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Supplementary support material for GS World Geography Class

Minerals distribution in the World


Asia
Asia produces more than half of the World’s tin.

China, Malaysia and Indonesia are among the world’s leading tin producers.

China and India have iron ore deposits.

China leads in production of lead, antimony and tungsten.

Asia also has deposits of manganese, bauxite, nickel, zinc and copper.


Europe
Europe is the leading producer of iron­ore in the world.

Russia, Ukraine, Sweden and France have large deposits of iron ore.

Minerals deposits of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel are found in

Eastern Europe and European Russia.


North America
Iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper are found in the Canadian Shield
Region.


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Coal is found in the Appalachians region.


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Copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver are found in the Western Cordilleras.

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South America
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Brazil is the largest producer of high grade iron­ore in the world.

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Chile and Peru are leading producers of copper.

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Brazil and Bolivia are among the world’s largest producers of tin.

South America also has large deposits of gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese,
bauxite, mica, platinum, asbestos and diamond.

Mineral oil is found in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Columbia.


Africa
Africa is the world’s largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum.

South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire produce a large portion of the world’s gold.

Copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt and bauxite are also found in
Africa.

Oil is found in Nigeria, Libya and Angola.

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Australia
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Australia is the largest producer of bauxite in the world.

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Gold, diamond, iron ore, tin and nickel are also found in Australia. It is also rich
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in Australia is rich in copper, lead, zinc and manganese.

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Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie in Western Australia have the largest deposits of gold.
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Energy Resources

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The major energy resources could be broadly classified as given above

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huge deposits of petroleum and natural gas were discovered under the bed of the North Sea in the mid 1960s. Some M of the British colonies supplied raw materials and served as market for KA their finished products. It gained ni ka monopoly over the seas and established its colonies scattered all over the im world in the eighteenth century.c ai A. But this importance gradually declined during the twentieth century and an alarming reliance on imported petroleum developed. Great Britain’s industrial prowess nowhere near cu to its past. changed after the two World Wars. pe services and trade. But owing to cheaper and more efficient production in other s ti American. ) om l. and Britain became the supreme world power. The British empire was enlarged and reinforced E( BL in the nineteenth century.S. The supreme AN rK position of Britain severely weakened as many of the British colonies gained fo their political independence and other European countries. However. Britain not only became self- . Great Britain KA H dominated the world production of iron and steel. old equipments. on rs The most notable feature of Britain’s economy is the importance of Industry. which attracted the industries to coastal areas. IS The condition. however. labour en m problems and world recession. with the financial ed assistance from U. Throughout the nineteenth century. textiles and coal.A. This improved the situation. do is Coal was the most important source of energy for the early industrialisation of Th Britain. Great Britain (7) gm @ ka sh Great Britain has the oldest industrialised economy in the world. European and Asian countries like Japan. reestablished the industries that were destroyed In is al the World Wars.

The major industrial areas of Great Britain may be divided into: 1. glassware. where most Important centre for automobile industry is located at Coventry. At present. The whole region is very Important do for woollen textile Industries. The Midlands Centred at Birmingham. bleaching and dyeing and local wool from the sheep­rearing region of Pennine. Leicestershire coalfields. These textile mills are now highly mechanised and mostly make use of Imported wool. this region specialises in Iron E( BL and steel Industry. The other Important Industrial towns are Derby. electrical apparatus. it specialises in smaller metal­goods of very high quality. where Stoke­on­Trent. Though a variety of products is produced in the region. The most important industries include en m worsted textiles at Bradford and Halifax. drugs and synthetic fibres are well is al known. Also a dense network of roads and railways developed due to its central location. Manufacturing of textile machinery has also developed in the region. Situated near the coasts. Walisall and West Bromwich are Important industrial centres.sufficient In petroleum production but it also became an oil-exporting nation upto 1990s. Sunderland for marine rK fo engineering: west Hartlepool for shipbuilding. soft water from is Th the Pennine streams for washing. with related marine. Nottingham. hardware. Gateshead for structural engineering. and garment Industry at Leeds. The above region extends southwards around the coalfields of Derbyshire and . Yorkshire Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire rs pe The coalfields of Yorkshire. engineering and Iron and steel industry are important Industries of this region. woollen textiles at Huddersfield and cu Wakefield. Nottinghamshlre and Derbyshire have given rise to s ti many important industries in the region. England ka sh This Industrial region developed on the coalfields of Northumberland and ni ka Durham and has the advantage of proximity to iron ore deposits of Cleveland im Hills (now exhausted). Its central location and the presence of coalfields were the two most important advantages for location of Important Industries. South Shields for port Industries ed and Bellingham for chemicals. having hosiery. Darllngton for locomotives. Nowadays. the KA industries of the region rely mainly on imported iron ore and oil while coal is KA also available locally. Is @ located. Newcastle for shipbuilding and transport equipment H IS industries. Birmingham. ai gm North Staffordshire coalfields. Stockton for engineering: Mlddlesbrough AN for iron and steel. the largest brewery town of Britain is located. specialising ) om in textiles and engineering. this is the largest industrial belt of Britain. Wolverhampton. which are based upon local coal. chemicals and glass industry. shipbuilding. famous for pottery.c cigarettes and tobacco industry. on 3. fertilizers. pharmaceuticals and l. Northeast 2. Dudley. Warwickshire coalfields. but recently it has again started importing. mechanical and constructional M engineering. Its major industries have developed around the important coalfields— South Staffordshire coalfields. transport equipment. thermal electricity and imported oil is the chief source of energy for British industries. on which Burton­on­Trent.

c b. The important industries that developed here is Th are—cement. Blackburn and Rochdale for weaving. for example. Other market­based Industries are foodstuffs. The Lancashire Region This region was known for linen textiles In the fourteenth century. . Liverpool and Birkenhead for shipbuilding: ka im E( BL e. oil refineries near Thames estuary. Doncaster and Chesterfield are the chief steel centres. luxury goods. a leading seaport. metal working. Limestone is available from the Pennine Mountains. However. is al on rs pe 5. Rotherham. shipbuilding. Greater London Industrial Region s ti The metropolis of London had many advantages for the development of en industries—It Is the capital city. it was only In the eighteenth and nineteenth century that the cotton textile developed here. a. Other associated industries that have developed here include engineering. Important industrial towns. The localisation and growth of the Industry has been helped by the availability of coal. based on which cutlery industry developed at Sheffield.A. other than Manchester. traditional skilled labour. tool manufacturing. during the twentieth century. Manchester became the main centre. an important Iron and steel Industry has developed in the region with steelworks In Sheffield. humid climate suitable for cotton textiles. Bolton and Bury for spinning: ai gm @ c. chemicals and the industry for processing of many tropical products. Puncorn and Warrington for marine engineering and chemicals: M KA f. furniture. But apart from cotton textile other Industries also developed. a financial centre of m cu international importance and Its large population provided both labour do and readymade market.S. ka sh ni d. Later. chemicals. musical instruments. the Importance of this region for cotton textile declined. apparel. Helens for glass: AN rK fo h. In close proximity to this coalfield lies the iron ore region of Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire. are ) om l. Port Sunlight . the worlds largest cutlery town. marine engineering. electrical industries and automobile industry at Dagenham. perfumes and cosmetics. tobacco. St. locomotives and other metal products. 4. Ellesmere Port for oil refining and Halewood is known for assembling of ed motor vehicles. Therefore. and Egypt through the port of Liverpool. The region has a long history of cutlery making and traditional skilled labour was available. Apart from Sheffield. availability of soft water from the Pennine streams and facility of import of cotton from the U. Widnes.Nottlnghamshire. machine parts.for soap­making: KA H IS g.

Iron ) om and steel industry attracted other metallurgical industries. South Wales South Wales Is an example of older industrial region. which has undergone modernisation. Thus. manufacture of sewing machines at Clydebank. Fifeshire. especially tin l. based on Cornish tin from Bristol Channel and later on imports ai gm from Malaysia and Nigeria. . charcoal. Shipbuilding Is concentrated on Clydeside from Glasgow to Greenock. It originated In the southern uplands using the waterpower of the valleys and the windblast on the uplands.c planting. central Scotland This Is the only industrial region in Scotland. 7. Other industries In the region include engineering at Dumbarton. the iron and steel industry was established. Oil AN refinery Is located at Swansea. new KA Industrial plants were encouraged to set up along the roads.printing and publishing. ni ka which caused locational change of the iron and steel industries to coastal im areas at Cardiff. deposits are also found. In addition. Both coal mining and extraction of Iron ore was labour intensive and attracted a large population to this valley. The Ruhr­Westphalia Region is Th This region has a long industrial history. Local iron ore. both Inland at Ebbw Vale and on the coast. Lanarkshire. rK fo Newport and Cardiff have maintained their importance and have also ed attracted many new light Industries. Oil refineries. water and wind power provided the basis for establishment of an Iron and steel industry. In the coalfields of Glasgow Iron ore. This led to the development of iron and steel industry at Glasgow. The very foundation of the industrial development of the region was availability of coal (both anthracite and bituminous). Ayrshire and Midlothian. ka sh exhaustion of local. This is cu best manifested in the various industrial regions. do 1. Germany (4) s ti The German industries are mainly coalfield based. Coatbridge and other centres. Coal is found in the coalfields of Clydeside. local wool and waterpower encouraged the growth of an early textile industry. KA plastic plants and other petrochemical plants were set up near the coast. Swansea. Food processing Industries at Swansea. H IS The oil was transferred through pipeline and stored at Milford Haven. South Wales had to depend upon imported ores. With the E( BL development of the Heads of the Valleys road in 1950 and other M motorway and communication link with other parts of Britain. chemicals at Rutherglen and marine engineering at Renfrew. 6. Some amount of iron ore was also found in the region. Motherwell. Port Talbot and Newport. Based upon these. @ With the decline in Importance of coal in the twentIeth century. etc. is al on rs pe B. the Industries en m are mostly found concentrated in and around the coal resources.

