2 views

Uploaded by aungps_sone82

Civil Engineering

save

You are on page 1of 81

CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS

Outline

6.1 General

6.1.1 Scope of application

6.1.2 Estimation principle

6.1.3 Buildings for which particular wind load or wind induced vibration is taken into account

6.2 Horizontal Wind Loads on Structural Frames

6.2.1 Scope of application

6.2.2 Equation

6.3 Roof Wind Load on Structural Frames

6.3.1 Scope of application

6.3.2 Procedure for estimating wind loads

6.4 Wind Loads on Components/Cladding

6.4.1 Scope of application

6.4.2 Procedure for estimating wind loads

A6.1 Wind Speed and Velocity Pressure

A6.1.1 Velocity pressure

A6.1.2 Design wind speed

A6.1.3 Basic wind speed

A6.1.4 Wind directionality factor

A6.1.5 Wind speed profile factor

A6.1.6 Turbulence intensity and turbulence scale

A6.1.7 Return period conversion factor

A6.2 Wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients

A6.2.1 Procedure for estimating wind force coefficients

A6.2.2 External pressure coefficients for structural frames

A6.2.3 Internal pressure coefficients for structural frames

A6.2.4 Wind force coefficients for design of structural frames

A6.2.5 Peak external pressure coefficients for components/cladding

A6.2.6 Factor for effect of fluctuating internal pressures

A6.2.7 Peak wind force coefficients for components/cladding

A6.3 Gust Effect Factors

A6.3.1 Gust effect factor for along-wind loads on structural frames

A6.3.2 Gust effect factor for roof wind loads on structural frames

A6.4 Across-wind Vibration and Resulting Wind Load

A6.4.1 Scope of application

– C6-2 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

A6.4.2 Procedure

A6.5 Torsional Vibration and Resulting Wind Load

A6.5.1 Scope of application

A6.5.2 Procedure

A6.6 Horizontal Wind Loads on Lattice Structural Frames

A6.6.1 Scope of application

A6.6.2 Procedure for estimating wind loads

A6.6.3 Gust effect factor

A6.7 Vortex Induced Vibration

A6.7.1 Scope of application

A6.7.2 Vortex induced vibration and resulting wind load on buildings with circular sections

A6.7.3 Vortex induced vibration and resulting wind load on building components with circular

sections

A6.8 Combination of Wind Loads

A6.8.1 Scope of application

A6.8.2 Combination of horizontal wind loads for buildings not satisfying the conditions of

Eq.(6.1)

A6.8.3 Combination of horizontal wind loads for buildings satisfying the conditions of Eq.(6.1)

A6.8.4 Combination of horizontal wind loads and roof wind loads

A6.9 Mode Shape Correction Factor

A6.9.1 Scope of application

A6.9.2 Procedure

A6.10 Response Acceleration

A6.10.1 Scope of application

A6.10.2 Maximum response acceleration in along-wind direction

A6.10.3 Maximum response acceleration in across-wind direction

A6.10.4 Maximum torsional response acceleration

A6.11 Simplified Procedure

A6.11.1 Scope of application

A.6.11.2 Procedure

A6.12 Effects of Neighboring Tall Buildings

A6.13 1-Year-Recurrence Wind Speed

Appendix 6.6 Dispersion of Wind Load

References

CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-3 –

CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS

Outline

**Each wind load is determined by a probabilistic-statistical method based on the concept of
**

“equivalent static wind load”, on the assumption that structural frames and components/cladding

behave elastically in strong wind.

Usually, mean wind force based on the mean wind speed and fluctuating wind force based on a

fluctuating flow field act on a building. The effect of fluctuating wind force on a building or part

thereof depends not only on the characteristics of fluctuating wind force but also on the size and

vibration characteristics of the building or part thereof. These recommendations evaluate the

maximum loading effect on a building due to fluctuating wind force by a probabilistic-statistical

method, and calculate the static wind load that gives the equivalent effect. The design wind load can

be obtained from the summation of this equivalent static wind load and the mean wind load.

A suitable wind load calculation method corresponding to the scale, shape, and vibration

characteristics of the design object is provided here. Wind load is classified into horizontal wind load

for structural frames, roof wind load for structural frames and wind load for components/cladding. The

wind load for structural frames is calculated from the product of velocity pressure, gust effect factor

and projected area. Furthermore, a calculation method for horizontal wind load for lattice structural

frames that stand upright from the ground is newly added. The wind load for components/cladding is

calculated from the product of velocity pressure, peak wind force coefficient and subject area. For

small-scale buildings, a simplified procedure can be applied.

These recommendations introduce the wind directionality factor for calculating the design wind

speed for each individual wind direction, thus enabling rational design considering the building’s

orientation with respect to wind direction. Moreover, the topography factor for turbulence intensity is

newly added to take into account the increase of fluctuating wind load due to the increase of

fluctuating wind speed.

Introduction of the wind directionality factor requires the combination of wind loads in along-wind,

across-wind and torsional directions. Hence, it is decided to adopt the regulation for the combination

of wind loads in across-wind and along-wind directions, or in torsional and along-wind directions

explicitly. Furthermore, a prediction formula for the response acceleration of the building for

evaluating its habitability to vibration, which is needed in performance design, and information of

1-year-recurrence wind speed are newly added. Besides, information has been provided for the

dispersion of wind load.

– C6-4 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

Notation

Notations used in the main text of this chapter are shown here.

Uppercase Letter

A (m2): projected area at height Z

AR (m2): subject area

AC (m2): subject area of components/cladding

A0 (m2): whole plane area of one face of lattice structure

AF (m2): projected area of one face of lattice structure

B (m): building breadth

B1 (m): building length in span direction

B2 (m): building length in ridge direction

B0 , BH (m): width of lattice structure in ground and width at height H

BD : background excitation factor for lattice structure

C1 , C 2 , C3 : parameters determining topography factor Eg and EI

C D , C R , C X , C Y : wind force coefficients

**C L' , CT' : rms overturning moment coefficient and rms torsional moment coefficient
**

Ce : exposure factor, which is generally 1.0 and shall be 1.4 for open terrain with few

obstructions (Category II). When wind speed is expected to increase due to local

topography, this factor shall be increased accordingly.

Cg : overturning moment coefficient in along-wind direction

**Cg' : rms overturning moment coefficient in along-wind direction
**

C f : wind force coefficient. For horizontal wind loads, wind force coefficient C D defined

in A6.2 with k Z = 0.9 shall be used. For roof wind loads, wind force coefficient C R

defined in A6.2 shall be used.

C pe : external pressure coefficient

C pe1 , C pe2 : external pressure coefficients on windward wall and leeward wall

C pi : internal pressure coefficient

*

C pi : factor for effect of fluctuating internal pressure

C r : wind force coefficient at resonance

ĈC : peak wind force coefficient

**Ĉ pe : peak external pressure coefficient
**

D (m): building depth, building diameter, member diameter

DB (m): building diameter at the base

Dm (m): building diameter at height of 2H / 3

E : wind speed profile factor

EH : wind speed profile factor at reference height H

U Tcr : non-dimensional critical wind speed for aeroelastic instability in across-wind and torsional directions U r (m/s): resonance wind speed U T* : non-dimensional wind speed for calculating torsional wind load . CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-5 – EI : topography factor for turbulence intensity Eg : topography factor for wind speed EgI : topography factor for turbulence intensity E r : exposure factor for flat terrain categories FD : along-wind force spectrum factor F : wind force spectrum factor GD : gust effect factor for along-wind load GR : gust effect factor for roof wind load H (m): reference height H S (m): height of topography I T (kgm2): generalized inertial moment of building for torsional vibration I Z : turbulence intensity at height Z I rZ : turbulence intensity at height Z on flat terrain categories K D : wind directionality factor L (m): span of roof beam LS (m): horizontal distance from topography top to point where height is half topography height LZ (m): turbulence scale at height Z M (kg): total building mass M D (kg): generalized mass of building for along-wind vibration M L (kg): generalized mass of building for across-wind vibration R : factor expressing correlation of wind pressure of windward side and leeward side RD : resonance factor for along-wind vibration RL : resonance factor for across-wind vibration RT : resonance factor for torsional vibration RRe : resonance factor for roof beam S D : size effect factor U 0 (m/s): basic wind speed U1 (m/s): 1-year-recurrence 10-minute mean wind speed at 10m above ground over flat and open terrain U1H (m/s): 1-year-recurrence wind speed U 500 (m/s): 500-year-recurrence 10-minute mean wind speed at 10m above ground over flat and open terrain U H (m/s): design wind speed * * U Lcr .

aTmax (rad/s2): maximum response acceleration in along-wind. g aT : peak factors for response accelerations in along-wind. B1 and B2 . across-wind and torsional directions at top of building b (m): projected width of member f (m): rise f1 (Hz): The smaller of f L and f T f D . f L .– C6-6 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings U r* : non-dimensional resonance wind speed W D (N): along-wind load at height Z WL (N): across-wind load at height Z WT (Nm): torsional wind load at height Z WLC (N): across-wind combination load WR (N): roof wind load WSC (N): wind load on components/cladding obtained by simplified method WSf (N): wind load on structural frames Wr (N): wind load at height Z X S (m): distance from leading edge of topography to construction site Z (m): height above ground Z b . g T : peak factors for wind loads in along-wind. f T (Hz): natural frequency for first mode in along-wind. g L . across-wind and torsional directions f R (Hz): natural frequency for first mode of roof beam g aD . across-wind and torsional directions g D . aLmax (m/s2). across-wind and torsional directions h (m): eaves height k1 : factor for aspect ratio k 2 : factor for surface roughness k 3 : factor for end effects k 4 : factor for three demensionality k C : area reduction factor k rW : return period conversion factor k Z : factor for vertical profile for wind pressure coefficients or wind force coefficients l (m): smaller value of 4 H and B . member length la1 (m): smaller value of H and B1 la2 (m): smaller value of H and B2 . Z G (m): parameters determining exposure factor Lowercase Letter aDmax . g aL . minimum value of 4 H .

δ L . It is known that tornados are . Since the scale of these phenomena are very small. few are picked up by the meteorological observation network.1 General 6. and their nature is comparatively well known. across-wind vibration and torsional vibration φ D . The wind loads specified here are applied to the design of buildings to prevent failure due to strong wind. Down-bursts are gusts due to descending air flows caused by severe rainfall in developed cumulonimbus. φT : mode correction factor for vortex induced vibration.1. and down-bursts or tornados. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-7 – q H (N/m2): velocity pressure at reference height H q Z (N/m2): velocity pressure at height Z r (year): design return period rRe : coefficient of variation for generalized external pressure x (m) : distance from end of component Greek Alphabet α : exponent of power law for wind speed profile β : exponent of power law for vibration mode γ : load combination factor δ . δ T : mass damping parameter for vortex induced vibration. φ L . ζ L . across-wind vibration and torsional vibration ζ D . angle of attack to member θ S (°): inclination of topography ρ (kg/m3): air density ρ S (kg/m3): building density which is M /( HDm DB ) ρ LT : correlation coefficient between across-wind vibration and torsional vibration 6.1 Scope of application (1) Target strong wind Most wind damage to buildings occurs during strong winds. The strong winds that occur in this country are mainly those that accompany a tropical or extratropical cyclone. The former are large-scale phenomena that are spread over about 1000km in a horizontal plane. ζ T : critical damping ratio for first translational and torsional modes ζ R : critical damping ratio for first mode of roof beam ϕ : solidity λ : mode correction factor of general wind force λU : U 500 / U 0 μ : first mode shape in each direction ν D (Hz): level crossing factor θ (°): roof angle.

because there are large differences in their sizes. The effect of the fluctuating wind force on the building or part thereof depends not only on the characteristics of the fluctuating wind force but also on the size and vibration characteristics of the building or part thereof. These recommendations focus on strong winds caused by tropical or extratropical cyclones. Wind loads on structural frames are calculated on the basis of the elastic response of the whole building against fluctuating wind forces. (2) Wind loads on structural frames and wind loads on components/cladding The wind loads provided in these recommendations is composed of those for structural frames and those for components/cladding.– C6-8 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings small-scale phenomena several hundred meters wide at most having a rotational wind with a rapid atmospheric pressure descent.1. so they often fatally damage buildings.2 Estimation principle (1) Classification of wind load A mean wind force acts on a building. but their probability of attacking a particular site is very small compared with that of the tropical or extratropical cyclones. They play an important role in protecting the interior space from destruction by strong wind. The number of occurrences of down-bursts and tornados is relatively large. Therefore. However. Wind resistant design for components/cladding has been inadequate until now. 1) wind turbulence (temporal and spatial fluctuation of wind) 2) vortex generation in wake of building 3) interaction between building vibration and surrounding air flow . This mean wind force is derived from the mean wind speed and the fluctuating wind force produced by the fluctuating flow field. However. Wind loads on structural frames and on components/cladding are different. The characteristics of the strong wind and pressure fluctuation caused by tornados are not known. the minimum wind speed takes into account the influence of tornadoes and down-bursts. dynamic characteristics and dominant phenomena and behaviors. The following factors are generally considered in determining the fluctuating wind force. 6. wind resistant design for components/cladding should be just as careful as that for structural frames. the winds caused by down-bursts and tornados are very strong. it is necessary to evaluate the characteristics of fluctuating wind forces and the dynamic characteristics of the building. The former are for the design of structural frames such as columns and beams. The latter are for the design of finishings and bedding members of components/cladding and their joints. Therefore. Wind loads on components/cladding are calculated on the basis of fluctuating wind forces acting on a small part. in order to estimate the design wind load.

