON TRANSISTORS .

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Since one of the confining barrier is formed by strong electric field. In order to simulate the confined states in the 2D electron gas. the confining quantum well has one Heterojunction barrier on one side acting as a potential barrier while the other potential barrier is formed by confining electric field. 27. . we convert GaAs/Al(0. a layered material is treated quantum mechanically (with confined quantum levels solved) only when it is declared as ”active quantum well”. 27. we need to use the self-consistent option.2 Use of Advanced Options In Crosslight simulators. To make an active quantum well out of the simple GaAs/AlGaAs junction.4)Ga(0.4)Ga(06)As HEMT.1. These include heterojunction field effect transistors (HJFET). This is different from the convention quantum well with two Heterojunction as the two confining barriers.6)As which has uneven barriers.99)As/GaAs/Al(0. To treat uneven-barrier active quantum well. A schematic of such a structure is shown in Fig. we briefly describe the application of APSYS in the simulation of the 2D electron gas in these devices. modulation doped Heterojunction FET. it is important that we solve the potential and quantum confining states self-consistently. We take as an example of a simple GaAs/Al(0. etc. we must treat it as ”complex MQW” and use the complex-MQW option with active layer macro of cx-AlGaAs. A common feature of these devices is that a quantum confined 2D electron gas with high mobility is used as the conducting carrier.Chapter 27 High Electron Mobility Transistor 27. Thus. we must define it as an ”active quantum well” much like that in an MQW laser diode. In this chapter.4)Ga(0.. pseudomorphic heterojunction FET. For many HJFETs.01)Ga(0.6)As junction into quantum well of the form Al(0.1 Introduction An important class of compound semiconductor devices is the high mobility electron field effect transistors (HEMT).

1: Schematics of a GaAs/AlGaAs high mobility transistor (HEMT) as captured from LayerBuilder.27-330 High Electron Mobility Transistor Figure 27. For more accuracy. this model should be sufficient for basic design purposes. The files of this chapter are given under directory apsys examples/HEMT/HEMT selfcs and apsys examples/HEMT/HEMT wurtzite 27. .3 More Advanced Models of HEMT The examples described in this chapter is based on a single-complex quantum con- finement model. We can also go on step further and use multiple segments to divide the quantum well potential profile further in the z-direction in a full 3D simulation. that is. Crosslight GUI of device setup. the quantum confinement is based on sampling of a potential profile at the center of the complex active region when solving the Schroedinger equa- tion. we may simply cut up the device into three or more QW complexes by using the statement indep xmqw. Such a division technique has been used in the Chapter on quantum MOS (Chapter 15). Since the most of the conduction activity occurs near the center region. we may need to go beyond such basic treatment to consider variation along the conduction channel. Asuming the potential variation along the channel is slow.

We rarely see such kind of negative I-V characteristics in steady state measurements. A possible explanation is that the field/current adjusts itself in the region of negative resistance in the form of transient redistribution and the terminal I-V bypasses the peak of negative resistance.2). to overcome the non-convergence in steady state simulation of GaAs FET’s.2: Field dependence electron velocity of undoped GaAs. In reality. 27.2 (as defined by the ”n. This method means the simulator and the computer hardware must work harder. For GaAs based FET’s.4 Results of GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT 27-331 2. 27. Using the ”beta” mobility model. To plot the confined quantum well states. Thus. we find that the steady state solution can be driven into non-convergence because of the negative resistance due to the special field depen- dence mobility as shown in Fig. we have been able to get results in a self- consistent simulation of the HEMT structure. 27.5 1 0. The solid curve is the ”n.3. Velocity (E5 m/s) 1.5 respectively.4 Results of GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT This section demonstrates some results from self-consistent simulation of of a GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT (with layer structure captured in Fig. 27. as illustrated by dash line in Fig.gaas” velocity model in gaas macro). An alternative method to overcome such non-convergence is to use transient sim- ulation while biasing the FET.5 2 Elec.4 and 27. we use the statement of more output . 27.gaas” mobility model while the dash curve is the ”beta” model.1). 27. the device may be driven into unstable or oscillation states (Gunn effect) at some bias point. The current flow and drain I-V curve are shown in Figs.27.5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Field (E5 V/m) Figure 27. The equilibrium band diagram is shown in Fig. we suggest using a different form of mobility model (such as the ”beta” model.

4 0. File:ht2.3 0.6 0. .27-332 High Electron Mobility Transistor File:ht2.5 3 x (micron) Figure 27.5 0 0.4: Typical current flow in a GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT.1 0 -0.7 0.6 0.plt 0.5 2 2.5 y (micron) 0.3: Band diagram of the GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT at equilibrium.2 0.7 Distance (micron) Figure 27.4 0.5 Energy (eV) 0 -0.5 -2 0 0.5 0.plt 0.5 1 1.3 0.2 0.5 -1 -1.1 0.

Due to a larger effective mass. At Vg=-0. 27. then contribution from three subbands: HH. respectively. As expected. The confined levels and wave functions magnitudes are presented in Fig. it is common to have piezo-electric field induced surface charge on the Heterojunction. A family of Id-Vd curves for different Vg is presented in Fig. 27. 27. LH and CH are automatically included. Please note that surface charge due to piezo-electric field is assumed at the Heterojunction. 27. as indicated in Fig.5 2 2.9.5 1 1. the conduction channel is more depleted than at equilibrium and there are less confined levels. The AC analysis can be performed using the ac parameters statement in . 27. . Figs.8 and 27.11 and 27.14 and the S-parameters are plotted on Smith chart in Fig.5 5 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 27. The points to note is that if holes are involved in the 2D gaas.plt 80 70 60 total_curr_1 (A/m) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.12 are the band diagram and corresponding electron distribution of of the 2D gaas in a GaN/AlGaN HEMT.6 and the corresponding electron concentrations are in Fig. For GaN based material.5: Typical drain current-voltage characteristics of a GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT.plt file and we plot the S11 and S22 on Smith chart in Fig.5 Volt and Vd=5 Volt we plot the wave functions and electron concen- trations in Figs.7.13 at equilibrium. the number of confined states is larger than its GaAs counterparts.5 Wurtzite Structure Material HEMT’s The simulation procedure for GaN Wurtzite is completely similar. 27. 27.27.5 Wurtzite Structure Material HEMT’s 27-333 File:ht2.5 3 3.sol file. 27.10.5 4 4.15 for the AlGaN HEMT. 27. in .

15 Energy (eV) 0.02 0.2 0.plt 0.06 0.5 17 Log (Elec_Conc/cm^3) 16.5 15 14.1 -0.1 Distance (micron) Figure 27.04 0.6: Confined energies and wave functions of the GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT at equilibrium.25 0.2 0 0.02 0. File:ht2.plt 18 17.5 16 15.06 0.1 Distance (micron) Figure 27.05 -0.1 0.04 0.7: Electron concentrations near the conduction channel of the GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT at equilibrium.08 0.05 0 -0.5 0 0.27-334 High Electron Mobility Transistor File:ht2.3 0.08 0.15 -0. .

.8 0 0. File:ht2.plt -2.35 -2.5 17 16.5 -2.1 Distance (micron) Figure 27.5 Volt.5 15 14.5 14 13.65 -2.5 Volt.04 0.27.7 -2.9: Electron concentrations near the conduction channel of the GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT at Vg=-0.55 -2.5 Log (Elec_Conc/cm^3) 16 15.75 -2.02 0.04 0.45 Energy (eV) -2.5 0 0.06 0.5 Wurtzite Structure Material HEMT’s 27-335 File:ht2.08 0.06 0.02 0.6 -2.1 Distance (micron) Figure 27.8: Confined energies and wave functions of the GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT at Vg=-0.3 -2.plt 17.4 -2.08 0.

for the GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT at Vg=-0.5 Volt.27-336 High Electron Mobility Transistor HF=Higher Frequency 1.2 5.0 0 0.0 0.0 Figure 27.0 2.5 1.5 2.2 0. from 1 MHz to 1THz.0 0.0 1.2 5.10: S11 and S22 paramters.0 HF HF 0. .5 2.0 S11 S22 0.0 5.

3 0.11: Band diagram of a GaN/AlGaN HEMT at equilibrium.plt 1 0.5 Energy (eV) -1 -1.2 0. .5 -4 0 0. For more advanced and accurate simulation.5 0.5 0 -0.4 0.5 -2 -2. 27.27. complex-MQW and Selfcon- sistent/Piezo options are recommended.6 Applicable Products and Options Simulation of HJFET’s are performed by the APSYS simulation package of Crosslight Software.6 Distance (micron) Figure 27.6 Applicable Products and Options 27-337 File:ht3.1 0.5 -3 -3. Surface charge due to piezo-electric field is assumed at the Heterojunction.

02 0.5 17 16.12: Electron density near the 2D gaas region of the GaN/AlGaN HEMT at equilibrium.06 0.13: Confined levels and wave functions of the GaN/AlGaN HEMT at equilibrium.plt 0.08 Distance (micron) Figure 27.27-338 High Electron Mobility Transistor File:ht3.02 0.5 16 15.05 0 -0.2 0.04 0.08 Distance (micron) Figure 27.15 0.5 18 Log (Elec_Conc/cm^3) 17.04 0.03 0.5 0 0.1 0 0.05 -0.05 0. File:ht3. .07 0.05 0.1 Energy (eV) 0.03 0.01 0.plt 19 18.06 0.01 0.07 0.

5 2.2 1 0.0 5.2 5.6 Applicable Products and Options 27-339 File:ht3.0 0 0.5 1 1.2 0.15: S-parameters plotted on Smith chart for the the GaN/AlGaN HEMT.5 2 2. .8 0.8 1.0 1.6 1.4 0.0 Figure 27.plt 2 1.2 5.2 0 0 0.0 0.0 S11 S22 0.5 4 4.5 3 3.0 2.0 0.14: A family of Id-Vd curves at different gate voltages for the the GaN/AlGaN HEMT.5 1.27.6 0.4 total_curr_1 (A/m) 1.5 5 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 27.0 HF HF 0.5 2. HF=Higher Frequency 1.

27-340 High Electron Mobility Transistor .

Part VIII Examples: Miscellaneous Devices .

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The multiple quantum well optical amplifier is shown in the schematics in Fig. The example is placed under the directory: apsys examples/other devices/amplifier y p electrode light2 MQW output light z n electrode Figure 28. we describe the simulation of an optical amplifier. .1: Schematics of a multiple quantum well InGaAsP optical amplifier. 28.1. We shall go through the input files and discuss the results in the following sections.Chapter 28 Optical Amplifier 28.1 Introduction In this chapter. Please note that uniform mesh along the z-direction is used.

08 n=4 r=1.2: begin_layer $ column column_num=1 w=500 mesh_num=10 r=1.well layer_mater macro_name=ingaasp var1=0.568 layer d=0.well include file=ampt.layer input file format as follows and is shown in Fig.2 p_doping1=1. xp1=1 xp2=1 $ include file=ampt. xp1=1 xp2=1 $ $ layer_mater macro_name=inp layer d=1. 28.950 && . $ bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=500 contact_num=1 && contact_type=ohmic $ layer_mater macro_name=inp layer d=1.2 Input files The device structure is best described by the .568 layer d=0.well $ layer_mater macro_name=ingaasp var1=0.8 n_doping1=1.layer file.well include file=ampt.08 n=4 r=1.28-344 Optical Amplifier 28. n=6 r=1. n=6 r=0.bar include file=ampt.e24 xp1=1 $ top_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=500 contact_num=2 && contact_type=ohmic $ end_layer In the above ampt. the included files are as follows: $ $file:ampt.bar include file=ampt.e24 xp2=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=ingaasp var1=0.

xp1=1 xp2=1 $ $file:ampt.mater and ampt.568 avar5=300.sol file can be generated and modified using the SetupApsys progrom.2: Colorful layout of a multiple quantum well InGaAsP optical amplifier. max_iter=100 print_flag=3 .out newton_par damping_step=5.sol begin load_mesh mesh_inf=ampt.443 avar2=0. layer d=0.28. ampt. xp1=1 xp2=1 $ Running the above ampt.geo. active_macro=InGaAsP/InP && avar1=0.0070 n=3 r=1. The ampt.568 layer d=0.2 Input files 28-345 Figure 28.bar layer_mater macro_name=ingaasp var1=0.msh $restart data_set=13 $restart output sol_outf=ampt.262 avar4=0. It is listed as follows: $file:ampt.doping input files which can be used later.95 && avar3=0.02 n=3 r=1.layer file using the script Layer produces the ampt.

5 print_flag=3 max_iter=40 opt_iter=25 scan var=voltage_1 value_to= -0.55 z_segment=10 end The above input file is for a single pulse without any back ground light signal.2D-12 && relation=gaussian gsn_dt=4.mater include file=ampt.D-12 print_step=2.D-13 min_step=1. This background light is denoted by light2 as in the following listing: $file:ampt2.out .e4 print_step= 4. we keep the clock clicking so as $ to trace the response of the device immediately after the pulse.e4 && init_step= 100 min_step= 0. time is used to control and time scale of $ this transient simulation.D-14 min_step=1. In some applications.d-18 max_step=0.2D-12 include file=ampt.28-346 Optical Amplifier equilibrium newton_par damping_step=2. $ scan var_num=2 2_variables=(time current_1) && value_to=30.d-15 max_step=0.e4 $ $ After the Gaussian pulse.1000E-03 max_step= 2.D-12 other=4.doping $ $ This statement activates the amplfier option.1 min_step= 0.e4 $ $ We apply a Gaussian pulse (4 ps width) while controlling the bias $ current.msh $restart data_set=3 $restart output sol_outf=ampt2.e4 && init_step=1. $ yz_amplifier_model wavelength=1.sol begin load_mesh mesh_inf=ampt.D-12 print_step=2.8 print_step= 0. $ Please note that the unit of light power is mW as defined $ in yz_amplifier statement. $ scan var_num=3 3_variables=(time light current_1) && value_to=20.1000E-03 max_step= 0.e-12 other=4.8 && init_step= 0. it is desirable to apply a background light at a longer wavelength.3 scan var=current_1 value_to= 4.D-12 && init_step=1.

e4 0.2D-12 && relation=gaussian gsn_dt=4.e4 print_step= 4.e4 && init_step= 100 min_step= 0.1) && init_step=1.1 $ $ Apply the Gaussian optical pulse to be amplified.e4 $ $ Turn on the background light first.plt begin_pstprc .1 min_step= 0.d-15 max_step=0.mater include file=ampt. max_iter=100 print_flag=3 equilibrium newton_par damping_step=2.D-12 print_step=2.3 scan var=current_1 value_to= 4.1000E-03 max_step= 0.e-12 2_others=(4.D-13 min_step=1.58 end 28.3 Results and Discussion 28-347 newton_par damping_step=5.1) $ $ Keep the clock clicking after the pulse.1000E-04 max_step= 0.D-12 print_step=2.2D-12 include file=ampt. $ scan var_num=3 3_variables=(time current_1 light2) && value_to=30.1 print_step= 0.01 min_step= 0. $ yz_amplifier_model wavelength=1.1000E-03 max_step= 2.1 && init_step=0.28.8 print_step= 0.e4 0.doping $ $ Define the pulse and the background lights here.8 && init_step= 0.D-12 2_others=(4.D-12 && init_step=1. $ scan var_num=4 4_variables=(time light current_1 light2) && value_to=20.3 Results and Discussion The following plotting input file is used to generate the graphics outputs for the laser diode amplifer: $file:ampt.55 z_segment=10 2nd_light=yes && wavelength2=1.5 print_flag=3 max_iter=40 opt_iter=25 scan var=voltage_1 value_to= -0. $ scan var=light2 value_to= 0.d-18 max_step=0.D-14 min_step=1.

1085E+01] && xrange=[ 0.5000E+03 0.out && xy_data=[ 4 4] plot_3d variable=wave_intensity grid_sizes=(30.5000E+03] plot_1d variable=local_gain && from=[ 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.5000E+03 0. $ get_data main_input=ampt.5000E+03] $ $ We plot the traveling wave distribution at 2. $ get_data main_input=ampt.sol && sol_inf=ampt.0000E+00 0.1085E+01] && to=[ 0.out && xy_data=[ 18 18] scan_data=[1 18] plot_scan scan_var=time variable=amplifier_power data_file=ampt.data $ $ We get several data sets to plot some variables at different $ time intervals on the same plot.30) $ get_data main_input=ampt.out && xy_data=[ 5 5] plot_3d variable=wave_intensity grid_sizes=(30.1085E+01] && to=[ 0.out && xy_data=[ 4 18] plot_1d variable=wave_intensity && from=[ 0.28-348 Optical Amplifier plot_data plot_device=postscript $plot_data plot_device=data_file $ $ We get data to plot the output power as a function of time.sol && .0000E+00 0.5000E+03 0.1085E+01] && xrange=[ 0.0000E+00 0. and 6 $ pico-seconds.sol && sol_inf=ampt.5000E+03] plot_1d variable=elec_conc && from=[ 0. 4.0000E+00 0.1085E+01] && xrange=[ 0.sol && sol_inf=ampt. $ get_data main_input=ampt.sol && sol_inf=ampt.30) $ get_data main_input=ampt.1085E+01] && to=[ 0.

30) $ end_pstprc The results of running the above inptu file are shown in this chapter with com- ments in figure captions.plt 800 700 600 Amplifier Power (mW) 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 time (ps) Figure 28.3: Output light power as a function time. Please note that the traveling wave is displayed clearly at different time intervals.28. File:ampt. Please note the long tail of the output pulse.3 Results and Discussion 28-349 sol_inf=ampt. .out && xy_data=[ 6 6] plot_3d variable=wave_intensity grid_sizes=(30.

65 18.plt Gamma= 0.7 Wave_Intensity 0.2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Distance (micron) Figure 28.3500177168 1 0.6 0.9 0.25 18.4 0. .35 18.3 0.5: Distribution of electron density at different time intervals.5 18.6 Log (Elec_Conc/cm^3) 18.3 18.1 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Distance (micron) Figure 28.28-350 Optical Amplifier File:ampt.plt 18.55 18.4: Distribution of normalized traveling wave intensity at different time intervals.45 18.4 18.5 0. Please note that left hand side is not “hole burned” because the light power is not yet amplified there.7 18.2 0. Please note that the crowded lines have intensity approaching zero. File:ampt.8 0.