Also the development of canals such as the Lippe and Dortmund Ems and railways provided additional stimuli for the movement of bulky goods within the Ruhr. The Ruhr was also characterised by increasing economies of scale by the Integration of separate Industrial concerns. During the same period. the coal mining has improved and it is l. even the decline of coal has not affected the leadership ka sh position of the Ruhr in Germany. Rheinhausen. ni ka multi-track electrified railways: im long distance roads. A natural gas pipeline from the Ems field and an oil pipeline from Wilnelmshaven added new resource bases while the import of high grade iron ore from Sweden to replace the exhausted local ores widened the resource base.Later. @ However.c predicted that by the year 2000 the demand for coal will be some 70 per ai gm cent up on 1977 levels. Oberhausen. Now ) om with the help of foreign labours. coalmines. Between 1957 and 1961 there was a loss of 1.60. German Banks began their association with the industries and provided capital. To Improve the position further. Cutlery industries at Solingen and Remscheid: and textiles at Krefeld and Wuppertal. for example. however. Chemicals were developed from the coking coal and metal smelting processes as byp roducts. The world oil crisis of the 1970s. M KA KA H IS AN rK fo ed is al on rs pe s ti en m cu do is Th . heavy industries on modern lines came up. Bochum and Dortmund: heavy chemicals around Dusseldorf and Leverkusen: engineering including large interests In armaments at Gelsenkirchen. These advantages set the scene for establishment of a wide range of industries— heavy industries including iron and steel industry at Duisburg. steel and chemical works. with new findings of coal in the region. Coal mining has declined in the Puhr since 1958.000 miners. Essen and Dortmund. Essen. gave a new lease of life to the coal Industry. water and power supplies sufficient for E( BL industry has been planned.

have H IS leather. do the capital city of old Germany. scientific instruments and photographic equipment manufacturing . automobile and chemical Industries. In most cases. electrical engineering. This has encouraged the KA industrial development in the region. Electrical apparatus and electronic equipments are most important product. engineering. Since the region is deficient is al in raw material and power resource. Frankfurt is a railway engineering centre KA with electrical. engineering and electrical industries. it specializes on precision goods which on require less raw material but become high value finished product. Mannheim and Ludwigshafen with AN water transported raw materials have chemicals. Hamburg Is a major port and has shipbuilding and marine engineering works. It is Th produces consumer goods. Other industrial regions In Western Germany en Though concentration of industries is not found In a particular place. a widespread industrial complex has E( developed. musical instruments. such as furniture and luxury goods and also has chemicals.c ai gm @ ka sh 2. The Middle Rhine Industrial Area ni The Rhine River forms the main waterway of European commerce. developed as an important industrial centre. this region m cu includes wide rang€ of industries scattered in several large cities. Mainz. River Rhine fo ed provides ample fresh water for chemical Industries. West Berlin. brewing and engineering industries. ) om l. Besides the availability of cheap water transport. At the ka im confluence of Rhine and Main Rivers. rs pe s ti 3. rK agricultural Implements and iron and steel Industry. there is also the BL M convergence of rail and road routes In this region. Munich includes beer.

Dovai. The l. Denaim and Valenciennes: metal parts and machinery are also manufactured here: cotton. much of Its Industrial plant was dismantled and shifted to the Soviet Union. The main Industrial areas are based on the Saxony coalfield and the Stassfurt salt­ deposits. The major is al industrial regions of France may be divided Into— on rs pe s ti 1. money was poured Into a large heavy industrial complex at Eisenhuttenstadt CSteei Mill City’). Other industries of this @ region include processing of agricultural products.S. Before the Berlin Wall sealed the last loophole. linen and synthetic textiles at L1Ue. but the rest was never finished. H IS AN rK fo C. France is far less urbanised and industrialised. optical and surgical equipment. woollen. thus draining East Germany of needed labour.units. Recently.S. 4. The most important Industries In the region include iron and steel industries at Dunkirk. Germany up to West German standards of efficiency and KA environmental requirements. road and electricity supplies. although neither coal nor iron ore was cheaply available. instruments and automation. engineering and textile industries. Stuttgart is a centre for precision goods and high value products and manufactures automobiles including Mercedes Benz. on the Oder River to the southeast of Berlin.R from the ravages inflicted by German armies in World War II. to upgrade rail. Consumer goods production was restricted In order to establish firmly the traditional East German industries such as chemicals and machinery. But the above history could not prevent industrialisation in East Germany. it was drained of wealth to help rebuild the erstwhile U.The Northeast Industrial Region en m cu the presence of coalfields of Nord and Pos­de­Calais (a continuation of the do Sambre­Meuse coalfield of Belgium) and the relative ease with which Iron ore is Th can be brought from Lorraine or Imported from Sweden have formed the very foundation of industrial growth in the region. an emphasis has been given for production of high­ technology lines as optical Instruments at Leipzig: Zeiss photographic equipment at Jena: machine tools. railway coach and . printing. France (4) ed Compared to Britain. much of the population fled to west. ni ka After the unification of West and East Germany in 1990 a greater success and im prosperity have apparently attended in the attempt to focus the development of E( BL high technology industrial production In the region and also efforts are being M KA made to bring E. Porsche and Audi automobiles. The Elbe River provides excellent water transport. Hanover has metal and chemical industries and Aachen and Saarbrucken in the west of the country Includes Iron and steel. ) om Dresden is the centre for Dtesden porcelain and Karl Marx Stadt for textiles. publishing and ka sh engineering. Under Soviet direction. Eastern Germany Industrial Region In East Germany’s earlier history. In later years. car components and watches. Stassfurt and Halle. Part of the plant still operates.c abundant supply of Potash salts in Saxony has encouraged the establishment of ai gm chemical industries at Magdeburg.

Longwy and Nancy are the most important industrial centres. But as the local ores have exhausted. furniture. Isolated Industrial Towns @ There are few Isolated Industrial towns that have developed on the basis of some ka sh local factors. Marseilles has oil refineries and rK fo specialises in the processing of sugar refining. Etienne and Ales. Italy is poorly endowed do with natural resources. glass.arms manufacturing is found at Dorain while engineering industries are found at Doval. etc. . cigarettes.c and chemicals. It was only after World War. automobiles. Later on. cosmetics. Grenoble utilises the hydel is al power obtained from the Alpine Rivers and has developed light industries. porcelain. which is unsuitable for agriculture in the region. Thionville. as well as by those who migrated from Italy. 2. Metz. II. Chemical industry has also developed here which AN provide colours and bleach for textile industries. electricals. decline of coal as energy source. industrial growth. Location In the interior. St. KA chemicals. machinery and leather. The iron and steel industries are based on local Minette ores but coal is imported. Paris has been famous for producing delicate works in Jewellery. soap and margarine making. ed leather tanning. situated in the heart of the Central Massif. The transportation network is very well developed. On the basis of availability of local coal and iron ore. Limoges is famous as pottery KA centres. aircraft l. Paris region produces a wide range of goods. 3. Therefore. Italy ( cu In comparison to the other west European countries. textiles. ornaments. It has on also developed cement iridustry based on the availability of limestone. Poland and other European countries. rs pe s ti en m 4. wearing apparel. for example. ai gm 4. H IS rayon and nylon textiles. produces tyres. Lorraine The most important producer of steel in France is Lorraine. steel industry ni ka im developed at Creusot. locomotives. furniture. M Clermont Ferrand. engineering goods and cotton textiles. Greater Paris Paris is a densely populated city and thus is a source of cheap labour as well as vast market. which does not form a long­term energy supply. It has the deposits of neither coal nor iron ore and most is Th other important industrial mineral deposits that are found are widely dispersed and generally of poor or inferior quality. precise scientific instruments. jewellery. Lyons is known for silk textile production and also produces cotton. that deposits of natural gas were found in the Po Basin. However. E( BL the iron and steel plants are getting the supplies of ore from Africa and Sweden. Belgium. transport facilities also developed and the linkages became stronger. marginal economic viability of the steel industries and the competition from more efficient producers in the Saar and the Puhr have posed a great challenge to this Industrial region. The labour force is made of local people. laces. fruit canning and processing. skilled labour was easily available. and therefore. Apart from iron and steel Industry other industries of the region include cotton textiles. From very old times. Much of the country has a mountainous terrain and dry climate. this region is going through a declining industrial phase. etc. Lembruve and Bethune. musical ) om Instruments.