2 Classification of wind loads (2) Combination of wind loads Wind pressure distributions on the surface of a building with a rectangular section are asymmetric even when wind blows normal to the building surface. For most buildings. For roof loads.1. for relatively flexible buildings with a large aspect ratio. wind load on structural frames is divided into two parts: horizontal wind load on structural frames and roof wind load on structural frames. horizontal wind load on structural frames in the along-wind direction is important. Therefore. and their dynamic characteristics are not uniform at all positions on the building surface. the effect of fluctuating wind force generated by wind turbulence is predominant. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-9 – vibration direction wind turbulence vibration direction vortices a) fluctuating wind force caused by b) fluctuating wind force caused by wind turbulence vortex generation in wake of building Figure 6. . the fluctuating wind force caused by separation flow from the leading edge of the roof often predominates.1. Therefore. it is better to evaluate wind load on structural frames based on overall building behavior and that on components/cladding based on the behavior of individual building parts. Fluctuating wind pressures change temporally.1 Fluctuating wind forces based on wind turbulence and vortex generation in wake of building Fluctuating wind pressures act on building surfaces due to the above factors. In this case. along-wind load horizontal wind load across-wind load wind load on structural frames torsional wind load wind load roof wind load wind load on components/cladding wind load on simplified structural frames procedure small-scale building wind load on components/cladding Figure 6. horizontal wind loads on structural frames in the across-wind and torsional directions should not be ignored. wind forces in the across-wind and torsional directions are not zero when the wind force in the along-wind direction is a maximum. Therefore. However.

the wind directionality factor was determined by conducting Monte Carlo simulation of typhoons. the wind load for a lattice type structure shall be calculated from the velocity pressure at each height. qH qZ qH H qH Z H H house dome high-rise building lattice type structure Figure 6.3. (4) Reference height and velocity pressure The reference height is generally the mean roof height of the building. These recommendations introduce the wind directionality factor in calculating the design wind speed for each wind direction individually. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Hence. the characteristics of wind forces acting on a building vary for each wind direction.3. rational wind resistant design can be applied by investigating the characteristics of wind speed at a construction site and wind forces acting on the building for each wind direction. (3) Wind directionality factor Occurrence and intensity of wind speed at a construction site vary for each wind direction with geographic location and large-scale topographic effects. it was difficult to quantify the probability distribution of wind speed due to a typhoon from meteorological observation records over only about 70 years.1. it has been decided to adopt explicitly a regulation for combination of wind loads in along-wind.6.1. because the design wind speed has been used without considering the effect of wind direction. with the introduction of wind directionality. In evaluating the wind directionality factor. In these recommendations. the influence of typhoons. across-wind and torsional directions has become necessary. However.6.1. However. The wind loads are calculated from the velocity pressure at this reference height. which is the main factor of strong winds in Japan. The vertical distribution of wind load is reflected in the wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients.– C6-10 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Combination of wind loads in the along-wind. across-wind and torsional directions have not been taken into consideration positively so far. combination of wind loads in the along-wind. Furthermore. should be taken into account. across-wind and torsional directions. However.3 Definition of reference height and velocity pressure (5) Wind load on structural frames The maximum loading effect on each part of the building can be estimated by the dynamic response analysis considering the characteristics of temporal and spatial fluctuating wind pressure and the . Therefore. and analysis of observation data provided by the Metrological Agency. because the occurrence of typhoons hitting a particular point is not necessarily high.

However. a prediction formula is given in these recommendations based on the fluctuating overturning moment in the across-wind direction and the fluctuating torsional moment for the first vibration mode in each direction. The resonance effect is ignored. the characteristics of roof wind load on structural frames are different from those of the along-wind load on structural frames. The horizontal wind load (along-wind load) distribution for structural frames is assumed to be equal to the mean wind load distribution. The characteristics of the wind force acting on the roof are influenced by the features of the fluctuating wind force caused by separation flow from the leading edge of the roof and the inner pressure. For the response of the building against strong wind. the peak exterior wind pressure coefficient and the coefficient of inner wind pressure variation effect are prescribed. Therefore. Only the size effect is considered. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-11 – dynamic characteristics of the building. while the wind load on structural frames is prescribed for the wind direction normal to the building face. (6) Wind load on components/cladding In the calculation of wind load on components/cladding. the first mode is predominant and higher frequency modes are not predominant for most buildings. Here. the roof wind load on structural frames cannot be evaluated by the same procedure as for the along-wind load on structural frames. which is defined as the ratio of the instantaneous value to the mean value of the building response. the equivalent wind load is obtained by multiplying the gust effect factor. Specifically. The wind load on components/cladding is prescribed as the maximum of positive pressure and negative pressure for each part of the components/cladding for wind from every direction. If these criteria indicate that vortex-induced vibration or aeroelastic instability will occur. Thus. The equivalent static wind load producing the maximum loading effect is given as the design wind load. (7) Wind loads in across-wind and torsional directions It is difficult to predict responses in the across-wind and torsional directions theoretically like along-wind responses. the gust effect factor is given when the first mode is predominant and assuming elastic dynamic behavior of the roof beam under wind load. . to the mean wind load. Therefore. Criteria for across-wind and torsional vibrations are provided for buildings with rectangular sections. A formula for wind load caused by vortex-induced vibrations is also provided for buildings or structural members with circular sections. structural safety should be confirmed by wind tunnel tests and so on. which depends on the degree of sealing of the building. the peak wind force coefficient or the peak exterior wind pressure coefficient must be obtained from wind tunnel tests or another verification method. for the wind load on components/cladding. because the first mode shape resembles the mean building displacement. because the natural frequency of components/cladding is generally high. (8) Vortex induced vibration and aeroelastic instability Vortex-induced vibration and aeroelastic instability can occur with flexible buildings or structural members with very large aspect ratios. Criteria for vortex-induced vibrations are provided for buildings and structural members with circular sections. and the peak wind force coefficient is calculated as their difference.

especially on neighboring downstream buildings. wind loads or wind-induced vibrations are sometimes decreased by their shielding effect. resulting in higher dynamic pressures and motions. the wind flow through the group may be significantly deformed and cause a much more complex effect than is usually acknowledged. changes to these features during the building’s service life need to be confirmed. the shielding effect should be investigated by careful wind tunnel study or other suitable verification methods. a simplified procedure is employed. However. Rational wind resistant design that considers this shielding effect can be performed. these recommendations show a map of 1-year-recurrence wind speed based on the daily maximum wind speed observed at meteorological stations and a calculation method for response acceleration. Thus. the size effect is small and the dynamic effect can be neglected. (10) Effect of neighboring buildings When groups of two or more tall buildings are constructed in proximity to each other. because it is generally complicate and cannot be easily analyzed.– C6-12 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings (9) Small-scale buildings For small buildings with large stiffness. Hence. (11) Assessment of building habitability Building habitability against wind-induced vibration is usually evaluated on the basis of the maximum response acceleration for 1-year-recurrence wind speed. . Furthermore. (12) Shielding effect by surrounding topography or buildings When there are topographical features and buildings around the construction site.

torsional wind loads (2) vortex induced vibration.1 Gust effect factor A6.3 Buildings to be designed for particular wind load or wind induced vibration (1) across-wind.8 Combination of wind loads A6.4 Flow chart for estimation of wind load .1. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-13 – Start A6.3.6 Turbulence intensity and turbulence scale A6.1 Velocity pressure Outline of building A6.1 Procedure for estimating wind force coefficients A6.3 Basic wind speed A6.7 Return period conversion factor A6.2.1.4 Wind load on components/cladding A6.3.2.1.4 Across-wind load A6.1.5 Peak external pressure coefficients A6.1.13 1-year-recurrence wind speed A6.2.1.2 Horizontal wind load 6. aeroelastic instability Wind tunnel experiment A6.1.5 Wind speed profile factor A6.2 External wind pressure coefficient A6.6 Factor for effect of fluctuating internal A6.10 Response acceleration End Figure 6.11 Simplified procedure 6.2.2 Gust effect factor for along-wind loads for roof wind loads 6.1 Wind speed and velocity pressure A6.12 Effects of neighboring tall buildings Wind load on structural frames Wind load on components/cladding A6.7 Peak wind force coefficient A6.4 Wind directionality factor A6.5 Torsional wind load A6.6 Horizontal wind loads on lattice structural frames A6.2 Design wind speed A6.2.3 Roof wind load 6.1.2.3 Internal pressure coefficients A6.7 Vortex induced vibration A6.1.4 Wind force coefficients pressures A6.2.

1) has been established through investigation of the relationship between the magnitude of along-wind loads and across-wind loads for flat terrain subcategory II and a basic wind speed of 40m/s assuming 180kg/m3 building density.(6. shape and vibration characteristics of the building. the natural frequency decreases and approaches the vortex shedding frequency.5 Definition of load and wind direction Both across-wind vibration and torsional vibration are caused mainly by vortices generated in the building’s wake. Under normal conditions. 3 component wind loads and building shape. it is desirable to estimate across-wind and torsional wind loads even for buildings of light weight and small damping to which Eq. responses to across-wind vibration and torsional vibration depending on wind speed increase more rapidly than responses to along-wind vibration.1. Therefore. The condition with regard to the aspect ratio of Eq.3 Buildings for which particular wind load or wind induced vibration need to be taken into account (1) Buildings for which horizontal wind loads on structural frames in across-wind and torsional directions need to be taken into account Horizontal wind loads on structural frames imply along-wind load. However. across-wind responses to high wind speed are larger than along-wind responses. f1 = 1 /(0. The wind speed at which the degrees of along-wind response and across-wind response change places with each other differs depending on the height. Ｂ Ｄ along-wind Ｈ torsion across-wind wind Figure 6. and across-wind and torsional wind forces increase. across-wind load and torsional wind load. These vibrations are not so great for low-rise buildings. with an increase in the aspect ratio caused by the presence of high-rise buildings.– C6-14 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings 6. As a result.(6. resonance components increase and building responses become large.1. In general. Both across-wind load and torsional wind load must be estimated for wind-sensitive buildings that satisfy Eq.024 H ) (Hz) natural frequency of the primary mode and 1% damping ratio for an ordinary building. Figure 6. along-wind responses to low wind speed are larger than across-wind responses.(6.1. However.1).1) is not . with increase in building height. However.5 shows the definition of wind direction. a vortex with a strong period uniformly generated in the vertical direction.

The first condition required for estimating aeroelastic instability and vortex-induced vibration is the aspect ratio ( H / BD or H / Dm ).1) to a building with a plane that is slightly different from rectangular by regarding B and D roughly as projected breadth and a depth.1) using a smaller value for the upper part yields a conservative value. as well as in slender members.7. This is because it is known that . It is possible to apply Eq. for flat-plane buildings with small torsional stiffness or buildings with large eccentricity whose translational natural frequency and torsional natural frequency approximate each other. Therefore.(6. Furthermore. Therefore.2) times the non-dimensional critical wind speed. The occurrence of aeroelastic instability and vortex-induced vibration is dominated by the non-dimensional wind speed. which is determined by the side ratio. Aeroelastic instability as well as vortex-induced vibration does not occur easily in buildings with a small aspect ratio. The method for estimating the wind load for a building with a circular plan when vortex-induced vibration occurs is shown in A6. respectively. its natural frequency and wind speed. Under this recommendation. Therefore. the wind force acting on the upper part has a major effect on the response. the turbulence characteristics of an approaching flow and the mass and damping ratio of a building. The non-dimensional wind speed for estimating aeroelastic instability and vortex-induced vibration is set at 0.(6. the aspect ratio for estimating both aeroelastic instability and vortex-induced vibration was set to 4 or more and 7 or more.1) is not applicable to those buildings. (2) Vortex resonance and aeroelastic instability It is feared that aeroelastic instabilities such as vortex-induced vibration. The non-dimensional critical wind speed for aeroelastic instability depends upon the mass damping parameter. galloping and flutter occur in buildings with low natural frequency and are high in comparison with their breadth and depth. The conditions for estimation of aeroelastic instability in both across-wind vibration and torsional vibration for building with rectangular planes as well as the conditions for estimation of vortex-induced vibrations for a building with a circular plane are given based on wind tunnel test results and the field measurement results 1)-6). it is also desirable to estimate the torsional wind loads even where Eq. the non-dimensional critical wind speed with regard to the estimation of aeroelastic instability of a building with a rectangular plane was provided as the function for those parameters. Thus. Under normal conditions. The second condition for estimating non-dimensional wind speed is ( U / f BD or U / fDm ). a value in the vicinity of 2/3 of the building height is chosen in most cases. The computation of Eq. a representative value for the upper part should used for the computation. which is determined by the representative breadth of the building. For values of B and D changed in the vertical direction. It may well be that vortex-induced vibration and aeroelastic instability will occur in a slender building with a triangular or an elliptical plan. The non-dimensional wind speed for vortex-induced vibration of a building with a circular plan is almost independent of this parameter.83(=1/1. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-15 – applicable. attention must be paid to this. the value for non-dimensional critical wind speed is fixed.(6. The discriminating conditional formula shown in this chapter was derived for a building with a rectangular plane.

it is assumed that all profiles similar to that of the mean component are provided. Davenport.1. Although the vertical profiles for these components are different from each other. and for wind load at a unit height being taken into account. calculated this factor based on the displacement at the highest position of a building8). The gust effect factor is a magnifying rate of the maximum instantaneous value to the mean building responses. However. The procedure described in this section can estimate the equivalent static wind load producing the maximum structural responses (load effects of stress and displacement) using the gust effect factor. For many buildings. 6. which includes the effect of along-wind dynamic response due to atmospheric turbulence of approaching wind. only the first mode is taken into account as the resonant component. It is thus recommended that the damping ratio of a building be estimated through reference to “Damping in Buildings” 7).2. .6. was employed. Projected area A is the area projected from the wind direction for the portion concerned. the damping ratio of a building is required for the computation of the building’s mass damping parameter.1 Scope of application This section describes horizontal wind loads on structural frames in the along-wind direction. The equivalent static wind load is also divided into the mean component.– C6-16 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings aeroelastic instability or vortex-induced vibration occurs within a period shorter than 10 min. The along-wind load is generally composed of a mean component caused by the mean wind speed.4) for horizontal wind loads is derived from a gust effect factor method.2 Estimation method Equation (6. as shown in Fig. Furthermore. a quasi-static component caused by relatively low frequency fluctuation and a resonant component caused by fluctuation in the vicinity of the natural frequency. in these recommendations the gust effect factor based on the overturning moment of a base9). which is the evaluation time for wind speed prescribed in this recommendation. 6.2.2.2 Horizontal Wind Loads on Structural Frames 6. who first proposed the gust effect factor. projected area A becomes projected breadth B . which can rationally estimate the design wind load for a building. quasi-static component and resonant component. and that the uncertainty of the non-dimensional wind speed including errors in experimental values is taken into account.

CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-17 – Ｂ Ｄ ＷD Ｈ Ａ wind Figure 6.3.15 .2.3 Roof Wind Load on Structural Frames 6. where the correlation between fluctuating external pressures and fluctuating internal pressures can be ignored. U H / f R1 L > 1 and I H < 0. f R1 is frequency of first unsymmetrical vibration mode and I H is turbulence intensity at reference height10).3. where m is mass per unit area. which includes the effects of fluctuating external pressures and fluctuating internal pressures for roof responses. the wind load can be estimated by multiplying the gust effect factor by the mean wind force distribution.1 Scope of application Roof wind loads on structural frames should be estimated from load effects of wind forces that act on roof frames. to simplify the procedure. This section describes equations to be applied to roof frames of buildings with rectangular plan without dominant openings. A light roof like a hanging roof might generate aerodynamically unstable oscillations. which are affected by the behavior of the separated shear layers from leading edges. and the internal pressures. . In addition. wind tunnel tests must be carried out to ensure that aerodynamic instability such as self-excited oscillation does not occur within the design wind speed. L is span length. U H is design wind speed. note that large amplitude vibration may occur on large-span roofs with light weight because the deflection or oscillation-induced wind force due to mean wind pressure seems to make the stiffness weak. which are affected by the building’s permeability.11).1 Projected area 6. 6. In these cases. The gust effect factor is only formulated under the condition where beam oscillation is dominated by the fundamental mode. ρ is air density.2 Procedure for estimating wind loads The equivalent static wind loads on roofs can be estimated by the gust effect factor method. These oscillations may be generated in roof frames that satisfy the conditions of m / ρL < 3 . The equivalent static wind load distribution that produces the maximum load effect on a roof is not strictly similar to the mean wind pressure distribution. The properties of wind forces acting on roofs are influenced by the external pressures. However.

it is more appropriate to adopt wind speed as the basic variable when dynamic wind effects are under discussion.. is the basic variable determining the wind loading on a building.15) for convenience. For buildings such as free-standing canopy roofs. A6. and are calculated from Eq. the supported area of the finishing is used. wind speed is adopted in the recommendations as the basic variable for calculating wind loading.2 Procedure for estimating wind loads Wind loads on components/cladding are derived from the difference between the wind pressures acting on the external and internal faces of a building.4 Wind Loads for Components/Cladding 6.1 Velocity pressure The velocity pressure.1 Wind speed and velocity pressure A6. which represents the kinetic energy per unit volume of the air flow.4. These wind loads are also applied to the design of eaves and canopies. which is based on the design wind speed U H at the reference height H . . defined by the difference between external and internal pressures. External pressure coefficients provided in the Recommendations correspond to the most critical positive and negative peak pressures on each part of a building irrespective of wind direction. and is defined as (1 2)ρU 2 .– C6-18 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings 6. However. finishings of roofs and external walls. where U is the wind speed. Thus. the peak wind force coefficients Ĉ C are derived directly from the actual peak values of pressure differences. the tributary area of the supports is used. the peak pressure or force coefficients for each wind direction are needed. It is only necessary to consider the velocity pressure as the basic variable of wind loading when static effects of the wind are examined. It corresponds to the rise in pressure from the free stream (atmospheric ambient static pressure) to the stagnation point on the windward face of the building. is defined in Eq.(A6. qH . where the top and bottom surfaces are both exposed to wind. Peak wind force coefficients Ĉ C corresponding to the peak values of fluctuating net pressures.7. which should be determined from appropriate wind tunnel experiments or some other method12). 6.4. roof braces. The subject area AC depends on the item to be designed. bed members such as purlins. When designing the finishing of roofs and external walls. furring strips and studs. Therefore.1). when the wind loads are calculated by considering the directionality of wind speeds. and tie beams subject to strong effects of intensive wind pressure.6). The design velocity pressure.1 Scope of application Wind loads on components/cladding need to be designed for parts of buildings. are given by Eq.1.2.(6. as shown in section A6. and when designing the supports of the finishing.(A6.

the air density is taken as ρ = 1. Of these factors. If the design ignores wind directionality effects. mountain ranges and peninsulas) as well as the ground surface conditions (e.2) by substituting k rW = 1 . Designers are required to decide the wind load level by considering the building’s social importance. occupancy.(A6. small-scale topographical features and elevation are reflected in the wind speed profile factor E H . a Monte-Carlo simulation based on a typhoon model was also conducted for each meteorological station in Japan. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-19 – Air density ρ varies with temperature. and small-scale topographic features (e.2 is that corresponding to the 100-year-recurrence wind speed.2) for calculating the design wind speed. Although the analysis was conducted with consideration of wind directionality effect. the basic wind speed was considered as a non-directional value. As the first step of the procedure. However.1. The basic wind load defined in 2.22 (kg/m3).g. the wind .1. the geographical location and large-scale topographical features are reflected in the values of basic wind speed U 0 and wind directionality factor K D .2 Design wind speed The wind speed at a construction site is a function of its geographical location. Then extreme value analyses were conducted for mixed wind climates of typhoon winds and non-typhoon winds. The value of the basic wind speed corresponds to the 100-year-recurrence 10-minute-mean wind speed over a flat and open terrain (category II) at an elevation of 10m. The influences of surface roughness. which corresponds to a temperature of 15°C and an ambient pressure of 1013 hPa.2). the influence of humidity is usually neglected. ambient pressure and humidity.1. climatological factors.g.(A6.3 Basic wind speed The basic wind speed U 0 is the major variable in Eq. data from different metrological stations were adjusted or corrected to reduce them to a common base considering the directional terrain roughness. the frequency of occurrence of extreme wind and the aerodynamic property on wind direction. The wind directionality factor K D . This is represented by the return period conversion factor k rW .1 shows the procedure for making the basic wind speed map. Figure A6. The wind directionality factor K D is affected by the frequency of occurrence and the routes of typhoons. economic situation and so on.g. The wind speed at a construction site is influenced by the occurrence of typhoon and monsoon. the design wind speed U H can be calculated by substituting K D = 1 in Eq. escarpments and hills). which is calculated from Eq. large-scale topographic effects and so on. A6. Instead. A6. a newly introduced parameter in this version. makes the design more rational by considering the dependencies of the wind speed. the longitude and latitude of the location and large-scale topographical effects. In these recommendations. The height above ground level is also a factor. The basic wind speed reflects the effects of these factors. orography or large-scale topographic features (e. For typhoon winds.(A6. size and density of obstructions such as buildings and trees).

data measured by different types of anemometers were corrected to those of propeller type anemometers13).1 Procedure for making basic wind speed map 1) Data for analysis Data of wind speed. as defined in A6. respectively. Observation history at metrological stations) were used for analysis. wind direction and anemometer height from the Japan Meteorological Business Support Center (Daily observation climate data from 1961-2000.1. Records of wind speed and direction (for all meteorological stations from 1961 to 2000) Evaluation of terrain category (considering historical variation) Reduction to the common base Extreme value probability Modeling of typhoon pressure fields analysis for mixed wind climates (based on data from 1951 to 1999) Monte Carlo simulation of typhoon Extraction of independent storm winds (for 5000 years) (including the 2nd higher and less) Extreme wind probability distribution Extreme wind probability distribution due to typhoons due to non-typhoon winds Synthesis of extreme value distributions Basic wind speed map Figure A6. which is defined as the wind speed ratio for a certain wind direction to the basic wind speed. 2) Evaluation of directional terrain roughness and homogenization of wind speed The wind speed records at the meteorological stations were homogenized.1. The daily observation climate data from 1961-1990 and the Geophysical Review of 1951-1999 by the Japan Meteorological Agency were referred for modeling the pressure fields and tracks of typhoons.– C6-20 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings directionality effect was reflected by introducing the wind directionality factor. that is to say. For homogenization of the wind speed records.4. converted .

In this method. in which the symbols are for the calculated values and the lines are the results of linear approximation. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-21 – into data at a height of 10m over terrain category II by utilizing a method for evaluating the terrain roughness from the pseudo-gust factor (ratio of daily maximum instantaneous wind speed divided by daily maximum wind speed) and elevation of the measurement point14).5) and turbulence intensity (defined in A6. Then. the wind climate was considered as . The pseudo-gust factors were first averaged according to the year and wind direction.1. Figure A6. Based on typhoon track data. the measuring records were divided into typhoon and non-typhoon winds. This shows that the roughness category changes due to urbanization and the roughness category varies with wind direction. For this calculation. Historical changes of the directional terrain roughness were utilized for homogenization of wind speed records at meteorological stations and calibration of wind speeds near the ground surface in the extreme value analysis and the typhoon model. that is. the terrain roughness category was treated as a continuous variable. typhoons and monsoons.2 shows examples of the annual variance of terrain roughness for four dominant wind directions measured at Fukuoka Meteorological Station.6). The value of roughness category was assumed to be between I and V.1.2 Examples of evaluation for terrain roughness 3) Extreme value analysis in mixed wind climates The extreme value analysis in mixed wind climates15) was applied to extreme wind data generated by different wind climates. The details of the method are as follows.1. and the combined distribution was obtained assuming the independency of each extreme distribution. the extreme wind records were divided into groups and independently fitted by extreme value distributions. V V Flat terrain categories Flat terrain categories IV IV III III II II I I V V Flat terrain categories Flat terrain categories IV IV III III II II I I Figure A6. if it was within 500 km of the typhoon center. for instance. a terrain roughness category was identified in which the same gust-factor was given using the profiles of mean wind speeds (defined in A6. referring to the averaged pseudo-gust factors.1.

moving speed.– C6-22 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings typhoon. typhoons are the dominant wind climates generating strong winds that need to be taken into account in wind resistant design. correlations between gradient winds and near-ground winds and correlations among parameters of typhoon pressure fields in each area are considered. radius to maximum winds. of which roughly 10% land. The wind speed data measured in a typhoon area were analyzed by Monte-Carlo simulation based on a typhoon model to obtain the extreme value distribution.1.3 shows a general procedure of this typhoon simulation method. In order to improve the accuracy of typhoon simulation18). 4) Typhoon simulation technique In Japan. The pressure fields of typhoons are modeled by several parameters. so severe wind damage may occur without large wind speeds being observed. Typhoons sometimes do not pass near metrological stations.e. while those measured in a non-typhoon area were analyzed by the modified Jensen & Franck method16) in which wind speed data smaller than the highest value were also included as independent storms for analysis. in the ASCE17) standard. a typhoon simulation method was adopted for evaluating the strong wind caused by typhoons. The non-exceedance probability of strong wind in the target area is evaluated by generating virtual typhoons according to the results of statistical analysis of pressure field parameters. An average of 28 typhoons occur annually. and otherwise as non-typhoon. the simulation results were adopted as the value of basic wind speed. In order to improve the instability of the statistical data (sampling error). i. This Monte-Carlo simulation method is considered in recommendations of other countries. In this standard. due to their high wind speeds and large influence areas. Figure A6. central pressure depth. For example. . etc. simulation is required as a principle for evaluation of the design wind speed in hurricane-prone regions.

For strong wind not caused by a typhoon.4 shows an example of the maximum wind speed evaluated at K city. Figure A6. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-23 – moving speed and direction rate of occurrence initial position central pressure pressure field depth rate of occurrence radius of maximum wind initial position moving velocity wind speed field gradient wind central pressure depth correlation of wind speed and direction based on radius of maximum wind observed records Probability distributions surface wind return period r statistics of historical typhoons Figure A6. The results obtained from typhoon and non-typhoon conditions were combined to evaluate the return period of annual maximum wind speed.1.1. .3 General procedure for typhoon simulation The non-exceedance probability of the annual maximum wind speed caused by a typhoon was obtained from the typhoon simulation. extreme value analysis was conducted on data observed from 1961-2000.

For return period factor k rW mentioned in A6.7. 100-year-recurrence wind speed in winter reflects only the effects of large-scale topography. As for the basic wind speed. there are small differences in λU among wind speeds in winter for different meteorological stations. the lower limit of wind speed was set to 30m/s. The procedure for making this map is the same as that for Fig. wind direction.6. the wind directionality factor should not be used ( K D = 1 ) here.1. Figure A6. In addition. except that the typhoon simulation method is not used.1. .4 Example of maximum wind speed evaluated at K city 5) Map of basic wind speed The contour line of 100-year-recurrence wind speed was somewhat complicated even though the data obtained in 4) had been homogenized according to surface roughness.1.– C6-24 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Figure A6.1.A. This was assumed to be due to the influences of local topography and structures surrounding the metrological station and the applicability of the homogenization models.1 can be applied for calculating k rW in Eq. Thus. spatial smoothing was conducted.(A6. An average value of λU = 1. etc. 6) 100-year-recurrence wind speed in winter 100-year-recurrence wind speed in winter is necessary for combination of wind loads and snow loads.5 is a spatially smoothed wind speed map made for the 100-year-recurrence wind speed at metrological stations during the snow season (from December to March).1. It is difficult to include the effects of tornado and downburst in the analysis.12). To remove such local effects.

5 100-year-recurrence 10-minutes mean wind speed at 10m above ground over a flat and open terrain in winter (m/s) . CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-25 – Figure A6.1.

typhoon effect should be considered when wind directionality factor is determined. b) Where the aerodynamic shape factors are independent of wind directions. a) Where the aerodynamic shape factors are dependent on wind directions. (1) Where the aerodynamic shape factors for each wind direction are known from appropriate wind tunnel experiments. For the latter. which is used to evaluate wind loads on structural frames and components/cladding for a particular wind direction. If the wind direction is within a 22. as in the ASCE17) standard.21). two conditions are considered: whether or not the aerodynamic shape factors depend on wind direction. so as to achieve reasonable wind resistant design. If the wind direction is outside the 22. a structure that has a circular sectional plan. four wind directions should be considered that coincide with the principal coordinate axis of the structure.219) and AS/NZS 1170. Thus. (2) Where the aerodynamic shape factors in A6.1. For lattice structures.5 degree sector centered at one of the 8 cardinal directions. When the records are divided into 8 sectors of azimuth. One defines a wind directionality factor that changes with direction. the wind directionality factor K D shall take the same value as for the cardinal direction whose 45 degree sector includes the wind direction. so sampling error is very large. the annual average number of typhoon landfalls in Japan is only three. shall take the same value as that for the cardinal direction whose 45 degree sector includes the wind direction.2.A6. it is hard to reflect directional design wind speeds in design practice.5 degree sector.A6.2 are used 1) When assessing the wind loads on structural frames. In this case. In these recommendations. However. each sector have very few typhoon data.g.4 Wind directionality factor Meteorological stations in Japan have approximately 70 years of records at most. 2) When assessing wind loads on cladding according to the peak wind pressure coefficient in A6. There are two types of wind directionality factors. The other defines a constant reduction coefficient regardless of wind direction. e. Monte-Carlo simulation for typhoon winds and statistical analysis on the non-typhoon observation data had been conducted to obtain the wind directionality factor. the wind tunnel experiments should be conducted for detailed change of directional characteristics for the aerodynamic shape factors of the structure. the value of the wind directionality factor K D for this direction should be adopted (Fig.6(b)). so the number of typhoons included in the records of a particular site is very limited.1.1. Wind directionality factor was provided on the assumption that the wind load is calculated according to the following procedure.– C6-26 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings A6. the larger of the 2 nearest cardinal directions should be adopted (Fig. In these recommendations. those obtained under the condition of K D = 1 should be used for design because the maximum peak . wind directionality factor was defined for each direction as for the former type.220). the wind directionality factor K D . the effect of inclined wind on the wind force coefficient can be considered directly. so the same measures as for above rectangular cylinders are adopted for the 4-leg square plane (8 directions) and 3-leg triangular plane (6 directions).6(a)). as shown in BS6399. except for the cyclone-prone regions.

85 SW SE 0. When the wind direction considered is at an intermediate position between two cardinal directions shown in the table. The wind directionality factors for the 8 cardinal directions shown in Table A6.9 (a) Where the wind direction falls in a 22. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-27 – pressure coefficient of all directions is shown in these recommendations. the value for a given direction represents the influence of a 67.9 KD = 0.5 degree sector.95 0.0 0. In addition.0 0. considering the effects of tornado and downburst.1.85 S 0.95 NW NE 0.95 W E 1.95 0. the greater value of the two neighboring directions is adopted. When the 16 directional values are converted into 8 cardinal directional ones.85 0.95 W E 1. This means that the value considers the influence from a 112.1 Figure A6.85 SW SE 0. Therefore.1.5 degree sector as shown in Table A6.85 S 0.9 and 0.85 0. the lower limit of wind directionality factor is given as 0. the values are determined to be the maximum of those for the relevant direction and its two neighboring directions.95 0. which are difficult to take into account. wind direction N KD=0.5 degree sector as shown in Table A6.1 were originally obtained at 16 directions.5 degree sector centered on that direction.85.1.1 wind direction N larger value of 0.9 NW NE 0. the wind force coefficients for the wind directions normal to the building faces are given by these recommendations.9 0. For a building with rectangular horizontal section.6 Selection of the wind directionality factor (when using the wind force coefficient of buildings with rectangular horizontal sections defined in these recommendations) .9 (b) Where the wind direction does not fall in a 22.1.

by not using the wind directionality factors i. The boundary layer depth increases with fetch length. i. etc. the wind loads are conservative if wind directionality factor is not considered.e. the velocity profile can be represented by a power law or a logarithmic law. the influence of surface roughness on the wind speed profile over flat terrain is expressed by E r .1. This leads a conservative design compared to the condition when the wind directionality effects are considered. A6. and not constant for all buildings.1.1 can be applied to construction sites near metrological stations.– C6-28 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Where wind directionality effects are not considered. the wind directionality factors are less than unity. The wind directionality factors defined in these recommendations are valid only for locations near major metrological stations. while the influence of small-scale topographical features is represented by Eg .1. for instance. In other words. the amount of this overestimation depends on the orientation of the building. Whether or not wind directionality effects are considered corresponds to whether or not wind directionality factors are adopted. by setting KD = 1 . this corresponds to the condition where the wind directionality factors equal unity for all directions.1. The following power law is adopted in the recommendations: Z U Z = U Z0 ( )α (A6. and topography. The wind directionality factor defined in Table A6. where the wind speed profile changes with terrain roughness category.e. Designers should be conscious of the fact that safety level decreases when wind directionality factor is utilized. However. which means that the wind speed profile extends to a higher elevation downstream. but they cannot be applied to construction sites far from metrological stations and influenced by large-scale topography. For a fully developed boundary layer.1. special consideration should be given. For these situations. and are defined as values for evaluating 100-year-recurrence wind loads. U Z0 (m/s) is the mean wind speed at height . the boundary layer tends to develop faster when the terrain is rougher. It is possible to achieve a more rational design by considering the orientation of the building plan from the viewpoint of wind directionality factor.5 Wind speed profile factor (1) Effects of terrain roughness and topography on wind speed profile Wind speed near the ground varies with terrain roughness. When wind directionality effects are considered. buildings. The domain than is influenced by terrain roughness is called the boundary layer.1) Z0 where U Z (m/s) is the mean wind speed at height Z (m). The friction force from terrain roughness and the concentration or blockage effects from topography influence the atmospheric boundary layer from the ground to the gradient height. in which wind directionality is not taken into account. trees. In addition.. As shown in Table A6. because the wind directionality factor is less than unity. In the recommendations. (2) Wind speed profile over flat terrain Terrain roughness causes a gradual decrease in wind speed toward the ground. the wind loads will be smaller than those predicted by conventional method.

7 Mean wind speed profile in urban area . because the velocity profile is actually unknown in detail at higher elevations. as shown in Table A6.7. Roughness conditions usually vary. as shown in Fig. so the wind speeds in this region are assumed to equal to that at Z b . Hence. the power law can approximate the mean wind speed profile. Since the boundary layer depth becomes greater when the terrain roughness increases. height Zb Figure A6. Z G is assumed to increase with terrain category. It has been realized from many observation data that the power law exponent becomes greater as the terrain becomes rougher. the roughness condition in the region of the smaller of 40 H and 3km upstream from the construction site is considered when the roughness category. shown in Table A6. and α is the power law exponent.2 is to be determined. The wind speed profile here is complex due to nearby buildings. Z G is defined just for the utilization of the power law for different terrain categories. Thus. in the recommendations. a new boundary layer develops according to the new terrain roughness which gradually propagates with elevation and fetch. However. This tendency is particularly obvious when the wind flows from the sea to city center. However. in order to arrive at a safer design.3.A6. For heights above Z b . However. and is considered constant for convenience.3. such that wind speeds above this new boundary layer remain unchanged after the roughness change. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-29 – Z 0 . When the terrain roughness changes suddenly. it is rare for the terrain roughness to be uniform over a long fetch. The influence of terrain roughness becomes smaller at higher elevations. CFD studies on the wind speed profile in urban area show that the wind speed below a certain height Z b does not follow the power law when the ratio of building plan area to regional area is over a few percent.1. the wind speed at Z b is usually the maximum. In the recommendations. It is different from the boundary layer depth. For heights below Z b . the wind speed profile corresponding to the new roughness condition can not be applied to the high elevation. it is assumed that the design wind speed at Z G is not influenced by terrain roughness. which is defined in Table A6.1. where the roughness changes suddenly from smooth to rough. it does not mean that wind speeds at elevations greater than Z G are really constant. After a fetch of approximately 3km (or 40 H ) the new boundary layer is considered fully developed.

1.1.9 Exposure factor E r . As mentioned before. As a result.1. Figure A6. in which the wind speed profiles measured simultaneously at coastal and inland locations are compared.– C6-30 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Figure 6.8 shows an example of mean wind speed profiles measured in natural wind22). the wind speed near the ground decelerates due to the inland terrain roughness.9 shows E r for each terrain category.1.1. The exposure factor E r of the flat terrain. there is great difference between the wind speed profiles in the two locations. The exposure factor is the ratio of wind speed at a given height Z for each terrain category to the wind speed at 10m over terrain roughness category II.5(2) 2). Mean wind speed (m/s) Figure A6. shown in A6.8 Example of mean wind speed profiles measured simultaneously at the coast of Tokyo bay and a suburban residential area 12km away22) terrain category Exposure factor E r Figure A6. is defined with the above considerations included.

or unobstructed coastal areas on land.) . or by sparsely spaced medium-rise buildings of 4-9 stories.0%.A6. Rural areas are representative. or the building area ratio is larger than 10% while the high-rise building ratio (plan area of buildings higher than 4 stories divided by total area of buildings) is less than 30% belongs to this category. Terrain category I represents open sea or lake. Terrain category II is defined as terrain with scattered obstructions up to 10m high. Suburban residential areas.1.10 Example of surface roughness (Photos provided by Kindai Aero Inc. if the building area ratio (total building plan area divided by regional area) is less than 10.1. (a) Terrain category I (b) Terrain category II (c) Terrain category III (d) Terrain category IV (e) Terrain category V Figure A6. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-31 – Figure A6.1.10 shows an example of terrain roughness categories. manufacturing districts.10(c) is an area with a building area ratio of 30% and a high-rise building ratio of 5-20%. Terrain category III is characterized be closely spaced obstructions up to 10m high. The area where the building area ratio is between 10% and 20%. and wooded fields are typical of this category. Low rise building areas also belongs to this category. The example in Fig.

a new boundary layer gradually develops.220) to determine the exposure factor. in the recommendations. Thus. Central regions of large cities such as Tokyo and Osaka belong to this category. the upwind area inside a 45 degree sector within a distance of the smaller of 40 H and 3km of the construction site will be counted. the overall terrain roughness in the upwind sector is adopted as the terrain category in this direction if there is no sudden roughness change. . Generally. and the developing process depends on whether the change is from smooth to rough or rough to smooth. the terrain can usually be considered uniform. and a high-rise building ratio larger than 30% belong to this category. a wind speed profile corresponding to the new roughness category can not be adopted. Figure A6. so the fully developed boundary layer over the new roughness can not be anticipated if the fetch downstream is not long enough.11 Developing process of new boundary layer when terrain roughness changes from smooth to rough In determining the terrain category for a given wind direction.1. As a result. When the terrain roughness changes from smooth to rough.– C6-32 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Terrain category IV is mainly where many 4-9 story buildings stand. the terrain category at the upstream region before the roughness change will be adopted as the terrain category for the construction site. the wind load will be overestimated when a smoother surface roughness category is utilized. In terrain category V. Areas with a building area ratio larger than 20%. if there is a terrain roughness change from smooth to rough within a distance of the smaller of 40 H and 3km upstream of the construction site. It is common for several terrain categories to co-exist. Typically.1.11 illustrates approximately the development of a new boundary layer with a terrain roughness change from smooth to rough. Local central cities are typical of this category. the terrain roughness is not usually identical. When there is a terrain roughness change upwind of the construction site. the new boundary layer develops slowly. in the wide area around the construction site. developing internal boundary layer Smooth Rough 3 ~ 5km Figure A6. floor area ratio and building coverage ratio are the same. a weighting average of the wind speed profile on roughness and the fetch distance is conducted in AS/NZS 1170. When the terrain roughness changes downstream. However. tall buildings of 10 or more stories are close together at a high density. In an area where the building purpose.

However. in which the roughness changes from smooth to rough downstream.g. Figure A6. Wind Category I Category III smaller of 40H and 3km The terrain roughness in this wind direction should be recognized as category I. In this case. it is sometimes necessary to consider the acceleration of wind speed near the ground downstream. . if the upwind slope is sufficiently steep to establish separation downstream of the hill top. Then the flow starts to accelerate uphill.1.13. Figure A6. resulting in a mean wind speed larger than that of the flat terrain from the middle of the upwind slope to the top of the topographic feature. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-33 – For an urban area centered on a railway station. if there is a smooth area in a rough area.1. e. where there is a sudden roughness change within a distance of the smaller of 40 H and 3km upwind of the construction site. (3) Topography factor When air flow passes escarpments or ridge-shaped topography as shown in Fig.12 Selection of terrain category (with terrain roughness change from smooth to rough) If the terrain roughness changes from rough to smooth.1. However. a park in a downtown area. If the upwind slope is not large enough. the smoother terrain category upwind before the terrain roughness change will be selected. larger buildings are closely spaced near the station.12 shows an example of how to determine the terrain category if a construction site is near a railway station. because of the arbitrariness. the terrain category after the terrain roughness change is selected. the flow is blocked on the front of the escarpment and the mean wind speed decreases. careful consideration should be given in the determination of terrain category. the mean wind speed is larger than that over the flat terrain over a long region downstream of the hill top. Generally. the wind speed downstream of the hill top near the ground is smaller than that of the flat terrain.A6.

(A6. the wind speed decreases upwind of the escarpment and in the separation region downstream of steep topography.1.13 Change of mean wind speed over an escarpment (thin solid line and thick solid line are for the mean wind speed over flat terrain and escarpments respectively) Equation A6.1. the topography factor in these regions is defined as 1 in the recommendations.(A6. The slope angle is defined with the aid of the horizontal distance from the top of the topographic feature to the point where the height is half the topography height. 25) . The height Z in Eq. Figure A6.1. and the solid lines are for Eq. Although.1.14 and A6. 24). as shown in Figs.6. The experiments were carried out with an approach flow corresponding to terrain category II.14 Wind speed-up ratio over a two-dimensional escarpment with an inclination angle of 60 degrees.5 for the topography factor is based on the results of wind tunnel experiments of two-dimensional escarpments and ridge-shaped topography with different slopes23).– C6-34 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Figure A.15.5) is the height from the local ground surface over the topographic feature. The ratio of the mean wind speed over the escarpments to the counterpart over flat terrain was obtained from the experiments. The models corresponded to escarpments and ridge-shaped topography with heights between several tens of meters to 100m with smooth surfaces. The symbols are for the experimental results.5) .A6. because only acceleration of wind speed is considered24).

However. The topography factor calculated from Eq. and flow does not always pass escarpments and ridge-shaped topography at right angles.5) for the escarpment and ridge-shaped topography determined from experiment.(A6. even in these conditions. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-35 – Figure A6. with respect to the inclination angle to achieve the topography factor at an inclination angle of 50 degrees and X s / H s = 1. Equation (A6.5) is shown in Figs. For a particular location and a particular slope angle. and then calculate the topography factor E g12 at X s / H s = 1.15 Wind speed-up ratio over a two-dimensional ridge-shaped topography with inclination angle of 30 degrees.1.5 show the values of the parameters in Eq. However.5 H s .6 H s downstream of the top of the escarpment at a height Z = 1.(A6.4 Eg1 + 0.5) can be applied if the terrain extends a distance of several .A6.5 degrees. The symbols are for the experimental results. strict two-dimensional hills do not exist.5). not shown in these tables. It agrees well with the experimental data at all sections with speedup.14 and A6.4 and A6.(A6. and the solid lines are for Eq.. at a location with a distance X s = 1.6 Eg 2 z Calculate the topography factor Eg 34 for the inclination angle of 60 degrees in the same way as for the inclination angle of 45 degrees. 2 1 Eg = Eg12 + Eg34 3 3 If the inclination angle is less than 7. Eq.1.6 from the following equation.(A6. z Conduct linear interpolation for topography factors E g12 and Eg 34 .5) Tables A6.15 by a solid line.1.(A6. The following is an example of the procedure for calculating the topography factor of a 50-degree escarpment. z Calculate the topography factor Eg1 and E g 2 at X s / H s = 1 and 2 for the inclination angle of 45 degrees from Eq. the topography factor can be obtained by linear interpolation.6 by linear interpolation according to the following equation: Eg12 = 0. the topography effect can be neglected.5) is for the condition in which the air flow passes at right angles to the two-dimensional escarpments and ridge-shaped topography.

1. In such cases.17. Figure A6.6 Turbulence intensity and turbulence scale Natural wind speed fluctuates with time. the longitudinal fluctuating wind speed component u (t ) is important for design of buildings. Complex terrain may increase the wind speed in valleys. Usually. the speed-up ratio of two-dimensional topography is greater than that of three-dimensional topography. which is not considered in this equation. . shown in Fig. so only the characteristics of u (t ) are defined in the recommendations. it is recommended to investigate the topography factor by wind tunnel or CFD studies when the construction site is very complex.– C6-36 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings times the height of the topographic feature in the traverse direction. can be separated into a mean wind speed component U and a fluctuating wind speed component u (t ) in the longitudinal direction as well as v (t ) and w(t ) in the cross wind directions.1.(A6. and so application of Eq.6 A6.A6. as has been shown in experimental and CFD studies.5) to three-dimensional topography is conservative26).16 Interpolation procedure for calculating topography factor with inclination angle of 50 degrees and X s / H s = 1.1. The wind speed U (t ) at a point. For long-span structures such as bridges and for tall slender buildings. the vertical and lateral fluctuating wind-speed components w(t ) and v(t ) are also sometimes important. In addition.

(A6. and the topography factor EgI . Turbulence intensity I indicates the turbulence level and it is defined in the following equation as the ratio of standard deviation of the fluctuating component σ u to the mean wind speed U .(A6.(A6. 2) Topography factor for turbulence intensity Not only the mean wind speed.(A6.7). is considered separately.8). Figure A6. shown in Tables A6.8) eq.18 Observed turbulence intensity27) and recommended value The turbulence intensity I Z at height Z above the ground.1. eq.(A6.8) eq.8).17 Mean wind and component of turbulence (1) Turbulence intensity 1) On flat terrain Wind speed fluctuation can be expressed quantitatively by a statistical approach.8) eq. in which the turbulence intensity I rZ on flat terrain expressed in Eq. and is influenced by the terrain roughness just as is the mean wind speed profile. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-37 – Figure A6.1. σu I= (A6.2) U Turbulence is generated by the friction on the ground and drag on surface obstacles.8) Turbulence intensity IrZ Turbulence intensity IrZ Turbulence intensity IrZ Turbulence intensity IrZ Turbulence intensity IrZ Terrain category I Terrain category II Terrain category III Terrain category IV Terrain category V Figure A6. .(A6.6 and A6. but also the wind speed fluctuation is influenced by topography.(A6. is defined in Eq.8) eq.7.1.(A6.18 shows the turbulence intensity observed in the natural wind and the recommended values calculated from Eq.1.

C 2 and C3 are identical to those in Eq.1. The symbols are for the experimental results..(A6.(A6.6. as Figs. The symbols are for the experimental results.(A6. Figure A6. Figure A6. in which the values of the parameters besides C1 .20 Topography factor for fluctuating wind speed on ridge-shaped topography with inclination angle of 30 degrees.10) is based on the results of wind tunnel experiments on escarpments and ridge-shaped topography. the topography factor for turbulence intensity is defined as the ratio of the topography factor for fluctuating wind speed to the topography factor for mean wind speed.10). The models corresponded to escarpments and ridge-shaped . and the thick solid lines are for Eq. The experiments were carried out with an approach flow corresponding to terrain category II.A. there is an obvious increase in the standard variation of the wind speed fluctuating component u (t ) (fluctuating wind speed hereafter) compared to that on flat terrain.1.10).19 Topography factor for fluctuating wind speed on an escarpment with inclination angle of 60 degrees.– C6-38 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Especially in the separation region. and the thick solid lines are for Eq. The region where the fluctuating wind speed is greater than the flat terrain counterpart is generally inside the separation region when the mean wind speed is smaller than that on flat terrain.(A6.(A6. In the recommendations.19 and A6. Topography factor for fluctuating wind speed is defined in Eq.1.20 show.5) for the topography factor for mean wind speed. The location of the maximum fluctuating wind speed generally corresponds to the location where the vertical gradient of mean wind speed is maximum.5).1. as for Eq.10). Mean and fluctuating wind speed variation are closely related. Equation (A6.

24). was utilized for the whole region with deceleration.A6. the topography factor for turbulence intensity will be smaller than 1. the actual topography factor for the fluctuating wind speed (<1) where the topography factor for mean wind speed is 1. In these regions the mean wind speed is smaller. However.5 degrees. is possibly overestimated in the separation region if only the topography factor of fluctuating wind speed is fitted to the experimental data.1.1. when the slope of the topographic feature is less than 7.5. it is not necessary to consider the topography factor of turbulence intensity because the fluctuating wind speed is almost uninfluenced by the topography.1. 25) . It agrees well with the experimental data at any position and slope on the escarpment.1. However.1.A6.20 show the topography factor of fluctuating wind speed calculated from Eq.19 and A6.1. the maximum instantaneous wind speed.21.19 and A6. and thus the wind load. the topography factor for fluctuating wind speed does not match well with .10) as a solid line. when the topography factor for fluctuating wind speed is smaller than that for mean speed. Figures A6. calculated by using the topography factors for mean wind speed and fluctuating wind speed.(A6. Figure A6. In order to reduce this possible overestimation. and the solid lines are calculated from the topography factors for mean wind speed and fluctuating wind speed For a particular slope and a location of escarpment or ridge-shaped topography. not shown in Tables A6. the topography factor of fluctuating wind speed can be obtained by linear interpolation. In addition. Topography factors of mean wind speed and fluctuating speed are defined to be greater than 1 without considering the decrease in mean wind speed and fluctuating wind speed due to topography effects24). Because the decrease in mean wind speed is not considered in A6. Fluctuating wind speed near the ground becomes greater on the leeward slope of escarpments or ridge-shaped topography. The symbols are for the experimental results. as shown in Fig.20.21 shows the profile of maximum instantaneous wind speed as a solid line. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-39 – topography with a height of about 50m23).21 Variation of maximum instantaneous speed over a ridge-shaped topography with an inclination angle of 30 degrees. Figure A6.7. which results in the maximum instantaneous wind speed being smaller than that for flat terrain in this area.1.1. as shown in Figs.6 and A6.

but the coincidence is good where the topography factor of mean speed is larger than 1.22 Observation of turbulence scale of wind speed fluctuation u (t ) .3).22 shows an example of a profile of turbulence scale. However. is employed to express the power spectral density of fluctuating component of wind speed u (t ) . eq.(A6.(A6.3). it is necessary to investigate the topography factor for fluctuating wind speed by wind tunnel or CFD studies.10) for the ridge-shaped topography because of the complexity of the change of fluctuating wind speed.11) Figure A6. if the construction site is in a complex terrain.– C6-40 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings Eq. expressed in Eq. Figure A6.(A6.(A6.8( fL / U ) 2 }5 / 6 where f : frequency σ u : standard deviation of fluctuating component of wind speed u (t ) U : mean wind speed L : turbulence scale (3) Turbulence scale Equation (A6. expressed by Eq.10) is obtained from experiments carried out on a two-dimensional escarpment and ridge-shaped topography with the oncoming airflow passing at right angles.11) independently of terrain category.3) {1 + 70.1. (2) Power spectral density Power spectral density reflects the contribution to turbulence energy at each frequency. It is the averaging length scale of the turbulence vortices. it can be applied to topography that extends a long distance in the transverse direction several times the height of the topography26).1.(A6.11) is used as the turbulence scale LZ of the wind speed fluctuation u (t ) at height Z. 4σ u2 ( L / U ) Fu ( f ) = (A6.(A6.1. a von Karman type power spectrum. Turbulence scale is an important parameter in the power spectrum. which can be expressed in Eq.1.1. Although Eq. In the recommendations.

the value in A6. respectively. 1 ⎧ ⎛ r ⎞⎫ U r = − ln ⎨ln⎜ ⎟⎬ + b (A6.7 Return period conversion factor Return period conversion factor k rW is defined as the ratio of the r -year-recurrence wind speed U r to the 100-year-recurrence basic wind speed U 0 .4) ⎢ U ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ where f : frequency rz .(A6. . ⎡ f k 2r 2 + k 2r 2 ⎤ Ru ( f . k y : decaying factors reflecting the degree of spatial correlation of wind speed in the vertical and horizontal directions U : mean wind speed averaged at two points It has been shown by observation that the decay factor is between 5-10. ry : distance between 2 points in the vertical and horizontal directions k z . A6. The return period conversion factor estimated from Eq.(A6. the maximum error is about 5% and 9% when the return period is 50 and 20 years.1. the maximum wind speed corresponding to an r -year return period should be estimated using Eq. It expresses quantitatively the frequency-dependent spatial correlation of the wind speed fluctuation.5). rz .13 should be used as the 1-year-recurrence wind speed.(A6. assuming a Gumbel distribution for annual-maximum wind speeds. ry ) is evaluated using Eq. which is the ratio of the 500-year-recurrence wind speed U 500 to the basic wind speed U 0 .12) by using the parameter λU . CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-41 – (4) Co-coherence Co-coherence of wind speed fluctuation Ru ( f .g. e. rz .(A6. In these recommendations.1.1.5) a ⎩ ⎝ r − 1 ⎠⎭ where a and b are coefficients.1. in order to evaluate habitability.4). ry ) = exp ⎢− ⎥ z z y y (A6.. Return period conversion factor krW is calculated approximately in Eq. In addition.1.12) contains large error when the return period is not from 100-500 years.

A6. Similarly. The peak wind force coefficients Ĉ C for the design of components/cladding are generally given * by the difference between the peak external pressure coefficient Ĉpe and the factor C pi for the . for lower buildings. terrain condition and local topography at the construction site. In the case of curved roofs. The wind pressure coefficients are space. on the roof. where the resultant wind force coefficients are provided. The coefficients are divided into two categories. as shown in Fig.0 in many cases. as shown in Eq. Therefore. such as H > 45 m. the wind force coefficients are defined in terms of the velocity pressure q Z evaluated at the height Z where the members under consideration are placed. The flow field around a building changes with the aspect ratio. For lattice structures and members. they should be determined from wind tunnel experiments that properly simulate full-scale conditions. However. two different procedures are provided for estimating the wind force coefficients for buildings with H > 45 m and those with H ≤ 45 m.1 Procedure for estimating wind force coefficients Wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients depend on building shape. The wind force can also be calculated by using the wind force coefficients for individual members provided in A6. except for open roofs.2. Wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients are generally defined in terms of the velocity pressure qH evaluated at the reference height H .and time-averaged values where the averaging duration is 10 minutes. one for the design of structural frames and the other for the design of building components/cladding. smaller than 1. which results in a significant change in the wind force and pressure coefficients. the wind force coefficients C R for estimating roof wind loads on structural frames are generally given by the difference between the external and internal pressure coefficients. the direction of wind pressure varies with location. The aspect ratio H / B is generally large for tall buildings. C pe1 and C pe2 .(A6. The sign of the wind pressure coefficient indicates the direction of the pressure on the surface or element. on the windward and leeward faces. positive values indicate pressures acting towards the surface and negative values pressures acting away from the surface (suction). while it is generally small. The averaging area depends on the building shape. for example.1. The wind forces on buildings and structures are the vector sum of the forces calculated from the pressures acting on surfaces such as walls and roofs or on structural elements. Cpe and C pi .13). Therefore. Wind force coefficients C D for estimating horizontal wind loads on structural frames are generally given by the difference between the wind pressure coefficients. the coefficients for buildings with regular shapes can be estimated from the procedure described in this section. The wind force coefficients C D for estimating horizontal wind loads on lattice structures are given as a function of the solidity ϕ .14). building surface condition.2 Wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients A6.2. because the wind effects on structural frames and components/cladding are quite different from each other. the exception is that for buildings with circular sections. (A6.4(5). as shown in Eq.2.– C6-42 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings A6.

2. except for open roofs. the vertical distribution of external pressure coefficients on windward walls are assumed to be proportional to the factor for vertical profile ( k Z ) provided in Table A6. Based on these features. while those on leeward walls are assumed constant regardless of height. the external pressure coefficient is almost independent of height. it is necessary to carry out wind tunnel experiments or other special researches to determine the coefficients12). except for areas near the top and bottom of the building. in which the value of Ĉ C is provided. When nearby buildings are expected to influence the wind forces and pressures.1 External pressure on a building with a vaulted roof in a wind parallel to the gable walls A6. The external pressure coefficients on leeward walls decrease with increase in side ratio D / B . The aspect ratio H / B of high-rise buildings with H > 45 m is in the range from 1 to 8 in most cases.8. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-43 – effect of fluctuating internal pressures. Note that the factor C pi for the effect of fluctuating internal pressures is not the actual peak internal pressure coefficient Ĉ pi but an equivalent value producing the peak wind force coefficient Ĉ C when combined with the peak external pressure coefficient Ĉpe . the pressure . This feature is related to the behavior of the separated shear layer from the windward edge and is reflected in the value of C pe2 .2. the effect of H / B on the wind pressure coefficients is not significant. In this range. In the top and bottom areas. Figure A6.2 External pressure coefficient for structural frames (1) External pressure coefficients Cpe for buildings with rectangular sections and heights greater than 45m External pressure coefficients on the windward and leeward walls of buildings with rectangular sections have the following features: 1) External pressure coefficients on windward walls are nearly proportional to the velocity pressure of the approach flow. The wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients given in this section are all for isolated buildings and are obtained from the results of wind tunnel experiments. The values of Ĉpe (and Ĉ C in the open roof case) are determined from the most critical positive * and negative peak values irrespective of wind direction. 2) External pressure coefficients on leeward walls are negative and almost independent of height. Therefore.

The net wind forces on windward eaves become very large. The external pressure coefficient for each zone is estimated from the spatially averaged pressure over the zone for a range of wind directions. the roof can be regarded as a flat roof. and the external pressure coefficients for these zones are provided in Table A. their effect on the pressure coefficients is not considered here. such as roof shape. In this case. The roof and walls are divided into several zones. Although flat-roofed buildings have parapets in many cases. because negative pressures act on the top surface and positive pressures on the bottom surface of the eaves. The roof shapes under consideration are flat. the center of which is normal to the wall. the flow conditions and the Reynolds number. A reduction factor for external pressure coefficients on roofs with parapets is provided in Eurocode28). 31) on buildings with rectangular sections and reference heights less than or equal to 45m. such buildings have walls in most cases and therefore the flow tends to separate at the windward edge. for a wind parallel to the . These features suggest that the external pressure coefficients on vaulted roofs are less sensitive to surface roughness and the Reynolds number than those on circular cylindrical structures. 2) Buildings with vaulted roofs The external pressure coefficient for a building with a curved surface generally depends on the shape and surface roughness of the building. (2) External pressure coefficient Cpe for buildings with rectangular sections and heights less than or equal to 45m 1) Buildings with flat. however. because the pressure coefficient becomes both positive and negative due to a small change in experimental conditions. 33) that focuses on medium-scale buildings in urban areas. It is necessary to combine these values with those for the other zones when the stresses in the members are calculated.9(2) are determined from the results of a wind tunnel eperiment32). The external pressure coefficients Cpe in Table A6. are immersed in very turbulent flows.4(1).9(1) as a function of building configuration parameters ( B / H . as shown in A6.2. Both positive and negative values are provided for the external pressure coefficient for zone Ru. 28) as well as on the provisions of international codes and standards. For a wind normal to the gable wall (wind direction W1 ). gable and mono-sloped. Buildings with vaulted roofs. the building shape is represented by the rise/width ratio f / B and the eaves-height/width ratio h / B . The external pressure coefficients on roofs are determined from the results of various wind tunnel experiments20). the external pressure coefficient on the bottom surface is approximately equal to that on the windward wall just bellow the eaves. gable and mono-sloped roofs External pressure coefficients are influenced by many factors. The coefficients in this section are estimated from the results of wind tunnel experiments29). roof angle and flow condition. The effects of surface roughness are not considered in the experiment. 30). Furthermore.6. D / H and θ ).– C6-44 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings coefficients are provided independently of H / B . However. When the roof angle is less than or equal to 10 degrees.

10.. gable and mono-sloped roofs.2. are provided to make interpolation possible. Both positive and negative values of Cpe are provided for zone Ra. the dome surface is divided into four zones (Ra to Rd). the roof is divided into three zones. 3) Spherical domes In the same manner as for buildings with vaulted roofs. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-45 – gable wall (wind direction W2 ) it is represented by the rise/depth ratio f / D and the eaves-height/depth ratio h / D .3 Internal pressure coefficients for structural frames Internal pressures are significantly influenced by the following factors: a) distribution of external pressures b) openings and gaps in building envelope c) internal volume of building d) openings and gaps in internal partitions e) operation of air-conditioners f) distortion of walls and/or roofs g) air temperature h) damage to building envelope In general. For wind direction W2 . The values of Cpe for five f / D ratios and three h / D ratios are provided in Table A6. The coefficients for these cases. which have no physical meaning.12 by substituting h for H . Linear interpolation can be used for values of f / D and h / D other than shown. The external pressure coefficients on walls are determined in the same way as for buildings with flat. the zone definitions vary because of the difference between the flow patterns of the two wind directions. In both cases. however. However. The wind force coefficients for walls can be obtained from Table A6. A6. in their envelopes. etc. Air leaks through these gaps and openings due to differences between external and internal pressures. the definition of zones is similar to that for flat. and the external pressure coefficient Cpe for each zone is given by spatially averaging the mean external pressure coefficient over the zone. roof level coincides with ground level. The external pressure coefficient corresponds to the area-averaged value and the design wind load is assumed constant over each zone. such as ventilating openings. When h / B = 0 and f / B = 0 or when h / D = 0 and f / D = 0 . For instance. buildings have many gaps and openings. For wind direction W1 . gable and mono-sloped roofs. the definition is similar to that for spherical domes. as shown in Table A6. The value for h / D = 0 and f / D = 0 are again provided for interpolation. the external pressure coefficients for spherical domes are determined from the results of a wind tunnel experiment34). Since the counter lines of mean pressure coefficients on a spherical dome are almost perpendicular to the wind direction. a dominant opening in the windward wall may produce positive . The internal pressure is determined by applying the mass conservation principle to the air in the internal volume.10. The building shape is represented by the rise/span ratio f / D and the eaves-height/span ratio h / D .

It is found from Fig. In Table A6. the influence of factor e) is significant. In particular. When the influence of other factors is assumed to be significant. That is.– C6-46 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings internal pressures. Figure A6.11 are provided based on the calculations35) of the mean internal pressures for various building configurations. Moreover. cylinder diameter and kinematic viscosity coefficient of flow. the internal pressure is suddenly increased by winds blowing into the building. Since the Reynolds number of the flow around buildings in strong winds is in the transcritical regime. the Reynolds number is approximately given by Re ≈ 7UD × 10 4 . When powerful air-conditioners are in operation. such as membrane structures. the values of Cpi in Table A6.2. The aspect ratio and surface roughness of the cylinder also affect the drag coefficient. it should be taken into account for evaluating the internal pressure coefficient. For instance. In this section. the influence of factor f) is significant. This often results in failures of roof structures. A6. aspect ratio H / D .2. where U . the influence of factor d) is significant. and other factors.2. The flow around a cylinder is usually classified into four regimes. In buildings with flexible roofs and/or walls. internal pressure coefficients for buildings without dominant opening are provided based on the results of a series of computations.12 the effects of aspect ratio and surface roughness are represented by k1 and k 2 .2.4(1) is based on the values of the drag coefficients in this regime.4 Wind force coefficients for design of structural frames (1) Wind force coefficients C D for buildings with circular sections Wind force coefficients for cylinders are affected by the Reynolds number. whereas one in a side or leeward wall may produce negative internal pressures. flow condition.2. D and ν are wind speed. . factor h) should be considered appropriately. i. In such cases. respectively).e. respectively37). ‘subcritical’. surface roughness of the cylinders. where U and D are expressed in units of ‘m/s’ and ‘m’. A6. ‘supercritical’ and ‘transcritical’. the internal pressure fluctuates and its characteristics depend on the relationship between the size of the openings and the internal volume of the building. ‘critical’. A6. For wind. as shown in Fig. in which it is assumed that the internal pressures are significantly influenced by factors a) and b) mentioned above. the provision of C D in A6. when the internal volume is divided by airtight partitions.236) shows the variation of drag coefficient C D on a two dimensional smooth cylinder in a uniform flow with Reynolds number Re ( = UD /ν . the effect of surface roughness is significant in the transcritical regime.2.10 assuming that f / D = 0 and h / D = 1 . assuming that the gaps and openings are uniformly distributed over the external walls and the internal pressure is caused by external pressures acting at the locations of the gaps and openings. The external pressure coefficients Cpe on roofs are given in Table A6.2 that C D changes significantly with Re in the range from 2 × 105 to 5 × 106. respectively. When glass windows on the windward face are broken by wind-borne debris in strong winds.

2. because the correlation between fluctuating wind pressures on both surfaces is higher than that for enclosed buildings. (3) Wind force coefficients C D for lattice structures The size of individual lattice structure members is generally much smaller than the width of the structure. If there is any obstruction whose blockage ratio is larger than approximately 50%.11) is applied. and they are arranged symmetrically. because the coefficients are determined from the results of wind tunnel experiments on free roofs with H < 10 m. it is assumed that the only wind force acting on a plane of the structure is drag. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-47 – Figure A6. The wind force coefficients are regulated for a clear flow case where there are no obstructions under the roof.2 Plots of drag coefficient C D on a two-dimensional cylinder with very smooth surface as a function of Reynolds number Re 36) (2) Wind force coefficients C R for free roofs with rectangular base For free roofs where strong wind can flow under the roof. For gable ( θ > 0 ο) and troughed roofs ( θ < 0 ο). to which the simplified method (A6. previous studies have shown the most critical peak wind force coefficients on the windward and leeward areas irrespective of wind direction38). Total drag can be estimated as the summation of the drags on each member of the structure. the provision is also limited to that range. not from the wind pressure coefficients on the top and bottom surfaces. Based on these features. it is necessary to evaluate the wind force coefficients from wind tunnel experiments and so on. resulting in a significant increase in the net wind force on the roof.13 can be used for small-scale buildings. The flow pattern around a roof is significantly affected by obstructions under it. The wind force coefficients in Table A6. the following two methods are often used for estimating the wind force on lattice . the wind pressure on the bottom surface may increase significantly. high fluctuating pressures act on both the top and bottom surfaces. Since the flow around a member depends only on the characteristics of the local flow around it. drag is proportional to the velocity pressure at the height of the member. Therefore. It is reasonable to evaluate the net wind force coefficients directly. In such a case. Since the tested roof angle θ is limited to the range of | θ |≤ 30 ο.

The wind force coefficient C D for the triangular shape in plan is the same for the two wind directions shown in the table. (5) Wind force coefficients C for components Wind force coefficients C for components are determined from the results of wind tunnel experiments40) with two-dimensional models in a smooth flow. the former method is used and the wind force coefficient C D is provided only for ϕ ≤ 0. the areas of the leeward lattice members and the appurtenances are not included.2 . In the Recommendations. The value of C D for ϕ = 0 in Table A6. When the plan of the structure and/or the cross section of the member are different from those in Table A6.– C6-48 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings structures. In strong winds. The wind forces on the appurtenances can be estimated from the provision of C D for members (Table A6. The provisions are based on the value in the subcritical Reynolds number regime. In the calculation. but should not be applied to ordinary buildings. One is to multiply the wind force coefficient. the wind loads on the structure can be estimated by using the wind force coefficients of the members given in Table A6. which is given by the product of the wind force coefficient C D of each member and its projected area. which is defined as the whole area multiplied by ϕ . In some cases. the value of C in the across-wind direction becomes relatively large when the wind direction deviates only a little from the normal direction. When the members are circular pipes. However. The wind force coefficient is represented as a function of the solidity ϕ .15 is introduced to obtain intermediate values of C D for 0 < ϕ < 0. Table A6.16) or from wind tunnel experiments and they are added to the wind force on the structure. For any method. The solidity ϕ is defined as the ratio of the projected area AF of the plane to the whole plane area A0 = ( Bh ) of the structure. given as a function of the solidity ϕ of the plane. Wind load for a fence can be calculated according to the simplified procedure using C D and the projected area A.16 together with the local velocity pressure. In such cases. The values of C can be applied to line-like members less than approximately 50cm wide. Wind force coefficients for components may also be used for calculating the wind loads on lattice structures. two values of C ( ± 0.6) are provided in Table A6. the solidity ϕ should be small.6 . (4) Wind force coefficients C D for fences on ground Wind force coefficients C D for fences on the ground are defined as a function of the solidity ϕ in the same manner as those for lattice structures.16. which consist of angles or circular pipes. the plan of the structure and the cross section of the member.14 provides the wind force coefficients C D for lattice structures with square and triangular plan shapes.6. by the projected area of the plane. the solidity ϕ of the structure is required to be less than 0. this effect is not considered here.14. the value of C D may become smaller than that given in the provisions due to the effect of the Reynolds number. The other method39) is to sum the wind forces on all members. The value of ϕ is calculated for each panel of the lattice structure when the wind direction is normal to the plane. the wind force coefficients C D for the members are affected by the Reynolds number. However. together with the local velocity pressure q Z at height Z of the member under .

Peak external pressure coefficients for roofs are provided only for flat roofs. (1 + 7 I Z ) and bl ( blϕ for nets). However.(A6. In order to consider the subject area of components/cladding in zone Rc. very large suctions are induced near windward corners due to the generation of conical vortices. the positive external peak pressure coefficients are affected by the terrain category. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-49 – consideration.7)). This simplified method overestimates the wind loads to some degree in most cases. it may underestimate the positive peak external pressures. positive peak external pressures can be calculated by using the values of k Z and I Z at the reference height H . investigations by wind tunnel experiments are recommended.2. The wind load on a component is given by the product of q Z . 43). Therefore. . the approach wind is affected by the local topography. A6. 42). The peak external pressure coefficients provided in Table A6. However. 44). In such cases. However. the vertical distribution is nearly uniform. and their characteristics are affected by the vertical profile of the approach flow. negative external peak pressures are almost independent of terrain category. the negative peak pressures are influenced by the size of the recess or chamfer. C .5 Peak external pressure coefficients for components/cladding (1) Peak external pressure coefficients Ĉpe for buildings with rectangular sections and heights greater than 45 m Peak external pressure coefficients for components/cladding correspond to the most critical positive and negative peak pressure coefficients irrespective of wind direction. These coefficients are given by the product of the external pressure coefficients influenced by the profile of the mean wind speed and the gust effect factor influenced by the profile of the turbulence intensity. for terrain category I. When a building is constructed on an escarpment or a ridge-shaped topography. negative pressures (suctions) occur on side and leeward walls. Large negative pressures occur near the windward edges of sidewalls due to flow separation from the edge. because the values are based on wind tunnel experiments on such buildings. Therefore. the large suction zone is limited to a relatively small area45). For diagonal wind directions. In this case. and therefore the positive peak pressure coefficients may change significantly. The values of Ĉ pe for such buildings are also determined from the results of wind tunnel experiments42). Since wind speeds near the ground are increased by such local topography. and their characteristics are not significantly affected by the vertical profile of the approach flow. 43). For tall buildings with recessed or chamfered corners. an area reduction factor kC for roofs is introduced.17 are determined from the results of wind tunnel experiments41). the use of such large peak pressure coefficients for large components may overestimate the design wind loads. that is. The values in Table A6. On the other hand. the vertical distribution of positive peak external pressure coefficients becomes nearly uniform. The provisions are applicable to buildings with aspect ratios H / B less than or equal to 8. Positive pressures occur on windward walls.17 can also be used for buildings with more than one recessed or chamfered corner. where I Z is the turbulence intensity at height Z (see Eq.

it is not necessary to evaluate the positive peak external pressure coefficients.9(1). This results in larger peak suctions in zones Ra and Rd. For mono-sloped roofs. the suctions are larger and the high suction area is wider than that for gable roofs. as shown in Table A6. Negative peak pressure coefficients tend to increase in magnitude as the turbulence intensity of the approach flow increases. the peak external pressure coefficient for zone Rd is larger than that for gable roofs.18(1). in which the h / B1 ratio is varied from 0 to 0. the wind load can be reduced by using the area reduction factor k C when the subject area AC of components/cladding is greater than 1 m2 (up to 5 m2) 46). the subject area is assumed to be 1 m2 as a typical value. 2) Buildings with vaulted roofs The peak external pressure coefficients Ĉ pe are determined from the results of wind-tunnel experiments33). it is not necessary to evaluate the positive wind pressures. Negative peak external pressure coefficients in the edge and corner regions are significantly influenced by vortices related to flow separation at the edge. Consequently. the roof is divided into several zones and positive and negative peak external pressure coefficients are provided for these zones.4. very high suctions are induced near corners (zone Rb) when the roof angle θ is less than or equal to 10ο and in the ridge corner (zones Rd and Rg) when θ ≈ 20 ο. large peak suctions are induced in zone Rd for winds nearly perpendicular to the gable edge and in zone Rc for winds nearly perpendicular to the eaves.1. the provision of negative peak pressure coefficients is determined from the values for terrain category IV and are independent of turbulence intensity. (3) Peak external pressure coefficients Ĉ pe for buildings with circular sections . because the pressures depend significantly on the turbulence of the approach flow. focusing on medium-scale buildings in urban areas. For gable roofs. The values for walls can be determined from Table A6. Consequently. the influence of turbulence on negative peak pressure coefficients is smaller than that on positive peak pressure coefficients on windward walls. whose widths are affected by building dimensions such as height and width. If no positive value of Cpe is provided for small roof angles. However. Taking these wind pressure features into account. Therefore. High suctions are induced in the edge and corner regions of walls and roofs. the corner and edge regions of a roof are significantly affected by vortex generation as in the flat roof case.1 to 0. Positive peak external pressure coefficients are given as a function of the turbulence intensity. very high suctions are induced near the higher eaves corners (zone Rd). gable and mono-sloped roofs For estimating peak pressure coefficients for components/cladding of low-rise buildings.7 and the f / B1 ratio from 0. The positive peak external pressure coefficient on a roof is evaluated by using the positive external pressure coefficient Cpe for zone Ru in Table A 6. When the f / B1 ratio is small. the roof is subjected to higher suctions similar to gable and mono-sloped roofs.– C6-50 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings (2) Peak external pressure coefficient Ĉ pe for buildings with rectangular sections and heights less than or equal to 45 m 1) Buildings with flat.18(2). When the f / B1 ratio is relatively large. In such high suction zones. When the f / B1 ratio is lower than 0.

e. it is assumed that the peak wind force coefficient Ĉ C is represented by Eq. both positive and negative. The factor k 3 considers this effect47). Therefore.20 are determined from the results of wind tunnel experiments34). External pressures on domes fluctuate significantly due to the effects of turbulence of approach flow as well as of vortex generation. In the Recommendations. negative peak external pressures become large in magnitude near the windward edge (zone Ra) due to the flow separation at the windward edge.15). negative peak external pressure coefficients are influenced by the aspect ratios H / D and surface roughness of buildings. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-51 – For buildings with circular sections. Only negative peak pressures are considered for roofs.2. When the rise/span ratio ( f / D ) is small. large positive peak external pressures are induced near the windward edge due to the direct influence of the approach flow.19 are applicable to buildings with aspect ratios H / D less than or equal to 8.(A6. The vertical distribution of positive peak pressure coefficients depends strongly on the mean velocity profile of the approach flow in the same manner as that for buildings with rectangular sections. The values in Table A6. Negative peak external pressure coefficients become larger in magnitude near the top of the building because of the flow separation from the top (i. Rb and Rc) by coaxial circles.2 . both positive and negative peak pressure coefficients are provided. Because the geometry of spherical domes is axisymmetric.20 can be used.2. The frequency of internal pressure fluctuations is lower than that of external pressure fluctuations. the maximum positive peak external pressure coefficient occurs at the stagnation point on the windward face. A6.(A. of the pressure difference between the exterior and interior surfaces. they are divided into three zones (Ra. and the * peak external and internal pressures are not induced simultaneously. positive peak external pressure coefficients for zone Ra are provided as a function of the turbulence intensity I uH at the reference height H of the approach flow when f / D ≥ 0.3 shows a schematic illustration of fluctuating external and internal pressures. there are few data on these pressure differences. because the peak external pressure coefficients Ĉpe are usually obtained from wind tunnel experiments and a large amount of data is available.6 Factor for effect of fluctuating internal pressures Peak wind force coefficients for components/cladding shall be determined from the maximum instantaneous values.6.15) does not represent the peak internal pressure coefficient itself but an equivalent value that provides the actual peak wind force when combined with the peak . The factor C Pi for the effect of fluctuating internal pressures in Eq. end effect). However. Therefore. On the other hand. when the f / D ratio is large. and the factor k 2 the effect of surface roughness in the transcritical Reynolds number regime. because the provision is based on wind tunnel experiments using such models. The values of Ĉ pe for domes with f / D = 0 provided in Table A6. The factor k1 considers the effect of aspect ratio. whereas the maximum negative peak external pressure coefficient occurs near the point of maximum negative mean external pressure. Figure A6. On the other hand. (4) Peak external pressure coefficients Ĉ pe for buildings with circular sections and spherical domes Peak external pressure coefficients in Table A6.

Larger net wind forces are induced in zone Rb. When the roof angle is relatively large. The values in Table A6.2.– C6-52 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings external pressure coefficient Ĉpe .2. 50) provide internal pressure coefficients for buildings with dominant openings. it is necessary to evaluate the peak wind force coefficients from an appropriate wind tunnel experiment and so on.3 Gust Effect Factors . It is necessary to estimate the peak wind force coefficients appropriately by using the data on the external and internal pressures obtained from wind tunnel experiments49). 2) The fluctuating internal and external pressures are independent of each other. When the building has intentionally designed openings or when glass windows on the windward face are broken by flying debris. because large suctions are induced by conical vortices on either the top or bottom surface of the roof. The following assumptions are made in the computations48): 1) Gaps and openings in the external walls are uniformly distributed.3 Example of fluctuating external and internal pressures acting on components/cladding A6.7 Peak wind force coefficient for components/cladding For free roofs. When any obstruction whose blockage ratio is larger than approximately 50% is placed under the roof. it is necessary to directly evaluate the net wind force represented by the pressure difference between the top and bottom surfaces. large peak wind forces are induced along the roof edges as well as along the ridge. Regulation of peak wind force coefficients is based on previous wind tunnel experiments for the most critical peak wind forces irrespective of wind direction38). the size of the openings may be very large compared with ordinary gaps and openings.A6. A6. wind pressure coefficient ^ CC ^ C*pi wind force coefficient C pe external pressure coefficient internal pressure coefficient ^ C peak wind force coefficient C ^ C peak external pressure coefficient pe 0 Time peak internal pressure coefficient Cpi Cpi Fig. The value of Ĉ C is evaluated from a series of computations for the peak wind force coefficients using wind tunnel data on Ĉpe for various building configurations. Some international codes and standards20). and the internal pressures are generated from the external pressures at the locations of the gaps and openings.21 cannot be used for such cases. Wind force coefficient. The roof is divided into two zones (Ra and Rb). and positive and negative peak wind force coefficients are provided for each zone as a function of roof angle θ .

6) σ MDQ C '2MD ' where C MD is overturning moment coefficient. power spectrum of wind velocity and co-coherence are described by Eqs. 2 2 σ MDQ πf D S MD ( f D ) GD = 1 + g D σ MDQ + σ MDR M D ≈1 + g D 1 + φ D2 2 (A6. mass per unit height and vibration mode.(A6. mean value and rms of overturning moment at the base of the building. σ MD are maximum value.11). f D* = f D LH /U H . M D .2) MD 4ζ Dσ MDQ where S MD ( f D ) is power spectrum density of overturning moment at natural frequency for the first mode f D and φ D is the mode correction factor.(A6.3.1) becomes as follows. respectively.(A6.3). The parameters of Eq. M D = q H BH 2 C MD (A6. m( Z ) and μ ( Z ) are rms of acceleration at height Z . Eq.2) are expressed by aerodynamic force coefficients as follows. If σ MD is expressed as composition of background component σ MDQ and resonance component σ MDR .4). mean wind velocity.2) becomes as follows. respectively. Additionally.3. and σ MDR is inertia force by vibration as described in the following equation. respectively. M Dmax and σ MD involve load effect due to the dynamic response of the building. H H σ MDR = ∫ σ a ( Z )m( Z ) ZdZ = σ a ( H ) ∫ μ ( Z )m( Z ) ZdZ (A6.3.8).3.1.3. If these equations are taken into consideration.3. gust effect factor is based on overturning moment as described by the following equation.5) f D S MD ( f D ) f D* S CMD ( f D* ) 2 = (A6. σ MDR is considered for only the first mode vibration. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-53 – A6. M M + g Dσ MD g σ GD = Dmax = Dmax = 1 + D MD (A6.(A6. (A6. in the wind tunnel test breadth of the building it is used usually f D* = f D B /U H .3.3. in this formula non-dimensional frequency is defined by turbulence scale. (A6. In this model. Eq. C ' MD πf D* S CMD ( f D* ) GD ≈ 1 + g D 1 + φ D2 (A6. C MD is rms overturning moment coefficient and S CMD ( f D* ) is power spectrum of overturning moment coefficient at non-dimensional frequency f D* . but.3.4) σ MDQ = qH BH 2C ' MD (A6.3.3) 0 0 where σ a ( Z ) . wind force coefficient is expressed by a .1. (2) Model of wind force The model of wind force is based on the assumption that wind velocity fluctuation is directly changed into the wind pressure on the wall of the building51). (A6.3.1) MD MD MD where M Dmax .7) C MD 4ζ D C ' 2MD Additionally. turbulence intensity.1 Gust effect factor for along-wind loads on structural frames (1) Fundamental consideration In this recommendation.

1 Along-wind force in comparison with those obtained from wind tunnel tests ( H / BD = 4 )52) (3) Fluctuating component of overturning moment When the vibration mode is μ = Z / H .8) ⎝H⎠ ' C MD .A6. The recommendation values of overturning moment and rms overturning moment are slightly greater than the test values.0 10 -5 -3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 10 10 -2 10 -1 10 0 side ratio D/B side ratio D/B fB/UH (a) mean overturning moment (b) rms overturning moment (c) power spectrum density of coefficient coefficient over turning moment Figure A6. C MD = C H Cg (A6. 1.11) where C H is wind force coefficient at the top of the building.5 II 0. 2α ⎛Z⎞ CD = CPA ⎜ ⎟ − CPB (A6.0 0. Characteristics of overturning moment expressed by Eqs. Cg is a factor relevant to overturning moment in the along-wind direction.10) f D* S CMD ( f D* ) = C ' 2MD FD (A6.3. Spectrum factor of wind velocity F .3. – C6-54 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings difference of the wind pressure coefficient of the windward side and the wind pressure coefficient (constant) of a lee side as described by the following equation. size reduction factor S D .5 1.9) ' C MD = C H Cg' (A6.0 10 -3 fSCMD(f) terrain category 地表面粗度区分 terrain category 地表面粗度区分 0.3.5 10 -4 test 実験値 II III III recommendation 指針値 IV IV 0.9)−(A6.3.11) are shown in Fig. the relation between spectrum of overturning moment due to the wind force S MD ( f ) and spectrum of overturning moment due to the load effect by vibration ' S MD ( f ) is expressed by the following equation. Cg' is a factor relevant to rms overturning moment in the along-wind direction and FD is a spectrum factor of windward force.1 in comparison with those obtained from wind tunnel tests. C MD and S CMD ( f D* ) are expressed using the parameter of the recommendation equations as follows. .3. and the spectrum is mostly in agreement with the test values.(A6.3.0 1.5 10 -2 recommendation value/test value recommendation value/test value 1. factor R expressing correlation of wind pressure of a windward side and a leeward side R are considered for FD .3.3.

in some foreign wind loading standards.577 g D = 2 ln(ν DT ) + ≈ 2 ln(ν DT ) + 1.(A6. based on the theory of stationary stochastic process. 2 2 M Dmax = M D + g D σ MDQ + σ MDR (A6. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-55 – 2 S 'MD ( f ) = χ m ( f ) S MD ( f ) (A6. This wind load is an approximate value based on the assumption that vibration mode is close to mean wind load distribution and the building has uniform density. Therefore.3). 0.14) 4ζ D In this equation.(A6. the resonance component should be estimated carefully. ∞ νD = ∫0 f 2 S ' MD ( f )df ≈ fD RD (A6. In that case. if the vertical distribution of building mass is remarkably uneven.4) and g R is peak factor of resonance component calculated from Eq.3.(A6.2 (A6.3.3.3.13) { 2 } 1 − ( f / f D ) 2 + 4ζ D2 ( f / f D ) 2 2 The variance of overturning moment due to the load effect by vibration σ MD is the integral of 2 Eq. and is the ratio of maximum fluctuating component to standard deviation. the mean. resonance component is estimated approximately as a response to white noise S MD ( f D ) .12). This is expressed by the following equation. Therefore.(A6. background and resonance components of wind load distribution are different.15) where g D is called peak factor.18) where g Q is peak factor of background component (=3. Actually.3. and the variance consists of back ground component σ MDQ and resonance component 2 σ MDR as expressed by the following equation.3. and the resonance component is expressed by Eq. the vertical distribution of wind load is given by mean wind load multiplied by gust effect factor. (4) Vertical distribution of equivalent static wind load In the gust effect factor method.16) as ν D = f D . overturning moment for maximum load effect is expressed by following equation.3. ∞ 2 σ MD = ∫ S ' MD ( f )df ≈ σ MDQ 2 2 + σ MDR 0 ∞ ∞ πf D S MD ( f D ) ∫0 S MD ( f )df + S MD ( f D )∫0 2 2 = χ m ( f ) df = σ MDQ + (A6.16) 2 ln(ν DT ) where T is time for evaluation and ν D is level crossing rate calculated from power spectrum density as in the following equation.3. M Dmax is expressed by the following formula.8). In this equation. M Dmax = M D + g Q2 σ MDQ 2 + g R2 σ MDR 2 (A6. 2 1 χm ( f ) = (A6.3.12) 2 where χ m ( f ) is mechanical admittance as expressed by the following equation.3.3.17) ∞ 1 + RD ∫0 S 'MD ( f )df Additionally. The mean component is expressed by Eq. the background component and the resonance component are distinguished. the distribution of resonance component for the .

2) Load distribution can be defined by LRC formula53).2 2. it is assumed that the background component has a similar distribution to mean component. (5) Example of calculation of gust effect factor Figure A6. It can be assumed that there is no correlation between fluctuation of external pressure and fluctuation of internal pressure for a building without dominant openings.2 III 3. respectively a Dmax (m/s2): maximum acceleration at top of building as defined in A6.2 Gust effect factor for roof wind loads on structural frames Gust effect factor for roof wind loads on structural frames is influenced by external pressure and internal pressure.2 g DQ : peak factor of background component In this recommendation. D / B = 1 and U 0 = 35 m/s. WDR (N): mean. . The gust effect factors become large with terrain category and building height.3.– C6-56 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings fundamental vibration mode could be estimated from the following equation.6 category gust effect factor G D 3.8 2.19) where W D = qH CD A C'g WDQ = g DQ q H C D A Cg A WDR = a Dmax μ ( Z )m( Z ) B where WD .4 V IV 3. 2 2 WD = W D + WDQ + WDR (A6.2 shows the variation of gust effect factor by terrain category and building height for H / B = 4 . background and resonance component of wind load.3.3. 3.8 3.4 2.3.2 Variation of gust effect factor with terrain category and building height A6.6 2. 1) Shear force or overturning moment at a certain building height may be obtained from the integral of pressure on area over the height20). The following methods may also be used. WDQ .10.0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 height of building (m) Figure A6. Furthermore.0 II I 2.

3.5 .57 δ ( δ is deformation at center due to weight). Therefore. g Ri = 3 from the results of test and measurement. rRe and rRi are the generalized fluctuating external and internal pressures divided by the generalized mean wind pressure coefficient. given by Table A6. In Eq.21) 1 − rc where g Re and g Ri are peak factors for generalized external pressure and generalized internal pressure. f R ≈ 0.(A6. downward wind load can be dominant even if the absolute value is small.19). which is calculated from the non-dimensional power spectrum density at the frequency of the first mode of the roof and the critical damping ratio. 2 2 2 2 2 g Re rRe (1 + RRe ) + g Ri rRi rc GR = 1 ± (A6.(A6. compared with the natural period for the first mode of the roof structure. and the document55) is useful for estimating . However. Furthermore. roof wind loads act in the upward direction and in the downward direction as shown in Fig. Fluctuating internal pressure coefficient is derived from the theory for buildings with uniform openings54). is transmitted as internal pressure. downward wind load can be calculated. C pi = −0.(A6. can be disregarded.3. resonance of the roof structure for internal pressure can be disregarded.11.A6. Under these conditions. the equation. G R for “+”corresponds to load in the same direction as given by wind load coefficient. which is slower than response time of internal pressure. wind load ０ ïó â³ èd （－） （＋） time 時間 Figure A6. Generally.18) and Eq. and gust effect factor should be calculated from Eq. and it is assumed that quicker pressure fluctuation is not transmitted as internal pressure. external pressure fluctuation.(A6. RRe is resonance factor. fluctuating internal pressures act on all parts of a roof simultaneously for more safety.3. can approximately evaluate the natural frequency for the first mode of the roof beam. response time of internal pressure is long enough. Therefore. When combinations with other loads are considered. If wind force coefficient is small.2. and these value are g Re = 3. Therefore. The above is the same for Eq.2. gust effect factor for roof wind loads is given by the following equation. the phenomenon of varying internal pressure at a specific frequency by external pressure.17) with “+”.17).4 and C pi = 0 . and G R for “−“ is opposite.3 Fluctuation of roof wind loads when wind force coefficient is small An equation of gust effect factor is expressed for two cases of internal pressure coefficient. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-57 – Helmholtz resonance.3. Furthermore. rc is the generalized mean internal pressure divided by the generalized mean external pressure coefficient. wind force coefficients are given as positive or negative in A6.

A6.3. If external pressure coefficient Cpe is −0. gust effect factor can be calculated from Eq.A6.– C6-58 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings the critical damping ratio.1 Scope of applications The procedure described in this section applies to the equivalent static wind load with consideration of across-wind forced vibration at a design wind speed lower than the non-dimensional critical wind speed for vortex-induced vibration or aeroelastic instability.17). the wind loads can be calculated from Eq.4 Relation between wind force coefficient and external or internal pressure coefficient (for C pi = −0. However. In this case.3. the wind force coefficient becomes C R = 0 .4 Roof wind loads can be calculated for roof beams parallel to the wind direction and for roof beams normal to the wind direction. which is the product C R G R of wind force coefficient C R and gust effect factor G R . (a) beams normal to the wind direction (b) beams parallel to the wind direction Figure A6. For a design wind speed expressed by .(A6.18).4(b).(A6. In this case. and the fluctuating component of internal pressure.(A6. ζ R . roof wind loads can be calculated from Eq. when the wind force coefficient becomes partially C R = 0 as shown in Fig.19).4 ) (2) For C pi = 0 Wind force coefficient is equal to external pressure coefficient for C pi = 0 . (1) Case for C pi = −0.4(a).4 over the whole subject area as center beam shown in Fig. The equation considers the mean and fluctuating components of external pressure.3.4.4 Across-wind Vibration and Resulting Wind Load A6.A6.

Therefore. A6. the fluctuating overturning moment is set as a function of only the breadth-depth ratio of a building based on wind tunnel test data 52. