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Threading (manufacturing

)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Threading is the process of creating a screw thread. More screw threads are produced each year
than any other machine element.[1] There are many methods of generating threads, including
subtractive methods (many kinds of thread cutting and grinding, as detailed below); deformative
or transformative methods (rolling and forming; molding and casting); additive methods (such as
3D printing); or combinations thereof.

Contents
 1 Overview of methods (comparison, selection, etc.)
 2 Subtractive methods
o 2.1 Thread cutting
 2.1.1 Taps and dies
 2.1.2 Single-point threading
 2.1.3 Thread milling
 2.1.3.1 Thrilling
o 2.2 Thread grinding
o 2.3 Thread lapping
o 2.4 Threading with EDM
 3 Deformative or transformative methods
o 3.1 Thread forming and rolling
o 3.2 Thread casting and molding
 4 Additive methods
 5 Combinations of subtractive, additive, deformative, or transformative methods
 6 Inspection
 7 History
o 7.1 Cold-rolling
 8 References
o 8.1 Bibliography
 9 Further reading
 10 External links

Overview of methods (comparison, selection, etc.)
There are various methods for generating screw threads. The method chosen for any one
application is chosen based on constraints—time, money, degree of precision needed (or not
needed), what equipment is already available, what equipment purchases could be justified based
on resulting unit price of the threaded part (which depends on how many parts are planned), etc.

In general, certain thread-generating processes tend to fall along certain portions of the spectrum
from toolroom-made parts to mass-produced parts, although there can be considerable overlap.

For example. then reverse the tap for about 1/6 of a turn (60 degrees) until the chips are broken by the back edges of the cutters. Therefore. It may be necessary to periodically remove the tap from the hole to clear the chips. when threading up to a shoulder is required.[2][3] Subtractive methods Thread cutting Thread cutting. the piece can either be held in a chuck or mounted between two centers. tap or die. thread lapping following thread grinding would fall only on the extreme toolroom end of the spectrum. is used when full thread depth is required. The process can be done to create external or internal threads (male or female). A hand tap cannot cut its threads in a single rotation because it creates long chips which quickly jam the tap (an effect known as "crowding"[citation needed] ). Unlike drill bits. In external thread cutting. when threading a tapered thread. Rolled threads are stronger than cut threads.[4] Taps and dies Main articles: Tap and die and Die head A common method of threading is cutting with taps and dies. while thread rolling is a large and diverse area of practice that is used for everything from microlathe leadscrews (somewhat pricey and very precise) to the cheapest deck screws (very affordable and with precision to spare). in manual thread cutting. the piece is held in a chuck.. Threads of metal fasteners are usually created on a thread rolling machine. For continuous tapping operations (i. when the blank is not very accurate. with increases of 10% to 20% in tensile strength and possibly more in fatigue resistance and wear resistance. The tool moves across the piece linearly. normal wrench usage is to cut the threads 1/2 to 2/3 of a turn (180 to 240 degree rotation). also colloquially called single-pointing (or just thread cutting when the context is implicit). With internal thread cutting. especially when a blind hole is threaded. possibly breaking it. The tool moves linearly while the precise rotation of the workpiece determines the lead of the thread. They may also be cut with a lathe. hand taps do not automatically remove the chips they create.e. Single-point threading Single-point threading. is an operation that uses a single-point tool to produce a thread form on a cylinder or cone. or when the material is brittle. when the quantity is small. power tapping) specialized spiral point or "gun" taps are used to eject the chips and prevent crowding. as compared to thread forming and rolling. Usually 5 to 7 light cuts create the correct depth of the thread. taking chips off the workpiece with each pass.[5] .

but because of the high speed and thus low unit cost of other methods (e. the process is quick and easy (relative to manual control) due to the machine's ability to constantly track the relationship of the tool position and spindle position (called "spindle synchronization"). Today engine lathes and CNC lathes are the commonly used machines for single-point threading.. CNC software includes "canned cycles". Thread milling A diagram of a solid single-form thread cutting tool A solid multiple-form thread milling cutter. tool offset.g.. tapping. .[7] if an unusual or unique thread is required. that obviate the manual programming of a single-point threading cycle. that is.g. and thread rolling and forming). On CNC machines.g.[6] Parameters are entered (e. preprogrammed subroutines. and change gears was the technological advance that allowed the invention of the screw-cutting lathe.. slide rest.The coordination of various machine elements including leadscrew.[7] or if there is a need for very high concentricity with other part features machined during the same setup[8]). and the machine does the rest. if only a few threads need to be made. length of thread). die threading. which was the origin of single-point threading as we know it today. thread size. All threading could feasibly be done using a single-point tool. single-point threading is usually only used when other factors of the manufacturing process happen to favor it (e.

and that a left. This process is mainly used on threads larger than 1. Form-milling uses either a single. with the first not being to the full thread depth. There are various types of thread milling. called thrilling. for large.[11] The part is usually a stationary workpiece. for the "arms" and "mouth" of the hydrant).[10] Another variant of form-milling involves holding the cutter's axis orthogonally (no canting to the thread's helix angle) and feeding the cutter in a toolpath that will generate the thread. less tool breakage.or right-hand thread can be created with the same tool. it became much more common. A similar variant using a multiple-form cutter exists. The toolpath is achieved either using helical interpolation (which is circular interpolation in one plane [typically XY] with simultaneous linear interpolation along a third axis [typically Z].The path a multiple-form thread cutting tool travels to create an external thread. or in two passes. such as a boss on a valve body (in external thread milling) or a hole in a plate or block (in internal thread milling). the CNC control model must be . and it was suitable for mass-production work although uncommon in job-shop work.5 in (38 mm). the single-form cutter is tilted to the helix angle of the thread and then fed radially into the blank. or single-pointing. die heads.or multiple-form cutter. The blank is then slowly rotated as the cutter is precisely moved along the axis of the blank. are faster cycle times. This was formerly arranged mechanically. fast. With the widespread dissemination of affordable. It is commonly used to cut large-lead or multiple-lead threads. including several variants of form-milling and a combination of drilling and threading with one cutter. Some advantages of thread milling. Using a multiple-form cutter is faster than using a single-form cutter but it is limited to threads with a helix angle less than 3°. as opposed to rigging it up for rotation around the axis of each set of threads (that is. The cutter must be longer than the desired thread length. but the cutter and toolpath are arranged specifically to define the "contour" of a thread. which cuts the thread into the blank. as compared to single-point cutting or taps and dies. In one variant of form-milling. and today internal and external threads are often milled even on work where they would formerly have been cut with taps. it is simply easier to let the workpiece sit stationary on a table while all needed machining operations are performed on it with rotating tools. awkward workpieces (such as a fire hydrant casting). if the cutter is fed to the full thread depth. It is also limited to blanks of a substantial diameter and no longer than 2 in (51 mm). precise CNC. in which the process completes the thread in one revolution around the blank. This type of thread milling uses essentially the same concept as contouring with an endmill or ball-nose mill.[9] Additionally. This can be done in one pass. Threads may be milled with a rotating milling cutter if the correct helical toolpath can be arranged.