6: Distribution of optical gain at different time intervals.7: 3D display of traveling wave at 2 pico second.plt 4000 3500 3000 Interband-Gain (1/cm) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Distance (micron) Figure 28. .5 0. File:ampt.2 0.1 2.1 0 -0.3 Results and Discussion 28-351 File:ampt.3 0.6 0. This figure corresponds to the previous one of electron distribution.5 50 100 150 1 y (micron) 200 250 300 350 0.28.5 x (micron) 400 450 500 0 Figure 28.plt Wave_Intensity 1 0.5 2 0 1.4 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.

File:ampt.7 0.5 2 0 1.8: 3D display of traveling wave at 4 pico second.6 0.8 0.3 0.1 0 2.28-352 Optical Amplifier File:ampt.5 x (micron) 400 450 500 0 Figure 28.5 0.9 0.7 0. .4 0.9 0.4 0.plt Wave_Intensity 1 0.1 0 -0.9: 3D display of traveling wave at 6 pico second.5 x (micron) 400 450 500 0 Figure 28.6 0.5 2 0 1.1 2.5 50 100 150 1 y (micron) 200 250 300 350 0.5 0.8 0.5 50 100 150 1 y (micron) 200 250 300 350 0.3 0.2 0.plt Wave_Intensity 1 0.2 0.

.Chapter 29 A GaN Light Emitting Diode 29. InGaN/GaN MQW are used to enhance the performance. Its schematics is shown in Fig.1: Schematics of a GaN based LED. There are a few unique features for this device.2.1 Introduction We consider a GaN light emitting diode (LED) in this chapter. The n-electrode is mounted on the side of the device. 29. 29.1 and its layout drawn by Layer3D is in Fig. We will explain the setup of input files explain some of the results in the following sections. The example can be found at the directory: apsys examples/LED/gan led Transparent electrode p-GaN InGaN/InGaN MQW Electrode n-GaN Figure 29.

85 column column_num=2 w=140.0 to=390.layer format.2 Input Files and Results We use . n=5 r=0. We also use the ”include” statement to save some file space. Please note that the second column is vacuum and we must use ”void” to describe it.8 n_doping1=5.0 contact_num=2 top_contact column_num=2 from=20. $file:ganled.29-354 A GaN Light Emitting Diode Figure 29.e24 xp2=1 $ $ ---- .e24 && n_doping2=1.0 mesh_num=10 r=0.layer begin_layer $ column column_num=1 w=400.15 top_contact column_num=1 from=0.e24 layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer d=2.0 to=140. n=5 r=0.0 contact_num=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=2 layer d=2. 29.0 mesh_num=8 r=1.9 n_doping1=5.2: Layout of a GaN based LED.

4 column_num=1 && active_macro=InGaN/InGaN avar1=0.92)N Barrier : 5nm $ In(0.2 Input Files and Results 29-355 include file=ganled.0 p_doping1=5.08)Ga(0.003 n=3 r=1 xp1=1 xp2=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=ingan var1=0.qw is listed as follows: $ $ In(0. The main siimulation is carried out by the following .6) N Well : 3nm $ layer_mater macro_name=ingan var1=0.e24 $ layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer d=0.qw include file=ganled.2 n=3 r=1.qw include file=ganled.0 p_doping1=2.qw include file=ganled. .1 n=3 r=1. We apply an initial voltage to bias the LED into forward condition before we ramp up the current.29.sol file: please note that the optical field profile defined in the four statements are not used if ”uniform” is used for the efficiency model.qw $ -------------------------------------- layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer d=0.08 avar3=300 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 && active_macro=void layer d=0.08 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer d=0.4 avar2=0.005 n=3 r=1 xp1=1 xp2=1 Please note that MQW region must be declared ”active” layer.qw include file=ganled. The MQW strained layer model is used to accurately compute the physical properties once declared ”active”.4) Ga(0.e25 $ end_layer The included file ganled.

34 0. we plot the internal efficiency and external efficiencies along 6 different directions.2 min_step=1.1) multimode mode_num=1 $ $ start solving $ newton_par damping_step=5.465 mirror_ref=0. .sol $ ******* begin load_mesh mesh_inf=ganled.e-4 scan var=voltage_1 value_to=-4. print_step=60 && init_step=1.1 0.e-5 max_step=2.0 4.out $ ******* include file=ganled. max_iter=100 print_flag=3 equilibrium newton_par damping_step=1.msh output sol_outf=ganled. print_flag=3 var_tol=1.5 min_step=1.mater led_control wavelength=0. end The results are plotted using the following .3 refl_y2=0.doping include file=ganled.9 $ $ external parasitic circuit with 2 Ohm resistor $ z-dimension is assumed to be 100 um $external_cir type=resistor value=2 z_dim=100 contact=2 $restart data_set=4 $ $ optical field $ sor_par max_iter=0 print_sor=noprint init_wave point_ll=(0. print_step=4.465 efficiency_model=uniform && refl_y1=0.5 scan var=current_1 value_to=180. && boundary_type=(1 1 1 1 ) init_wavel=0.32 && wavel_range=(0. 0.1 0.plt file: In the plot scan statement.48) optical_field profile=gaussian && x_prof=(0 400 0. && init_step=0.3 delta_wavel=0.03 && led_xrange=(0 400) group_index=2.e-5 max_step=10.1) y_prof=(4. 0. 4.0) point_ur=(400.43.34) && length=500 backg_loss=1000..29-356 A GaN Light Emitting Diode $file:ganled.

34) get_data main_input=ganled.13. 2.out && scan_data=(1 5) plot_scan scan_var=voltage_1 variable=total_curr_1 plot_scan scan_var=current_1 variable=led_power plot_scan scan_var=current_1 variable=led_effi plot_scan scan_var=current_1 variable=led_effy1 plot_scan scan_var=current_1 variable=led_effy2 get_data main_input=ganled.out && xy_data=(3 5) led_spectrum led_eff_distr side=top led_farfield side=top end_pstprc 29. 4. 4.34) && xrange=(0 400) yrange=(2.) point_ur=(400. 4. Some comments are given in the respective figure captions.34) plot_2d variable=hole_curr grid_sizes=20 20 && point_ll=(0.34) plot_2d variable=elec_curr grid_sizes=20 20 && point_ll=(0.sol sol_inf=ganled.) point_ur=(400. 2. 2.34) && xrange=(0 400) yrange=(2. The reason is that emission in x and z directions is absorbed . 4. 4.) to=(10.34) plot_1d variable=band from=(350. 4. 4.3 Results and Discussions Selected postscript outputs from the .29. 2. 4.plt file are printed in Figs.34) plot_3d variable=potential grid_sizes=20 20 && point_ll=(0.) point_ur=(400.plt $ ************** begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=ganled.34) && xrange=(0 400) yrange=(2.34) plot_2d variable=total_curr grid_sizes=20 20 && point_ll=(0.34) && xrange=(0 400) yrange=(2. 29. 4.) point_ur=(400.3 Results and Discussions 29-357 $file:ganled.) to=(350. 4. 2.out && xy_data=(5 5) plot_1d variable=band from=(10. 2.sol sol_inf=ganled.sol sol_inf=ganled. It is significant that the emission in the +y direction (top) is much greater than in the other directions.3 to 29.

29.3: The I-V characteristics.7 to 29. File:ganled.9).5 0 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 29. The reason is that we are dealing with 2d simulation here and the missing z-dimension is assumed to be infinitely long. . Please note that the units of power and current are in Watt/m and A/m. We also note that substantial potential drop appears in the lower part (n-type) of the device causing large difference in band diagram at x=10 and x=350 um (see Figs.29-358 A GaN Light Emitting Diode along the path by the lossy medium.5 -1 -0.plt 180 160 140 120 total_curr_1 (A/m) 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -4 -3.5 -2 -1. This is understandable because of the large difference in dimensions in x/y directions. The current flow diagram shows that most of the current is drawn to one side of the electrode. respectively. The far field distribution is also present in this example. The distribution of differential efficiency shows the right side of the device is the most efficient part of the whole device.5 -3 -2.

1 0.plt 1.8 0.5: The internal efficiency defined as total spontaneous recombination as compared with injected electron/hole pairs. File:ganled.2 LED Eff.15 0.6 0.2 1 LED Power (Watt/m) 0.plt 0.3 Results and Discussions 29-359 File:ganled.25 0.2 0 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 current_1 (A/m) Figure 29. intern 0.05 0 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 current_1 (A/m) Figure 29.4: The total emission power versus bias.4 0.29. . The power is summed over all emission directions.

003 0. .0015 0.plt 0.0005 0 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 current_1 (A/m) Figure 29.5 0 -0.0025 LED Eff.1 0.5 1 0.6 Distance (micron) Figure 29.002 0.7: Band diagram at x=10 um.5 3 2. File:ganled.001 0.0035 0.2 0.plt 3.5 -1 0 0.4 0.5 2 Energy (eV) 1.6: The external efficiency for emission along the +y (top) direction.5 0.3 0.29-360 A GaN Light Emitting Diode File:ganled. +y 0.

6 -2.8: Band diagram at x=350 um.5 0 50 3 100 y (micron) 150 200 2.9: Potential distribution over the whole device.5 2 Energy (eV) 1.8 -2 -2.2 0.6 Distance (micron) Figure 29.29.2 -2. File:ganled.5 1 0. .3 0.plt 3.5 3 2.4 0.5 250 x (micron) 300 350 400 2 Figure 29.8 -3 4 3.5 0 -0.4 -2.5 0.3 Results and Discussions 29-361 File:ganled.6 -1.1 0.5 0 0.plt Potential (volt) -1.

48 0.495 0.475 0. File:ganled.465 0.505 Wavelength (micron) Figure 29.5 y (micron) 3 2.29-362 A GaN Light Emitting Diode File:ganled.485 0.plt 4 3.5 0. 125 and 150 A/m.47 0.11: Spontaneous emission spectrum at 75. .eV) 4e+032 3e+032 2e+032 1e+032 0 0. Rate 1/(s.plt 6e+032 5e+032 Sp.49 0.5 2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 x (micron) Figure 29. respectively.m^3.10: Current flow in the device.

The angle is measured from a direction vertical to the device surface.015 0. The external efficiency in the top direction is an average of the differential efficiencies. 0. respectively.025 0. 125 and 150 A/m.02 Top LED Eff.01 0. 75.plt 1 0.4 0.6 0.plt 0.3 Results and Discussions 29-363 File:ganled. File:ganled.005 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Distance (micron) Figure 29.2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Angle (degree) Figure 29. .13: Far field emission pattern of the LED.29.12: Differential external efficiency distribution for emission in the top direction.8 Top LED Farfield 0. The horizontal distance is the distance along the x-direction.

29-364 A GaN Light Emitting Diode .

Please note the use of active layer macro AlGaAs/AlGaAs. we must use the “self-consistent” option. 30. We list the . To plot wave functions of the confined states. This approach is illustrated in the example under apsys examples other devices RTD. The carrier density and potential distribution within the region of quantum well with tunneling barriers is obtained by solving Schroedinger and Poisson Equations for every bias of RTD device. the confined states in the quantum well is not considered in the carrier distribution.1 for simplicity. The second type of simulation declares the quantum well as an “active” quantum well layer so that quantum confinement states can be considered to compute the carrier distribution. 30. begin_layer .1 Introduction In this chapter.Chapter 30 Resonant Tunneling Diodes 30. We consider the structure shown in schematic of Fig. The coupling between the incident carriers with the confined states in the quantum well is taken into account by the tunneling transport model. As a result of using bulk material models.layer file used to construct the second type in directory apsys examples other devices RTD selfcons. The I-V characteristic with tunneling option will be calculated. A unique characteristic of the RTD is the peak in the I-V curve due to the alignment of the confined quantum level with traveling electron energies. The first is the simulation using bulk material macro to build all the layers in the RTD structure. the simulation of resonant tunneling diode (RTD)is discussed.2 Simulation We discuss two types of simulations here.

1: Schematic of a simple resonant tunneling diode. mesh_num=2 r=1.e21 xp1=1 xp2=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0. contact_num=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=1 layer d=0.30-366 Resonant Tunneling Diodes Figure 30.2 n_doping1=1.e24 .e24 layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=1 layer d=0.0 n_doping1=1.005 n=25 r=0.0 avar2=0.9 n_doping1=1.e22 xp1=1 xp2=1 layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=1 layer d=0.0 p_doping1=1e21 xp1=1 xp2=1 layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=1 layer d=0.1 n_doping1=1.4 column_num=1 layer d=0. layer d=0.4 column_num=1 layer d=0.8 n_doping1=1.4 avar3=300.0 p_doping1=1e21 xp1=1 xp2=1 layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=1 && active_macro=AlGaAs/AlGaAs avar1=0.e22 xp1=1 xp2=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.004 n=25 r=1.005 n=25 r=1. $ bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=1. $ column column_num=1 w=1.005 n=25 r=1.005 n=10 r=0.005 n=25 r=1.005 n=10 r=1.

doping include file=het_qw.010) barrier_pnt_ur=(1.mater $ bulk_treatment type=p self_consistent wave_range=0.0096) point_ur=(1.004 loop_num =15 set_active_reg qw_print=2 fd_mesh=60 $ tunneling point_ll=(0.e-7 && max_iter=60 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=15 print_flag=3 && change_variable=yes more_output qw_states=yes scan var=voltage_1 value_to=-0.e-9 res_tol=1.5 print_step=2.024) && barrier_type=propagation_matrix trans_broad =no && broad_width=.out include file=het_qw.0.e-9 && max_iter=150 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 more_output qw_states=yes modify_qw use_bulkmass=yes $ equilibrium newton_par damping_step=5.2 energy_points=2000 newton_par damping_step=2..03) && barrier_pnt_ll=(0.2 Simulation 30-367 $ top_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=1. $file:het_qw.0. . 0.e-5 max_step=0.001 min_step=1. 0. var_tol=1. var_tol=1.msh output sol_outf=het_qw.2 && init_step=0.sol $*********** begin load_mesh mesh_inf=het_qw.e-7 res_tol=1. 0. contact_num=2 $ end_layer The following input file is used to drive the simulation in the self-consistent model.30.015 end .

Then the following statement can be used to plot the confined states along with the band diagram: plot_1d variable=band from=[0. we must export more data using the more output statement in the .2 to broaden the confined level to produce more re- alistic results.2 kT to broaden the confinement levels. 30.sol file as listed in the last section.50E+00 0. 0.0250E+00] qw_wave=1 qw_wave_ht=0. In the above input file.2 and 30. These are from simulation of RTD selfcons to illustrate the level and wave function of the confined states.3 Results and discussions To plot the confined levels and subband wave functions.4 We used the bulk layer model in RTD example to compare illustrate the effect of level broadening.5.2 yrange=[0. A larger broadening value results in a more reduced peak of resonance. There must also be sufficient number of data points in energy space for the tunneling. as indicated in Fig.8] Band diagrams at equilibrium and at high bias is shown in Figs.50E+00 0. The simulated I-V curve with a clear peak is shown in Fig. we use 0.5 compare to an un-broadened one. 30. In the NDR region of the RTD I-V we obtained an extra peak structure. 30. 30. 30. respectively. When the confined level is broadened by a Lorentzian.30-368 Resonant Tunneling Diodes Please note that we must set the parameter barrier type=propagation matrix to obtain accurate results. likely due to some spurious numerical procedures. Please note that by default. The distribution of electron concentration in the self-consistent model is displayed in Fig.005000E+00] && to=[0. which we hope to eliminate in the future versions of the software.3. we may also use trans broad =lorentzian broad width¿0. . the peak is reduced.

4 0.7 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.7 0.5 Energy (eV) 0.3 0.005 0.4 0.01 0.2 0.30. File:het_qw. The confined quantum level and wave function are also illustrated.3 Results and discussions 30-369 File:het_qw. .01 0.3: Band diagram of the simple RTD when biased.5 Energy (eV) 0.015 0.plt 0.8 0.2: Band diagram of the simple RTD at equilibrium.015 0.3 0.02 Distance (micron) Figure 30.02 Distance (micron) Figure 30.8 0.6 0.6 0.1 0 0 0.plt 0.005 0.

8 Bias (volt) Figure 30.5 15 14.5 18 17. .4 0.5 0 0.005 0.6 0.4: Electron concentration of the RTD under bias.5 0.03 0.7 0.3 0. 30 "without" "with_broadening" 25 20 Current (A/m) 15 10 5 0 0 0.5 16 15.plt 19 18.1 0.025 0. and with energy level broadening using Lorenzian function broadening of width = 1*kT.5: Current-voltage characteristic of the RTD without.035 Distance (micron) Figure 30.5 14 13.02 0.5 Log (Elec_Conc/cm^3) 17 16.01 0.015 0.30-370 Resonant Tunneling Diodes File:het_qw.2 0.

For the EAM to work.out include file=gaas1a.doping . we must also use solve for the confined carrier density from a self-consistent model and study how it will vary as a function of reverse bias.mater include file=gaas1a. Our final goal here is to obtain the absorption coefficient of the waveguide at different biases. We shall discuss the briefly how to set up for the model of guided optics while referring the users to LASTIP documentation for more details. The main input file is listed as follows: $file:gaas1a.1.sol $ Reverse biased laser diode using self-consistent density. 31. 31. $ May be useful for EA modulator study.msh output sol_outf=gaas1a.plt file. $*********** begin load_mesh mesh_inf=gaas1a.1 Introduction Simulation of electro-absorption modulator (EAM) is somewhat different from the other devices of APSYS in that the modulator works in a waveguide environment. Solving for the guided optical wave is normally not needed for APSYS.2 Input Files and Discussions The files are under directory apsys examples/other devices/modulator The structure is a simple GaAs/AlGaAs SCH-GRIN-SQW as shown in Fig.Chapter 31 Electro-Absorption Modulator 31. This is treated as a post-processing step using the .

0.e-9 res_tol=1. var_tol=1. 1.e-5 max_step=0.85) prn. 0.32 && wavel_range=(0.e-5 res_tol=1.01 min_step=1.1: Schematic of a simple resonant tunneling diode.31-372 Electro-Absorption Modulator Figure 31.00) && fld_center=(0.. 3. && boundary_type=(2 2 1 1 ) init_wavel=0.5) length=100 backg_loss=500.5.9) $ --- newton_par damping_step=8. var_tol=1.05 end . self_consistent newton_par damping_step=5. 0.e-5 && max_iter=50 opt_iter=17 stop_iter=8 print_flag=3 scan var=voltage_1 value_to=1. $ sor_par max_iter=5000 print_sor=noprint init_wave point_ll=(0.1 && init_step=0.gain_range=(0.2 print_step=0.83 mirror_ref=0.0) point_ur=(1.5.80.7.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $ $ ---we solve the waveguide optical problem here.

