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1 Natural vegetation
1.1 Tropical Evergreen and Semi Evergreen Forests
1.2 Tropical Deciduous Forests
1.3 Tropical Thorn Forests
1.4 The Montane Forests
1.5 Littoral and Swamp Forests
2 Forest Cover in India
3 Forest Conservation
4 National Forest Policy 1988
5 Social Forestry
6 Community forestry
7 Farm Forestry
8 Wildlife and Its Conservation
9 Protected Area Network in India
10 Biosphere Reserves
10.1 Functions of biosphere reserve
10.2 Structure and Design of Biosphere Reserves
10.3 Difference between Biosphere reserve and Protect Area(National Park, Sanctuary etc.)
10.4 Difference between Biosphere reserve and a natural World Heritage site?
10.5 Benefits of biosphere reserves
11 UPSC Questions Covered

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approx around 70 percent. The under-growing climbers provide an fo evergreen character to these forests. H IS AN The semi evergreen forests are found in the less rainy parts of these regions. kail. The main s ti species in the semi-evergreen forests are cedar. in the northern states and in the cu Andaman and Nicobar Islands. canes. The M trees have a multi-storeyed structure with good canopy. bamboo. Tropical Thorn forests iv. Behind UCO Bank. etc. KA ferns. fine- on grained and of high economic value. However. Littoral and Swamp forests ) om 1. 1st Floor. Thus. 2nd Floor. Assam. These forests are less dense and can be easily exploited. in the past thousand years. Due to dense growth of trees. Ansal Building. Montane forests v. The semi-evergreen forests which are more gregarious are do found along the lower slopes of eastern Himalaya Mountains. durable. ©Vision IAS . lianas. Apsara Arcade. structure and requirements. palms. coconut. The natural vegetation adapts to the constraints of natural environment in size. Tropical Evergreen and Semi Evergreen forests ii.evergreen a forest is hard. with a short dry season.c ai Tropical Evergreen and Semi Evergreen Forests are found mainly in the areas where the annual gm @ rainfall is more than 200 cm. These forests E( BL are very dense and composed of tall trees reaching upto the height of about 60 metres. Delhi Mukherjee Nagar: 103. but those which have come from outside are called the exotic plants. etc. the undergrowth mainly consists of canes. The overall climate of India is suitable for the growth of forests1. 09717162595 1 www. etc. The sh ni general climatic conditions should be hot and humid.1 Tropical Evergreen and Semi Evergreen Forests l. 09968029039. The relative humidity should also be high.visionias. Rajinder Nagar: 1/8-B. 1 The original natural vegetation. Natural vegetation is an important natural resource which refers to a plant community that has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time. Karol Bagh Metro. rs pe ebony. As India is situated in tropical latitudes and has diverse temperature and rainfall regimes. Western is Th coast and neighbouring hills. hillock. Near Gate 6. Delhi-9 09650617807. ed is al The timber from the tropical evergreen and semi. On the basis of climate and relief the natural vegetation of India can be divided in the following types: i. Orissa coast. The natural vegetation in India ranges from the one that is found in the tropical region to that found in the Arctic region. ka im The trees in these regions are generally evergreen and do not shed their leaves. B/1-2. the KA sunlight cannot reach the ground. The true evergreen forests are en m mostly found along the western side of the Western Ghats. Indian climate and relief has made natural vegetation and animal life interdependent on each other and they form a single ecosystem which has evolved through thousands of years. Tropical Deciduous forests iii. bamboos. which are purely native are called the endemic plants. various types of human activities have altered these natural climatic formations in the country to a large extent. Student Notes: 1] Natural vegetation Nature has gifted our country with a large variety of natural resources. cinchona. climbers. The average annual temperature should ka be above 22 °C. rubber. The important trees of these forests are rosewood. Such forests have rK a mixture of evergreen and moist deciduous trees.

The roots penetrate deep into the soil to fo ed get moisture. en m including semi-arid areas of Gujarat. s ti khagri. mahua. bamboo. Chhattisgarh and on the eastern slopes of the sh Western Ghats. sal. etc. The mountain forests can be broadly classified into two major categories the forests in the Himalayan ranges and the forests in the peninsular plateaus and hill ranges. These forests also grow on the leeward side of Western Ghats. neem. apart from those in the moist deciduous forests. Ansal Building. is covering large areas in Maharashtra. etc. The trees are scattered and have long roots. Karnataka. fires.e. Th 1. Large tracts of these forests have been cleared to provide more land for agricultural purposes and have also suffered from ) om severe biotic factors. 09717162595 2 www. Behind UCO Bank. babul. Karol Bagh Metro.visionias. Madhya Pradesh. 09968029039. with mean annual temperature of about 27 °C.3 Tropical Thorn Forests M KA Tropical Thorn Forests are found mainly in those areas where the average annual rainfall is less KA than 50 cm. kanju. The tropical deciduous forests are commercially most exploited. The average annual temperature ranges between 25 °C and H IS 30 °C and the relative humidity is low. The moist deciduous forests are found in areas receiving rainfall between 100 cm and 200 cm. neem. The important trees in the moist deciduous forests are teak. The dry deciduous forests are more open stretches and also have pipal. southwestern cu do Punjab and western Haryana. arjun. while the dry deciduous forests are found in areas having 70 cm to 100 cm of average annual rainfall. which retards evaporation. The tropical deciduous forests are commercially most important as they yield valuable timber and a variety of other forest products. Rajasthan. im E( BL 1. these forests are further divided into moist and dry deciduous forests. along the foothills of @ ka the Himalaya Mountains. mulberry. dharman. Delhi Mukherjee Nagar: 103. There is not much scope for thick and tall forests due to the shortage of rK moisture. Uttar Pradesh. Rajinder Nagar: 1/8-B. al on rs The main trees found in the tropical thorn forests are acacias. l. kheijra. Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. kusum. i. pe Other important trees include khair. 1st Floor. palas. Delhi-9 09650617807. The tropical deciduous forests are most widespread in India.4 The Montane Forests The natural vegetation in the mountains is greatly influenced by the decrease in temperature with increase in height above sea level. with a long dry season. less than 50 per cent. The leaves are mostly thick and small. 2nd Floor. The trees have is thick bark and their wood is generally used as ©Vision IAS .2 Tropical Deciduous Forests Tropical Deciduous Forests are the monsoon forests and are found mainly in the areas where the average annual rainfall ranges between 70 cm and 200 cm. B/1-2. The trees in the deciduous forests shed their leaves for about 6 to 8 weeks during the spring and early summer seasons (March-April). shisham. Jharkhand. The tropical thorn forests are found in the northwestern parts of the country. sandalwood.c ai gm The moist deciduous forests are found mainly in the north-eastern states. The dry deciduous forests are found mainly in the rainier parts of the ni ka peninsular plateau and the plains of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. On the basis of availability of water. overgrazing. west Orissa. Student Notes: 1. Apsara Arcade. Near Gate 6. The average annual relative humidity should be 60 to 75 per cent. such as over-cutting. etc. nirmali. tendu. euphorbias and cacti. Enough light reaches the ground to permit the growth of grasses and climbers. The natural vegetation is thorny AN trees and bushes. palms. khair. During this period sufficient moisture is not available for the leaves.

Apsara Arcade. Between the height of 1000 m and 2000 m. Silver firs.500 m above the sea level. mosses and lichens form part of vegetation. Krishna ka im and Kaveri rivers. Mangroves grow along the BL M coasts in the salt marshes. pines and birches are common varieties of trees. one can notice a succession of natural vegetation belts.5 Littoral and Swamp Forests ka sh ni These forests are found in and around the deltas of the Ganga. This is due to relatively higher precipitation. are KA being encroached upon. the Vindhyas and the Nilgiris. The temperate forests are called Sholas in the Nilgiris. coniferous forests and grasslands give way to the alpine vegetation. 2nd Floor. cinchona and wattle. In the peninsular India. such as pine. boating. Rajinder Nagar: 1/8-B. Many people visit these areas for s ti en sports fishing. through the shrubs and scrubs. Godavari. deodar. Behind UCO Bank. as we see in the tropical to the tundra region. The southern slopes of the Himalaya Mountains have denser forests than the north facing areas. (ii) When an area supports hydrophytic vegetation.offer nutrients to the marine food web and provide spawning rs grounds to a variety of fish and shellfish. al on reptiles. As a ai gm result of these efforts the former bare areas today have vegetal cover. laurel. spruce and cedar are found. These areas are prone to tidal influences. the mountain forests are found in the three district areas—the Western Ghats. tidal creeks.c plantations have been developed and many useful trees have been planted in recent years. viz. m cu Wetlands do is Wetlands are lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic system where the water table is Th usually or near the water surface and land is covered by shallow water. vegetation is temperate in the higher regions and subtropical on the lower regions of the Western Ghats. Mangrove pe forests are also important in terms of aesthetics and ©Vision IAS .visionias. @ 1. They are also known to absorb pollutants. B/1-2. Mangroves ed is host a number of threatened or endangered species. amphibians and bird. Annamalai and Palani hills. silver fir. Mahanadi. especially in Kerala. different animal species. and water currents and protect coral reefs. snorkelling. At higher altitudes. Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. including several commercial species. As they are closer to the tropics. need conservation. and only 1.. the coniferous trees. and other recreational pursuits. Near Gate 6. and hence. They also occur in tidal creeks and E( coastal areas where mud. Ultimately these forests merge into alpine grasslands. Karol Bagh Metro. sea-grass fo bed and shipping lanes against siltation. Identification of wetlands can be attributed to the following three main factors. Mangroves protect the rK coast against erosion due to wind. Now the tea l. (iii) When an area has hydric soils that are saturated or flooded for a sufficiently long period to become anaerobic in the upper layers. At attitudes above 3600 m. The coniferous forests cover the southern slopes of Himalayas and parts of northeast India. Student Notes: In the Himalaya Mountains. The grasslands are extensively used by the nomadic tribes like the Gujjars and the Bakarwals for grazing livestock. Between the height of 1500 m and 3000 m. Some of the other trees of this ) om forest of economic significance include magnolia. These forests too. Delhi Mukherjee Nagar: 103. At higher elevations (about 3600 m above sea level) temperate grasslands are common. (i) When an area is permanently or periodically inundated. silt and saline water have accumulated. The word 'shola' is probably derived from the Tamil language word ‘colai’ meaning grove. 09717162595 3 www. waves. junipers. bird watching. mud flats and estuaries. They are highly developed in KA the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Sunder bans of West Bengal.mammals. Ansal Building. The shola-forest and grassland complex has been described as a climatic climax vegetation. H IS AN Mangrove ecosystem acts as Buffer Zone between the land and sea. the evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oak and chestnut predominate. 1st Floor. Delhi-9 09650617807. 09968029039.

Near Gate 6. (vi) the floodplains of the Brahmaputra. with the water that is static or flowing. etc. slowing the onset of global warming.76%) Rajinder Nagar: 1/8-B. fuelwood.05%) + Tree Cover(2. sea grasses. (vii) the lakes and rivers of the Montane region of Kashmir and Ladakh. slowing the flow of surface water and reducing the l. Student Notes: On these criteria. peat-land or water. (iii) freshwater lakes and reservoirs from Gujarat eastwards through Rajasthan (Keoladeo National Park) and Madhya Pradesh. fish.812 per cent of IS AN the total land area of the country. 09968029039. they are valuable for their educational and scientific interest and provide ni durable timber.visionias. In terms of percentage cu do of forest cover in relation to total geographical area. (iv) the delta wetlands and lagoons of India’s east coast (Chilika Lake). a fresh brackish or salt including areas of marine water. is al While the former is based on the records of the State Revenue Department. 2nd Floor. (ii) the vast saline expanses of Rajasthan. and (viii) the mangrove forest and other wetlands of the island arcs of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. vegetables and traditional ka im medicines. Delhi Mukherjee Nagar: 103. edible fruits. They are primary habitat for hundreds of species of waterfowl as well as many other birds. creeks. Ramsar Convention defines Wetlands as areas of marsh or fen. protein rich fodder for cattle. the forest area covers 23. (i) the reservoirs of the Deccan Plateau in the south together with the lagoons and other wetlands of the southern west coast. Behind UCO Bank.56%. The state of Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover in the country at m 77. Ansal Building. corals. The forest area is the area notified and recorded as the forest land irrespective of the fo ed existence of trees. 09717162595 4 www. Apsara Arcade.. Mangroves. Delhi-9 09650617807. the marshes and swamps in the hills of northeast India and the Himalayan foothills. Th 2 India State of Forest Report 2011 Forest Cover (21. 1st ©Vision IAS .700 square km followed by Arunachal Pradesh at 67. Wetlands naturally filter and recharge the water that later comes out of our faucets ) om downstream. and they buffer water bodies from ai gm potentially damaging land use activities such as agriculture. Mizoram tops with 90. Gujarat and the Gulf of Kachchh. which is much below the average of about 30. (v) the freshwater marshes of the Gangetic Plain. permanent or temporary. B/1-2. Wetlands are essential ecological features in any landscape. 410 square km. They act like giant sponges. whether artificial or natural. rs pe Both forest area and forest cover varies from state to state.4 per cent for rK the world. Two sites — Chilika Lake (Odisha) and Keoladeo National Park (Bharatpur) are protected as water-fowl habitats under the Convention of Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Convention). Wetlands also prevent soil erosion. bays. E( BL M KA 2] Forest Cover in India KA H According to the records of the Government of India. are covered under this definition. while the actual forest cover is the area occupied by forests with canopy.c impact of flooding. ka sh Apart from that. flood plans. the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meter. viz. the latter is based on on aerial photographs and satellite imageries. Wetlands in India: The country’s wetlands have been grouped into eight categories. mammals and insects. estuaries.68% followed by is Lakshadweep with 84. India has only 2% of the total s ti en world’s forest. lakes. Karol Bagh Metro. And wetlands can remove and @ store greenhouse gases from the Earth’s atmosphere.

95%).56%. Nagaland (80.34%).02%).16%).81% of the geographical area of the country.29 million ha.64%).68%).37%).46%). Daman concentration & Diu (5.64%).94%). Apsara Arcade. 12 states/UTs (mainly the NE states) have shown decrease to the extent of 867sqkm. Tamil Nadu (18.700 square km followed by Aruncachal Pradesh at 67.28%).in ©Vision IAS . AN Chhattisgarh (41.68% followed by Lakshadweed with 84. M > 40 Meghalaya (77. ed concentration 20. 410 square km.72%) en 10-20 m West Bengal (14. Lakshadweep (84. Kerala (44.21%) is al 40 on rs pe (iii) The region of low Karnataka (18.87%). cu do Jammu & Kashmir (10. Goa (59.52%). Near Gate 6. Arunachal Pradesh (80. The total growing stock of India’s forests and trees outside forests is estimated as 6047. which is 23.18%) rK fo (ii) The region of medium Assam (35.c four regions: ai gm The Region and Percentage States @ Cover of the Forest ka sh ni ka im (i) The region of high Mizoram (90. Decline of 281 sqkm in Forest cover of Andhra Pradesh is mainly attributed to harvesting of mature plantation of Eucalyptus & other species. 1st Floor. Uttarakhand H IS (45.56%). after taking into account the interpretational changes. Delhi Mukherjee Nagar: 103. 15 states have registered aggregate increase of 5000sqkm in their forest cover with Punjab leading with increase of 100sqkm. 09968029039. Delhi-9 09650617807.97%).33%). 09717162595 5 www. Jharkhand (28.86%). Rajasthan (4. Student Notes: India State of Forest Report 2011 Released The Forest Survey of India (FSI) has been publishing a series of biennial assessment report the forest cover in the country since 1987. 2nd Floor. Karol Bagh Metro. the Forest and Tree cover of the country is 78.42 million cu m outside the recorded forests. 4498.5%). As per the present assessment. Sikkim (47. ) om On the basis of the percentage of the actual forest cover. Maharashtra (16. The state of Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover in the country at 77.15 million cu m i.46%).27%).73 million cu m inside the recorded forest area and 1548.visionias. A & N Islands E( BL concentration (81. Andhra Pradesh s ti concentration (16. Madhya Pradesh (25.51%). Haryana (3. Mizoram tops with 90.04%).49%).88%).43%). Decline in Forest cover of NE is particularly due to prevailing practice of shifting cultivation in this region. Orissa (31. Dadra & Nagar Haveli (42. Delhi (11.8%).54%) KA KA Tripura (76.5%) Rajinder Nagar: 1/8-B. Puducherry (10. Manipur (76. Uttar Pradesh (5. In terms of percentage of forest cover in relation to total geographical area. there is a decrease of 367 square km in country’s forest cover.82%). Ansal Building. In comparison to the 2009 assessment. Behind UCO Bank.e.14%) is Th (iv)The region of very low Gujarat (7. Chandigarh(14.7%). Punjab < 10 (3. the states have been grouped into l.41%). B/1-2. Bihar (7. Himachal Pradesh (26.

fuel. stop felling of trees and thus. sh These are urban forestry. thus. reduce pressure on the existing forest. 4] National Forest Policy 1988 India adopted a forest policy in 1952. fodder and food available to rural population dependant on forests. strips along railway lines. B/1-2. do is Th 7] Farm Forestry: It is a term applied to the process under which farmers grow trees for commercial and non- commercial purposes on their farm lands. (iii) conserving the natural heritage of the country. Apsara Arcade. etc.The forest policy of the Government of India aims at: (i) bringing 33 per cent of the geographical areas under forest cover. its biological diversity and genetic pool. 09717162595 6 www. ni ka im Urban forestry pertains to the raising and management of trees on public and privately owned E( lands in and around urban centres such as green belts. and schools etc. Community ti en forestry provides a means under which the people of landless classes can associate themselves m cu in tree raising and thus. fuel. (vii) creating of a massive peoples movement involving women to encourage planting of trees. rural forestry and Farm forestry. Forest departments of various states distribute seedlings of trees free of cost to small and medium farmers. social and rural development. timber and fruit. Community s forestry programme aims at providing benefits to the community as a whole. 2nd Floor. AN rK fo ed 6] Community forestry: is al on It involves the raising of trees on public or community land such as the village pasture and rs pe temple land.c ai Social forestry means the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren gm lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental. parks. (iv) checks soil erosion. The @ ka National Commission on Agriculture (1976) has classified social forestry into three categories. ) om 5] Social Forestry: l. altering the H IS simultaneous production of food. Delhi Mukherjee Nagar: ©Vision IAS . roadside. Agro-forestry is the raising of trees and agriculture crops on the same land KA inclusive of the waste patches. Student Notes: 3] Forest Conservation Forests have an intricate interrelationship with life and environment. extension of the desert lands and reduction of floods and droughts. (v) increasing the forest cover through social forestry and afforestation on degraded land. roadside avenues. Ansal Building. canal bank. fodder. conservation of forest is of vital importance to the survival and prosperity of humankind.visionias. These provide numerous direct and indirect advantages to our economy and society. and encourage the substitution of wood. Karol Bagh Metro. Delhi-9 09650617807. Rajinder Nagar: 1/8-B. industrial and BL M commercial green belts. (vi) increasing the productivity of forests to make timber. 09968029039. which was further modified in 1988. get those benefits which otherwise are restricted for landowners. Behind UCO Bank. 1st Floor. Rural forestry lays emphasis on promotion of agro-forestry and KA community-forestry. (ii) maintaining environmental stability and to restore forests where ecological balance was disturbed. Hence. Near Gate 6. It combines forestry with agriculture.

propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. The M KA Indian Constitution entails the subject of forests and wildlife in the Concurrent list.c ai gm 9] Protected Area Network in India @ ka A National Board for Wildlife (NBWL).61. Karol Bagh Metro. 09968029039. emphasizing the people’s participation and their support for im E( wildlife conservation. 515 Wildlife Sanctuaries. the concept of Trans. The Federal KA Ministry acts as a guiding torch dealing with the policies and planning on wildlife H conservation. is al 47 Conservation Reserves and 4 Community Reserves. The main reason for this remarkable diversity of life forms is the great diversity of the ecosystem which this country has preserved and supported through the ages. ) om l. chaired by the Prime Minister of India provides for policy sh framework for wildlife conservation in the country. Some of the important reasons of the declining of wildlife are as follows: (i) Industrial and technological advancement brought about a rapid increase in the exploitation of forest resources. human settlement. Ansal Building. comprising 102 National Parks. Near Gate 6.visionias. India’s conservation planning is based on the philosophy of BL identifying and protecting representative wild habitats across all the ecosystems. (iii) Pressure on forests mounted due to lopping for fodder and fuel wood and removal of small timber by the local people.boundary Protected Areas en m has been initiated for coordinated conservation of ecological units and corridors with bilateral cu and/or multilateral cooperation of the neighbouring nations. before finally notifying the Rajinder Nagar: 1/8-B. 2nd Floor. Delhi-9 09650617807.221. floral. 09717162595 7 www. rK A network of 668 Protected Areas (PAs) has been established. B/1-2. Certain rights of people living inside the Sanctuary could be permitted. reservoirs. etc. roads. during the settlement of claims. UNESCO has designated 5 Protected Areas as World Heritage Sites.90% of total geographic area). Student Notes: 8] Wildlife and Its Conservation About 4-5 per cent of all known plant and animal species on the earth are found in India. mining. Sanctuary is an area which is of adequate ecological. The National Wildlife Action Plan (2002- ni ka 2016) was adopted in ©Vision IAS . (iv) Grazing by domestic cattle caused an adverse effect on wildlife and its habitat. (vi) Incidence of forest fire. (ii) More and more lands were cleared for agriculture. As the ecosystems s ti and species do not recognise political borders. (v) Hunting was taken up as a sport by the elite and hundreds of wild animals were killed in a single hunt.57 sq. extending over 1. while the provincial Forest Departments are vested with the responsibility of IS AN implementation of national policies and plans. National Parks. Apsara Arcade. Delhi Mukherjee Nagar: 103. geomorphological. (4. fo ed kms. natural or zoological significance. 1st Floor. Now commercial poaching is rampant. The Sanctuary is declared for the purpose of protecting. Over the years. There are certain species that are at the brink of extinction. There are 4 categories of the do Protected Areas viz. Further. their numbers have dwindled significantly. faunal. 39 Tiger Reserves and 28 Elephant on Reserves have been designated for species specific management of tiger and elephant rs pe habitats. Behind UCO Bank. their habitat has been disturbed by human activities and as a result. Sanctuaries. Conservation Reserves and Community is Th Reserves.

inter. International cu do Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. such removal/ exploitation from a Sanctuary also requires recommendation of the Standing Committee of National Board for Wildlife). Delhi-9 09650617807. not comprised within a National Park. Near Gate 6. 2002 and the Scheduled Tribes fo and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act. Th Main issues concerning the management of Protected Areas: Wildlife conservation and management in India is currently facing a myriad of complex challenges that are both ecological and social in nature. which has been amended from time to time. Apsara Arcade. In addition. Forest (Conservation) Act. UNESCO-World Heritage Committee and Convention is on Migratory Species (CMS). Implementation of this Act is further IS AN complemented by other Acts viz. Behind UCO Bank. India is a party to major international s ti en conventions viz. particularly the areas adjacent to National Parks and Sanctuaries and those areas which link one Protected Area with another. while any removal or exploitation of wildlife or forest produce from a Sanctuary requires the recommendation of the State Board for Wildlife. increasing human-wildlife conflicts. from a National Park requires recommendation of the National Board for Wildlife (However. faunal. natural or zoological significance. 337 of 1995. As in the case of a Conservation Reserve. where an gm individual or a community has volunteered to conserve wildlife and its habitat. Ansal Building. Student Notes: Sanctuary. Unlike a Sanctuary. where certain rights can be allowed. with the changing ground realities KA H concerning wildlife crime control and PAs management. Conservation Reserves are declared for the purpose of protecting landscapes. ) om Community Reserves can be declared by the State Government in any private or community l. seascapes. KA 1972. The National Park is declared for the purpose of protecting. The difference between a Sanctuary and a National Park mainly lies in the vesting of rights of people living inside. The Wildlife ed Crime Control Bureau of the Central Government supplements the efforts of provincial is al governments in wildlife crime control through enforcement of CITES and control of wildlife on rs crimes having cross-border. the rights of ni ka people living inside a Community Reserve are not affected. poaching and illegal trade in wildlife Rajinder Nagar: 1/8-B. propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. allow the continuation of any right of any person in or over any land within the limits of the Sanctuary. flora and fauna and their habitat. 09968029039. Delhi Mukherjee Nagar: 103. the Chief Wildlife Warden may regulate. control or prohibit it.state and international ramifications. removal etc. flora and traditional or cultural sh conservation values and practices. Indian Forest Act. 1927. like that of a Sanctuary. geomorphological. 09717162595 8 www. rK Environment (Protection) Act. in a National Park. Such declaration should be made after having consultations with the local communities. in consultation with the Chief Wildlife Warden. floral. National Park is an area having adequate ecological. Karol Bagh Metro.c ai land. livelihood dependence on forests and wildlife resources.visionias. im E( Regulations/ laws relating to Protected Areas (PAs): BL M The PAs are constituted and governed under the provisions of the Wild Life (Protection) Act. Community @ ka Reserves are declared for the purpose of protecting fauna. The rights of people living inside a Conservation Reserve are not affected. In order to strengthen pe and synergise global wildlife conservation efforts. the Collector may. 2nd ©Vision IAS . Issues such as habitat loss/fragmentation. Conservation Reserves can be declared by the State Governments in any area owned by the Government. no rights are allowed. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 1986 and Biological Diversity Act. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna m and flora (CITES). Sanctuary or a Conservation Reserve. No grazing of any livestock shall also be permitted inside a National Park while in a Sanctuary. as per orders of Hon’ble Supreme Court dated 9th May 2002 in Writ Petition (Civil) No. 1st Floor. 1980. overuse of biomass resources in the context of biotic pressures. B/1-2. 2006..

2nd Floor. 09717162595 9 www. do fishing and grazing. 10] Biosphere Reserves The origin of Biosphere Reserves goes back to the "Biosphere Conference" organized by UNESCO in ©Vision IAS . knowledge and Rajinder Nagar: 1/8-B. The Transition Zone: The Transition Zone is the outermost part of a Biosphere Reserve. pe s ti The Buffer Zone: In the Buffer Zone. which adjoins or surrounds core zone. Apsara provide support for research. Ansal Building. uses and activities en m are managed in ways that protect the core zone. Student Notes: parts and products. if natural within Biosphere Reseve.c 3. KA H The Core Zone: The core zone is kept absolutely undisturbed. Karol Bagh Metro. This is usually not delimited one and is a zone of cooperation where conservation. These are (I) natural or core zone (ii) manipulation or buffer zone and (iii) a KA transition zone outside the buffer zone. Core areas often ed is conserve the wild relatives of economic species and also represent important genetic al on reservoirs. logistic function . fo including higher order predators and may contain centres of endemism. Delhi Mukherjee Nagar: 103. 10.visionias. 09968029039. national and global issues of conservation and @ development. conservation function . Behind UCO Bank. Management and research activities that do not affect natural processes and wildlife rs are allowed inside core zone. ka sh 10. tourism. biosphere reserves form a world network: the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR). A Biosphere Reserve is a unique and representative ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas which are internationally recognised within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme. Human activities. 1st Floor. B/1-2. The government and the civil society are taking several measures to address these issues. 2. which are permitted to reduce its effect on core zone. Only the core area requires legal IS AN protection and hence can correspond to an existing protected area such as a nature reserve or rK a national park. development function . Near Gate 6. Collectively. ecosystems. Research and is Th educational activities are to be encouraged. These uses and activities include restoration.2 Structure and Design of Biosphere Reserves ni ka im In order to undertake complementary activities of biodiversity conservation and development E( BL of sustainable management aspects. education and ai gm information exchange related to local. which are complementary and mutually reinforcing: 1. It must contain suitable habitat for numerous plant and animal species. species and genetic variation. cu demonstration sites for enhancing value addition to the foster economic and human development which is socio- ) om culturally and ecologically sustainable. Delhi-9 09650617807. Biosphere Reserves are demarcated into three inter- M related zones. limited recreation. monitoring. l. Improved synergies and better coordination amongst the wide array of stakeholders are needed to meet the challenges of conserving India’s diverse wilderness contribute to the conservation of landscapes. need for maintaining a broad base of public support for wildlife conservation exemplify and characterize the contemporary wildlife conservation scenario in India.1 Functions of biosphere reserve Each biosphere reserve is intended to fulfil 3 basic functions. are likely to be permitted to continue if these do not adversely affect the ecological diversity.

However. Sanctuary etc. 1st Floor. crop lands. Tamil Wester Nilgiri Tahr. a core area of a biosphere reserve can meet World Heritage criteria: the usually larger biosphere reserve can therefore serve as a complementary means to protect the ) integrity of the World Heritage site. 09968029039.visionias. based on the UNESCO Man and the on Biosphere (MAB) Programme list. 09717162595 10 www. B/1-2. @ ka citizens and government authorities on environmental and development issues. Apsara Arcade. Delhi Mukherjee Nagar: 103. Student Notes: management skills are applied and uses are managed in harmony with the purpose of the Biosphere Reserve. In addition. the Biosphere Reserves differ from protected areas due to their emphasis on Conservation of overall biodiversity and landscape (rather than some specific flagship species) to allow natural and evolutionary processes to continue without any hindrance. This includes settlements. Silent Valley and Kerala macaque Anaimalai Hills and Karnata ka Rajinder Nagar: 1/8-B. 10. 10. managed forests and area for intensive recreation.3 Difference between Biosphere reserve and Protect Area(National Park. and enhancement of local people’s participation and their Training.c 10. Efforts to enhance local development and to promote scientific understanding are means to ensure the protection of the natural World Heritage ©Vision IAS . At the national level. It can help to sh attract additional funding from different sources. rs pe s Ye UNESCO Name Location States Type Key Fauna ti en ar Recogni m cu tion in do 19 2000 Nilgiri Part of Waynad. 2nd Floor. trans IS AN boundary biosphere reserves can be established jointly by the countries concerned. Karol Bagh Metro. Nagarhole. In some instances.5 Benefits of biosphere reserves ai gm The designation of a site as a biosphere reserve can raise awareness among local people. Nine of the eighteen biosphere reserves are a is al part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. Near Gate 6. and the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable H Development.4 Difference between Biosphere reserve and a natural World Heritage site? UNESCO designates Natural World Heritage sites status to natural sites having outstanding universal value in accordance with the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972). Ansal Building.) Biosphere reserve and Protected Areas are complementary concepts. testifying rK to long-term cooperative efforts. many Millennium Development Goals (for KA example on environmental sustainability). om l. n Ghats Lion-tailed Reserve Nilambur. Nadu. the Convention on Biological M KA Diversity (for example the Ecosystem Approach). fo ed There are eighteen biosphere reserves in India. Delhi-9 09650617807. and other economic uses characteristic of the region. is Th 86 Biosphere Bandipur and Mudumalai. biosphere reserves can ni ka serve as pilot sites or ‘learning places’ to explore and demonstrate approaches to conservation im E( and sustainable development. In the case of large natural areas which straddle national boundaries. BL they are a concrete means for countries to implement Agenda 21. Behind UCO Bank. providing lessons which can be applied elsewhere.

B/1-2.c Nalbari. Apsara Arcade. Madhya Semi. Wild H IS elephant AN rK 19 Dibru. 2nd Floor. Near Gate 6.visionias. is Reserve Chhindwara District Flying Th Squirrel 20 Khangchen Parts of Kanchanjunga Hills Sikkim East Snow 00 dzonga Himalay Leopard. 09968029039. Uttarak Wester 88 Devi Pithoragarh District & hand n National Bageshwar District Himala Park & yas Biosphere Reserve 19 2009 Nokrek Part of Garo Hills Meghal East Red Panda 88 aya Himala yas 19 2001 Gulf of Indian part of Gulf of Tamil Coasts Dugong or 89 Mannar Mannar extending from Nadu Sea Cow Rameswaram island in the North to Kanyakumari in the South of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka 19 2001 Sundarban Part of delta of Ganges and West Gangeti Royal 89 s Barahamaputra river system Bengal c Delta Bengal Tiger 19 Manas Part of Kokrajhar. as Red Panda Rajinder Nagar: 1/8-B. 1st Floor. Ansal Building. Royal KA 94 Peninsu Bengal KA la Tiger. Delhi Mukherjee Nagar: 103. 09717162595 11 www. Giant cu do 99 Biosphere Hoshangabad District and Pradesh Arid Squirrel. Assam East Golden ) om 89 Bongaigaon. Behind UCO Bank. Part of Dibrugarh and Assam East Golden fo 97 Saikhowa Tinsukia districts Himalay Langur ed is as al on 19 Dihang. Student Notes: 19 2001 Nanda Parts of Chamoli District. Part of Siang and Dibang Arunach Eastern rs pe 98 Dibang Valley al Himalay s ti Pradesh a en m 19 2009 Pachmarhi Parts of Betul District. Delhi-9 09650617807. Karol Bagh ©Vision IAS . Red l. Himalay Langur. Kamrup and as Panda ai gm Darrang Districts @ 19 2013 Great Southern most islands of Andama Islands ka Saltwater sh 89 Nicobar Andaman and Nicobar n and Crocodile ni ka Biosphere Islands Nicobar im E( Reserve Islands BL M 19 2008 Simlipal Part of Mayurbhanj district Odisha Deccan Gaur. Barpeta.

Which parts of India are described as ‘arid zones’? Comment on the characteristics and economic activities prevalent in these regions? (UPSC 1993/15 Marks) 9. Peppara and Kerala. (UPSC 2003/2 Marks) fo 3. is al (UPSC 2000/10 Marks) on rs 5. without prior recording www. Mention the area of Shola forests in India. (UPSC 2009/15 H IS Marks) AN rK 2. Near Gate 6. Delhi © by1/8-B. l. (UPSC 1998/15 Marks) s ti 6. Which is the largest expanse of tidal forests in India and in which State is it located? (UPSC 1981/3 Marks) nd Rajinder CopyrightNagar: Vision2IASFloor. What is waste land? Write a note on prospects of waste land development in India. stApsara Arcade. part of thisB/1-2. 01 alai Shenduruny Wildlife Tamil n ghats Elephants Biosphere Sanctuary and their Nadu Reserve adjoining areas 20 2012 Achanaka Part of Annupur. Ansal may document Building. mechanical. Delhi-9 in a retrieval 09650617807.visionias. Bank. Wester Nilgiri Tahr. Gujarat Desert Indian Wild 08 of Kutch Surendranagar and Patan Ass Districts 20 Cold Desert Pin Valley National Park and Himacha Wester Snow 09 surroundings. gm area of Chinkara. 09717162595 system or transmitted in any form or by any means. electronic. Chandratal l n Leopard and Sarchu & Kibber Wildlife Pradesh Himalay Sancturary as 20 Seshachala Seshachalam Hill Ranges Andhra Eastern 10 m Hills covering parts of Chittoor Pradesh Ghats and Kadapa districts ) om 20 Panna Part of Panna and Madhya catchm Tiger. 103. Karol Bagh permission of Vision IAS ©Vision IAS . Why has there been opposition from the North-Eastern States to the Supreme Court en m ban on all activities inside forests? (UPSC 1997/10 Marks) cu do 7. 09968029039. Rajkot. photocopying. (UPSC is 1996/15 Marks) Th 8. Student Notes: 20 Agasthyam Neyyar. k Chhattis garh 20 Great Rann Part of Kutch. Behind UCOstored be reproduced. Dindori Madhya Maikala 05 mar . Discuss the wetlands and their role in ecological conservation in India.c ai 11 Chattarpur Districts Pradesh ent Chital.and Bilaspur districts Pradesh Hills Amarkanta . What are mangroves and in what way are they useful to us? (UPSC 2001/10 Marks) ed 4. 12 or otherwise. Where do we find large desert areas in India? What steps have been taken by the Government for their development? (UPSC 1985/20 Marks) 10. Where do mangrove forests occur in India? Describe their main characteristics. Which parts of India have been identified as draught-prone? Mention the norms for pe such identification. @ the Ken kaSambhar sh River and Sloth ni ka bear im E( BL M KA 11] UPSC Questions Covered KA 1. 1 Floor. Mukherjee All rights Nagar:No are reserved.