solid cutters are generally limited to holes larger than 6 mm (0.[14] or with a straight or tapered cutter (of single. Finally.24 in). tool- holder. The disadvantage is that the process is limited to hole depth no greater than three times the diameter of the tool. while the body has a thread-shaped form with a countersink cutter form near the shank.[17] Thread grinding Thread grinding is done on a grinding machine using specially dressed grinding wheels matching the shape of the threads. Then the blank is slowly rotated through approximately 1.[16] The advantage is this process eliminates a tool. This tool drills. Then the thread is circularly interpolated just like the multiple-form cutter described above. and threads a hole all in one compact cycle. To complete the thread multiple passes are commonly required. a common application is ball screw mechanisms. and tool change. although multiple ribbed wheels are also available. Common centerless thread grinding production rates are 60 to 70 pieces per minute for a 0. the grinding wheel is fed into the blank to the full thread depth.or multiple-form) whose toolpath is one or more revolutions but cannot use helical interpolation and must use CAD/CAM software to generate a contour-like simulation of helical interpolation.[12] The cutter geometry reflects the thread pitch but not its lead. The disadvantage is the cycle time is generally longer than solid tools. It is similar to cutting a thread on a lathe with a single-point cutting tool. chamfers. Center-type grinding with an axial feed is the most common of the three. Note that solid multiple-form thread cutting tools look similar to taps. but they differ in that the cutting tool does not have a backtaper and there is not a lead-in chamfer.[17] .5 in (13 mm) long set screw. The cutting tool tip is shaped like a drill or center-cutting endmill. For internal threads. The blanks are hopper-fed to the grinding wheels.[13] and indexable internal thread cutting tools are limited to holes larger than 12 mm (0. This lack of a lead-in chamfer allows the threads to be formed within one pitch length of the bottom of a blind hole.[14] The tooling used for thread milling can be solid or indexable.[13] Tapered threads can be cut either with a tapered multiple-form cutter that completes the thread in one revolution using helical interpolation.[citation needed] There are three types: center-type grinding with axial feed. the centerless thread grinding process is used to make head-less set screws in a similar method as centerless grinding. the lead (thread helix angle) is determined by the toolpath. Center-type infeed thread grinding use a grinding wheel with multiple ribs that is longer than the length of the desired thread. The cutter first plunges to drill the hole.47 in). except the cutting tool is replaced with a grinding wheel. First. center-type infeed thread grinding and centerless thread grinding. The advantage is that when the insert wears out it is easily and more cost effectively replaced. Usually a single ribbed wheel is used.[15] Thrilling Thrilling is the process of threading and drilling (accomplished in the reverse order) internal threads using a specialized cutting tool on a CNC mill.one that supports using the third axis)[11] or a simulation of it using extremely small increments of 3-axes linear interpolation (which is not practical to program manually but can be programmed easily with CAD/CAM software). The process is usually used to produce accurate threads or threads in hard materials. where the thread is fully formed.5 turns while axially advancing through one pitch per revolution.

This is a toolroom practice when the highest precision is required. rarely employed except for the leadscrews or ballscrews of high-end machine tools. thread cutting or grinding (usually the latter) will be followed by thread lapping in order to achieve the highest precision and surface finish achievable.Thread lapping Rarely. Threading with EDM Internal threads can be electrical discharge machined (EDM) into hard materials using a sinker style machine. Deformative or transformative methods Thread forming and rolling The thread forming and rolling concept .

2nd ed.[17] A rolled thread can often be easily recognized because the thread has a larger diameter than the blank rod from which it has been made. The bottom one is held stationary and the other slides. Tolerances are typically ±0. this increases the thread's yield strength. Stanley FA (eds) (1914): American Machinists' Handbook. commonly called a 'thread rolling die' against the blank.[3] Materials are limited to ductile materials because the threads are cold formed. hardness. The flat die system has two flat dies. by weight. These processes are used for large production runs because typical production rates are around one piece per second. New York and London: McGraw-Hill. three-die cylindrical. and planetary dies.[18] There are four main types of thread rolling. The blank is placed on one end of the stationary die and then the moving die slides over the blank. materials with good deformation characteristics are necessary for rolling.[17] Also. such as cast iron. Thread forming and thread rolling are processes for forming screw threads. and wear resistance. Summarizes screw thread rolling practice as of 1914. but tolerances as tight as ±0. named after the configuration of the dies: flat dies. Surface finishes range from 6 to 32 micro-inches.025 mm). two-die cylindrical.015 mm) are achievable. However. In both of these processes threads are formed into a blank by pressing a shaped tool. surface finish. Forming and rolling produce no swarf and less material is required because the blank size starts smaller than a blank required for cutting threads. necks and undercuts can be cut or rolled onto blanks with threads that are not rolled. however.Page 23 of Colvin FH. Also. (±0. these materials include softer (more ductile) metals and exclude brittle materials. with the former referring to creating internal threads and the latter external threads.001 in. the end of the screw usually looks a bit different from the end of a cut-thread screw. which causes the blank to roll .0006 in (±0. there is typically a 15 to 20% material savings in the blank. in a process similar to knurling.