31. using Quasi-2D screened e-h interaction (default option) and spectral broadening parameter γ = τscatt−1 = 5 × 1012 s−1 . 31.plt 1. which includes heavy and light ground state exci- ton absorption.04 0.4 are the electron and hole densities. We use Self-consistent calculation option to include Quantum Confinement Stark Effect to demonstrate software capa- bilities in modeling of electro-absorption modulators.1 Distance (micron) Figure 31. We specified the optical wave boundary conditions and solve the wave using iterative techniques in the above file. The band diagram of the EAM under reverse bias is shown in Fig.5 -1 -1. respectively.5 which is what we need for EAM design.2: Band diagram of the reverse biased modulator. 31. ”sor par” and ”init wave” are used for this purpose. 31.08 0. The following input file is used to drive the simulation. The boundary type is such that it takes care of the infinity in the x-direction.2. Please note that we need to establish the optical mode in order to compute the modal gain.5 is accompanied by the disappearance of the LH subband. The optical modal gain/loss spectrum is shown in Fig.5 -2 -2.3 Exciton Effects Bellow we demonstrate an example of calculating the absorption spectrum of single 76 Åwide GaAs/Alx Ga1−x As QW.06 0. Self-consistent carrier density model is also used to enable the bias dependence in the optical spectrum calculation. 31. . Please note that the big jump in the optical loss in Fig.sol $ Reverse biased laser diode using self-consistent density.3 Exciton Effects 31-373 File:gaas1a.5 Energy (eV) 0 -0.5 0 0.02 0. Figs. $file:gaas1a.31. 31.3 and .5 1 0.

5 0 0 0.06 0. .5 0 0 0.5 1 0.5 Log (Elec_Conc/cm^3) 2 1.5 Log (Hole_Conc/cm^3) 2 1.5 1 0.31-374 Electro-Absorption Modulator File:gaas1a.1 Distance (micron) Figure 31.3: Electron density distribution near the quantum well.1 Distance (micron) Figure 31.plt 3 2.plt 3 2.04 0.06 0.08 0.02 0. File:gaas1a.08 0.02 0.04 0.4: Hole density distribution near the quantum well.

plt 0 -50 -100 Gain (1/cm) -150 -200 -250 -300 -350 0.01 $ Turn on the exciton model.9 Wavelength (micron) Figure 31.00) && fld_center=(0. sor_par max_iter=5000 print_sor=noprint init_wave point_ll=(0. $*********** begin load_mesh mesh_inf=gaas1a.5: Modal gain/loss spectrum at different reverse biases.out include file=gaas1a.7 0.83 mirror_ref=0.75 0.8 0.doping $ Turn on the self-consistent calculation.5.e-9 res_tol=1. 1. 0.msh output sol_outf=gaas1a. var_tol=1.31. Lower biases corresponds to higher biases.3 Exciton Effects 31-375 File:gaas1a.5) length=100 backg_loss=500.0) point_ur=(1..85 0. $ May be useful for EA modulator study. self_consistent wave_range=0. && boundary_type=(2 2 1 1 ) init_wavel=0. set_active_reg exciton=yes $ Solve for equilibrium newton_par damping_step=5. 3.32 && .5.mater include file=gaas1a.e-9 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 equilibrium $ ---we solve the waveguide optical problem here.

31-376 Electro-Absorption Modulator File:gaas1a.5 0 -0.5 -2 -2. 31. which are subsequently used in exciton binding energy and absorption spectra cal- culations.04 0.1 Distance (micron) Figure 31.8.9) $ --- $ Apply reverse voltage bias newton_par damping_step=8.5 -3 -3.08 0. λ ≈ 0. var_tol=1. They clearly show red shift and reduction in the absorption magnitude with voltage bias and electrostatic field developed perpendicularly to the QW layer. 0.5 0 0.06 0. λ ≈ 0. a broad contribution from continuous state excitons adds up to the free .82.6 shows basic band diagram of SQW EAM active region under reverse bias at 2 volts. wavel_range=(0.e-5 && max_iter=50 opt_iter=17 stop_iter=8 print_flag=3 scan var=voltage_1 value_to=3. In addition. and 3 volts are presented in Fig. 2.83) prn. note that exciton and self-consistent options were used together.01 min_step=1.3 end Please.gain_range=(0. allowing solver to find potential.e-5 res_tol=1. along with energies and wave functions of quantum states.02 0. print_step=1.7.86µm is related to the heavy hole 1s bound exciton. the peak is related to light hole bound exciton absorption. The peak absorption at longer wavelength around.5 Energy (eV) -1 -1. while at shorter wavelength. The resulting absorption spectra at reverse bias of 1.plt 0. 0.6: Band diagram of 76 Åwide GaAs/AlGaAs QW pn-junction under re- verse bias V=3. && init_step=0.0V working in EAM mode. 31. in agreement with QCSE prediction.84µm.e-5 max_step=0. Fig.

QE-25(9).7: Absorption spectra near band-edge of EAM with included exciton ab- sorption at ground state at Voltage bias V=1.8 The study of MQW exciton phenomena in MQW active regions of EAM can also include different scattering time within the Asada model[1] with tau model settings. [1] M. Quan- tum Electron.8 0.3 Exciton Effects 31-377 File:gaas1a.7. for different e-h exciton levels. . The continuous exciton absorption level can be adjusted by a user with sommerf eld f ac value. e-h absorption in this spectral region. A clearly significant contribution of both bound and continuous state excitons into the near-edge absorption spectrum can be well appreciated by comparison with the absorption spectrum obtained from the model without exciton contribution.84 0. Asada. along with other modeling opportunities.31.82 0.86 0. ”Intraband relaxation time in quantum-well lasers.2.and 3V. as illustrated in Fig.88 0.” IEEE J. 2019-2026 (1993). 31.9 Wavelength (micron) Figure 31.plt 0 -100 -200 Gain (1/cm) -300 -400 -500 -600 -700 0. which in the presented case was set to the default value 1.

8 0.86µm.84 0.31-378 Electro-Absorption Modulator 0 -50 -100 -150 Gain (1/cm) -200 -250 -300 -350 "with. .86 0.exciton" "without. In ad- dition to localized 1S heavy hole exciton at λ ≈ 0.88 0.exciton" -400 0. absorption level is elevated at shorter wavelengths due to the continuous exciton states and broad peak of light hole 1s exciton.8: Comparison of absorption spectra with exciton absorption (red curve) and without ( green curve) for 76 Åwide QW EAM at reverse bias of 3 volts.9 Wavelength (um) Figure 31.82 0.

82 newton_par damping_step=1.e-5 max_step=0.5) backg_loss=500.mater newton_par damping_step=5. print_flag=3 change_variable=yes scan var=voltage_1 value_to=5. 3.doping include file=gaas10. && init_step=0. The solution of the optical mode is the same as we have explained in previous chapter on modulators. && init_step=1.e-9 max_step=0.5 scan var=light value_to=1. && boundary_type=(2 2 1 1 ) init_wavel=0.5.00) && fld_center=(0.e-6 min_step=1. we need to solve for the wave distribution so that we can figure out the modal loss/absorption which then can be used to compute the photo-carrier generation rate. 1. Please note that as in regular PD’s.e-3 wavelength=0. 0..2 min_step=1. $file:gaas10.out $ ************************** include file=gaas10.Chapter 32 Waveguide Photodetector For a waveguide photodetector (PD). print_step=5. print_step=1.0) point_ur=(1.5 end .82 sor_par max_iter=5000 print_sor=noprint init_wave point_ll=(0.5. max_iter=100 print_flag=3 equilibrium light_power waveguide_mode=yes incident_power=10. only layers declared as ”active” are able to generate photo-carriers.sol $*********** begin load_mesh mesh_inf=gaas10.msh output sol_outf=gaas10.

.35 0.2. 32.1: Band diagram of the waveguide PD at 5 volt bias.05 0.plt 2 1 0 -1 Energy (eV) -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 0 0.1 0.2 0. Please note that power in ”light power” is in unit of Watt. The photo- response characteristic is shown in Fig. 32. The band diagram at 5 volt is given in Fig.1 The optical wave intensity is shown in Fig.25 0.4 Distance (micron) Figure 32. 32.32-380 Waveguide Photodetector File:gaas10. Here we compute the steady state photo-response at 5 volt of reverse bias.3 which indicates some non-linearity.3 0.15 0.

2 0 0 0.2: Optical mode wave intensity of the waveguide PD.8 0.4 0. u. File:gaas10.3: Photo-response of the waveguide PD.5 2 2.) Figure 32.5 1 1.8 1 light (a.4 0.2 0.plt Gamma= 0.plt 60 50 40 total_curr_1 (A/m) 30 20 10 0 -10 0 0.Waveguide Photodetector 32-381 File:gaas10.6 0.6 0. .5 3 Distance (micron) Figure 32.3021498170 1 Wave_Intensity 0.

32-382 Waveguide Photodetector .

33. it may be necessary to set parameter change variable=yes $file:tunjun. • Use of statement zener to activate the Zener interband tunneling option.msh $ .sol input file. we note the following points necessary for the simulation of this structure. we demonstrate how two types of current may be injected into the MQW for the purpose of lasing action. p-contact is more difficult to fabricate than n- contact. 33.1 Introduction For many novel device structures. One possibility is to overcome this problem is to make both contact as n-type and let interband tunneling to convert electrons into holes at a tunneling junction.2 Critical Statements Referring to the following . • Since this structure involves large variation of carrier types and material bandgaps.1.Chapter 33 Interband Tunneling: Tunneling Junction 33.sol begin load_mesh mesh_inf=tunjun. it is generally unknown how the bands of the two different system align with respect to each other. In this example. It may be necessary to use the statement shift affinity to adjust the band alignment. • Since this is a fused junction structure. One such structure is shown in Fig.

include file=tunjun.doping output sol_outf=tunjun. $ Include the gain file which contains material info.18 mater=1 shift_affinity delta_affinity=0.1: A simple n-channel MOS device with an oxide thickness of 2 nm.18 mater=6 $ set_active_reg qw_print=1 && valence_mixing=no tau_scat=0.e-8 && max_iter=100 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=50 print_flag=3 $ $ Solve equations at equilibrium .e-22 $ $ Set Newton parameters for equilibrium solution newton_par damping_step=3.33-384 Interband Tunneling: Tunneling Junction Figure 33.mater include file=tunjun. var_tol=1.e-24 pcarr_loss=30.e-8 res_tol=1.6e-13 && ncarr_loss=1.3 mater=2 $ shift for AlGaAs shift_affinity delta_affinity=0.out $ $ shift for InP shift_affinity delta_affinity=0.

5 Energy (eV) 0 -0.05 0. newton_par damping_step=1. $ Be sure to change variable.25 0.4 0.e-7 max_step=0. The current-voltage characteristics in Figure 33.5 Distance (micron) Figure 33.2 0.3 Results 33-385 File:tunjun.45 0.2: Band diagram near the region of tunneling junction.33.e-4 && max_iter=50 opt_iter=15 stop_iter=9 print_flag=3 && change_variable=yes scan var=voltage_1 value_to= -1 print_step= 1 && init_step= 1.3 Results The band diagram near the tunneling junction is shown in Figure 33.5 -1 -1.5 0 0.e-4 res_tol=1.35 0.e-5 min_step=1.3 show substantial of injection current at a reasonably low applied voltage.15 0.2 which shows the alignment condition of the conduction band on the n-side and valence band on the p-side. equilibrium $ zener $ $ Set Newton parameters for solution with bias.plt 1. var_tol=1.5 1 0.05 end 33.1 0. .3 0.

plt 35 30 25 total_curr_1 (A/m) 20 15 10 5 0 -1 -0. .3: I-V characteristics of the tunneling junction.4 -0.8 -0.2 0 voltage_1 (volt) Figure 33.6 -0.33-386 Interband Tunneling: Tunneling Junction File:tunjun.

Chapter 34 Heterostructure Barrier Varactor 34. In this chapter. These properties make it possible to design frequency triplers that require neither second-harmonic idlers nor bias circuits. Since the triangular quantum well is a traditional quantum well due to the uneven barrier height depending on the applied bias voltage.1 Introduction The heterostructure barrier varactor (HBV) consists of a thin layer of a large-bandgap semiconductor material (the barrier) and the thick layers of smaller bandgap material on the two sides of the barrier. The the bias voltage is increased a triangular quantum well will be formed by the central barrier and the electric field as we will show later.2 Layered structure of AlGaAs/GaAs HBV The layered structure of AlGaAs/GaAs HBV is shown in Fig. Such a device exhibits symmetrical C − −V and antisymmetrical I − −V characteristics that centered on zero bias. and therefore the HBV structure has to be treated quantum mechanically by declaring the central barrier AlAs layer. advanced options . Because the central barrier AlAs layer is thin (3nm). electron tunneling effect will be important. In order to study the tunneling through the barrier and the electron con- finement at the triangular quantum well formed by the central barrier on one side and the applied electric field on the other side. Electrons are confined inside the quantum well. 34. The example is at directory: C:\Crosslig\Apsys_examples\others\HB_Varactor 34.1. the AlGaAs/GaAs single barrier varactor was investigated by APSYS. advanced models have to be used including self-consistent solution of Poisson and Shrodinger equation. which has mirror symmetry respect to the central barrier layer. tunneling and complex-MQW. AlGaAs well layer and the GaAs barrier layer as active.

This is similar to the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT).3 is the band diagram at bias voltage of 5V. 34.1: Layered structure of AlGaAs/GaAs HBV 34. 34. where the maximum capacitance. 34. is an important figure of merit.4. it is noted that the Al- GaAs/GaAs HBV has a symmetrical structure. is given at zero voltage and the minimum capacitance.2]. Cmax . It is shown that .5 gives the calculated current-bias relation. which is in good agreement with experiment[1. The electrons ejected from the emitter are confined at the triangular quantum well as shown in Fig. 34.3 Simulation results Fig. at the maximum voltage during a pump cycle. The discretized energy levels leads to the interesting oscillations of the current-barrier thickness relation. Cmax /Cmin . Fig. Figure 34. We see clearly that a tri- angular quantum well is formed with the central AlAs as barrier on one side and the applied electric field on the other side.2 shows the band diagram at the equilibrium. Fig.34-388 Heterostructure Barrier Varactor of self-consistent and complex-MQW have to be used. Cmin . The capacitance modulation ratio. The electron energy levels are calculated by solving the Poisson and Shrodinger equations self- consistently.

15 0.2: Electron diagram of AsGaAs/GaAs at equilibrium File:HBV.2 Distance (micron) Figure 34.05 0.15 0.plt 6 5 4 Energy (eV) 3 2 1 0 -1 0 0.plt 0.3 Simulation results 34-389 File:HBV.1 0.5 0 Energy (eV) -0.5 -1 -1.3: Electron diagram of AsGaAs/GaAs at voltage of 5V .05 0.34.5 -2 0 0.1 0.2 Distance (micron) Figure 34.

plt 140 120 Contact Total Current<1>(Amp/m) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0. and the specific capacitance was assumed as the ac-capacitance at low frequency approximately.5 17 16.4. File:HBV.5 16 15.5 2 2.5 5 Contact Voltage<1>(V) Figure 34.5V. First.05 0.5: Current-Voltage relation of AlGaAs/GaAs HBV . the ac-capacitance-frequency relation was calculated. The specific capacitance of HBV at different bias voltages were obtained using the AC analysis function of APSYS package.4: Electron concentration of AsGaAs/GaAs at voltage of 5V the multiplier efficiency increases monotonously for the increasing Cmax /Cmin ratio.6.5 18 Log (Elec_Conc/cm^3) 17.34-390 Heterostructure Barrier Varactor File:HBV. If we set the Cmin as the value at voltage of 2.15 0.5 0 0. The results are shown in Fig. the Cmax /Cmin ratio is about 4.5 4 4.5 3 3.2 Distance (micron) Figure 34.1 0.plt 18. 34. Again.5 1 1. it is in good agreement with experiments[1] and previous theoretical calculations[2].

IEEE Trans.3 Simulation results 34-391 3 2. 2512(1994). [2] Y. .5 2 Capacitance (nF/m) 1. Fu et al. 42. 5568(1997). Krishnamurthi et al.5 1 0. 82.6: Capacitance-Voltage relation of AlGaAs/GaAs HBV References [1] K.5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Voltage (V) Figure 34. Microwave Theory Tech. J. Phys. Appl.34.

34-392 Heterostructure Barrier Varactor .

2) use of retrograde and halo well profiles to improve leakage characteristics.Chapter 35 Import Csuprem Doping Profiles 35. The example is at directory: C:\Crosslig\Apsys_examples\CSuprem_import\UTO_MOS 35. .str as input file. The scaling of the CMOS transistor has been the primary factor driving improvements in microprocessor performance. and can be visualized using CrosslightView using UTO MOS. we discuss the simulations on an ultra-thin-oxide MOSFET (UTO-MOS) created by CSUPREM simulator with the processing flow similar to the experiment. which includes three key methods 1) creating shallow source/drain extension (SDE) profiles for improved short channel effects.2 Generate doping profile from CSUPREM out- put The output file from CSUPREM called UTO-MOSFET. Because the doping profile is the most important factor for the per- formance of the shallow junction MOS transistor. which is similar to the structure described in section Quantum Effects in Small MOS. The structure of the ultra-thin-oxide MOSFET is generated by CSUPREM package.1 Introduction The ability to improve performance consistently while decreasing power consumption has made CMOS architecture the dominant technology for integrated circuits. The snapshot of the screen for the structure is shown in Fig. please refer to the CSUPREM Users Manual for the details of sim- ulations on the device process.exe are included in the same directory. 35.1. In this chapter. and 3)use of thinner gate oxide. the realistic doping distributions based on the processing simulations are very desirable.str and a program Show2D.