rail coaches and aircraft. In recent times. Rome has some light Industries while Naples has wine­ ) om making. petrochemicals an metallurgical industries. paper. heavy chemicals have developed. Ghent has iron and steel industry. is Th Newer industrial plants with more modern equipments have come up in northern Belgium. chemicals and electrical appliances do manufacturing plants. though cheap hydroelectricity continues to play important role in reducing the cost of operating of industries where required. silverware. Brussels. the capital of Belgium have industries such as textiles. is al Liege is the most important town in this region and accounts for the largest on metallurgical manufactures. has concentrated In the north rather than the south. imports of coal from Germany.c towns where iron and steel industries and petrochemical units have been set up ai gm are @ ka sh Taranto. food processing and metal goods. New iron and steel. manufacture of armaments. Affempts have been made to develop the south ni ka through both Italian and EEC funding. food processing. Antwerp’s. rK fo Based on this coalfield and some amount of local ore. iron and steel industry and petrochemical units. having agricultural engineering: cu Charlerol. silk brocades and ornaments. Mestre and Porto Marghera having heavy industries including oil refining. The region also has many smelters based on the rs pe local availability of zinc from Ardennes and imported ores of zinc lead and tin. The Po River. s ti Other important Industrial centres In the Sambre­Meuse region are—Mons. chemicals. Other Industrial Regions of Europe KA Belgium H IS One of Europe’s major coalfields crosses Belgium in a narrow east­west belt of AN about 16 km long following roughly the valleys of the Sambre and Meuse Rivers. en m having textiles and brewery industries: Namur. oil refining and im chemical plants have been set up to stimulate local and regional economies.which mainly started In the nineteenth century. Turin Is noted for automobiles (Fiat). Outside the northern industrial region. and Genoa consists of shipbuilding and repairing industries. heavy Industries including ed iron and steel. The Lombardy plain Is the largest Industrial region comprising of major industrial cities of Milan. The region possesses two advantages—a large supply of cheap labour and inexpensive sources of hydroelectricity from the nearby Alpine regions. an important port specialises in diamond cutting. the important industrial cities are the capital Rome and Naples. It includes only one­fourth of Italy’s land but more than 70 per cent of its industries and 50 per cent of its population. making cutlery. mining equipment. linen textiles: Bruges specialises in lace and embroidery. Milan is the industrial capital of the region and is important for textiles (silk in particular) and engineering works. but E( BL had disappointing results in the 1970s and 1980s. M KA 5. Ban and Catania (Sicily). Other important towns are—Venice having craft Industries— Venetian glass. Great Britain and Poland and also by imports of oil. and also has . The Po River Valley in northern Italy is the most developed region. Other l. hydro­electricity is supplemented by domestic natural gas. the ports of Genoa and Venice and the close network of railways in the Lombardy plain allow smooth movement of goods and workers within the region. Turin and Genoa. lace.

and a coastal location that facilitates imports and exports. petrochemical units E( BL have also developed here. glass. in the southernmost part. Therefore. on the North Sea AN canal. A large iron and steel plant is located at Ijmuiden. It did not have any heavy Industries and whatever light industries developed. Dairying. Meatpacking is done near rs pe the coast. the region has a developed hydro­electric power. they were scattered. engineering industries at Utrecht and Elndhoven. Amsterdam specialises in diamond cutting and Arnhem has tin is al smelting units. using Imported coal and ore. have been is Th exploited since medieval times. Textile industries are mainly found at Tilburg rK fo (Woollen). petrochemicals and mechanical engineering industries. Netherlands Before World War lithe Industrial scenario of Netherlands was quite different from what it is today. s ti Sweden en m The centuries­old tradition of metal mining and smelting has provided the cu Inertia for industrial development In Sweden. Europoort and Masstrlcht. and Breda ed (synthetic). The problem posed by the absence of any major . high technological skills: well developed communication links—railways. Luxembourg The most important industry in Luxembourg Is the iron and steel industry based upon the Minette iron ore deposits. The high­grade Iron ores of the do Bergslagen region. Luxembourg buys fuel.shipbuilding. just north of the Central Swedish Lowland. while part of It is refined ka sh at or near Rotterdam before forwarding. electrical equipment Industries were the important light industries In the region. oil refining. Enschede (cotton). Along with oil refineries. Genk. Hasselt and Turnhout are examples of such towns. paper. Textiles. ) om This situation changed after World War II. Dudelange and Differdange.c and supplemented coal. sugar refining. These Include— marine engineering and shipbuilding at Rotterdam. Important iron and steel producing towns are Esch. chemicals and metal smelting like zinc and copper. and natural gas based units H IS at Groningen. Netherlands had no internal power resources except one small coalfield (now closed) called Limburg. Apart from iron ore. world’s largest ni ka concentration of refineries is found in this region. Eindhoven (linen). which make bricks. Arnhem (rayon). Most of the production is exported due to very small home market and in return. There are other industries that are equally well M developed. Pernis and Europoort. Sweden has the richest Iron ore resources of Europe at Kiruna and Gallivare. KA chemical plants at Pernis. food processing and oil milling on are also important in the agricultural rich polder lands. roads and inland waterways. alloy metals and many other products. Though it had dense population providing cheap labour and its location aided cheap Import of fuel and export of finished products. Oil refineries are also found at im Amsterdam. KA Schiedam and Dordrecht. Imported oil became more important l. Some Industrial towns have become prominent on the Kempenland coalfield. Part of it Is forwarded @ to Germany and other European countries as crude oil. brewing. Luxembourg City has engineering industries. Rotterdam­Europoort became the most important ai gm European port through which oil imports entered Europe. there was not much industrial development. a continuation of the Lorraine iron ore deposits of France.

Flensburg. Oslo. chemical plants and fish canning factories. Denmark thus. It cu specialises in diesel engines apart from agro­based Industries. The electric process in iron smelting proved costly but it gave an extraordinary control of quality. Other industries Include footwear at Orebro. and glassware and furniture is manufactured at Smaland. KA Electro­chemical Industries. All the industries of Switzerland are mainly based on hydroelectricity from mountain streams of Alps and the skills of Swiss workers . fish. It is also the chief port. Bergen. Nobel dynamites and Johansson’s instruments. The Important towns are Odense. Laval cream separators. The most important Industrial centre of Denmark is its capital city en m Copenhagen. Aga beacons. Electrolux refrigerators. known for excellent cutlery and ornamental goods.coal resources was solved by availability of electricity from hydel power. Along the southwest coast. These units @ mostly depend upon imported raw materials and most of the finished products ka sh are exported. machinery and electrical equipment. Dannemora and OxelOsund. Volvo cars.in. GOteborg is the leading shipbuilding centre and the premier port. The recently discovered resources of large oil and natural gas In the Norwegian sector of the North Sea floor have made Norway a net exportef of ) om crude oil and gas. Some of the products of Sweden are internationally known.7 per cent l. Aluminium smelting plants are located at Odda and E( BL Ardal.c of all electricity generated here. explosives. Norrkoping. AN Denmark rK fo Denmark is a country in which agriculture plays the most important role In its ed economy. Esbjerg s ti and Aarhus. Based on these resources many kinds of Industries have developed In Norway. The main industrial region is In central Sweden. beer (Carlsberg). lying on the Island of Sjaelland (Zealand). sugar refining. Ericsson telephones. The important industrial centre Is Eskilstuna. H IS plastics. Hydel power Is most important and accounts for 99. the capital city Includes M industries like pulp mills. food processing. shipyards. is Th silverware. Trondheim and Stavanger are important towns noted for ni ka their fishing and shipping activities. Other metal and engineering units are centred at Vdteras. a considerable ai gm electro­metallurgical and electrochemical industry has developed. meat packing. forests and a variety of minerals. Bofors guns. and ferro alloys. etc. Switzerland is a highly Industrialised country. Such plants mainly manufacture fertilizers. particularly after World War II. has industries based on agricultural and dairy on products like grain milling. hydel power. textiles at NOrrkOping: paper industry at Karlstad. Stavanger is a major port servicing the im North Sea oil and gas fields. Danish agriculture is highly specialised and animal husbandry is well is al developed. Iron and steel industry at Mo­I­Rona. fishing vessels. are located at KA Glommen Valley and Telemark. Other important do industries include chemicals. the Swedish steel Is worldwide known as the highest­grade steel. butter and cheese rs pe making. textiles. based on cheap hydel power. with Stockholm as the main centre. Switzerland Though devoid of significant mineral resources. for example. the Lake depression. FalL. Orebro and TrollhOtton. Robots and many other high technology items are increasingly Important in Sweden’s export trade. Norway The most important natural resources of Norway Include spectacular scenery. therefore.