a change in blank diameter will affect the major diameter by an approximate ratio of 3 to 1. can jam and break the tap. The second type takes the form of a self-opening die head. Production rates are usually three to five times faster than thread cutting. The two-die cylindrical process is used to produce threads up to 6 in (150 mm) in diameter and 20 in (510 mm) in length.[citation needed]  Flat die thread rolling  Planetary thread rolling . Planetary dies are used to mass-produce threads up to 1 in (25 mm) in diameter. which are tougher to tap with a cutting tap due to the chip build-up in the hole. there is no need to periodically back out the tap to clear away chips.[4][17] Thread forming is performed using a fluteless tap. or roll tap.between the two dies forming the threads. Before the moving die reaches the end of its stroke the blank rolls off the stationary die in a finished form. This type of process is commonly employed on turret lathes and screw machines. Note that the tap drill size differs from that used for a cutting tap and that an accurate hole size is required because a slightly undersized hole can break the tap. the first has the three dies move radially out from the center to let the blank enter the dies and then closes and rotates to roll the threads. therefore a lubricating oil is used instead of cutting oil. in a cutting tap. Thus thread forming is particularly suited to tapping blind holes.[19] which closely resembles a cutting tap without the flutes. but is limited by not being able form the last 1. This type is more common than the former. There are two types of three-die processes. There are lobes periodically spaced around the tap that actually do the thread forming as the tap is advanced into a properly sized hole.[2][4] When considering the blank diameter tolerance. Proper lubrication is essential because of the frictional forces involved. which. Since the tap does not produce chips.5 to 2 threads against shoulders.

When the material freezes in the mold. threaded bar stock In casting Planetary dies High volumes screws. The material is heated to a liquid. and drive screws and molding the threads are directly formed by the geometry of the mold cavity in the mold or die. Alternately. . or mixed with a liquid that will either dry or cure (such as plaster or cement). as with graphite. threaded bar stock Cylindrical in-feed 3 dies Tube fitting. tapping and wood screws and molding Cylindrical in-feed 2 dies Large or balanced screws.  Two-die cylindrical rolling  Production rates[5][18] Thread diameter Flat dies Cylindrical Planetary [in. spark plugs. the material may be forced into a mold as a powder and compressed into a solid.] [pieces/min] [pieces/min] [pieces/min] 1/8 40 to 500 75 to 300 450 to 2000 1/4 40 to 400 60 to 150 250 to 1200 1/2 25 to 90 50 to 100 100 to 400 3/4 20 to 60 5 to 10 - 1 15 to 50 1 to 50 - Three-die cylindrical rolling Tool styles Thread Description Application casting Flat dies Machine. it retains the shape after the mold is removed. sheet metal screws.

but with molded plastic or die-cast metal. beverages. single-pointing.) Whether or not to bother with the additional expense of a machining operation depends on the application. direct manufacturing. digital fabrication. where selective laser sintering and selective laser melting have produced threaded titanium implants. or transformative methods are combined in whatever ways are advantageous. or transformative methods Often subtractive. it has not been long since they emerged from the laboratory end of their historical development. instant manufacturing. additive. deformative. With sand casting parts this means a rather rough finish. threaded parts have potential to be generated via additive manufacturing (3D printing). Such multidisciplinary manufacturing falls under classifications including rapid prototyping. the machining is forgone in order to achieve a lower cost. when plastic bottles for food. selective laser sintering. electron beam melting. selective laser melting. For parts where the extra precision and surface finish is not strictly necessary. deformative. of which there are many variants. additive. and other consumer products are considered. (The same can be said of cast gear teeth. A common example of molded plastic threads is on soda (pop) bottles. Additive methods Many. For most additive technologies. or may be left in the as-cast state. including fused deposition modeling. direct metal laser sintering. this fact highlights the importance of the moldmakers getting the mold just right (in preparation for millions of cycles. Inspection .Although the first thoughts that come to mind for most machinists regarding threading are of thread cutting processes (such as tapping. layered object manufacturing. direct digital manufacturing. or helical milling). and stereolithography. or on-demand manufacturing. However. A common example of die-cast threads is on cable glands (connectors/fittings). but further commercialization is picking up speed. Smid points out that. the threads can be very nice indeed straight from the mold or die. most additive methods tend to produce a rough surface finish and tend to be restricted in the material properties that they can produce. Cast threads in metal parts may be finished by machining. usually at high speed). the capabilities are continually growing. desktop manufacturing.[20] Of course. personal care products. and thus their earliest commercial victories have been in parts for which those restrictions were acceptable. it is actually plastic molding that is the principal method (by sheer volume) of thread generation in manufacturing today. To date. perhaps most. Combinations of subtractive. Good examples of threaded parts produced with additive manufacturing are found in the dental implant and bone screw fields.

and quality assurance and quality control can be achieved using statistical process control. The 3-wire method is also used when high precision is needed to inspect a specific diameter. commonly the pitch diameter. are made for various thread angles. surface plates and height gauges. gauge blocks. which involves placing 3 short pieces of wire (or gauge pins) of known diameter into the valleys of the thread and then measuring from wire to wire with standard (flat) anvils. Shop-floor inspection of a thread is often as simple as running a nut onto it (for male threads) or a bolt into it (for female threads). and coordinate-measuring machines (CMMs). History Each method of thread generation has its own detailed history. Commercial-grade inspection of screw threads can involve most of the same inspection methods and tools used to inspect other manufactured products. A conversion factor (produced by a straightforward trigonometric calculation) is then multiplied with the measured value to infer a measurement of the thread's pitch diameter.. Users who lack thread mics rely instead on the "3-wire method". although it is not good enough for most commercial manufacturing. less cumbersome to use). Sand casting > History)  Grinding (abrasive cutting) and its family of articles  Additive manufacturing > Historical development and broadening applications . or on specialty threads such as multi-start or when the thread angle is not 60°. for example. so today a user need only take the measurement and then perform the table lookup (as opposed to recalculating each time). Tables of these conversion factors were established many decades ago for all standard thread sizes. vernier or dial calipers.Inspection of the finished screw threads can be achieved in various ways. Higher-precision methods are discussed below. Even industrial radiography (including industrial CT scanning) can be used. This is plenty good enough for many applications (e. a comprehensive discussion is beyond the scope of this article. including:  Screw > History  Screw-cutting lathe > History  Automatic lathe > History  Screw thread > History of standardization  Turret lathe [various sections]  Casting (metalworking) and its family of articles (e.g. specifically suited to resting on the sides of the thread. but much historical information is available in related articles. white light scanners. optical comparators. Digital calipers and micrometers can send each measurement (data point) as it occurs to storage or software through an interface (such as USB or RS-232). in which case the table lookup is done in an automated way. with the expense of the method tailored to the requirements of the product application. such as micrometers. with 60° being the most common. Conical micrometer anvils. to inspect internal thread geometry in the way that an optical comparator can inspect external thread geometry.. Ball-shaped micrometer anvils can be used in similar fashion (same trigonometric relationship.g. Therefore. Mics with such anvils are usually called "thread mics" or "pitch mics" (because they directly measure the pitch diameter). MRO or hobbyist work).

1842   Degarmo. Patent no.Y.   See:  William Keane. Black & Kohser 2003.   Green 1996. 324.   Smid 2008. "Improvement in machines for cutting wood. 149–150.com/Volume-3/Screw. 1836). p. Allen & Alting 1994. rapid prototyping. 741.   Degarmo.   Smid 2008.   Degarmo. 443. Video download . Instructions for Using Milling Machine Accessories. which is brittle. direct digital manufacturing. Cutwel. Black & Kohser 2003.Cutwel. New York filed a patent for the cold-rolling of threads on wood screws. p.   Smid 2008.   "The Ins and Outs to Indexable Thread Milling".   Smid 2008.[23] Further efforts to cold-roll threads on screws followed. Harwood of Utica. 755. of Providence.   Stephenson & Agapiou 1997.. digital fabricator.g. www.   Smid 2008. Rhode Island made further refinements to the process of rolling threads onto screws. Black & Kohser 2003." U.   Todd.uk. Black & Kohser 2003. p. solid freeform fabrication)  List of emerging technologies Cold-rolling The first patent for the cold rolling of screw threads was issued in 1836 to William Keane of Monroe. pp. p.[21][22] However.madehow. p. p. p. p.   Stephenson & Agapiou 2006. 13. pp. 433–442.J. "Sherline End Mill Holders". the dies for rolling the threads onto the screw blanks were made of cast iron. 754.Threading. 260.  Degarmo. . 2009   Sherline (1996).   Komet customer.S. pp. 756. p.[26] References 1. Black & Kohser 2003.co.  Various specific additive manufacturing articles (e. when Harvey J. 9. Retrieved 2010-02-25.html Accessed on January 11.and other screws. 3D printing. 1828–1830. N. so the machine was not successful.   Degarmo. Sherline. filed his patents of 1880 and 1881. 235–236. 758. The process languished until 1867. p. 435.398X (issued: Feb. p. Rogers of the American Screw Co. Allen & Alting 1994.[24] but none seemed to meet with much success until Hayward Augustus Harvey (1824-1893) of Orange. pp.   Todd. N. 442.[25] Charles D.   http://www.   Green 1996.

Harvey. Rogers (July 11." U. "Improvement in wood-screw machines." U.  Treat T. 1875 . has in conjunction with Mr. issued: August 15.   See. page 2. Harwood states: "In the manufacture of wood-screws the thread has been formed hitherto by removing the metal between the turns of the thread by means of dies or cutters.532 (issued: Dec.710 (issued: May 12. Patent 77. 1901) "Development of the wood screw. and set in motion. Their construction is simple. 27. 1836. 15. 1867). and when it obtains its proper thread.567 (issued: June 11. Alden. 1868). without changing their rotary motion. reprinted in: The Pittsburgh Gazette. 34 (28) : 20-21. 1870). Prosser. see:  Charles D. suitably formed."   For a brief review of the history of screw making. 1880)." Apparently Harwood and the patent examiner were ignorant of Keane's 1836 patent. "Machine for rolling threads of screws or bolts. They are now in operation at Selleck & Keane's Screw Factory. From page 2: "Important Invention. Boston. as it is difficult to spoil one upon them." U. Haverstraw. and upon which a boy can turn off thirty gross per day. obtained letters patent for a machine for cutting screws.of Haverstraw. William Keane. and we understand that one. by means of which the thread is impressed on the blank without removing any part of the metal." The Iron Trade Review. "Improvements in machines for rolling screw-threads on bolts and rods. which probably excels any thing of the kind now in use in Europe or America. "Improved screw machine.  Christopher White (ca.S. containing four sets of dies. Massachusetts). Thaddeus Sellick of Haverstraw. . By my invention the blank is rotated between rotating or reciprocating dies.S.Y.  James M. N.Y. Beecher. can be built at a cost not exceeding $150. Patent no.010 (filed: Dec. These dies receive the screw at the top of a cast iron pot in which they are secured. which have a motion towards each other. 1876). at Samsondale. the dies preserving their usual velocity. it is thrown off by means of an inner spindle.S.   Harvey J.e. 2005) "Observations on the development of wood screws in North America" (Museum of Fine Art .   See:  Hayward A. Mr.. 1879 .]. Patent 110. Patent 223.  The screw "cutting" machine of William Keane and his partner. Patent 181.S. while. Harwood." U. March 19. The principle of the machine consists in circular dies.S. "Improved machine for threading bolts. New York). 65. 20. in this town [i. N.730 (filed: Oct. and another instantly takes its place. The saving of screws is another important consideration in favor of these machines. issued: Jan. Thaddeus Selleck." U. they make upwards of 500 revolutions a minute. at the same time. 30. for example:  Benjamin D. is mentioned in the North River Times (Haverstraw. In his patent.