) donor Please input the x-range of the device.35-394 Import Csuprem Doping Profiles Figure 35. x1 -0..1: Structure of UTO MOS from CSUPREM In the current release of CSUPREM. y1 0 0. NY.donor. these files may be generated directly from CSUPREM. In a later release. or 3 2 What impurity density you want to have? (B.2 0.acceptor..As.exe and answer the questions as follows C:\crosslig\apsys_examples\quantum_MOS\UTO_MOS>show2d.str Please indicate the dimension of the device. 2.2 Please input the y-range of the device. x0. For now we generate the doping file by open a DOS window and change directory to C:\Crosslig\Apsys\_examples\Quantum_MOS\UTO_MOS and then execute program Show2d.exe Please give the input file name (output file from Csuprem) UTO_MOS. y0. which will be used in APSYS.5 What are the grid sizes along x and y? (NX. typical 20-100) 100 100 Please give a output file name MOS_donor. 1. have to be extracted separately. the doping profiles of the device.dat Dimension: 2 .

y) are different from those of CSUPREM (x .2] and y-range [0.5].5) xy_x_transform=(1 .5) xy_x_transform=(1 .3 Simulation results 35-395 Total number of point: 1319 Total number of node: 1539 Total number of triangel: 2444 impurity selected : Pa impurity selected : Asa Well Done.2. Congratulations! This will generate the donor distribution file MOS donor.5 The gate current is calculated by turning on the tunneling option because the thickness of the SiO2 oxide is only 1. .dat xy_data_factor=1e6 && xy_y_transform=(-1. y 0). 35. The acceptor profile can be obtained in the same way. Please note that the device is in a rectangular shape with x-range within [-0.3 Simulation results Some advanced options of APSYS package have to be used to simulate the quantum effects observed in the UTO MOS. and are related as 0 e x = x0 + 0.2) xy_skipline=0 doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=acceptor && xy_datafile=MOS_acceptor. which could be used directly in APSYS.2) xy_skipline=0 $ Note that the coordinates in APSYS (x. . We will discuss the important features here.3nm and the tunneling current becomes impor- tant and is calculated by propagation matrix method. .2 (35.1) y = −y 0 + 0. 0.dat xy_data_factor=1e6 && xy_y_transform=(-1. The doping profiles from CSUPREM could be imported in the . 0.sol file: $import doping profiles doping impurity=shal_dopant charge_type=donor && xy_datafile=MOS_donor.dat.35.

2 is the one dimensional band diagram cutting along y-axis through the center of the gate.140 0. File:QMOS.26 0.6 Distance (micron) Figure 35.4 0.5 0.3 is the electron concentration along the same cut line.35-396 Import Csuprem Doping Profiles $ tunneling direction=y carrier=electron barrier_type=propagation_matrix && point_ll=(0.01 set_active_reg qw_print=2 fd_mesh=60 modify_qw right_mesh=0.2: Band diagram at equilibrium Figure 35.005 confine_left=yes use_bulkmass=yes $ e Figure 35.1 0.2 0.502) adjust_current use_envelop_func=no $ Self-consistent calculation of the Shrodinger equation and Poisson equation for the electronic states of the quantum well underneath the oxide is employed as follows: $self consistent bulk_treatment type=p self_consistent wave_range=0. .plt 3 2 1 0 Energy (eV) -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 0 0.3 0.5) point_ur=(0.

5 0 0.01 0.4: Donor (active arsenic) distribution .plt Donor_Conc (E18/cm^3) 300 250 300 200 250 200 150 150 100 100 50 50 0 0 0.06 Distance (micron) Figure 35.plt 20 18 Log (Elec_Conc/cm^3) 16 14 12 10 8 0 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.1 x (micron) 0.04 0.05 0.40 Figure 35.03 0.3 0.3: Electron concentration at equilibrim File:QMOS.3 Simulation results 35-397 File:QMOS.35 0.02 0.35.1 y (micron) 0.2 0.25 0.05 0.2 0.4 0.15 0.

5: Acceptor (active boron and phospher) distribution 0 "Experiment" "gate_current.3 0.1 x (micron) 0.6 1.15 0.5 0 0.8 1 0.4 0.6: Comparison of simulated and experimental gate leakage current.35 0.plt Acceptor_Conc (E18/cm^3) 1.2 0.1 y (micron) 0.2 0 0 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.2 1.35-398 Import Csuprem Doping Profiles File:QMOS.40 Figure 35.4 0.25 0.05 0.2 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.4 1.6 0.7 0.dat" -2 Logscale gate current (A) -4 -6 -8 -10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Gate voltage (V) Figure 35.6 1. The noise data above 4 volts are due to oxide break-down .4 1 1.

Therefore good agreement with experiment has been achieved for up to break-down voltage[1]. Lee and P. and Fig. 35. we have demonstrated the capability of APSYS to import the dop- ing profiles from Csuprem process simulator for the simulations of ultra-thin-oxide MOSFETi. we note that the source-drain overlap is about 7nm. 35.Z. The results of the gate leak current as a function of gate voltage are in very good agreement with experiments.35.M.4 Conclusion In this chapter. Li. 35. S.6. From these figures. The random noise in the experiment data above 4 volts was due to oxide break-down. . References [1] Y. The comparison of simulated and experiment is shown in Fig. Taiwan. and the junction depth is about 50nm. Li. 35.4 Conclusion 35-399 The two dimensional doping profiles are given in Fig. J.4.5. Proceedings of Symposium on Nano Device Technology 2004.W. Mensz.

35-400 Import Csuprem Doping Profiles .

Chapter 36 Using Multilayer Optical Analyzer for OLED and Asymmetric Microcavity 36. We simulate the electrical and optical properties and analyze . we attempt to alter the passive layers thickness and property so as to control the transmission and emission spectrum. 36. We have shown in previous chapters how electrical property of an LED or any other device can be simulated and analyzed. A special simulator mod- ule has been dedicated to the modeling of organic material emission spectrum based on Frenkel exciton model (with exciton-phonon interaction) so that optimization of organic material may be based on understanding of exciton-phonon interaction and will be detailed in a separate document. lifetime and optical properties. This chapter will be focused on the design of the non-emitting part of a layer stack so that emission and emission spectrum may be optimized. For organic light emitting diode (OLED). That is to say that given an emission spectrum of the active layer. We must pay special attention to optical property of OLED since its emission mechanism is different from conventional semiconductors. the same simulation techniques can be used for electrical simulation and we shall omit any description related to electrical simulation in this chapter. this example uses a layer stack consisting of ITO-TPD- Alq3:DCM-Alq3-Al. recombination.1 Introduction Organic semiconductor material may be regarded as a special case of compound semiconductor requiring special treatment of mobility. Organic light emitting diode (OLED) emits via Frenkel exciton recombination while conventional semicon- ductor emits through free-carrier-like interband transition.2 Key Input Files for OLED example As a simple demonstration.

8000E+00 $ layer_mater macro_name=alq3 && active_macro=Alq3:DCM && column_num=1 layer d= 0. $ layer_mater macro_name=alq3 && column_num=1 layer d=0.3 end_layer ITO (Indium tin oxide) is used as the bottom contact.04 n= 30 r=1. Please pay attention to the barrier height setting above.1. 36.3 eV height. At the interface it forms a Schottky barrier with 2. A layer of Alq3 (tris(8-quinolinolate)aluminum) doped with DCM (4-(dicyanomethylene)-6-(p-dim- ethylaminostyryl)-2-methyl-4-H-pyran) is used as an emissive (active) layer.layer begin_layer column column_num=1 w=30 mesh_num=2 r=1. Aluminum is used as the top contact. The schematic is shown in Fig.1’-biphenyl]- 4. N’-diphenyl-[1.layer file is used: $file:alq3_dcm. To represent such as structure the following alq3 dcm. Alq3 (tris(8-quinolinolate)aluminum) is used as an electron-transporting layer. bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=30 && contact_num=1 contact_type=schottky barrier=2. Using Multilayer Optical Analyzer for OLED and Asymmetric 36-402 Microcavity reflection-transmission from the active layer inside of the OLED.3 eV height.4’-diamine) is used as a non-emissive hole-transporting layer. At Alq3-Al interface it has Schottky barrier with 0.0695 n= 10 && r= 0. TPD (N.1200E+01 top_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=30 && contact_num=2 contact_type=schottky barrier=0.0824 n=10 && r= 0.3 $ layer_mater macro_name=tpd && column_num=1 layer d= 0.N’-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N. It is a transparent electrode material with a suitable work function. .

rate_wavel wavel_range=[0.mater set_active_reg set_fk_field=1.36.5000E+25] && curve_number=1 plot_as_abs=yes end_gain The first statement sp. We may proceed to the study and optimization of active OLED material layer using the following alq3 DCM. The exciton spectrum may be understood in terms .3000E+03 include file=alq3_dcm. the program generates the mesh and material descriptions in a .35 0.5000E+25 0.e7 1.2 Key Input Files for OLED example 36-403 Figure 36. The higher curves correspond to higher applied field.mater file.35 0.e8 ] && curve_number=10 field_dep_curves=yes gain_wavel wavel_range=[0.7] && conc_range=[ 0.5000E+24 0.gain file: begin_gain plot_data plot_device=postscript temperature temp= 0.5000E+25] && field_range=[ 1.rate wavel plot the spontaneous exciton recombination rate spectrum at different field intensities as shown in Fig.2.e7 sp.1: Schematic structure of used OLED After running the above . 36.7] && conc_range=[ 0.layer file.

Rate 10^26 (1/cm^3/s/eV) 1. Using Multilayer Optical Analyzer for OLED and Asymmetric 36-404 Microcavity File:alq3_dcm.gain 1.4 1.6 0. Higher curves correspond to higher applied fields.3 0. After we are done with study of exciton spectrum.65 0.6 Sp. 36.2 0 0.35 0.4 0.3.5 0.mater include file=alq3_dcm.sol file: $file:alq3_DCM. The second statement of gain wavel plots the gain/absorption spectrum at dif- ferent injection carrier densities.45 0. we may run the main solver with the following alq3 DCM.sol begin 3d_solution_method 3d_flow=yes z_structure uniform_zseg_from=0 uniform_zseg_to=30 && zplanes=3 zseg_num=1 load_mesh mesh_inf=alq3_dcm. At present.7 Wavelength (um) Figure 36.msh include file=alq3_dcm.doping .8 1. We shall dedicate a separate document to describe the use of the exciton spectrum model.2: Exciton emission spectrum of the Alq3:DCM based on exciton-phonon interaction model. The exciton spectrum module of APSYS may serve as guidance for design of OLED active layer.6 0. the absorption spectrum is assumed to be independent of carrier densities and we only see a single curve. of exciton-phonon interaction which may correspond to different type of molecular configurations.4 0. as illustrated in Fig.8 0.2 1 0.55 0.

3000E+00 min_step= 0.4 0.36.5 0.12 ] init_wavel=0.7 Wavelength (um) Figure 36.000000E+000 0.4 0.55 0.3 0.000000E+000 ] && point_ur=[ 30 0.58 init_wave point_ll=[ 0. print_flag=3 scan var=voltage_1 value_to=20 print_step=5 && init_step= 0.out oled_control wavelength=0.6 0.75] backg_loss=1000 $ export_opt_property $ newton_par damping_step=5.5 end The statement export opt property is used to export structural and optical properties for the multilayer optical analyzer (MOA) module.58 && wavel_range=[0.3: Absorption spectrum of the Alq3:DCM based on exciton-phonon inter- action model. max_iter=100 print_flag=3 equilibrium newton_par damping_step=1. output sol_outf=alq3_dcm.3000E-03 max_step=0.45 0. .gain 100000 90000 80000 70000 Absorption (1/cm) 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0.65 0.2 Key Input Files for OLED example 36-405 File:alq3_dcm.35 0.

let us consider the following command fragment: do_multilayer_optics datafile_number=3 && autodef_entry_point=yes autodef_wavelength=no && wavelength=5. such as DBRs. Some of them are used in . 36.3 How to Use Optical Analyzer Module This section is dedicated to the optical simulation of the layered structures using a special tool . 36. Otherwise user defines coordinates where light goes from. etc. for different voltage biases.35 wavel_points_number=60 && polarization=te datafile number is a file number.plt files. Some useful information. As an example.3. The numbering starts and ends at some sim- ulation conditions (APSYS main module).moa. autodef entry point is a parameter that controls if an entry point of light is defined automatically or no.2 MOA Related Controls The statement export opt property is used in files with extensions .3. To understand better how an APSYS-MOA system works in general let us consider flow-chart for some simple cases (see Figure 36. .4). statements and parameters. such as input-output files. If this parameter is set ”yes”. .sol and . The MOA is an additional module of APSYS and it can handle different types of structures including multi-layer structures. are given in this example. The do multilayer optics statement is used to activate the MOA module.rta 0001. an entry point is found as a point with maximum optical power. The above statement produces output file (.8e-7 && wavel_range_factor=1.1 Key Statements export opt property do multilayer optics ind file use plot multilayer optics are involved in MOA simulation.) for the MOA module.Multilayer Optical Analyzer (MOA).sol to export control parameters for the MOA module to be used at the post-processing stage.plt. for example. Most of input data for MOA module are generated and exported by the main APSYS module. This is done by setting autodef entry point=no. It is usually placed in files with extensions . Using Multilayer Optical Analyzer for OLED and Asymmetric 36-406 Microcavity 36.

36.3 How to Use Optical Analyzer Module 36-407 Figure 36.4: Flow-charts explaining how to run APSYS with MOA for simple case .

let us consider the following fragment: ind_file_use && file_name1=tpd.77000000000000 1. depending on the position of the light source.550000000000000 1. through the parameters-coordinates. For angle dependence it is 90 points (equals angular degrees) fixed for now. i.1).310000000000000E-004 .450000000000000 1.e. user may. 36. the format of input files is the following: 0. if autodef wavelength is set to ”no”.74500000000000 1. Input files for wavelength refractive index dependency consists of three columns: wavelength (in micrometers). entry point y. autodef wavelength is a parameter that defines if wavelength of light is calcu- lated automatically by APSYS or defined by user.72500000000000 1. real part of refractive index. Using Multilayer Optical Analyzer for OLED and Asymmetric 36-408 Microcavity MOA reconstructs two stacks in directions -0Y and +0Y from entry point using structural information so that reflection and transmission are calculated for bot- tom and top parts (stacks) of device (Figure 36. polarization is a parameter that controls a kind of light polarization in propa- gating plane wave. correspondently). wavel range factor is the range of wavelength change deviating symmetrically from a given wavelength. As example. imaginary part of refractive index.rfi mater_num3=3 The file name1 is a file name where wavelength refractive index dependency is presented. If autodef entry point=no it is possible to construct also two stacks (if the defined point is within the device) or only one stack.. it can be TE or TM (te or tm parameters. To overwrite APSYS-generated refractive index data with user-defined index-wavelength dependencies.230000000000000E-004 0.rfi mater_num1=1 && file_name2=alq3_dcm.rfi mater_num2=2 && file_name3=alq3.3. the statement ind file use is used. wavel points number is the number of points for wavelength dependencies.600000000000000 1.plt. define the point of light entry: en- try point x. The same is applicable for the rest of files and materials. It is usually placed in files with extensions .500000000000000 1.330000000000000E-004 0. wavelength defines the wavelength of light in case if this parameter is not defined automatically by APSYS.350000000000000E-004 0. If autodef entry point=no.82000000000000 1. entry point z.3 Using Refractive Index Wavelength Dependencies For some cases it is necessary to use specific refractive index wavelength dependencies of structural materials. The mater num1=1 makes this dependency corresponds to material number 1. As an example.

when =log.0] && to=[ 15 0.out && scan_data=(1 5) xy_data=(1 5) .plt-file helps to understand how to call MOA module and plot the results: $file: alq3_dcm.3 How to Use Optical Analyzer Module 36-409 36.12] plot_1d variable=hole_conc && from=[ 15 0. It can be linear scale.5 Using MOA to analyze OLED The following example of alq3 dcm. when =abs. or logarithmic scale.0] && to=[ 15 0.4 Plotting the MOA result To plot MOA output results the plot multilayer optics statement is used: plot_multilayer_optics && wavelength_units=abs wavelength_scale=lin wavelength units defines the units for wavelength dependency.sol && sol_inf=alq3_dcm.12] plot_scan scan_var=voltage_1 variable=total_curr_2 get_data main_input=alq3_dcm.12] plot_1d variable=recomb_rad && from=[ 15 0.3. wavelength scale defines the scale for wavelength dependency. when =rel.sol sol_inf=alq3_dcm.12] plot_1d variable=elec_conc && from=[ 15 0.3.0] && to=[ 15 0.out && xy_data=[ 3 3] scan_data=[1 3] plot_1d variable=band && from=[ 15. It can be in absolute units.36. or in relative units to major wavelength. 36.0] && to=[ 15 0. 0.plt begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=alq3_dcm. when =lin.

Using Multilayer Optical Analyzer for OLED and Asymmetric 36-410 Microcavity led_spectrum ind_file_use && file_name1=tpd. . As example.rfi mater_num2=2 && file_name3=alq3. say. the thickness of the TPD layer. The light source is located in a maximum emission area inside the active layer.5 shows the transmission dependence on wavelength at vertical incident angle and its dependence on angle at major spectrum line for the bottom stack (TPD layer). These data can help to adjust the spectrum and control the color of emitting light by change.rfi mater_num1=1 && file_name2=alq3_dcm. It plots in absolute units and linear scale is used.8 show band diagram. Using the parameter trans spectrum=yes allows a user to compare original emitted inside spectrum and modified spectrum due to optical transmission depend- ing on wavelength. The main line wavelength is given (units in meters). Light entry point is defined automatically by MOA in location with maximum power of emission. Data file number 5 (for a certain bias) is used for optical analysis.6 to Fig. 36.35 and the number of points for this dependency is 60. I-V-curve and optical transmission dependence on wavelength (including spectrum distribution intensity) and internal angle of incidence.rfi mater_num3=3 do_multilayer_optics datafile_number=5 && autodef_entry_point=yes autodef_wavelength=no && wavelength=5.8e-7 && wavel_range_factor=1. The statement plot multilayer optics is used to plot the results. Figures 36. The statement do multilayer optics is used to call MOA module. The range of wavelength to study is 1. The light polarization TE (transverse electric) is used. figure 36.35 wavel_points_number=60 && polarization=te plot_multilayer_optics && wavelength_units=abs wavelength_scale=lin && trans_spectrum=no end_pstprc The statement ind file use is used to export custom wavelength refractive index dependencies for all three used materials.

3 How to Use Optical Analyzer Module 36-411 Figure 36. wavelength at vertical incident angle and its dependence on internal emission angle.36.5: MOA result for OLED: Transmission vs. Transmission is through the bottom stack (TPD layer) .