The scenic resources of Switzerland have encouraged its tourism industry. which had to be transported over AN long distance. Poland Poland’s main industrial districts are found near the Silesian coalfield and near small deposits of iron ore. heavy engineering. plastics and synthetic fibre at Basel and Geneva. chemical industry. rs pe s ti en m cu do is Th .. Davos and St. Czestochowa. Actually most of the natural im resources were found in the Asiatic CIS which contained nine­tenths of her coal E( BL reserves. This concentration caused strain on railways and other is al transportation systems. textiles and zinc/lead refining. Zermatt. rail and water communications are well developed. a bigger proportion of the forest resources and huge potential for M hydro­electricity generation.and management. Switzerland’s largest city. Bytom. The important industries that have developed in the region are—engineering industry Including machinery. Warsaw. has become one of the major centres of international banking and finance. chemicals. tools. the European part of the CIS. ) om l. i. Gallen.c Russia ai gm The Industrial development in the CIS had started before World War I. Appenzell and Zurich. the capital city and Gdansk on the Baltic sea are also major industrial towns.e. But this @ development was quite slow till Russian Revolution of 1917 and was confined to ka sh only three areas—the Moscow region. electricals. which could form raw materials for agro­based industries. Biel and Le Lode. textile industries at St. besides many varieties of minerals and agricultural KA productions. The KA industrial establishments of European CIS were at considerable distance from H IS these sources of fuel and other raw materials. Katowice. Basel and Baden. road. Leningrad (them called Petrograd) and ni ka the Ukraine. Including acids. Thus. Since it has to depend mostly on imported raw materials. Thus. surgical and optical instruments at Zurich. the use of bulky raw material is minimised and it gives more value to skilled workmanship and design. Chorzow and Krakow where the important industries are iron and steel. Zurich. clocks and watch making at La Chaux­de­Fonds. the cost of transportation increased even more on and started proving uneconomic. Based on these the industries of Poland have developed. drugs. Throughout the country. Moritz are world famous ski resorts In the Alpine region. petroleum and natural gas. the important industrial towns are Wroclaw. The concentration of industries in the European CIS was based on rK fo the plans for achieving lower operational cost even at the expense of higher ed transportation cost.

c ai gm @ ka sh ni ka im E( BL M KA KA H IS AN rK fo ed is al on rs pe s ti en m cu do is Th .Manufacturing Centers in Western Europe Fig. ) om l. 11-6: The major manufacturing centers in Western Europe extend in a north-south band from Britain to Italy.

mostly migrants from other . Th Two zones of industrial concentrations may be distinguished within New England— Eastern New England and Western New England. New England States m New England region is the oldest manufacturing region of the U.A contained early population H settlement centres where the growing network of canal and rail­road and IS AN concentrations of capital investment encouraged the initiation of industrial rK growth. Massachusetts. The early manufacturing advantages. is industrially the most developed country in the world. It comprises cu do six states namely. however.c ai gm @ ka sh The U.A. rs pe s ti en 1.S. al on Industrial development in the USA is found concentrated in six regions. Connecticut. The northeastern part of the U. ahead of others. New is Hampshire and Maine. Rhode Island. ) om l. About four­ M KA fIfth of the industrial output of North America is contributed by the United States KA alone. Boston is the main centre of this Industrial region.A. Gradually other parts of the United States also started developing. It had a large labour force. were soon lost as fo population started settling across the Appalachians into the rich continental ed is interior.S. Eastern New England This region had some natural advantages which made it industrially developed.S. Vermont.S.A ni ka im E( BL The U.

which facilitated the Import and export trade with all the background set for the industrial development. which formed the traditional source of energy in the coal scarce region. Apart from cotton textile and woollen textile industries found at Lowell KA and Providence. it formed one of the most important markets in the Western Hemisphere. The Middle Atlantic States cu This is the most populous region of the United States. Later on. Since 1950s. Boston Is the centre of the region. the inventions of thermal­electrical power (power plants driven by steam) at less cost than most hydroelectric plants. such as electric is al wire. specialised productions are found. the region has some row materials—cool and Iron. New Eastern New England lost much of its primacy and competitive advantage. Lowell and New Bedford. Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay not only serve as . Moreover. Local technological advances also increased the economic viability of the factories in this region. Brooklyn. The proximity of the region to Pennsylvania anthracite. Boston and Merrimac Valley. The region’s development was aided by steady Influx of immigrants forming a vast skilled labour force.c The traditional industries of shipbuilding are found at Boston and Quincy. ) om New Bedford. It had developed a shipping fleet and a surplus capital was reaped from the operations of ships and exports of timber. Thus. Large scale deforestation of forests. This has ed facilitated the growth of Industries like finished copper goods. Due to high concentration of population. respectively. However. The major industrial concentrations in this region ore Providence. It has produces a do large domestic market for its own industrial productions. New Haven and New Britain­ on Bristol ore the main Industrial centres. bituminous coal and oil of Appalachians have facilitated the industrial development in the region. aircraft and armaments are at Hartford. l. with the development of large scale electricity projects the numerous small water power sites lost their advantage because electrically driven machineries were cheaper to operate and easier to maintain. Metal products make up over one­half of all rK fo manufacturing as this is one of the nation’s most Important copper belt. mode this region exhausted of its supply of the only abundant raw material.countries. Electricity generation at large waterpower installations proved more economical. Another advantage lay in the situation of Eastern New England near the sea with good harbours. Though in small is Th amount. such as KA electrical machinery at Springfield. the greatest ka sh growth has been In engineering Industries. The rough terrain of the region encouraged extensive agriculture and wool and hides became its by­products. im Western New England E( BL No particular city dominates this region the way Boston dominates eastern New M England. electronics and in research and ni ka development. H IS Instrument making at Bridgeport and textile machinery manufacturing at AN Worcester. rs pe s ti en m 2. Numerous streams flowing over the rocky terrain provided the facilities for waterpower development. cooking utensils and decorative hardware. changed the scene completely. ai gm Textiles and leather are the oldest industry developed here. with the passage of time. Footwear and textile @ manufacturing machinery are Its specialised supplies.

ka sh Other important steel towns Include Wheeling. etc. publishing. Raw material depletion. New York City has printing. major highways and a network of pipelines and KA air routes converge here. Petrochemical plants are found at Sparrows Point while chemical plants are found at Wilmington. Virtually every type of Industry. Baltimore and Camden are also known as major food processing centres. It has great diversity In manufacturing. Maryland. The whole region do has easy access to the markets both in the Atlantic coast and In the western is Th interior. electrical goods. Delaware and Philadelphia being other industrial centres alongwith some small centres like Sparrows Point. metal goods and s ti flour wflh the help of hydroelectric power from Niagara Falls. water and air pollution control costs that are high by the standards of competing countries. all the major railroads running from KA Middle Atlantic to the Midwest. Youngstown. extending from New York to Baltimore with New Jersey. which links the region with the markets in the Interior part of the nation. H IS Besides iron and steel Industries. this region has excellent M transportation advantages: the Great Lakes. The world’s is al largest synthetic rubber and tyre making centre Is located at Akron. Delaware. Philadelphia has a richer agricultural hinterland than New York and therefore.convenient waterways for ocean vessels but also provide on easy access to foreign markets. An efficient transportation has developed via the Pennsylvania and the Baltimore and Ohio rall­roods and Pennsylvania Turnpike. metal fabrication. The older parts of this Industrial region have plants. largest and most populous of the world’s metropolitan chains or Megalopolis. Pennsylvania. have been . Warren. Shipyards and petroleum refineries line the Delaware River below Philadelphia. near the rs pe confluence of the Erie Canal and Lake Erie. the region Is rich In coal. produces chemicals. im The region has an ideal location for iron and steel manufacturing. there Is a huge chemical industry based on AN byproducts of coking coal. based on coal from the northern Appalachian l.c coalfields and iron ore from Mesabi Range via Great Lakes. The Pittsburgh-Lake Erie Regions ) om An iron and steel producing belt. en m The cheap power from Niagara Falls has helped in the development of several cu new industries like aluminium. Pittsburgh became the iron and steel capital’ of the @ world. paper. Sharon and ni ka Cleveland. zinc and alloy metal smelters and rK fo also specialises in the manufacturing of heavy equipment and machinery (used ed In mining and metallurgy) railroad equipment and heavy trucks. Today most of the iron ore supply comes from Canada and Venezuela through them. from the heaviest industries (blast furnaces at Sparrows Point) to the lightest industries (the apparel plants and optical Instruments factories at Philadelphia) are found here. The region has lead. 3. developed from ai gm Pittsburgh to Lake Erie. Apart from E( BL proximity to an excellent domestic market. Cleveland on speclalises In wearing apparel and East Liverpool in pottery. energy cost increases. which have become obsolete. It has more food processing plants. electrochemicals. Bethlehem. apparel industry and food processing units. It specializes in financial and administrative sectors. Further more. etc. This region is one of the longest. Buffalo.

paper. fertile soils and suitable climate has supported commercial rK fo agriculture In the region.c regions. and Fort Wayne) and Louisville constitute on area of diversified manufacturing such as machinery. 4. which has helped It to become on Important manufacturing region. ed Diverse manufacturing units have developed in the region. earliest advantage was Its function as E( BL a rail­road centre. This Is a densely populated region. specially Chicago’s. The whole region’s. the Miami Valley In paper and Dayton and Indianapolis In household machinery. ka sh ii. Chicago. office machinery and airplane spare parts. The Lake Michigan Region An important industrial concentration has developed on the southern Lake Michigan hinterland. and Is sometimes called as the automative capital of the United States’. a major highway convergence point. Flint. the ai gm agricultural surpluses help in increasing the purchasing capacity for the @ manufactured goods. it Is the KA largest centre for air travel in the United States and has the largest railway yard KA In the Western hemisphere. east­central Indiana (particularly cu Indianapolis. H IS iv. Illinois. a horseshoe­shaped Industrial area wrapped around the lower end of Lake Michigan. which forms a vast market apart from ni ka cheap labour. etc. Though in small quantity. But the most spectacular manufacturing units are the steel mills lined up along a . Detroit is the fourth­ranking industrial metropolis In the country. this metropolis is on the main stream of Great Lakes shipping with easy access to iron ore from Lake Superior region and coal from Lake Erie region. AN v. The Detroit Industrial Region On the western side of the Great Lakes an industrial region at and around Detroit has developed. The region has four basic advantages. glass. Level terrain. Jackson Pontaic. Located along the Detroit river. Apart from providing raw material for certain food­processing units. Dearborn and Toledo. Meatpacking. The hinterland of Lake Michigan is one of the most productive agricultural l. Besides Detroit these are located in Lansing. Chicago’s early is al industries involved the processing of agricultural products. Indiana and Kentucky have coal deposits. Indiana and Milwaukee dominate the scene. 5. An asymmetrical industrial structure developed in which there was domination of production of motor vehicles and parts. aircraft. paints. Illinois.S. Cincinnati is a national leader In making machine fools. Erie and Buffalo still remain Important manufacturing centres. im iii. en m Hamilton. alloyed steel and spare parts. ) om i. The region has developed various ancillary activities to car manufacturing such as tyre­making. do is Th Anderson. These rs pe products have declined In Importance and moved to peripheral areas or to s ti transportation centres farther west. Southwestern Ohio (notably Cincinnati. batteries. Cleveland. Chicago Is situated on a navigable canal and is a good port (the M Great Lakes­Seaway system). electrical wires. Middletown and Dayton). grain on milling and manufacturing of agricultural machinery were prominent.A. polishes. It is the greatest automobile­manufacturing region of the U.the cumulative factor for their decline In Importance.

iron ore Is found in Alabama. westward spread of agriculture into drier regions particularly. and (Ii) the southwestern part and both have been enjoying different set of advantages and this Is reflected in the kind of manufacturing units that are located there.twelve­mile strip of Lake Michigan shoreline from Gary. is quite cheap. providing ai gm recreational environments and generating electricity. mainly centred at Birmingham. Synthetic chemicals have given rise H IS to tyre and rubber factories. reducing soil erosion. which helps im in incurring less factory overhead expenses than north for winter time and E( BL heating. Tennessee and Alabama. The climate Is mild. The region grows cotton and tobacco and has excellent timber reserves. Shipbuilding (tankers) is rapidly expanding at the AN present time. Aluminium smelting is KA based on Caribbean ores and Arkansas ores.A. But the region’s industrial development is based on oil. chemicals and cotton textile rK fo Industries. is Th 1. The rs pe southwest does not have as abundant labour as the southeast. Other ni ka living costs.S. phosphate In Florida and Kaolin In Georgia. As a focal transportation centre. Two­thirds of the great Appalachian coal field lies in West Virginia. Southeastern region The foremost advantages of this region are that It has rich deposits of minerals. Kentucky. Greensboro. through the ports and transshipment points. metal works and machinery. Dallas. the oil refining and chemical Industries have been located on the coasts so that oil and oil products are easily exported to other countries or sent to other parts of the U. chemicals. The Tennessee ) om River and its trIbutaries have been dammed. Virginia.c Authority with the aim of controlling floods.S. KA cotton textiles. @ The whole region has moderately large population. coaches and other transport equipments. The South Region This region does not have any large industrial agglomerations comparable with those In the north. This region can be subdivided into two parts—Cl) the southeastern part. Indiana to southern Chicago. The labour. meat­packing. Chicago has developed units for construction and repair of railway engines. Textiles. This region has excellent waterpower resource. 6. Besides there are other do advantages. domestic production of oil and has cu three­quarters of the country’s natural gas reserves. and Birmingham. ed is al South western Region on The industrial scene compared to southwestern region is quite different. nor it has as much s ti waterpower or coal. municipal and state taxes are lower. compared to the wage rates of the north. mostly by the Tennessee Valley l. which mostly forms unskilled ka sh labour. The two important hydroelectric plants are located at the Piedmont and the Tennessee Valley. M The chief manufacturing product is steel making. etc. footwear. The en m region supplies about one­third of the U. the cotton cultivation has provided a sound agricultural base: 2. are other important industries. Intro­coastal waterway . Atlanta. The important manufacturing concentrations are Houston. such as. New Orleans has oil refining.

Aircraft Industry is located at rK fo Seattle. Oil refining.has been constructed running along the coast and through lagoons giving a deep channel on the shallow Gulf shore: 3. With a small local market to be served. zinc. the region has been witnessing rapid economic growth. capital. cattle and @ sheep. copper. The absence of manufacturing in this region is related to low density of ) om population. timber industry. St. meat products are processed from beef. chemical plants. cu Crop specialisatlon and climate have been the contributing factors for do flourishing food processing industry. ed Besides Portland. Suitable climate originally attracted the industry to southern California to on facilitate aircraft testing. the manufacturing units l. San Francisco is the largest food­ is Th processing centre with tuna. Paul and E( BL Minneapolis are other industrial towns. San Francisco is the centre for shipbuilding and repair.c in this region mostly depend upon local raw materials like food.S. the region Is currently going through a period of rapid Industrial growth. Los Angeles­Santiago Corridor processes and packs the fruit and vegetable specialties. footwear and ni ka agricultural machinery industries. Oregon and California. the industrial development has taken place mainly in H IS Washington. chemical Industries are important at Los Angeles and . lead.S. silver and gold ores are put through ka sh primary processing. Kansas City has similar manufactures and In im addition it also has aircraft and oil refining. timber and ai gm primary metals.A there exists a vast industrially poor region can be marked here and there. coffee.A. Other Industrial Region of the U.S. Memphis has speclalised in agricultural M Industries. synthetic rubber factories and steel milling and the manufacture of mining equipment and consumer products. Despite the low population of the southwest and the lower purchasing capacity (Inspite of rather high population) of the southeast. oil and other products based on imported raw materials. partly due to cheap hydroelectric power and aluminium plants. Along with s ti It the climatic advantages for outdoor living has promoted sportswear and en m apparel manufactures. and is famous for aircraft and aerospace industries. KA KA On the Pacific coast. rs pe The film industry that has developed at Los Angeles Is world famous. Los Angeles and San Diego are all major aircraft centres as is al well. Fort Worth is a cattle town with the largest stockyards in the southern U. These places have goods and services AN oriented units rather than basic industries. But with the development of oil Industry. sugar. Dallas and Fort Worth. Omaha. has been generated by the oil industry which is invested in the development of other Industries. Houston has twelve or more oil refineries. St Louis has meatpacking. Denver. well­favoured localities. Dallas is a major cotton market and has apparel and fashIon industries.Houston. either linked with oil or producing consumer goods: The major cities In the region ore .A In the central and western part of the U. flour milling. Specifically.

). and the electronic/computer/high tech manufacturing. which lies in the north. automobiles. Canada The geographical location of Canada has restricted it with regard to vigorous Industrial growth like the U.c hand. im which provides the largest labour force. on having automobile and tyre industries due to their proximity to Detroit. 85 per cent of the Canadian manufacturing takes place in this region. Lawrence River have played a M very important role in the industrial development of the region. H IS The important industrial cities are: Toronto. @ The main market seems to be located in this eastern region where most ka sh Canadians with high purchasing capacity live. Ottawa and Quebec. textiles. . in the peninsula of ni ka southern Ontario and along the St. As for as the raw material is concerned. it is concentrated in a few outstanding zones.2 Cr against US 32 cr. sow­milling. vegetables and tobacco. in this difficult condition sparse population resides( 3. Ottawa. Labrador and Quebec ) om field and agricultural product like wheat from the Prairie Provinces. pulping. Most of the southern parts are forested wherever there is sufficient soil. chemicals. papers and pulp is Th industries. comes under the influence of tundra climate and is barren. This is also the region. Thus. Lawrence lowland. The main manufacturing zones run through the St. oil refining. Montreal has do shipbuilding. cars.Oakland. The San Francisco Bay district is famous for Silicon Valley project. At Kingston. iron and steel. ed having heavy engineering industries. the region has rich agricultural base with high yields of dairy produce. Iron ore from the Lake Superior ranges. chemical. The pattern of industrial location in Canada Is similar to that of the United States. paper and pulp manufacturing. porcelain and is al agricultural machinery. particularly.A. Lawrence Valley and southern Ontario. Quebec specialises in marine engineering and shipbuilding.S. One of rs pe the world’s largest oil refineries is located at Sarnia on the shores of Lake Huron. They not KA only link the industrial zone with the rest of the country but also with KA foreign sources of raw materials and foreign markets. electrical engineering unit is located. E( BL In its own way. railway engineering. this region has meagre raw materials and has to depend upon raw materials brought from other regions: coal from the Appalachian field. the capital of Canada has mainly saw­milling. AN having engineering. the second largest Canadian city. the Great Lakes and the St. ai gm fruits. The vast Canadian region. food rK fo processing and other industries: Hamilton at the western end of Lake Ontario. Other cu important industrial cities are Montreal. Other regions in Canada where some manufacturing units are found are located In the interior of the continent at Winnipeg specialising in wheat milling. locomotive en m manufactures and at Guelph. food processing and agricultural machinery manufacturing industry. The hub of industrial activity is in the eastern half of the country. On the other l. s ti and aircraft are designed and tested at Malton. and within the eastern half. between the two cities of Quebec and Windsor. Windsor and the adjacent towns of the Lake Peninsula.

The discovery of petroleum in Alberta has stimulated the location of refineries in the region. It is also well connected by rivers. Black and Caspian Seas by canal transportation. ) om l. the region extends southward to include the metallurgical ed and machine­building centre of Tub: eastward to the diversified industrial centre is al of Gorkiy on the Volga.brewing. physically within the CIS’s western plains and it is is Th functionally the major focus for the entire Soviet­Union. AN viz. From Moscow. Old Industrial Region or Moscow­Tula­Gorkiy rK fo Region. Vancouver is the main centre having lumbering. rs pe petrochemicals and many other Industries on the upper Volga. textiles. fur dressing and tanning.. Dense forests and waterpower resources have attracted some manufacturing units to the Pacific coast.c ai gm @ ka sh ni ka im There are six areas of prime industrial significance: E( The Moscow Region. The Ukraine Region. which connect It to all parts of the country. and with the Baltic. potash and coal. Leningrad region. Besides. The middle BL M Volga Region. timber industries. Volga and Oker draining It. The Moscow Region H IS The industrial region surrounding Moscow is often called by different names. electric . This facilitates the constant flow of minerals and fuel from other parts of the country. fish canning (salmon) and metal smelting. It lies at the centre of the Soviet rail and air networks. and Edmonton having Industries based on local extraction of oil. s ti The whole of Moscow region is devoid of mineral resources other than lignite en and peat. natural gas. the industrial eminence of this region has been achieved do owing to its central location. Central Industrial Region. Azov. However. and Siberia region KA KA 1. White. The Urals region. a diversified centre of oil refining. northward to the important textile centre of Ivanovo (city on proper) and Yaroslav (city proper). phosphate deposits and small iron ore deposits (now almost m cu exhausted).

All these factors continue to make the region an important industrial region. This region Is also a densely populated region. electricity is obtained from large nuclear stations near . on The Ukraine region is also famous for high agricultural productivity. ball bearings. The main source of energy however is hydroe lectricity. and electricity from several nuclear stations scattered throughout is al the region. railway coach factories at Kalinin: agricultural machines: synthetic rubber and auto tyres at Yaroslavl: textiles such as cofton at Ivanovo and Moscow. at is Th the entrance of the Baltic Sea and it is the European terminus of Trans­Siberian Railway (8960 km long). where important manufacturing towns are—Donetsk (former name Stalino). en m Leru naiad cu Leningrad (originally known as St. Odessa M and Rostov­on­Don. huge deposits of common salt. Krivoi Rog and Kerch ironfield. chemical industries like dyes and fertilizer manufacturing units at Moscow. the VolgaU rals fields. engineering industries like automobile industries at Moscow. tractors KA and aluminium industries at Zaporozhe. Taganrog and at the ka sh Dnelper port Zaporozhe. Petersburg) is the second largest Soviet city do and the country’s principal port. manganese of Nikopol and Vanadum of Kerch. and engineering Industries at Kharkov. north Caucasus. linen textile mills at Kalinin. natural gas and oil. Voroshilovgrad. Based on cheap hydroelectricity from the Dneiper l. rK fo such as. The Ukraine Region This is a mineral rich region and the Industrial development of the region is based on the rich Donetz or Donbas coalfields. The region is also an important centre for manufacture of chemicals. shale and lignite deposits are found. KA Though the Donetz coalfields accouni. Heavy Industries specially iron & steel industries have developed mainly in Donetz Basin. coke oven gases. Artemovsk. as well as a large market. machine tools. natural gas and oil piped from wells in the ) om Ukraine and the Caucasus.c Dam. The location of Leningrad is a strategic one. other Important iron and steel Industries are found along the Dnieper ai gm River at Dnepropetrovsk and other places: on the west of the Dneiper at Krivoy @ Rog. Engineering Industries have also developed extensively ni ka im throughout this region. oil. etc. Besides. rs pe throughot. and western Siberia supply the Moscow region with important sources of energy. which provide large skilled labour pool. These include the industries such as locomotive at E( BL Voroshilovgrad and Donetsk: agricultural machineriesy factories at Kiev. locomotive in Kolomna.lines from Volga power stations and gas and oil pipelines from the Ukraine. Tula.ed for almost nine­tenth of the total cool H IS production (bituminous and anthracite) of CIS. Gorkiy and Yaroslavl. 2. The industrial development of Leningrad has not been because of the availability of local minerals. which is based on blast furnace wastes. the Importance of coat as a AN source of power has declined and other sources have developed in recent times. high grade steel alloys. The important Industries of the Moscow Region include steel mills at Moscow. hydroelectricity which is available at Dneiper and ed Volga Rivers.the southern Steppes of the western European CIS food processing s ti industries and the production of agricultural equipments are found. Gorkiy and Lipetsk. Therefore. Kramatorsk. central Asia. and Zhdanov (formerly Mariupol) on the Sea of Azov. Only a small amount of peat.

The MIddle-Volga Region Many cities. and other minerals like nickel. 3. The Middle­Volga region owes Its industrial development to its extensive energy resources. The industrial development of this region is s ti comparatively recent. specific machine parts with great precision. asbestos. Thus. the city and Its immediate environments contribute around 5 per cent of the CIS’s manufacturing. this region has a long history of industrial development. machine tool works. precision instruments. zinc and industrial salt. it is rich in other mineral deposits like copper in the is Th central Urals and at Karabash. Khalllovo. During World War lithe battle line crossed just west of ) om this region. Metals for metal­fabricating industries are obtained from other areas. ed 4.R placed great emphasis on the development of the Urals as cu an Industrial region. but also has important gas fields and surplus hydro­electric power generated by some of the country’s largest dams. the Urals rank third in terms of overall on industrial production. iron ore at Nizhnl­Tagil­Kushva. Kuybyshev. Volgograd (formerly Stolingrad). The Volga River system forms the major water route of the im country. potash. for example. But still. manganese. l. during this period the region experienced a rapid Industrial and ai gm population growth. Since the late 1950’s. through rs pe Sverdlovsk to Nizhni Tagil. this region rK fo also includes diversified machinery. The Important industries In the region include one of the world’s largest iron and steel centres at Magnitogorsk: machine building. the Kama River Truck Plant at Naberezhnyye Chelny. electrical apparatus. such as making of huge turbines for hydroelectric stations. ka sh Another advantage in the region is the development of means of transport and ni ka communication. carrying more than 60 per cent of the total freight transported by river. which are industrially developed.the city.S. only after World War II. cobalt.S. However. KA The important industries in the region include—automobile industry at Tolyatti H IS (city proper) on the Volga. AN oil refining and petrochemical centres at Kuybyshev and Ufa. Apart from the advantage of power resources. These dams are constructed as a chain of dams along the River Volga and its large tributary. under the Five­year en m plans erstwhile U. Besides. The largest units are found near Volgograd and Kuybyshev. . industrial production of this region has @ Increased faster in the Volga area than in the Soviet Union as a whole. Kazan and Saratov. This region extends from Magnitogorsk. it was close enough to supply the required war materials. rail and pipeline network has not only stimulated development of mid M Volga’s energy resources but also allowed the expansion of industrial activities in KA the surrounding areas. bauxite. These are included in the Middle­Volga industrial region. E( BL Water. the Kama. lead.c Hence. This has helped Leningrad to speclalise in certain Industries. Leningrad is supported by university and technological research workers. are found scattered along the Volga River from Kazan southward. The Urals is al After Moscow Region and Ukraine Region. It not only contains one of the major petroleum­ producing areas of the Soviet Union­the Voiga­Urals fields. Though the region Is devoid of good quality coking coal for do metallurgical purposes. and Magnitogorsk: chromium at Sarany. and it contains highly skilled labour force. chemical and food processing industries.

) om l. Other industries found in the region include chemical. Surgut ‘and Nizhnevartovsk. saw milling. long) and the Ob River. 5. availability of minerals likeiron ore at Kuznetskiy. having paper and aluminium Industry. 3204 km. oil deposits nearby at Tyumen. steel machines and machine tools at Sverdlovsk: lignite mining. tungsten at kovlyven: mica at Barga. location on the Trans­Siberian Railroad. Many petroleum refining and petrochemical Industries have developed in many centres of the region based on the Volga­Ural oilfields. flour­ milling industries at Chelyablnsk. having iron and steel and im engineering industries: Bratsk. Kuznetsk Region The most Important Industrial region. H. M Magodon and Khabarovsk based on minerals and timber from the interior. Other isolated industrial centres @ There are some Isolated industrial centres which are based on local resources. locomotive building at Orsk. much of it suitable for coking.P. food processing. having Iron and steel Industry.c ai gm 6.These advantages led to the development of—iron and steel industries at Novokuzhetsk (city proper). pulp and paper at Kuznetsk. and rail wagon­building works (largest in the world) at Nizhni Tagil. along Trans­Siberian Railway.E. hydroelectric power availability. E( BL lrkutskCheremkhovo. fertilizer factories and ship­ building at Molatov. ni ka Krasnoyarsk. steel plants. with footwear. gold and copper refining. copper smelting. KA KA H IS AN rK fo ed is al on rs pe s ti en m cu do is Th . near rich coal and Iron ore fields. textiles at Barnaul. chemicals and timber works. The region has many advantages for its industrial development such as— enormous deposits of coal. ka sh Koragondo. etc. east of the Urals Is the Kuznetsk industrial region. tractor­building. Baikal­Amur Mainline (BAM. machine­ manufacturing. Vladivostok. asbestos at Chadan and Mlnusinsk and having an unlimited supply of softwoocftlmber.chemical industry have also developed at Magnitogorsk. engineering at Novosiblrsk. non­ferrous metallurgy. steel plants.

Th is do cu m en ti s pe rs on al is ed fo rK AN IS H KA KA M BL E( im ka ni sh ka @ gm ai l.c om ) .

which provided energy for the Industries. ai gm The Industrial development after World War II was completely different. Between 1970 and 1984 when industrial production do declined by 4 per cent in Great Britain.c Wood was available. km. efficient en m management and the government’s incentive paved the way for Japan’s cu industrial progress. and earthquakes are a serious natural hazard. on and near the coalfleid. In Japan it was only 3.5 per cent. with 122 mIllion people living in it. Even coal that Is found here is of non­coking coal variety. In 1980’s Japan replaced America as chief creditor. km. In rs pe robotization of industry. in urban and ka sh industrial areas. Japan was the world’s leading exporter of cotton textiles.. on Japan was more involved in the manufacturing of computers and robots.022 persons per sq. Unemployment in 1992 was reported to be by 13. from the forestlands.973 sq. which was not only H IS comparatively cheap but also relatively well educated and skilled. Based on imported raw material rK fo like Iron ore. Otherwise. the Japanese have had to rely overwhelmingly on Imported raw materials for their industrial development. fibres and automobiles. In the 1970’s and 1980’s. Iron and steel Industry was set up in northeast Kyushu. shipbuilding and chemicals (especially KA fertilizer) were established with a labour force. Japan’s industrial production soared by 162 per cent Bank. is al petrochemicals. contributed in a big way to erase E( BL the war effects. The island chain is part of the unstable orogenic (mountain­building) zone that encircles the Pacific Ocean. buying stocks. Japan started producing electronics. Hydro­electricity was ) om developed on many mountain streams. l.S rose. coal and petroleum these industries opted for coastal location. bonds and real estate In . Soon Japan started reviving its Industries and there was M phenomenal rise since the Korean War period of 1950’s. s ti Once again. It has hundreds of volcanoes (10 per cent of the world’s active volcanoes). prior to World War II. Therefore. The most important factor that has worked behind this development is the co­operation and balance between government and people. in the form of financial aid or the open­door im policy for Japanese exports to the United States. New modern cofton KA textiles. Japan already had a clear lead over all other countries. @ Destruction from the war had been catastrophic. Iron and steel industries. The industrial development. These industries mainly produced railway equipments and commercial production of naval shipping. in relatively abundant quality. Japan is devoid of important minerals except coal deposits in Kyushu and Hokkaldo. the Japanese skill and sophisticated technology. the AN quality of the finished product was very high. if we compare Japan with other developed nations we find that Japan is small—a mere 371. American assistance. and increased by 48 per cent in the is Th United States. especially.7 per cent in the United States. optical equipments. It is one of the most densely populated countries In the world with more than 15. In ed the 1960’s. synthetics.Asia Japan Japan’s economic development is called as century In a decade’. cameras. When in the 1980’s the trade deficit of the U.5 per cent In Great Britain and 7. The level lands are In short supply as 75 per cent of the island area of Japan Is too steep for cultivation or has little utility for human occupancy. As a result. stressed on textiles and coal based heavy industries. Before the World War II. Japan’s trade surplus mounted. But In post­war period the role of the United States became very ni ka important. If we consider the mineral resources.

Both of them are now the most important industrial centres of Japan. the region is well served by railways: and has abundant supply of labour. A unique collaborative partnership between MITI— Japan’s @ Ministry of Industrial Trade and Industry and private enterprise helped in ka sh making Japan the envy of the West. The Kwanto Plain en m The Kwanto Plain has attracted the largest urban agglomeration in Japan and in cu the world and contributes about 30 per cent of nation’s industrial output.c apart from encouraging the Industrialists. the competitiveness of Japanese Industries. and Northern Kyushu is al on rs pe s ti 1. In is Th this plain. efficiency as well KA as the quality of the product. 2. Japan has also developed nuclear energy accounting for 26 per cent of electricity generation In 1986 and Is projected to reach 60 per cent by the year 2030. the Nagoya region. With this phenomenal industrial development.A In post World War II E( BL period. Tokyo grew originally as a political capital and Yokohama developed as the area’s main seaport. The high quality of Japanese goods ensures an ever­ growing market even in Europe and North America. Nearness of Japan to the densely populated continent of Asia provides a big readymade market. technological Innovations M and above all the acceptance of automation of industries by the welle ducated KA and skilled Japanese labours. coal is brought from northern Kyushu and Hokkaido. it is skilled as well. ni ka im 7. The extent of government encouragement can be imagined by the fact that l.S. which helped import large quantities of raw materials from all over the world. 1. kaolin and timber have been fully utilised. as well as silk. the Kinki Plain. It is do the largest plain of Japan and provides Ideal sites for setting up of industries. There were many factors that contributed to this phenomenal development. 3. Some of the raw materials like copper. All of . H IS AN rK fo There are four important industrial regions in Japan. It provides 5 per cent of energy needs. Japan has developed hydro­electric power as supplement of coal. Japan has acquired the status of a developed nation. This increased the productivity. Hydroelectric stations have developed in the region which provide cheap electricity. They are—the Kwanto ed Plain.the world. Not only the labour is cheap. The Indented coastline has facilitated the development of many large ports. manganese. The high density of population of Japan has proved a boon for the Industrial development. 4. ) om 6. 5. it has formulated a technically biased ai gm educational system. Other factors have been generous aid from the U.

paper and pulp. ) om silk and synthetic). is an Important centre having integrated iron and steel works. fine porcelain is manufactured at Tajimi and Seto. Nagasaki is also an important KA industrial centre in the region. It produces steel. machine parts. refrigerators. Yokohama specializes In engineering. KA H IS Besides the above manufacturing regions. woollen. furniture. Kokura. Osaka is important for textiles. The development of excellent shipping and a good network of railways and cheap hydel power have aided the industrial development in the region. The Kinki Plain Around 320 km. Northern Kyushu ni ka On Northern Kyushu are the Kitakyushu (a collective name for several cities im including Yawata. oil refining. l. The important industries (mainly light industries) include textiles. Akita rK fo and Nilgata having oil refinery. The local power supplies are inadequate and the region obtains coal from north Kyushu. Hokkaido and abroad. Tokyo electrical engineering industries like television sets. footwear and textile machinery. and ai gm musical instruments such as guitars. chemicals and textiles. toy lacquer works. The three important cities—Osaka. shipbuilding. oriental porcelain. and Kyoto—together contribute about 20 per cent of the country’s industrial output. violins and pianos are produced at @ Hamamatsu.c locomotives and aircraft. 3. having Iron and steel industry. Kobe. cement works and glass works and Chiba. ka sh 4. It is also an important port. has developed as an important industrial centre. oil refining and petrochemical Industries: Kyoto deals in traditional handicrafts. petrochemicals and port industries: Kawasaki has marine engineering. automobiles. chemicals. Okoyama having textiles industry. Here heavy E( BL industries have developed on or near the Chikugo coalfield. west of Tokyo lies Japan’s second largest urban agglomeration and industries concentration In the Kinki Plain at the head of the Osaka Bay.these factors favoured industrial development in the region. Other Industrial towns is al are Hakodate and Sapporo In Hokkaido. and Moji) and Fukuoko agglomerations. Nagoya. on the Nobi Plain at the head of the isa Bay. A variety of manufacturing units has developed which include textile mills (cotton. Nagoya A huge metropolis. engineering industries like machinery. Hiroshima having engineering industry. washing machines and computers. M ships. Kure ed having shipbuilding. there are some scattered important AN industrial towns which include Muroran. Kobe includes shipbuilding. plastics. 2. on rs pe s ti en m cu do is Th .

cars. shipbuilding. tractors. engineering. Heavy Industries are centred on the Anshari­Fushun­Shenyang is al (Mukden) triangle. Important Industries do of Tianjin are metallurgical. ) om l. the national capital. factory equipments and chemicals. The important industries developed in the region are Iron rs pe and steel. engineering. Both coal and Iron ore are found in the region lying In on convenient proximity.c ai gm @ ka sh ni ka im E( The industrial regions of China may be divided into seven zones: BL M Manchuria KA KA H IS AN rK It has been the country’s leading heavy industrial region since modern industries fo ed were developed. . textiles and chemicals is Th while light industries. s ti Tianjin­Beiiing Area en The most Important factor for the industrial development of this region has been m cu the presence of coal In Shanxi (Shansi) and Hebel (Hopel). textiles and machinery­making is important at Beijing.

In the early 20th century. the Important industries that have developed are iron and steel Industry at Baotou (Paotow). Iron ore with 50 per cent metallic content is also found here. Important Industries of the region comprise metallurgical and heavy industries Including machine tools. South Korea and Singapore are en notable for their industrial production.. cement and chemicals. and Kunming having chemicals. Based on these. Hanyang and Hankou which form the Industrial complex of Wuhan area. They are—iron and steel industry and cotton textiles at Shanghai: shipbuilding. m cu Hong Kong do Industrial development in Hong Kong has a long history. ka sh Sichuan (Szechwan) ni ka The region is rich in natural resources like coal. flourmills. The easy communication links are provided by river Chang Jiang (Yangtze Kiang). Wuchang. Yumen and AN Hangzhou (Hangchow) having oil refineries: Lanzhou (Lanchow) having rK fo chemicals. e. Coal is found at Pingxiang (Pingsiang) and iron ore is found at Tayeh. stimulating such industries as textile and the manufacturing of rubber shoes and torches. paper. textiles and mining equipments. Important industries that have developed here are E( BL iron and steel. the region has greater accessibility. Industrial production was . chemicals. With Western technological influence a number of Industries have developed. Taiwan. By the time of Japanese occupation. Talyuan and Datong (Tatung). railway equipment. Besides coal. Chinese merchants established factories in Hong Kong. KA Other Industrial centres KA Some scattered industrial towns have developed based on local mineral H IS resources. oil refineries. handicrafts and food processing. More heavy industries developed by European companies. machinery. Due to its coastal location. ed machinery and textiles. The industrial development of the region @ has been stimulated because of Its proximity to Hong Kong. shipbuilding and chemicals.g. Whuhan Area There are three important towns.c shipbuilding. Iron ore. ferro alloys and im agricultural raw materials. XI Jiang (SI Kiang) ) om The Important industries developed in the region are Iron and steel. handling the bulk of International trade. Lower Chang Jiang (YangtzeKiang) This is considered as the oldest industrial region of China.Shanxi­Baotou (Shansi­Pootow) Area Largest coalfield of China is located in the province of Shaanxl and Shanxi (Shensi and Shansi). Chongquin M (Chungking) and Chengdu (Chengtu) are important centres. is al on rs pe Other Asian Industrial Regions: s ti The four Asian regions — Hong Kong. engineering and metal works. ai gm Guongzhou (Canton) is the chief port. Shanghai Is the most important port. and agricultural implements manufacturing industry. textiles. Anning and Kiuchuan having Iron and steel industry. brewing. local industries had already made much progress. textiles. Making boats and is Th shipping related industries were the first to develop. l.

Shanghai industrialists brought in capital and technical knowhow with them. and AN shipbuilding industry and also produces consumer electronics. South America 2.almost halted during the occupation but revived quickly after the War. en m cu Also add India ( covered in India section ) do is Th Industrial development in the southern continents: 1. The following decade saw the spread of Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) as Hong Kong became the production base of many overseas brand products. In the 1960s. and subsequently Europe on textile exports. high­tech manufacturing and financial and s ti research services. thanks to its large foreign exchange reserves and low external debt. This led to ODM( Original Design Manufcaturers) and OBM( original brand Manufacturers). not only . In the 1980s.c and population density. Hong Kong was the export centre of manufactured products in East Asia. large numbers of refugees provided an immense pool of cheap labour. In recent years emphasis has also been given on ed machinery manufacture. Small and medium sized enterprises moved the whole factory to China. and quota restrictions imposed by the U. ni ka im South Korea is also considered as an important producer of industrial products E( BL not only for its own consumption but for export also. South Korea now has developed a strong KA industrial base. Over the last half century. M Japan and some European countries. capitals moved from trading to manufacturing under the impact of Korean War. some of the larger and more energetic companies engaged in retail trade and brand development. Industrial development in the southern continent has been slowest. Australia. the opening of markets in the United States and Europe saw further progress in Hong Kong’s industrialization. This trend has continued into the 2000s. Taiwan survived the East Asian currency crisis relatively ka sh unscathed. Taiwan It is one of the first “Newly Industrialized Economies” (NIEs) in East Asia. aircraft. to produce machines not only for export but to service is al the increasing local demands. South Korea is having large steel plants. on Singapore with a three million populations and expansion of just 600 sq km is rs pe specialised in electronic technology. With the help from USA. labour­intensive production processes were relocated to the north. Africa 3. South Korea is having a large supply of labour which is cheap KA and skilled. H IS Today. The nation began its industrialization drive after Hong Kong and before South Korea as a result of rising wage rates in Japan. and subsequently Hong Kong. electrical goods rK fo and other types of machines. It ) om has done exceptionally well despite relatively unfavorable resource endowment l.S. real GNP and real GNP per ai gm capita have grown achieving rates of growth of more than 8% and 6% per @ annum respectively. automobiles.

chemical plants. South America: Industrial development has been most marked in South America. Belo Horizonte is the major metallurgical centre with iron and steel and other metal industries based on hydroelectric power and the rich mineral resources of Minas Gerais. 1.c shipbuilding. KA 2. Cordoba and General Pacheco. The chief industrial region is the south­east and the city of Sao Paulo has diverse industrial activities including steel mills. dairying and flour­milling are the dominant industries ka sh of the Pampas lands.because of their scanty endowment. engineering. some countries.. ed The main industries are those connected with either mining or agriculture. e. im Elsewhere in South America. e. is Th Elsewhere in Africa the main indus­trial development has been in capital cities such as Salisbury. and so on. and processing of rubber. South Africa and Brazil. is al smelting and refining of copper in Zambia and Zaire. Such cities have cement. food processing and light industries mainly geared to import substitution. The sparse population and underdevelopment of many parts of the southern continents have prevented target areas from being industrialized. 3. especially Australia. ni ka Chile’s main industries are found in Santiago. and other industries. textiles. Valparaiso and Concepcion. as the basis of cu iron and steel. on oil palm fruits. Africa: KA Africa is the least developed of all the southern continents. The main industries are l. However. Australia: . at Buenos Aires. The La ai gm Plata urban districts have chemicals. Lima. Dar­es­Salaam. and several minerals are available in some countries. perhaps the best endowed of all the southern continents. In Argentina and Uruguay the main industrial region is along the shores of the ) om Plate estuary extending inland as far as Rosario. brewing. however. Caracas. motor vehicle assembly plants. but also because of late political independence from colonial rule. Nigeria also has petrochemicals indus­tries.g. do Chemicals. around the coasts of the continent. rs pe South Africa is. The industries of South America are dotted in many centres. It has had the advantage of a large population. Rosario.. Nairobi. and paper. etc. cement and light industries are also fairly important.. locomotives. aircraft engineering and steel @ indus­tries. iron and a range of ferrous and non­ferrous metal deposits. in West Africa. Meat­packing. are increasingly dependent upon industrial development. Brazil is the most industrialised of Latin American countries. and Bogota and in certain other large M towns. The large spell of H IS colonial rule. none of them very large.g. an industrially developed country. industries are concentrated in the capital cities of E( BL the various states. Rio de Janeiro has similar industries with shipbuilding and aircraft engineering in addition. lack of capital and entrepreneurial skills and political instability as AN well as underdeveloped economic structure are the main causes of industrial rK fo backwardness in many countries of Africa. s ti The main industrial region is the Witwatersrand where there is not only gold but en m coal. cement and beer industries. textiles.

Brisbane is the major industrial city of Queensland and is located near the Ipswich coalfield. Melbourne has chemicals. the favourable climate. Mary­borough and Mackay.In Australia the main industrial area is the south­east where the concentration of early settlement. but based on the Gippsland lignite deposits and the hydroelectric power from the Snowy River Scheme. In Western Australia. Ipswich. especially at Newcastle and Port Kembla. flour­milling. and of iron ore resources. dairy industries and woolen textiles. including the manufacture of cars. Locomotives are made at Brisbane.c ai gm @ ka sh ni ka im E( BL M KA KA H IS AN For further reference : rK Human and Economic geography ­ Leong and Morgan fo ed Economic Geography – k. Perth is the main industrial city dealing with agricultural products. chemicals and shipbuilding. There are also many engineering indus­tries. cement works. the presence of coalfields around Sydney. railway equipment and motor vehicles industries. Siddhartha is al on rs pe s ti en m cu do is Th . ) om l. aircraft engineering. Adelaide. Melbourne has also developed many industries similar to those of Sydney. shipbuilding. locomotives and aircraft. led to the establishment of the iron and steel industry. has well­developed agricultural industries such as fruit­canning. It also has iron and steel (at Whyalla) and engineering industries.