New York and London: McGraw-Hill. "Machinery for rolling screw-threads." pages 41-53. Further reading  Colvin. Various republications (paperback. New Haven. NY. (2003). Harvey." U. Connecticut: Yale University Press. Dell K.  Rybczynski. et al. Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide. New York and London.. Joseph Wickham (1937). Materials and Processes in Manufacturing (9th ed.. Agapiou.  Hawyard A. ISBN 978-0-8247-9579-5. Metal cutting theory and practice. "Die for rolling screw-threads.165 (filed: April 7. LCCN 00036988. J T.  Charles D. Available as a reprint from Lindsay Publications (ISBN 978-0-917914-86-7). 26. New York. (2006).. 1887). Letter to the Editor: "Inventor of the gimlet screw?" 183.). 20.). Peter (2008). New York.  Stephenson. Patent no. Harvey. Kohser. David A. Bibliography  Degarmo.. New York. CNC Programming Handbook (3rd ed. Foreword by Ralph Flanders.  Todd. David A.  Roe. ISBN 978-0-8247-5888-2. John S. link from HathiTrust.] (August 28. Sixty Years with Men and Machines. English and American Tool Builders. ISBN 978-0-684-86729-8. Witold (2000).).  Smid. ISBN 9780831133474. OCLC 462234518.  [Anon." Scientific American. Illinois. ISBN 978-0-8311-2575-2.. Robert H.S. Industrial Press Inc. 77 (9) : 133 . (1997). Robert E.S. ISBN 0-471-65653-4. (1947).  Green. issued: October 11. 1926 (LCCN 27-24075). One good turn: a natural history of the screwdriver and the screw. (ISBN 978-0-917914-73-7). Allen. "The Rolled Screw. Ronald A. Fred H. Patent no.  Roe. LCCN 47003762. Leo (1994). Marcel Dekker. braille. and by Lindsay Publications. John S. E. 370. Agapiou.  Stephenson. LCCN 37016470..). OCLC 3456642.354 (filed: May 11. LCCN 2007045901. New York: Industrial Press. Metal cutting theory and practice (2nd ed. LCCN 16011753. Joseph Wickham (1916). USA: American Society of Mechanical Engineers.  Thomas Wm. External links  A video of thread milling with a single-form cutting tool . etc). Bradley. CRC Press. 1881. 1881). Reprinted by McGraw-Hill. 1897) "Hayward Augustus Harvey. Memoir of Hayward Augustus Harvey (New York: 1900). USA: Industrial Press. Black. ISBN 0-8311-3049-0. Scribner. Paul. . issued: Sept. (eds) (1996)... 1887 . James Hartness: A Representative of the Machine Age at Its Best. 248. Wiley. Inc. Alting. e-book. Machinery's Handbook (25 ed. Rogers." U.

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