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Maintenance of Bituminous Maintenance of Bituminous

Maintenance of Bituminous
Pavements - Types Pavements - Types
• Preventive Maintenance
• Preventive Maintenance – Performed to
By improve or extend the functional life of * Fog seals
Prof. Prithvi Singh Kandhal pavement while still in fair to good * Surface dressing
Associate Director Emeritus condition * Slurry seal
National Center for Asphalt Technology * Microsurfacing
• Corrective Maintenance – Performed to
Auburn University, Alabama USA
repair pavement which has already * Crack sealing
developed some distress • Corrective Maintenance
* Pothole patching
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Fog Seal Fog Seal
Preventive Maintenance – Fog Seals
• Stabilizes the surface of oxidized asphalt on verge
of raveling and seals it
• Apply diluted slow setting (SS) emulsion with a
bitumen distributor
• Application rate depends on the surface texture of
existing asphalt surface – barely fill the interstices
between exposed aggregate particles
• Too much application – pavement slippery
• Generally safe for parking lots and streets with
slow-speed traffic
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Preventive Maintenance - Preventive Maintenance -
Surface Dressing Surface Dressing
• IRC:110-2005 • Spray thick layer of paving bitumen such as VG-
10 or Rapid Setting (RS) emulsion
• Common and cost effective surface
treatment to serve as a renewal coat for both • Apply cover aggregate of appropriate size with a
mechanical chip spreader
preventive and periodic maintenance
• Roll immediately
• Far better than Premix Carpet (PMC) which • Double surface dressing – second aggregate is of
traps water and has poor durability smaller size
• Widely used in the world; should replace • Precoated aggregate can be used (1% bitumen) to
PMC in India impart black color and minimize aggregate loss
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Surface Dressing or Chip Seal

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Preventive Maintenance -
Surface Dressing
• Excellent sealing of road surface with thick
bitumen film
• Minimizes oxidation of bitumen
• High resistance to skidding
• Economical (cost per lane km for surface
dressing is 2.62 lakhs compared to PMC
which is 7.88 lakhs rupees)
• Used worldwide
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Preventive Maintenance - Slurry Seal
Slurry Seal
Slurry Seal
• IRC:SP:81-2008
• Type I (small
• Mixture of fine aggregate, SS emulsion, water and aggregate)
additive (if required) – Seal surface
• Good for asphalt pavements with hairline cracks or cracks
oxidized surface or polished surface • Type II (medium
• Apply with a self-propelled slurry seal machine aggregate)
– Correct raveling/
• Three types based on thickness and aggregate size oxidation
• Type 1 (3 mm); Type 2 (4-6 mm); Type 3 (6-8 mm) • Type III (larger aggregate)
• Good for low to medium traffic roads and city streets – Fill minor surface irregularities and restore surface
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Preventive Maintenance -
What is Micro-surfacing?
• IRC:SP:81 – 2008 • It is a mixture of
• Similar to slurry seal; polymer modified bitumen – Polymer modified emulsion
emulsion used – Crushed aggregate
• Two Types: Type 2 (2-3 mm) and Type 3 (6-8 – Mineral filler
mm) – No Type 1 in IRC Code
– Water
• Can also be used for rut filling
– Additive
• On heavy traffic roads, wears prematurely in
wheel tracks
• Good for city streets – maintains curb height
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Paving Machine How is Micro-surfacing used?
Micro-Surfacing Application
Mineral filler
Crushed Cement Polymer
Crushed aggregate additive Modified • On asphalt and concrete pavements it can
water Emulsion
Polymer-modified Emulsion,
– fill ruts
Conveyor Water, and Chemical Additive – restore skid resistance
Water Flows
Mixer box – address oxidized, raveled, and flushed surfaces
Mixture Brown & Mixture Black
Mixing time Homogeneous – reprofile (leveling)
Direction 15 to 45 seconds
Breaking Time – provides wear course
60 to 120 seconds
. – be used as an interlayer
Micro-surfacing Traffic in Approximately One Hour

Water Spraybar Spreader box
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Preventive Maintenance - Preventive Maintenance -
Crack Sealing Crack Sealing Materials
• Prevents ingress of water which may be detrimental to
pavement • Emulsion and VG bitumen not appropriate
• All types of cracks – fatigue, thermal, reflection, edge, crack sealing materials (will shrink or flow
and longitudinal need sealing out and track)
• Hairline cracks (< 3 mm) – too narrow to fill; consider
slurry seal or surface dressing • Modified bitumen or rubberized bitumen
• Cracks (6-20 mm) – Need to be routed, cleaned and are most suitable (ASTM Standards)
filled • Melted in small tanker and applied under
• Cracks (20-25 mm) – Need to be cleaned and sealed pressure with a wand
• Cracks (> 25 mm) – Use sand asphalt mix
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No fishing allowed here !!!
Corrective Maintenance –
Pothole Patching