12 Distance (micron) Figure 36.6: Band diagram of biased OLED. Using Multilayer Optical Analyzer for OLED and Asymmetric 36-412 Microcavity File:alq3_dcm.5e-009 1e-009 5e-010 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Contact Voltage<1>(V) Figure 36.08 0.5e-009 3e-009 Contact Total Current<2>(Amp) 2.plt 0 -2 -4 Energy (eV) -6 -8 -10 -12 0 0.plt 3.7: I-V curve of the OLED. .04 0. File:alq3_dcm.06 0.5e-009 2e-009 1.1 0.02 0.

88 Al0. high modulation speed.5 0. The active region contained five undoped 60 A GaAs wells and 70 A Ga0.layer file is used: begin_layer $ column column_num=1 w=6 mesh_num=16 r=1.0 $ bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=6 contact_num=1 && contact_type=ohmic $ .08 Al0.18 As barriers.7 0. and good external quantum efficiency.2 80 70 60 50 0.1 0 Figure 36.5 0.4 0.3 0.6 0. The multilayer asymmetric structure consists of a bottom DBR mirror.3 40 Angle.1 90 -0. The DBR stacks employed 30 pairs of Ga0. a.82 Al0.6 20 0.8 10 0.u. degrees 0. two grade cavities and active region between them.3 How to Use Optical Analyzer Module 36-413 Transmission.2 0. Bottom stack.9 shows the design one of asymmetric structures we used to demonstrate the using MOA.3.12 As layers to increase the reflectivity.7 0.4 30 0.8: Transmission spectrum for different internal angle of incidence 36.9 0.9 Wavelength. To represent such a structure the following db1. Transmission depending on wavelength and incident angle 36.1 0 -0. The following Figure 36.6 Using MOA to Analyze Asymmetric Multilayer Struc- ture Many light emitting devices such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and resonant cavity light-emitting diodes (RCLED) use microcavity structure to improve their performance in high brightness. MOA is used to design and to optimize such devices.8 0. 0.92 As/Ga0. microns 1 1.

qw include file=db1....e25 $ $ Bulk Al(x)Ga(1-x)As at 300K. wavelenght dep.5 column_num=1 layer d=0.qw include file=db1.87 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x var_symbol2=xlam $ ....12 var2=0. version.qw $ ..25 n=4 n_doping1=7..qw include file=db1.48 n=6 n_doping1=7.. $ include file=db1. ..9: The structure of asymmetric multilayer microcavity layer_mater macro_name=gaas var1=0.. Using Multilayer Optical Analyzer for OLED and Asymmetric 36-414 Microcavity Figure 36.3e25 $ layer d=0. $ load_macro name=algaas_lambda var1=#x var2=#xlam mater=#m && $ var_symbol1=x var_symbol2=xlam layer_mater macro_name=algaas_lambda var1=0...qw include file=db1..

4 to=3.275 n=6 p_doping1=5. figure 36.11 and figure 36.4 Conclusions 36-415 layer d=0.4 Conclusions APSYS-MOA module is a powerful and convenient tool for design and optimization of microcavity and layered structures as well as for research of basic active organic and conventional materials.006 n=4 r=1. figure 36.e24 grading_from1=0. As example.10.007 n=4 r=1. 36. $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.qw file: layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=1 layer d=0.12 show the reflection de- pending on wavelength and angle for multilayer structure.6 contact_num=2 && contact_type=ohmic $ end_layer The include statement is used to insert the following db1. $ top_contact column_num=1 from=2.3 avar_symbol1=xw column_num=1 layer d=0.3 && active_macro=AlGaAs avar1=0.36. .

7500001E-07 Figure 36.9 0.1 80 70 60 50 -0. 0.4 0.1 30 -0.9 0.7 0.15 0.u.2 0 lambda0 = 8.6 0.4 0.3 0.05 0.5 0.5 0.15 40 Angle.6 1 0. degrees -0. Reflection depending on wavelength and incident angle 1 Reflection. 0.05 0 20 0. LOG(lambda/lambda0).8 0.3 0.10: MOA result for multilayer structure: Optical reflection depending on internal angle of incidence and wavelength .8 0.2 90 0.1 10 Wavelength.1 0. a.7 0. Using Multilayer Optical Analyzer for OLED and Asymmetric 36-416 Microcavity Bottom stack.2 0.

1 0. degrees Figure 36.tmp" 0.tmp" 0.94 0.9 0.88 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Angle. a.15 -0.5 0. 0.9 "jplot15.11: MOA result for multilayer structure: Optical reflection vs.u.36.96 0. a.8 Reflection. Reflection depending on angle at lambda0 1 "jplot16.92 0.05 0.6 0.4 Conclusions 36-417 Bottom stack.7500001E-07 Bottom stack.u.05 0 0. wavelength at vertical incident angle and its dependence on internal emission angle .4 0.2 Wavelength.7 0. LOG(lambda/lambda0). Reflection depending on wavelength at 0 incident angle 1 0.1 -0.3 0. lambda0 = 8.2 0.15 0.98 Reflection.1 -0. 0.

2 0 lambda0 = 8.3 0.05 0 20 0.1 90 0 80 70 60 50 -0.1 10 Wavelength.15 0. 0.1 0.05 0.7 0.15 40 Angle. 0.5 0. a.7 0. LOG(lambda/lambda0). degrees -0.9 0.u.2 0.6 0.5 0. Transmission depending on wavelength and incident angle 0.8 0.9 Transmission.8 0.4 0 0. Using Multilayer Optical Analyzer for OLED and Asymmetric 36-418 Microcavity Bottom stack.7500001E-07 Figure 36.12: MOA result for multilayer structure: Optical transmission depending on internal angle of incidence and wavelength .6 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.1 30 -0.

Part IX Examples: RAY-TRACING SIMULATIONS .

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are given in these examples. do raytrace. To understand better how APSYS-RayTrace system works in general let us consider flow-charts for some simple cases.sol to export con- trol parameters for the ray-tracing model (two-dimensional) to be used at the post- processing stage.2 How to Use Ray Tracing Module Special statements are involved in Ray Tracing simulation. 37. 37.Chapter 37 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples 37. angle rayplot should be used (Figure 37. Some of them are used in . statements and param- eters. such statements as export raytrace. light power. All input data for the Ray Tracing module are generated and exported by the main APSYS module. For a simple LED or photodetector simulation in two dimensions. Statements and Parameters for 2D Mod- ule The statement export raytrace is used in files with extensions . Ray tracing module is additional part of APSYS and it can handle different types of structures including different DBR substructures in different configurations. Some useful information.3 Files.sol and .1 Introduction This section is dedicated to the simulation of the ray tracing in different optoelec- tronic devices. It can include the following parameters: export_raytrace transp_contact=no contact_refl=0.9 .1). It is able to simulate the structures with different metal contacts. such as using files.plt files.

37-422 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples Figure 37.1: Flow-charts explaining simple cases of LED and photodetector. .

It should be noted that in case of multi-columns structure. It is measured in microns and equals to the length of one side of the square box. Additionally. line.1.) for Ray Trac- ing module and defines the contacts of an LED to be non-transparent. flux size auto is an option for the flux density distribution calculation (=yes or no). emission model is an emission model of an LED active region. the distance between nodes in any direction (x or y) is at least as small as defined in parameters min flux points. It is usually placed in files with extensions . flux area is a parameter that defines the area size for the light energy flux density distribution.plt.plt doray or . .3 Files.9. that the area size can be set only if the parameter flux size auto is equal no.5 emit_sector=whole && datafile_range=(4. let us consider the following fragment: do_raytrace device_kind=led emission_model=line && flux_size_auto=yes precision=0. respectively. etc. The runtime of the program depends on this parameter in inverse proportion. or region indicating the light source to be a point. The runtime of the program depends on this parameter proportionally. an asymmetric angular distribution of the transmitted light power can be produced.37.5) initial_rays=8000 && max_secondary=100000 number_showray=30000 && set_domed=yes dome_direction=bottom dome_opindex=(1. The last model usually is the most accurate one but uses much computational time to reach a realistic solution. .rta 0001. . The model of contacts is opaque mirror with reflectivity 0. This number has to be of integer type. linear or area source type.doray. Typical values range from around 10 to 400. It is different from APSYS main simulation mesh generation.5 tm_portion=0. if the emission model is not mesh points the Raytrace program will automatically choose a box with maximum output emission power to become a light source.0 dome_radius=800. The column of that source region may not be positioned at the center of area of the device. If option yes is chosen.6.0 dome_height=500. min flux points is the minimum number of points in one-direction (x or y co- ordinate) to calculate the light energy flux density distribution. Consequently.01 && te_portion=0. The do raytrace statement is used for Ray Tracing simulation in two dimensions. It should be noted.d-8) && dome_width=1200. Statements and Parameters for 2D Module 37-423 The above statement produces output files (.0 device kind is a type of simulated device (=led or detector). As an example. an option mesh points is to emit the power from every active mesh-point generated by APSYS electronic part. It can be chosen as: one point. This number has to be of real type.rti.

or uniform (with equally-spaced coordinate points). Figure 37. The dome is built around the device if set domed equals yes. for typical structures it might be from around 2. right. The recommended range for the radius of curvature of the emitted side is from width/2 to width*20. one can get program interrupting with message that asks about changing some parameters. This number has to be of integer type. the program corrects automatically to a reasonable limit. top or left.37-424 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples flux represent is a directive describing what kind of data presentation will use for light energy flux density xy-distribution plot. Figure 37. te portion tm portion are two parameters that define a proportion between TE and TM waves in propagating rays. Figure 37.. To model non-polarized light TE.2.e. For some cases.and TM- fractions should be equal. number showray is the number of integer type that defines limited quantity of all rays that are recorded to . the runtime of the program depends on this parameter proportionally. for different voltage biases.4.3 illustrates different configurations in positioning a dome around an LED chip. They are in units of µm. using mesh points. .sho file.000. This number has to be of integer type. There are two options – mesh i. the value 0. dome direction defines the working direction of an LED. This number has to be of real type.01 means 1% precision. Depending on design and application. this parameter should be big enough but on the other hand. It should be noted that the runtime of the program depends on this parameter in inverse proportion and it stops the compute of the endless moving ray that is why its value has to be more than zero. It should be noted. datafile range is a file number. emit sector defines an external to LED sector for the transmitted light power. initial rays denotes the number of the initial rays. for example. precision is the program’s parameter and it defines accuracy of computations. This range allows one to build a large set of the different dome shapes. for typical structures it might be enough around 100. For example. In order to get qualitative non-noisy curve of the angle-power depen- dence.000. it can be chosen as one of the following options: whole.000 to around 100.000. set domed defines if the LED is encapsulated or no (=yes or no). The numbering starts and ends at some simu- lation conditions (APSYS main module). max secondary defines quantity of possible secondary rays that appear due to multi-reflection. Usually. for typical structures it might be enough around 30. if the radius is out of this range.5 shows some different shapes of the dome. the program will correct dome’s sizes automatically to a possible minimum so that device will be inside of the dome anyway. top or left. If one or more sizes of dome were set less than device sizes. Then this data file is used by SHOW utility. dome width. bottom. It can be chosen as: bottom. dome height and dome radius are geometrical one-dimensional parameters of the dome (only if set domed equals yes). These numbers have to be of real type. Usually. Usually. right. See figure 37.

3: An explanation of the dome direction parameter .37. Statements and Parameters for 2D Module 37-425 Figure 37.2: An explanation of the emit sector parameter Figure 37.3 Files.

37-426 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples Figure 37.5: Different shapes of the dome .4: An explanation of the dome geometrical parameters Figure 37.

The optical density of an epoxy dome usually is in the middle value of two media refractive indexes . i. The emission from mesh-points can give an improvement in precision due to using the simulation closer to reality. Mesh-points emission model is appropriate for multi-columns structures because the Raytrace program automatically chooses a box with maximum output emission power to become a light source.plt ray file can include the next statements: monitor_emission rayplot_showray rayplot_angle flux_plot An option monitor emission is used to plot emission from active mesh points in two dimensions.semiconductor and air. This number has to be of complex numbers type. an asymmetric angular distribution of the transmitted light power can be produced. An option rayplot showray is used to activate SHOW utility to monitor ray tracing. An option rayplot angle is used to plot angular distribution of the transmitted light power. The setting by default is [1.4 Emission from Mesh Points 37-427 dome opindex is the dome refractive index. that have the emitting power more than a limit defined by calculation precision and number of mesh points .e.6.4 Emission from Mesh Points As we discussed before there are different models implemented to simulate the emis- sion process including an option to emit the light rays from every active mesh-point. To simulate emission from mesh points properly. If the column of that source region is not posi- tioned at the center of area of the device.37. 37.1. The . An option flux plot is used to plot light energy flux density distribution in two dimensions. Information about mesh-points coordinates and light power generated from them are produced by APSYS electronic part. the program performs the fol- lowing transformations: • Small replacements for the points that are on the box borders • Selection of the active mesh points.d-8]..

7 shows as an example of results produced by the utility for an LED.exe ”filename”.6: Monitoring the emission from active mesh points for an LED • Correction of the power using redistribution from all mesh points to active mesh points Using an option monitor emission to plot emission from active mesh points. It helps view the simulation in progress and make sure that there are no visible mistakes. Figure 37.6 shows the plot of the emission from active mesh points for an LED. To run it from command line it should be printed as show. Also as it was mentioned before. user can make sure that simulation started properly. 37. the statement rayplot showray is used to activate this utility from APSYS. . Figure 37.exe.37-428 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples Figure 37.5 Monitoring the Ray Tracing We have an utility to visualize entered structure and animate the ray tracing.sho. It is called show.

8).6 Truncated-Inverted-Pyramid LED 37-429 Figure 37.7: Monitoring the ray tracing of an LED by SHOW utility 37.6 Truncated-Inverted-Pyramid LED To show how to use the ray tracing module. $ bottom_contact column_num=1 from=400 to=600 contact_num=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=gap.8 n_doping1=2. let us compare simplified structures with similar sizes and different shapes. emission is now $ downward in this LED. we use the following .37.e24 lower_w1=980 angle=37 $ .temp var1=300 column_num=1 layer d=300 n=15 r=0.layer file: begin_layer $ $ To conform to our convention of n-side down. To build such structure. It is known that truncated-inverted-pyramid (TIP) chip geometry provides sub- stantial improvement in light extraction efficiency. we simulated a TIP LED structure with metal contacts (Figure 37. To confirm this. $ column column_num=1 w=528 mesh_num=22 r=1.

5 xp1=1 xp2=1 n_doping1=1.26 avar5=300 layer d=0.364 && grade_to=0.0 var3=300 && column_num=1 active_macro=InGaAlP/GaAs avar1=0.005 n=3 r=1.42 avar2=0.95 n=9 r=0.05 n=5 r=1.0 xp1=1 xp2=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=ingaalp_xyt var1=0.e24 $ layer_mater macro_name=ingaalp_yt grade_var=1 grade_from=0.1 n=6 r=0.e24 $ $ layer_mater macro_name=ingaalp_yt var1=0.26 var2=300 column_num=1 layer d=0.42 var2=0.8 xp1=1 xp2=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=ingaalp_xyt var1=0.364 var2=300 column_num=1 layer d=0.01 n=3 r=0.42 var2=0.0 var3=300 && .364 var2=300 column_num=1 layer d=0.26 avar4=0.8 xp1=1 xp2=1 n_doping1=1.37-430 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples Figure 37.26 var3=300 && column_num=1 layer d=0.0 && avar3=0.8 xp1=1 xp2=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=ingaalp_yt var1=0.8: A truncated-inverted-pyramid LED cross-section with metal contacts layer_mater macro_name=ingaalp_yt var1=0.0 xp1=1 xp2=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=ingaalp_xyt var1=0.005 n=3 r=1.26 var2=300 column_num=1 layer d=0.26 var2=0.

37. To build such structure. Cylindrical coordinate not used. n=9 r=0.364 var2=300 column_num=1 layer d=0.2 xp1=1 xp2=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=ingaalp_yt grade_var=1 grade_from=0.1 n=6 r=1.01 column_num=1 layer d=100 n=10 r=1.11.0 && avar3=0. .9 shows the distribution of light energy flux density in two dimensions inside of the TIP device.3 p_doping1=2.364 var2=300 column_num=1 layer d=0.42 avar2=0.temp var1=300.01 n=3 r=1.26 && grade_to=0.7 Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode We also simulated structures with DBR-substructures such as resonant cavity light emitting diodes (RCLED).26 avar4=0. The emission model is mesh points.7 Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode 37-431 column_num=1 active_macro=InGaAlP/GaAs avar1=0.26 avar5=300 layer d=0.8 xp1=1 xp2=1 p_doping1=5. 37.e23 $ layer_mater macro_name=ingaalp_yt var1=0. we use the following .2 xp1=1 xp2=1 p_doping1=2.e24 upper_w1=378 && angle=37 $ top_contact column_num=1 from=-400 to=900 contact_num=2 $ end_layer Figure 37.26 var2=300 column_num=1 layer d=0.10 shows the same distribution in two different projections.01) to make the material number different from the $ first layer: layer_mater macro_name=gap. Figure 37.e24 n_doping2=2.2 xp1=1 xp2=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=ingaalp_yt var1=0.05 n=6 r=1.0 xp1=1 xp2=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=ingaalp_yt var1=0.364 var2=300 column_num=1 layer d=1.e24 $ use a trick (T=300.layer file: begin_layer $ RDLED with DBR mirrors.005 n=3 r=1. Figure 37.

9: The distribution of the light energy flux density inside of the TIP device in two dimensions .37-432 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples Figure 37.

10: The distribution of the light energy flux density inside of the TIP device in two different projections .37.7 Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode 37-433 Figure 37.

2 column column_num=3 w=20 mesh_num=6 r=1.9 n_doping1=2.2=0.8 n=15 r=0. period of Al(0.625 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.6 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.6) GaAs of 1 lambda: 0.11: A structure of Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode column column_num=1 w=20 mesh_num=6 r=0.37-434 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples Figure 37.625 $ 3.23 n=6 r=0.825/3.6 column_num=3 layer d=0.25)GaAs/AlAs 1/4 lambda layers.625 column_num=2 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0. $ $ n-mirror $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.26 $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.e24 $ $ add a spacing layer Al(0.2 $ bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=20 contact_num=1 bottom_contact column_num=2 from=0 to=20 contact_num=1 bottom_contact column_num=3 from=0 to=20 contact_num=1 $ $ Use effective media: AlGaAs Al=0.e24 n_doping2=2.6 column_num=2 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.e24 n_doping3=2.625 column_num=3 layer d=3.8 um for 31.9 vcsel_type=n-spacer .8 column column_num=2 w=20 mesh_num=8 r=-1.

12 shows the angular distribution of the emission intensity for this RCLED (emission model .well include file=rcled. period of Al(0.23 n=6 r=0.37. 37.625 column_num=2 layer_mater macro_name=algaas_implant var1=0. we use the following .6 column_num=2 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.625 $ 2.825/3.25)GaAs/AlAs 1/4 lambda layers.9 vcsel_type=p-spacer $ $ Use effective media: AlGaAs Al=0.plt file: .6) GaAs of 1 lambda: 0.6 n=12 r=1.6 um for 21.e24 vcsel_type=p-dbr $ top_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=20 contact_num=2 top_contact column_num=2 from=0 to=3 contact_num=2 top_contact column_num=2 from=17 to=20 contact_num=3 top_contact column_num=3 from=0 to=20 contact_num=3 $ end_layer Figure 37.bar include file=rcled.6 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.8 Domed LED To do ray tracing simulation for a simple domed LED.bar $ $ $ add a spacing layer Al(0.well include file=rcled.2=0.well include file=rcled. $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas_implant var1=0.6 column_num=3 layer d=0.bar include file=rcled.26 $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.one point).625 column_num=3 layer d=2.bar include file=rcled.8 Domed LED 37-435 include file=rcled.625 column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.1 && p_doping2=3.

37-436 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples Figure 37.12: Angular distribution of the emitted power for the RCLED .

34) plot_2d variable=elec_curr grid_sizes=20 20 && point_ll=(0.34) plot_3d variable=potential grid_sizes=20 20 && point_ll=(0. 4.sol sol_inf=ganled.34) && xrange=(0 400) yrange=(2.0 dome_height=0. 2. 2.8 Domed LED 37-437 $file:ganled.0 dome_radius=600.plt begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=ganled. 2. 2.34) && xrange=(0 400) yrange=(2.) point_ur=(400.34) plot_2d variable=hole_curr grid_sizes=20 20 && point_ll=(0.34) get_data main_input=ganled.out && xy_data=(3 5) led_spectrum led_eff_distr side=top led_farfield side=top do_raytrace device_kind=led precision=0. 4. 2.37.) to=(10. 4.sol sol_inf=ganled.) point_ur=(400.out && xy_data=(5 5) scan_data=(4 5) rayplot_angle rayplot_bias variable=total_power . 4. 4.out && xy_data=(5 5) plot_1d variable=band from=(10.) point_ur=(400. 4.sol sol_inf=ganled.) point_ur=(400.01 && emission_model=line && datafile_range=(4. 4.out && scan_data=(1 5) plot_scan scan_var=voltage_1 variable=total_curr_1 plot_scan scan_var=current_1 variable=led_power plot_scan scan_var=current_1 variable=led_effi plot_scan scan_var=current_1 variable=led_effy1 plot_scan scan_var=current_1 variable=led_effy2 get_data main_input=ganled.0 get_data main_input=ganled.34) plot_1d variable=band from=(350.34) && xrange=(0 400) yrange=(2.sol sol_inf=ganled.34) plot_2d variable=total_curr grid_sizes=20 20 && point_ll=(0. 4.) to=(350. 4.34) && xrange=(0 400) yrange=(2.5) initial_rays=8000 && set_domed=yes dome_direction=top && dome_width=1200. 2. 4.

13 presents the results of a domed LED simulation .layer file: begin_layer .9 Photodetector To build a photodetector structure.13: Ray tracing by SHOW and the angular distribution of the transmitted light power for a domed LED 37.ray tracing by SHOW and the angular distribution of the transmitted light power. we use the following . Figure 37.37-438 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples rayplot_bias variable=extraction_eff end_pstprc Figure 37.

$ bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=1.9 n_doping1=2.e24 $ $ top_contact column_num=1 from=0 to=1. . p_doping1=1.85 column_num=1 layer d=1.14 shows the structure was used for simulation.e23 $ $ Use a sharp graded junction to avoid tunneling $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas grade_var=1 && grade_from=0. grade_to=0.37.15 shows the distribution of the light energy flux density in two dimen- sions inside the photodetector. An optical beam is impinging upon the left side of the photodetector. mesh_num=2 r=1. Figure 37.5 n=18 r=0.e24 $ layer_mater macro_name=algaas var1=0.14: The structure of a detector that was used for simulation $ column column_num=1 w=1. contact_num=2 $ end_layer Figure 37.e24 $ layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=1 layer d=2.85 column_num=1 layer d=0.05 n=7 r=1.1 p_doping1=1. n=28 r=-1.5 n=18 r=1.9 Photodetector 37-439 Figure 37.1 p_doping1=2. contact_num=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=gaas column_num=1 layer d=1.

15: The distribution of the light energy flux density inside the photode- tector in two dimensions .37-440 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples Figure 37.

485 efficiency_model=uniform && import_rto=yes refl_y1=0.mater led_control wavelength=0.sol file two statements should be included.plt call %cl%psplot.10 LED Photon Recycling Effect 37-441 37.geo %cl%Apsys ganled.out $ ******* include file=ganled. then again APSYS solver.msh output sol_outf=ganled.sol file: $file:ganled.bat ganled_m. the first is led control with command import rto=yes.9 .plt_trace %cl%Apsys ganled.doping include file=ganled.sol > ganled.layer %cl%Apsys ganled. and so on.ps %cl%Apsys ganled.bat ganled. In case of using batch-file.plt_ray In . RayTracing program.10 LED Photon Recycling Effect This example demonstrates the inclusion of the Photon Recycling Effect in LED.02 && led_xrange=(0 140) group_index=2.ps %cl%Apsys ganled.plt_trace %cl%Apsys ganled.ps %cl%layer ganled.3 delta_wavel=0. This simulation can be done step by step running APSYS solver.37.bat ganled_g.gain call %cl%psplot. and the second is export raytrace.sol $ ******* begin load_mesh mesh_inf=ganled.log %cl%Apsys ganled.3 refl_y2=0.log %cl%Apsys ganled. the following command lines can be used: set cl=c:\crosslig\apsys\ %cl%Apsys ganled. In our example we used the following .mplt call %cl%psplot.sol > ganled. As it was pointed out in our ray-tracing theory that we should run the electrical and optical simulation programs a few times to reach self-consistency. RayTracing program.

32 && wavel_range=(0.34) && length=140 backg_loss=1000.e-5 max_step=50.e-4 scan var=voltage_1 value_to=-4. To call three-dimensional ray tracing module a statement do raytrace 3d is used in the file with extensions . Statement’s variables include parameters and directives for ray tracing module that are independent on bias or current values. print_step=4. && init_step=0.1) multimode mode_num=1 $ $ start solving $ newton_par damping_step=5.37-442 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples $ $ optical field $ sor_par max_iter=0 print_sor=noprint init_wave point_ll=(0. 0. && boundary_type=(1 1 1 1 ) init_wavel=0.sol. print_step=100 && init_step=2.plt. This example demonstrates the ray tracing simulation of an LED in three di- mensions.34 0.1 0. Each file represents data at different condition.. In- terface files related to this module are named with numbered extension . An interface file for transferring data is named with extension . The structure consists of two Z-segments .50) optical_field profile=gaussian && x_prof=(0 140 0.e-5 max_step=2.485 mirror_ref=0. print_flag=3 var_tol=1. max_iter=100 print_flag=3 equilibrium newton_par damping_step=1.rti.1 0.45.150 micrometers and 250 .5 min_step=1. 0.11 Three-Dimensional Simulation of GaN LED As in previous two-dimensional simulation examples the statement export raytrace is used by main APSYS module to transfer structure parameters to the ray tracing module. export_raytrace transp_contact=no contact_refl=0.9 end 37.rta 0000.0) point_ur=(140.0 4.2 min_step=1. such as at certain bias or current value. The statement export raytrace is used in files with extensions .5 scan var=current_1 value_to=400.1) y_prof=(4. 4.

9 n_doping1=5.0 contact_num=2 top_contact column_num=2 from=20. we use the following two .0 to=90.0 contact_num=1 $ layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=2 layer d=2.e25 $ $ top metal layer for IV fit: 5nm Au.37. n=5 r=0.15 top_contact column_num=1 from=0. var1=frequency layer_mater macro_name=au var1=0.e24 $ layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer d=0.11 Three-Dimensional Simulation of GaN LED 37-443 micrometers in depth.qw $ ---- $ layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer d=0.005 n=3 r=1 include file=ganled.qw include file=ganled.layer: begin_layer $ column column_num=1 w=400.e. 1) Ganled1. an opaque mirror model.5 var2=0.e24 $ $ ---- $ layer_mater macro_name=ingan var1=0.8 n_doping1=5. n=5 r=0.08 column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer d=0. another - nontransparent.qw include file=ganled.0 p_doping1=5.layer files.0 mesh_num=5 r=1.1 n=3 r=1.4 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=freq var_symbol2=xlam layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 .qw include file=ganled.0 mesh_num=8 r=0. It has two metal contacts: one is semitransparent. i.85 column column_num=2 w=140. To build such a structure.e24 && n_doping2=1.0 p_doping1=2.qw include file=ganled.e24 layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer d=2..0 to=140.2 n=4 r=1.

n=5 r=0. n=5 r=0.layer column column_num=1 w=400.e24 layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer d=2.0 mesh_num=8 r=0.qw include file=ganled.e24 $ layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer d=0.0 p_doping1=5. $ end_layer And 2) Ganled2. var1=frequency layer_mater macro_name=au var1=0.1 n=3 r=1.qw include file=ganled.0 contact_num=2 $ layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=2 layer d=2.0 p_doping1=2.8 n_doping1=5.4 column_num=1 && .37-444 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples layer d=0.08 column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer d=0.15 top_contact column_num=1 from=0.layer: begin_layer $ previous_layer file=ganled1.0 to=90.0 mesh_num=5 r=1.005 n=3 r=1 include file=ganled.e25 $ $ top metal layer for IV fit: 5nm Au.85 column column_num=2 w=140.9 n_doping1=5.qw include file=ganled.5 var2=0.qw $ ---- $ layer_mater macro_name=gan column_num=1 layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer d=0.2 n=4 r=1.e24 && n_doping2=1.e24 $ $ ---- $ layer_mater macro_name=ingan var1=0.005 n=3 r=1.qw include file=ganled.

vplot_xyz variable=total_curr grid_sizes=30 30 && xy_from=(150 0) xy_to=(150 4.005 n=3 r=1.out && xy_data=(4 4) lplot_xy variable=band xy_from=(10.) xy_to=(350.34) z=1.37. 4. lplot_xy variable=band xy_from=(350. 2. 4.34) z=1.2) z=200 && point_ll=(0 2) point_ur=(400 4.2) z=200 && point_ll=(0 2) point_ur=(400 4.34) vplot_xyz variable=total_curr grid_sizes=30 30 && xy_from=(350 0) xy_to=(350 4.sol sol_inf=ganled.34) vplot_xyz variable=total_curr grid_sizes=30 30 && xy_from=(395 0) xy_to=(395 4.sol sol_inf=ganled. 4. the statement do raytrace 3d in the following .out && xy_data=(2 4) led_spectrum led_eff_distr side=top led_farfield side=top . 4.sol sol_inf=ganled.34) splot_xy variable=potential grid_sizes=20 20 && xrange=(0 400) yrange=(2.2) get_data main_input=ganled. $ end_layer To run three-dimensional ray trace module.plt file was used: begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=ganled.) xy_to=(10.2) vplot_xy variable=hole_curr grid_sizes=20 20 && xrange=(0 400) yrange=(2. 4.11 Three-Dimensional Simulation of GaN LED 37-445 var_symbol1=freq var_symbol2=xlam layer_mater macro_name=void column_num=2 layer d=0. 2.34) z=1 vplot_xy variable=total_curr grid_sizes=20 20 && xrange=(0 400) yrange=(2.out && scan_data=(2 4) plot_scan scan_var=voltage_1 variable=total_curr_1 scale_horizontal=-1 plot_scan scan_var=current_1 variable=led_power plot_scan scan_var=current_1 variable=led_effi plot_scan scan_var=current_1 variable=led_effy1 plot_scan scan_var=current_1 variable=led_effy2 get_data main_input=ganled.

Rays emit from each point with angles scanning in different directions.4) initial_rays=6000 && 3d_emission_model=plane 3d_angle_store=30 && 3d_emit_xpoints=4 3d_emit_per_zpln=2 && 3d_extern_medium=-y 3d_extern_index=(1.16 shows the structure of LED was used for three-dimensional simulation. This plane is parallel to XOZ plane.16: The structure of GaN LED (boxes and rays) that was used for three- dimensional ray tracing simulation $ show_ray_3d emit_from_phi=90 emit_from_theta=0 show_secondary=16520 && emit_from_xyz=(300 4 100) show_model=all_phi && show_angle_num=15 do_raytrace_3d precision=0.37-446 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples Figure 37. Figure 37.d0) end_pstprc The emission model used is a set of points that is placed on one plane.7 0. The portion of power emit- . The output light power dependences on angles of spherical coordinate system θ and φ are used in three dimensions LED simulation.01 && datafile_range=(3.

37.17: The distribution of the output light power depending on angles of spherical coordinates for GaN LED .11 Three-Dimensional Simulation of GaN LED 37-447 Figure 37.

This is calculated by adding and averaging the power emitted into angular intervals defined by variable 3d angle store. .e. If we compare the results with similar two-dimensional example photon recycle at the same current values.XYZ-diagonal rays that causes more absorption.37-448 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples ted into spatial angle measured in Watts per stereo-radian. Secondly. in two-dimensional case we have only four reflected facets (Z- direction is infinite) instead of six (or more with many segments) comparing with three-dimensional case. We can imagine a new system x’y’z’ rotated into the original xyz system around OY-axe. y and z is dependent on the orientation of the emission direction when we plot angular distribution in a certain direction. the statement 3drayplot angle with parameters direction=-z view xrot=10 view zrot=0 is used in the following .out && scan_data=(3 4) xy_data=(4 4) 3drayplot_bias variable=total_source && relative=no bias_variable=current bias_electrode=1 3drayplot_bias variable=transmitted && relative=no bias_variable=current bias_electrode=1 3drayplot_bias variable=upper_half && relative=no bias_variable=current bias_electrode=1 3drayplot_angle direction=+y view_xrot=10 view_zrot=0 3drayplot_angle direction=-y view_xrot=10 view_zrot=0 3drayplot_angle direction=+x view_xrot=10 view_zrot=0 3drayplot_angle direction=-x view_xrot=10 view_zrot=0 3drayplot_angle direction=+z view_xrot=10 view_zrot=0 3drayplot_angle direction=-z view_xrot=10 view_zrot=0 3drayplot_theta phi=90 3drayplot_phi theta=0 end_pstprc Our output angular data presentations are the similar to commonly used exper- imental results of measurement of the far field distribution. T Figure 37. we can see that an external extraction is less in case of three-dimensional simulation (29% in two-dimensional case and 27% in three- dimensional). where z’ is the direction of emission (we just project the unit emission vector on x’y’ plane).. Firstly.sol sol_inf=ganled. To build such a diagram.plt ray file: begin_pstprc plot_data plot_device=postscript get_data main_input=ganled. the meaning of x. i. It can be explained by the following.17 shows the distribution of the output light power dependence on θ and φ. in three dimensions we have an additional portion of longer path rays .

an opaque mirror model.E+24 n_doping2=2. there is advantage of using three-dimensional ray tracing simulation. The structure consists of two Z-segments . column column_num=2 w= 150.temp var1=0. Bar: 16->18% Al. $ superlattice layer_mater macro_name=algan. column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan. 37. n-contact is nontranspar- ent. i.E+24 r=0. mesh_num=10 r=1. contact_num=1 bottom_contact column_num=2 from=0. column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0.e. 1) tk3c. no p-barrier. The nitride-based LED includes AlGaN quantum wells with emission wave- length of approximately 340 nm.temp var1=0. 4 QWs.09 n=5 n_doping1= 2. To build such structure. It has two metal contacts: top p-contact is semitransparent.150 micrometers in depth for both. grade_to=0.E+24 r=1.layer files. grade_to=0.E+24 n_doping2=2. mesh_num=10 r=1.95 layer_mater macro_name=algan..18 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan.12 Three-Dimensional Simulation of AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet LED This example also demonstrates ray tracing simulation of an LED in three dimen- sions.12 Three-Dimensional Simulation of AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet LED 37-449 The conclusion is that three-dimensional simulation gives us result of more ac- curacy and closer to reality. $ begin_layer $previous_layer file=tk3c.temp var1=0.temp column_num=1 && grade_var=1 grade_from=0.18 var_symbol1=x layer d=0. $ bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0. we use the two following . $ last MQW barrier removed $ Full size contact in this segment. to=150. A short period alloy superlattice was used in p-type top contact to reduce the vertical resistivity. contact_num=1 $ $ n-cladding layer (above n-contact) incl grading to avoid voltage drop layer_mater macro_name=algan.layer independent_mqw column column_num=1 w= 150.layer: $ QW: 10->12% Al.18 column_num=1 var_symbol1=x .temp column_num=2 && grade_var=1 grade_from=0.37.01 n=4 n_doping1= 2. to=150. So in spite of longer program run time and more noisy output picture of the light power angular distribution.

12 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=AlGaN/AlGaN avar1=0.18 && avar_symbol1=xw avar_symbol2=xb layer_mater macro_name=algan.18 && avar_symbol1=xw avar_symbol2=xb layer d=0.18 column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan.013 n=6 n_doping1= 2.18 column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan.E+22 r=1.18 && avar_symbol1=xw avar_symbol2=xb layer_mater macro_name=algan.12 avar2=0. $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.E+22 n_doping2=8.E+24 r=0.E+24 n_doping2=2.18 column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0.E+24 n_doping2=2.temp var1=0.E+24 r=0.temp var1=0.12 avar2=0.12 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=x && .1 $ layer_mater macro_name=algan. 4 QW.126 n=5 n_doping1= 2.E+22 n_doping2=8.E+24 n_doping2=2.temp var1=0.E+24 r=-1.9 $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.E+24 n_doping2=2.E+22 r=1.temp var1=0.18 column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan.12 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=AlGaN/AlGaN avar1=0.18 column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0.12 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=AlGaN/AlGaN avar1=0.18 column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0. QW4 nonsymmetric => cx *********** $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.013 n=6 n_doping1= 2.temp var1=0.temp var1=0.temp var1=0.013 n=5 n_doping1=2.12 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=AlGaN/AlGaN avar1=0.temp var1=0.18 && avar_symbol1=xw avar_symbol2=xb layer d=0.18 && avar_symbol1=xw avar_symbol2=xb layer_mater macro_name=algan.temp var1=0.85 $ $ ***************** MQW: 4 barriers.temp var1=0.37-450 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples layer_mater macro_name=algan.temp var1=0.005 n=5 n_doping1= 8.1 $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.12 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=AlGaN/AlGaN avar1=0.18 column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0.005 n=5 n_doping1= 8. $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.temp var1=0.temp var1=0.12 avar2=0.12 avar2=0.E+24 r=-1.12 avar2=0.

$ layer_mater macro_name=algan.12 && avar_symbol1=xw layer_mater macro_name=algan. $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.temp var1=0.E+22 n_doping2=8.005 n=5 n_doping1= 8.12 && avar_symbol1=xw layer d=0.E+24 r=-1.126 n=5 p_doping1= 4.E+23 p_doping2=4.18 column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan.013 n=6 n_doping1= 2.temp var1=0.E+22 r=1.18 column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0.temp var1=0.3 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=cx-AlGaN avar1=0.18 && avar_symbol1=xw layer_mater macro_name=algan.005 n=5 n_doping1= 8.E+24 n_doping2=2.3 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=cx-AlGaN avar1=0.12 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=cx-AlGaN avar1=0.18 && avar_symbol1=xw layer d=0.temp var1=0.E+22 n_doping2=8.3 && avar_symbol1=xw layer d=0.1 $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.12 Three-Dimensional Simulation of AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet LED 37-451 active_macro=AlGaN/AlGaN avar1=0.12 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=cx-AlGaN avar1=0.temp var1=0.015 n=9 p_doping1= 1.18 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=cx-AlGaN avar1=0.temp var1=0.E+23 r=-1.temp var1=0.E+22 r=1.temp var1=0.E+23 r=1. column_num=1 var_symbol1=x .18 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=cx-AlGaN avar1=0.3 && avar_symbol1=xw layer_mater macro_name=algan.1 $ $ ************** end MQW ****************** $ $ superlattice layer_mater macro_name=algan.37.E+23 p_doping2=1.15 $ $ p-contact layer layer_mater macro_name=algan.temp var1=0.12 avar2=0.18 && avar_symbol1=xw avar_symbol2=xb layer d=0.

column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan.37-452 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples layer_mater macro_name=algan.18 var_symbol1=x layer d=0.temp var1=0.E+24 r=1.5 var2=0.E+24 r=1.005 n=3 p_doping1= 1. mesh_num=10 r=1. grade_to=0.09 n=5 n_doping1= 2. $ bottom_contact column_num=1 from=0. $ top_contact column_num=1 from=0. var1=frequency. to=150.4 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=freq var_symbol2=xlam layer_mater macro_name=au var1=0. $ $ top metal layer for IV fit: 3nm Pd + 5nm Au.E+24 r=0.95 layer_mater macro_name=algan.temp column_num=1 && grade_var=1 grade_from=0. . Bar: 16->18% Al. no p-barrier. to=150. contact_num=2 top_contact column_num=2 from=0. contact_num=1 bottom_contact column_num=2 from=140.4 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=freq var_symbol2=xlam layer d=0. layer_mater macro_name=au var1=0. to=10. $ begin_layer previous_layer file=tk3c. 4 QWs.18 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan.temp var1=0. mesh_num=10 r=1.01 n=4 n_doping1= 2. grade_to=0.layer: $ QW: 10->12% Al. contact_num=1 $ $ n-cladding layer (above n-contact) incl grading to avoid voltage drop layer_mater macro_name=algan.E+24 n_doping2=2.008 n=4 r=1.5 var2=0. to=150.E+24 n_doping2=2.E+24 p_doping2=1. column column_num=2 w= 150. $ last MQW barrier removed $ 2 columns for 2 side contacts.layer independent_mqw column column_num=1 w= 150.temp column_num=2 && grade_var=1 grade_from=0. lumped in one layer $layer_mater macro_name=pd var1=0 column_num=1 $layer_mater macro_name=pd var1=0 column_num=2 $layer d=0.temp var1=0. column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0. contact_num=2 end_layer And 2) tk3d. partially covers bottom layer. column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0.003 n=3 r=1.

18 column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0.18 && avar_symbol1=xw avar_symbol2=xb layer_mater macro_name=algan.temp var1=0.12 avar2=0.37.12 avar2=0.E+24 r=0.18 && avar_symbol1=xw avar_symbol2=xb layer_mater macro_name=algan.temp var1=0.E+22 r=1.1 $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.12 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=AlGaN/AlGaN avar1=0.temp var1=0.E+24 n_doping2=2.12 avar2=0.12 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=AlGaN/AlGaN avar1=0.013 n=5 n_doping1=2.12 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=AlGaN/AlGaN avar1=0.temp var1=0.1 $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.temp var1=0. 4 QW.E+24 r=-1.18 column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0. $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.126 n=5 n_doping1= 2.temp var1=0.temp var1=0.E+22 n_doping2=8.18 && avar_symbol1=xw avar_symbol2=xb layer d=0.temp var1=0.12 avar2=0.temp var1=0.12 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=AlGaN/AlGaN avar1=0.18 column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0.18 && avar_symbol1=xw avar_symbol2=xb layer d=0. QW4 nonsymmetric => cx ************ $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.005 n=5 n_doping1= 8.013 n=6 n_doping1= 2.E+22 r=1.18 && avar_symbol1=xw avar_symbol2=xb .temp var1=0.18 column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan. $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.9 $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.E+22 n_doping2=8.12 avar2=0.12 Three-Dimensional Simulation of AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet LED 37-453 $ superlattice layer_mater macro_name=algan.013 n=6 n_doping1= 2.E+24 n_doping2=2.18 column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0.E+24 r=0.12 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=AlGaN/AlGaN avar1=0.E+24 n_doping2=2.85 $ $ ***************** MQW: 4 barriers.E+24 r=-1.temp var1=0.005 n=5 n_doping1= 8.18 column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan.temp var1=0.18 column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan.18 column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan.E+24 n_doping2=2.temp var1=0.

temp var1=0.005 n=5 n_doping1= 8.12 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=AlGaN/AlGaN avar1=0.126 n=5 p_doping1= 4.temp var1=0.12 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=cx-AlGaN avar1=0.E+22 r=1.3 && avar_symbol1=xw layer_mater macro_name=algan.005 n=5 n_doping1= 8.3 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=cx-AlGaN avar1=0.013 n=6 n_doping1= 2.E+23 r=1.E+22 n_doping2=8.temp var1=0.12 avar2=0.15 $ .temp var1=0.18 column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan.E+24 n_doping2=2.temp var1=0.3 && avar_symbol1=xw layer d=0. $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.015 n=9 p_doping1= 1.37-454 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples layer_mater macro_name=algan.1 $ $ ************** end MQW ****************** $ $ superlattice layer_mater macro_name=algan.18 && avar_symbol1=xw layer_mater macro_name=algan.18 && avar_symbol1=xw layer d=0.E+24 r=-1.12 && avar_symbol1=xw layer d=0.E+22 n_doping2=8.temp var1=0.E+23 r=-1.E+23 p_doping2=1.12 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=cx-AlGaN avar1=0.temp var1=0.E+22 r=1.temp var1=0.temp var1=0.E+23 p_doping2=4.3 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=cx-AlGaN avar1=0.18 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=cx-AlGaN avar1=0.18 column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0.18 && avar_symbol1=xw avar_symbol2=xb layer d=0.12 && avar_symbol1=xw layer_mater macro_name=algan.18 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=x && active_macro=cx-AlGaN avar1=0. $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.1 $ layer_mater macro_name=algan.

1046858993077 back half-sphere: 1.5 var2=0. to=150. contact_num=2 end_layer Figure 37. column_num=2 var_symbol1=x layer d=0. to=150.temp var1=0.565321509665715E-004 90. The 3-D ray trace module calculates a portion of the total light power extracted into different directions and through different facets for analysis purpose. var1=frequency.298991837198610E-004 45.005 n=3 p_doping1= 1. $ $ top metal layer for IV fit: 3nm Pd + 5nm Au. column_num=1 var_symbol1=x layer_mater macro_name=algan. layer_mater macro_name=au var1=0.647304653466043E-005 9.0565851384534 front half-sphere: 1.4 column_num=1 && var_symbol1=freq var_symbol2=xlam layer_mater macro_name=au var1=0.9038437495699 TRANSMITTED POWER in absolute and relative to total (%) units THROUGH upper sides: .E+24 r=1.E+24 p_doping2=1.531060137813708E-004 54.18 shows the structure of ultraviolet LED was used for three-dimensional simulation.rto data files and one of the fragments is shown below: TRANSMITTED POWER in absolute and relative to whole sphere (%) units INTO upper half-sphere: 2.37.586295189425441E-004 56.243756785586876E-004 43. Figure 37.9519445104242 right half-sphere: 1. contact_num=2 top_contact column_num=2 from=0. These data are printed in .temp var1=0.008 n=4 r=1. $ top_contact column_num=1 from=0.12 Three-Dimensional Simulation of AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet LED 37-455 $ p-contact layer layer_mater macro_name=algan.6534701565650 lower half-sphere: 2. lumped in one layer $layer_mater macro_name=pd var1=0 column_num=1 $layer_mater macro_name=pd var1=0 column_num=2 $layer d=0.35505949231261 left half-sphere: 1.5 var2=0.4 column_num=2 && var_symbol1=freq var_symbol2=xlam layer d=0.003 n=3 r=1.19 shows the distribution of the output light power in direction -z depending on angles θ and φ.

37-456 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples Figure 37.18: The structure of ultraviolet LED (boxes and rays) that was used for three-dimensional simulation .

37.19: The distribution of the output light power depending on angles of spherical coordinates for ultraviolet LED .12 Three-Dimensional Simulation of AlGaN/GaN Ultraviolet LED 37-457 Figure 37.

411694386029711E-004 85.574083676826703E-006 1.92464944942541 right sides: 6.636520467285491E-006 0.61639216187321 *** TOTAL: Total source power (watt or watt/m) 7.-458 Ray Tracing Simulation Examples 2. mainly within the n-side GaN layers.931695027690246 back sides: 4.446393417317754E-006 1.0733628E-03 TRANSMITTED POWER in absolute and relative to emitted (%) units 2. It is also limited by an internal absorption. .92605425894462 left sides: 5. Such a relatively low value is mainly caused by carrier leakage from the active region.37662254363874 front sides: 2.995307760620654E-006 0.781386297558318E-003 95.725391671188430E-006 2.127171589892563 The photon extraction efficiency is in a range 4-5.242923237481350E-005 7.00065815357466 SEMICONDUCTOR ABSORBED POWER in absolute and relative to emitted (%) units 6.3% that agrees with experi- mental results [73].8721702565328 CONTACTS ABSORBED POWER in absolute and relative to emitted (%) units 8.2245865584268 lower sides: 2.829810602104056E-004 4.

we derive the theories for spontaneous recombination noise power. (A. Finally. (A.3) ∂t ∂D ∇×H− = J. The we recall some basic theories of partial differential equations. • ρ is the free charge density in coulombs/meter 3 . • B is the magnetic induction in webers/meter 2 .1) ∇·B = 0.4) ∂t The notations are defined as follows. • D is the electrical displacement vector in coulombs/meter 2 . • J is the current density in coulombs/meter 2 . .Appendix A BASIC THEORIES RELATED TO LED This chapter starts from the Maxwell equation to establish some notations.1 Maxwell Equations The four fundamental equations of Maxwell are as follows: ∇·D = ρ. (A. (A.2) ∂B ∇×E+ = 0. • E is the electric field intensity in volts/meter. A. • H is the magnetic field in ampere/meter.

10) ∂t ∂t In our applications. The second term is polarization induced by spontaneous emission of photons associated with radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs.11) ∇ × B − jω0 µ0 E = µ0 (J + jωP) . (A.13) where the first term is the polarization induced by the electric field which includes the usual effects from the dielectric constants and also effects like loss and gain. Such a spontaneous emission process is random and not directly related to the external electric field intensity. As a results. (A. . (A. (A. we expect the second term to have a zero mean in both the spatial and time domain. The Maxwell equations can be simplified further if we concentrate on the Fourier component at the optical frequency.6) µ0 Then we re-write the Maxwell equations in the following form: 1 ∇·E = (ρ − ∇ · P) (A.7)  ∇ · B = 0. (A. (A. This allows us to set the M to be zero in the above equations.12) In a waveguiding structure. also referred to as Eω elsewhere in the book. The polarization vector can be decomposed into two components as follows: P = 0 (r − 1)E + Psp . (A.9) ∂t ! ∂E ∂P ∇ × B − 0 µ0 = µ0 J + +∇×M .8) ∂B ∇×E+ = 0. (A.5) B H = − M. no magnetization is involved. Using a time dependent factor of exp(−jωt) for all the variables. it is possible to eliminate the vectors D and H from the fundamental equations by substituting: D = 0 E + P. we can consider the free current J to be zero at the optical frequencies. we obtained the following expressions for the last two equations of the Maxwell equation set: ∇ × E + jωB = 0.A-460 BASIC THEORIES RELATED TO LED With the introduction of the polarization vector P and the magnetization vector M.

2 Conventions In this work we shall assume the oscillating field takes the form exp(−jωt). the field with single frequency can be written as E(t) = Eω exp(−jωt) + Eω∗ exp(jωt) (A.20) φ∗ (r) = < φ| = |n > (A. a loss material has positive imaginary wave number k 00 where k = k 0 + jk 00 .c.22) A.18) 0 where c. (A.15) √ Using the speed of light c0 = 1/ 0 µ0 the wave equation can be written in a more familiar form: 2 ω2 ∇ E + 2 r E = Fω . Using this notation. (A. Any time dependence quantities can be expanded in Fourier component with exp(−jωt) and we assume that the real field can be expressed as Z ∞ E(t) = Eω exp(−jωt)dω + c.19) In some cases. As a result.14) With the assumption ∇ · E = 0. (A.21) Z < ψ|φ > = < n|n >= ψ ∗ φdr (A. we adopt the bracket notation from quantum mechanics such that φ(r) = |φ >= |n > (A. is used to denote the complex conjugate. The scalar wave equation is written as: .17) A.c.2 Conventions A-461 Elimination of the B vector from the Maxwell equations results in the following −∇ × ∇ × E + ω 2 0 r µ0 E = −µ0 ω 2 Psp . ∇2 E + ω 2 0 r µ0 E = −µ0 ω 2 Psp . (A. the forward (or right going) wave propagates with a factor exp(+jkz) and backward (or left going) wave with factor exp(−jkz).A. (A. Under such a convention.16) c0 The right hand side term is also called the Langevin force Fω : Fω = −µ0 ω 2 Psp .3 Basic Wave Equation For simplicity we are only concerned with the scalar field in the optical frequency domain ω. we finally arrived at the vector wave equation we use most often in our applications.

ys ) = δ(x − xs )δ(y − ys ). we can treat it as a ∂ parameter and evade the differential operator ∂z . it common to solve the above wave equation by separating variables in the field (we drop the subscript ω and it is understood that we deal with single frequency): E(x. y). (A. y) (A.A-462 BASIC THEORIES RELATED TO LED ω2 ∇2 Eω + r Eω = Fω . For this reason we temporarily hide its z-dependence here.24) or simply E(x. y) satisfying ∂2 ∂2 ω2 ω2 2 " # + + r (r) φ n (x. (A. (A. z) = Z(z)φ(x.25) We assume that there is a orthogonal and complete set of transverse modes φn (x.27) c0 We notice that the lateral solution |φn > may still be z-dependent.23) c20 In a wave guide environment.26) has nice properties such as orthogo- nality and completeness. y. (A. y). y. we expand it in terms of the complete set of φn X |φ >= An |φn > (A.30) n where < φn |φ > An = (A. (A. It is well known that solution to Eq. we are able to rewrite the wave equation as follows: . y)φn (xs . if the z-dependence is weak compared with the x-y dependence. However. y) = n (z)φn (x.29) n < φn φn > For an arbitrary solution for φ(x.28) And the completeness is X φn (x. z) = E(z)φ(x.26) ∂x2 ∂y 2 c20 c20 ef f where the z-dependent effective index nef f (z)2 is also used to define the z-dependent wave number (or propagation constant): ω k(z) = nef f (z). y) (A. The orthogonality is Z φn φm =< φn φm >= δnm < φn φm > .31) < φn |φn > Using this expansion. (A.

43) n Here we have explicitly show the dependence of the lateral solution to z.39) z ∂2 < φn |F (x. z) > f (z) = (A. y.34) 2 2 2 2 " ! # ∂ ∂ ∂ X ω X |φ > 2 E(z) + E(z) ( An |φn >) + 2 r ( An |φn >) = F z 2 x x 2 n c0 n (A.35) 2 ∂ φ 2 E(z) + ( An k 2 φn )E(z) = F X z n (A. z)] (A. (A.38) z ∂2 < φn |φ > 2 Ez + k 2 < φn |φ > Ez = < φn |F > .42) < φn |φ > We have finally reduced the 3-variable equation to a single variable differential equation. y.3 Basic Wave Equation A-463 ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 ω2 ! E(z) 2 + 2 |φ > φ 2 E(z) 2 r E(z)|φ > = F x y z c0 (A. y. If we are lucky enough to find the solution for Ez .33) 2 2 2 2 " ! # ∂ ∂ ∂ X ω X φ 2 E(z) + Ez 2 + 2 ( An |φn >) + 2 r ( An |φn >) = F z x y n c0 n (A. our final solution for the three dimensional equation can be written as X Ez (z)[ An (z)φn (x. One good example of z-dependent solution is beam propagation in a tapered wave guiding structure.40) z2 < φn |φ > ∂2 Ez + k 2 Ez = f (z) (A.A. (A.32) 2 2 2 2 ! ∂ ∂ X ∂ ω X E(z) 2 + 2 ( An |φn >)φ 2 E(z) + 2 r E(z)( An |φn >) = F x y n z c0 n (A. .41) z2 where < φn |F (x. z) > Ez + k 2 Ez = (A.37) z2 ∂2 < φn |φ > 2 Ez + An k 2 < φn |φn > Ez = < φn |F > . (A.36) Let us multiply the above equation by < φn | and obtain ∂2 < φn |φ > Ez + An k 2 < φn |φn > Ez = < φn |F > .

44) where L is a linear differential operator. Several derivation steps should be taken before we arrive at the solution of the Green’s function. The Green’s function technique is ideal for the analysis of our waveguiding system because the the spontaneous noise can be considered as a random ensemble of point sources. (A. the solution due to a continuous distribution of sources f (z) is just the superposition of all the solutions from the points sources contained in f (z). zs )dzs (A.41).5 Longitudinal Green’s Function Our final goal is to find the solution to the Green’s function in Eq.4 The Green’s Function A well know technique for solving partial differential equation is the Green’s function method. zs ) is the Green’s function satisfying L(Z) = δ(z − zs ) (A. A.A-464 BASIC THEORIES RELATED TO LED A. (A.1 The Wronskian It is convenient to introduce the Wronskian from functions Z1 (z) and Z2 (z): . The basic idea is that for a differential equation of the form L(Z) = f (z) (A. The Green’s function allows us to give a compact formal solution in terms of the noise.47) dz 2 The longitudinal Green’s function is just a special case of the above equation with f (z) = δ(z − zs ). The solution can be written as Z Z(z) = f (zs )g(z.46) The interpretation of the Green function technique is simple enough: If we can find a solution due to a single point solution located at zs . A. We consider the following ordinary differential equation: d2 ! L(Z) = + k 2 (z) Z(z) = f (z). Note that the formal solution is all we need here because it is impossible to write down an analytical expression for random noise.5.45) where g(z.

Z (z) Z10 (z) .

.

.

W = .

.

1 .

(A.48) Z2 (z) Z20 (z) .

= Z1 (z)Z20 (z) − Z2 (z)Z10 (z) (A.49) .

(A. or in another word.52) If W is not zero but a constant independent of z. We notice a couple of interesting properties of the Wronskian.5. (A.2 Solution of Inhomogeneous Equation Let us try to find a solution to the inhomogeneous equation Eq. then the Wronskian should be independent of z. First the Wron- skian can be used to test the dependency of two functions. we have ! d Z2 (z) W = (A. L(Z) = 0. If the two functions Z1 and Z2 are dependent on each other. then Z1 is a completely different function from Z2 and the two functions are said to be independent. then the Wronskian is zero everywhere.50) dz = Z1 [−k 2 (z)Z2 ] − Z2 [−k 2 (z)Z1 ].59) dz 2 Z1 (z) Z12 (z) . (A. (A. If the Wronskian differs from zero for any range of of values of z. dW = Z1 Z200 − Z2 Z100 .57) On the other hand. if Z1 and Z2 are two independent solutions of the homogeneous equation L(Z) = 0.55)] ! d Z2 (z) W = .53) 2 d Z2   = Z1 .. W = Z1 (z)Z20 (z) − Z2 (z)Z10 (z).A. and if we already find one solution Z1 to the homogeneous equation L(Z) = 0. if they are proportional to each other. (A.56) If now we set u equal to one of the solutions Z1 of the homogeneous equation. (A. (A.55) z0 Z1 (u) A. (A.5 Longitudinal Green’s Function A-465 where we have used 0 to denote the derivative with respect to z. i. The second properties of the Wronskian is that. (A. obtaining vL(u) + uv 00 + 2u0 v 0 = f (z). (A.47) by setting Z(z) = u(z)v(z) in L(Z) = f (z).54) dz Z1 Z z du Z2 (z) = W Z1 (z) 2 .e. we already know that the second solution from is related to first by the Wronskian by the following [see Eq.51) = 0. we obtain v 00 + 2(Z10 /Z1 )v 0 = f (z)/Z1 (A. then we can use the Wronskian to find another independent solution to the homogeneous equation as follows.58) dz Z1 (z) Z12 (z) Taking another derivative.

65) Z1 Z12 By now. we obtain " # Z d Z2 f Z1  0 v = dz (A.66) dz (Z2 /Z1 ) 0 W Integrating this first order equation.60) Zz2 W Z0 = −2 3 1 (A. (A. we have reduced our original second order inhomogeneous equation L(Z) = f (z) to a simple first order inhomogeneous equation " # d v0 f Z1 = (A.58) so that (Z2 /Z1 )00 + 2(Z1 /Z1 )(Z2 /Z1)0 = 0 (A.69) z2 f Z2 dz z f Z1 dz Z Z = Z1 + Z2 (A. It is interesting to note that z1 and z2 can be regarded as the starting and ending points along the lon- gitudinal direction and Z1 and Z2 may be regarded as solutions to the homogeneous equation satisfying the boundary condition at z1 and z2 .A-466 BASIC THEORIES RELATED TO LED !0 W = (A.70) z W z1 W where z1 and z2 are constants used to fit boundary conditions.63) Z1 Z1 Z1 dz (Z2 /Z1)0 ! f (z) Z2 0  = (A. To be more specific. we obtain 0 00 "  #2 " # Z2 Z2 Z2 0 d v0   v 00 − v 0 = (A.64) Z1 Z1 ! ! f (z) W = (A.61) Z1 Using Eq. we .57) by (Z2 /Z1 )0 and subtracting so that the second term on both equations cancel out.68) W dz Z1 W Integration of the above equation gives our final solution: Z = vZ1 (A.62) Multiplying this equation by v 0 and Eq. (A.67) dz Z1 W or by adding another term on both side of the above equation " # f Z2 d Z2 f Z1 Z 0 v + = dz (A.

zs )Wn = Z1 (z)Z2 (zs )θ(zs − z) + Z2 (z)Z1 (zs )θ(z − zs ) (A.76) = exp[−jk(z − zs )]θ(zs − z) + exp[−jk(z − zs )]θ(z − zs ) (A.72) A. zs ) = [Z1 (z)Z2 (zs )θ(zs − z) + Z2 (z)Z1 (zs )θ(z − zs )]/W (A. then we have found a solution to the inhomogeneous equation which satisfies all boundary conditions. We need to choose Z1 and Z2 to construct the Green’s function and the Wron- skian. Z1 = exp(−jkz) (A. respectively. the boundary condition at the two facets are waves traveling out of the device. Therefore.A. then the first term is zero and the second term is proportional to Z2 .79) Let us try to find the solution of the wave equation in this waveguide if we assume the driving noise term is uncorrelated and has a δ function like correlation: < f (z)f ∗ (z 0 ) >= f0 δ(z − z 0 ) (A. For such a waveguide with perfect AR coating.77) = exp[−jk(z − zs )]θ(zs − z) + exp[jk(z − zs )]θ(z − zs ) (A. we set f (z) = δ(z − zs ) and obtain: δ(z − zs )Z2 dz z2 z δ(z − z )Z dz Z Z s 1 g(z. This example has special significance because we need to use the result to derive a more general relation between sponta- neous emission power and the diffusion coefficient.6 Green’s Function for an AR Coated Waveg- uide We consider a simple example of an unending waveguide (or a traveling wave ampli- fier with perfect anti-reflection AR coatings). the second term goes to zero and the first one is proportional to Z1 . If we take the limit of z− > z1 .78) = exp(jk|z − zs |) (A.6 Green’s Function for an AR Coated Waveguide A-467 examine Eq.70) in more details. (A. zs ) = Z1 + Z2 (A.71) z W z1 W g(z.73) Z2 = exp(+jkz) (A.74) The Wronskian is Wn = 2jk (A. Similarly if z− > z2 . In the case of Green’s function.80) . if Z1 and Z2 satisfy the boundary conditions at z = z1 and z = z2 .75) and the Green’s function is g(z.

A-468 BASIC THEORIES RELATED TO LED where <> is used denote ensemble average and .

.

2 .

y. z) > .< φn |F (x.

.

f0 (z) = (A.81) .

< φn |φ > .

.

.

.

we can consider the average field amplitude due to the noise: < Ez (z)Ez∗ (z) > Z L Z L = < f (zs )f ∗ (zs0 )g(z.82) f (zs )exp(jk|z − zs |) Z = dzs (A.83) Wn f (zs )exp(jk|z − zs |) Z = dzs (A. In a gain medium.90) f0 1 1   00 = {1 − exp[−2k z]} + {1 − exp[−2k 00 (L − z)]} 4|k|2 2k 00 2k 00 (A. we define gr = −2k 00 L and 4|k|2 1 1 < Ez (z)Ez∗ (z) > = {exp[gr zr ] − 1} + {exp[gr (1 − zr )] − 1} (A.92) 8|k|2k 00 If we plot the above quantity as a function of the relative distance zr = z/L.84) 2jk Since f (z) is used to represent noise. However.85) 0 0 LZ L < f (zs )f ∗ (zs0 ) > exp(jk|z − zs | − jk ∗ |z − zs0 |) Z = dzs dzs0 0 0 4|k|2 (A. zs )dzs (A. zs )g ∗(z. it is not possible to express Ez analytically.93) f0 gr gr . zs0 )dzs dzs0 (A. The field Ez can be expressed as a function of the Green’s function: Z E(z) = f (zs )g(z.91) f0 = {{1 − exp[−2k 00 z]} + {1 − exp[−2k 00 (L − z)]}} (A. we will have the following interesting observations.88) 0 4|k| exp[−2k 00 (z − zs )] exp[+2k 00 (z − zs )] Z z Z L = f0 dzs + f0 dzs (A.86) Z L f0 δ(zs − zs0 )exp(jk|z − zs | − jk |z − ∗ zs0 |) = dzs dzs0 (A.89) 0 4|k| z 4|k| (Z ) f0 z Z L 00 00 = exp[−2k (z − zs )]dzs + exp[+2k (z − zs )]dzs 4|k|2 0 z (A.87) 0 4|k|2 exp(−2k 00 |z − zs |) Z L = f0 dzs (A.

7 0 0. Our starting point is that the ensemble average . we need to estimate the pure effect of spontaneous emission.9 0.8 1 Relative Distance Figure A.6 0.94) f0 αr αr We plot the amplitude of the field due to the noise in Fig A.4 0.3 1.A.1 1 0. we have f0 < Ez (z)Ez∗ (z) >= (A. In the following sections.1.2 0.8 0.5 each.96) 8|k|2 k 00 A.7 Diffusion Coefficient of the Langevin Forces A-469 1.2 Relative Wave Intensity 1. The relative gain (gr )and loss (αr ) are set at 0. Similarly in the case of a loss material. This requires the elimination of boundary condition and any amplification effect. A long and lossy waveguide is regarded to have this pure effect at one end.7 Diffusion Coefficient of the Langevin Forces The driving noise term F appearing on the right hand side of wave equation is random in nature and uncorrelated over time or distance. we set αr = αL = 2kL and obtain 4|k|2 1 1 < Ez (z)Ez∗ (z) > = {1 − exp[−αr zr ]} + {1 − exp[−αr (1 − zr )]} (A. Consider z=L and L being large.95) 8|k|2 k 00 or 2DF F (z) < Ez (z)Ez∗ (z) >= (A. It shows that for a gain medium. while a lossy material attenuates the noise field and has minimum amplitudes at both ends. the noise field amplitude (or the noise power) gets amplified and shows a maximum value at both side of the device.1: The relative wave intensity of wave in a AR coated waveguide with gain (solid) and loss (dash).

z) > f (z) = (A. we wish to evaluate the emitted optical power within ∆ω from the bulk photon energy density as follows: Sω h̄ω = 2ε0 nng < |E(z)|2 > |φ(x. f (z 0 )∗ = (A.108) or sω h̄ω = 2ε0nng < |E(z)|2 > (A. H.105) |< φn |φ >| = f0 (z)δ(z − z 0 ) (A.110) 8|k|2k 00 .109) From the result of the previous section 2DF F (z) sω h̄ω = 2ε0 nng (A.104) |< φn |φ >|2 < φn (rxy )|2DF F ∗ |φn (rxy ) > = 2 δ(z − z 0 ) (A.101) < φ|φn > * + 0 ∗ < φn (rxy )|F (r) > < F (r0 )|φn (r0xy ) > < f (z)f (z ) > = (A. y)|2 (A. y.103) |< φn |φ >|2 < φn (rxy )|2DF F ∗ (r)δ(r0 − r)|φn (r0xy ) > = (A.102) < φn |φ > < φ|φn > * + < φn (rxy )| < F (r0 )|F (r) > |φn (r0xy ) > = (A.106) In order to determine the diffusion coefficient. Henry [61] and was called “diffusion coefficient”.100) < φn |φ > < F (x0 .97) < Fω∗ (r)Fω∗0 (r0 ) > = 0 (A.99) where the coefficient 2DF F ∗ (r) was introduced by C.98) and the correlation function is of δ function like: < Fω (r)Fω∗0 (r0 ) >= 2DF F ∗ (r)δ(r − r0 )δ(ω − ω 0 ) (A. The driving noise term can be expressed as < φn |F (x. y 0. z 0 )|φn >. y)|2 (A.A-470 BASIC THEORIES RELATED TO LED < Fω (r)Fω0 (r0 ) > = 0 (A. For convenience we drop the delta function in ω and always use the same frequency for all the field quantities.107) The linear energy density is as follows Z sω h̄ω = 2ε0 nng < |E(z)|2 > dxdy|φ(x.

When the photons are in equilibrium with the environment.117) Comparison of the two different expressions of optical power.115) Lz 1 dk Therefore the mode number per unit length per unit ω is D1 (E) = 2π dω .113) 2|k|2 g Please note the minus sign comes in because −g = 2k 00 . To a good approximation. Now let us derive the optical power from a completely different view point. the group velocity may be used: dk = 1/vg (A. h̄ω 3n0 (z)g(z) < nω > 2DF F (z) = − (A. the average noise power within ∆ω can be expressed in terms of the mode occupation number < nω >: X Pn ∆ω = vgn h̄ω < nω > ∆ωD1 (E) (A.118) or.114) n where D1 (E) is the 1D mode density (modes per unit energy per unit length) which is derived as follows. if we neglect the imaginary part of the refractive index in |k|.112) 4|k|2g 2DF F (z) Pn = −c0 ε0 n (A. The mode spacing is 2π ∆kz = (A.A. the mode occupation number is given by 1 < nω >= −nsp =  h̄ω−eVF  (A.7 Diffusion Coefficient of the Langevin Forces A-471 The power emitted is just the above times vg : 2DF F (z) Pn = vg 2ε0 nng (A.111) 8|k|2 k 00 2DF F (z) Pn = −vg 2ε0 nng (A.116) dω This gives a power Pn = h̄ω < nω > /(2π) (A. we finally obtain the following relation for the diffusion coefficient: 2DF F (z) = −|k|2h̄ωg < nω > /(πc0 ε0 n) (A. [61] is due to the use of different unit system. According to Henry [61].120) exp kT −1 .119) πc30 ε0 Please note that a difference of factor (2π)2 than that from Ref.

(A.A-472 BASIC THEORIES RELATED TO LED Using the well-known relation between optical gain and spontaneous emission. rsp (E) g= {1 − exp[(h̄ω − eVF )/kT ]} . Thus. the product gnsp be re-written as rsp (E) gnsp = (A.127) Please note that rsp (E) must be in units of rate per volume per energy interval. .124) vg D(E) Using the above for the n-th lateral mode.122) π 3 ∆E  3 2 n E = (A.123) h̄c π 2 is the photon mode density.125) 2DF F (z) = n2 ω 2E < n|rsp |n > π 2h̄3 c30 /(n3 E 2 vg πc30 ε0 n) (A.121) vg D(E) where πk 2 ∆k D(E) = .126) 2DF F (z) = (h̄ω) < n|rsp (E)|n > πh̄/(n2 vg ε0 ) (A. (A. we can also use an alternative (or more convenient) form for the diffusion coefficient in terms of bulk spontaneous recombination rate. we have 2DF F (z) = |k|2 E < φn |rsp |φn > /(D(E)vg πc0 ε0 n) (A.

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Index .

INDEX i 3D ray-tracing 37-442 LDD 13-161 Three-Dimensional Simulation of AlGaN/GaN LED 29-353 Ultravi 37-449 light ray propagation 4-29 3D BJT model 23-279 3D taper 22-261 M MOSFET 35-393 7-93 A MSM 17-221 AC photo-response 17-221 APD 18-231 N Avalanche Photodiode 18-231 19-243 N-MOS 10-135 nomenclature 4-60 B Nonisothermal Effects 11-141 Bipolar Transistor 11-141 8-109 BJT 14-173 O OLED 4-54 4-55 C optical amplifier 28-343 Camel Diode 6-85 optical analyzer 36-401 confine left 15-188 Organic semiconductor 4-54 4-55 D P documentation 2-11 photon recycling 37-441 domed LED 37-435 PN Diode 9-127 E Q EA-modulator 31-371 quantum-MOS 15-183 edge effect 23-279 quantum MOS 16-199 electro-absorption 31-371 quantum well 22-261 quantum wells 4-46 G GaN LED 29-353 R H ray tracing 37-421 4-29 HBT 24-293 25-305 26-315 refraction 4-29 HBV 34-387 resonance diode 30-365 HEMT 27-329 Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diodes HJFET 27-329 (RCLED) 37-431 Holstein model 4-56 RTD diode 30-365 Hot Carrier 10-135 S I S-parameters 8-120 InGaAs/InP 24-293 Si/SiGe 4-46 InGaAsP APD 19-243 SiGe HBT 25-305 Interband tunneling 20-249 SiGe HBT2 26-315 Interband Tunneling 33-383 small size 14-173 solar cell 21-253 L spectrum 4-55 .

ii INDEX strained Si/SiGe 16-199 strained Si 16-199 strained silicon 4-46 system requirements 2-10 T Transient Simulation 9-127 Truncated-Inverted-Pyramid (TIP) LED 37-429 Tunneling Junction 33-383 U uniform model 4-21 using MOA 36-401 36-409 36-413 W waveguide PD 32-379 X xy-mode 4-21 Y y-mode 4-21 Y-parameters 8-120 Z Zener tunneling 20-249 .