• Patching with hot mix asphalt (HMA)
• Patching with readymade cold mix

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Patching with Hot Mix Asphalt - Steps
Pothole Patching with Hot Mix
• Preferred method by most highway agencies
• Need ideal weather – hot and dry. Cannot use
during monsoon or extreme winter. Potholes
become larger and deeper during monsoon
• Not suitable for isolated potholes
• Labour intensive: Square the pothole, clean debris
and apply tack coat
• Material intensive: Need emulsion for tack coat
• Equipment intensive: Need roller to compact hot
mix such as BC
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Rolling Hot Mix Asphalt Patch
Pothole Patching with Readymade
Remove failed
Cold Mix – US Experience
• Mix made by HMA plants prior to
shutdown before winter and stockpiled
• Used during winter, even on rainy days
• States usually have their own mix formula
• Considered temporary patch to be replaced
with hot patch after winter
• Private patented mixes very expensive
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Pothole Patching with Readymade New Concepts
Challenges of Mix Design
Cold Mix – US Experience • Use finer and predominantly one-size aggregate (it
gives both workability and stone-on-stone contact for
• Need to develop a durable cold mix • Properties required for mix workability and
stockpiling are contradictory to those required strength in the mix)
• Research led by Prof. Kandhal, Chief once the mix is placed in the pothole
Asphalt Road Engineer, Pennsylvania • Use clean aggregate, that is, dust less than 2% (it gives
• Aggregate gradation: open for good workability tackiness to asphalt binder; so tack coat is not needed)
Department of Transportation (late 1970s) but dense when placed in pothole
• Objectives: Mix should be able to be • Aggregate shape: round for good workability but • Use angular aggregate (due to one size it is still
produced by contractors using local angular when placed in pothole workable; gives good interlocking to the mix)
materials at low cost; shelf life of at least 6 • Binder viscosity: low for good workability but • Adequate amount of asphalt binder for workability and
months; “idiot proof” in application; and high when placed in pothole
performance equivalent to hot mix durability
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Best Mix Gradation Based on Research
Sieve size, mm Percent passing
9.5 100
4.75 40-100
2.36 10-40
1.18 0-10
0.075 0-2

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Requirements for the Readymade Mix Production of Readymade Patching Mix
• Medium curing cutback used: MC-250 used in US
cold climate; MC-800 suitable for hot climate like • Mix can be made in a small portable mixer or in a
in India. MCs contain kerosene. batch plant according to quantity required
• During production there should not be any open
• Although cutbacks are being replaced with
flame when MC-800 Cutback containing kerosene
emulsions, exceptions are made in US for is mixed with aggregate to avoid safety hazard.
readymade mix due to their effectiveness This may require pre-drying of aggregate in dryer
• Binder content (residual): 4.5 % minimum and then mixing it with MC-800 after it has cooled
• Use of anti-stripping agent a must down in a separate operation
• Temperature of dry aggregate: 25-65 C
• Tests on mix (stripping and workability tests)
• Temperature of MC-800: 75-95 C
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Shed Used for Storing Mix Placing cold mix in pothole
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Use of New Readymade Cold Mix
• Research published in US Transportation
Research Board Record 821, 1981
• Successfully used in Pennsylvania and other
states since 1980
• US Strategic Highway Research Program
(SHRP) ranked it first in performance after a
nationwide field study of various patching
mixes (After 4 years field study, 78% of patches
had survived)

Numbering potholes
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Rolling with truck tire
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Field Experiments in India
2008 – 2011

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Storage of Readymade Patching Mix
Placement of Mix in Potholes
• No preparation of pothole is needed except
• In cold climate such as US, the mix can be stored in a
stockpile which may form thin crust due to loss of
to sweep off loose debris or rain water
kerosene at the surface. However, crust can be broken • Mix can be compacted with a hand rammer.
easily with a front-end loader. The thin crust does not For deep potholes, compaction should be
allow further loss of kerosene from within. done in 75 mm layers. Start compaction
• In hot climate like in India it is preferable to store the from outside to center of pothole
patching mix in plastic lined sturdy 50 kg bags. The • Compacted mix to be about 10 mm above
shelf life of the mix in bags is at least 6 months. the road surface
• Sprinkle sand to prevent pick up by traffic

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Agra Road 64 Kandhal 65 Kandhal 66

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Patch after rains and traffic

Patch after traffic & heavy rains
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Jaipur Development Authority
(JDA) Field Trial in 2010
• Produced 5 tons of Kandhal mix using local
• Mix placed in 50-kg plastic lined bags
• Repaired potholes on main roads and
residential streets
• Patches subjected to traffic and rains
performed in an excellent manner

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rains and traffic 74 Kandhal 75

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Jaipur Development Authority (JDA)

• Named this mix as “Kandhal Mix” to
differentiate it from Shelmac, etc.
• It is a standard mix in JDA
• Over Rs. One crore worth mix used every
year with success since 2011
• Contractors have been trained

August 2011
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Questions –
does it all

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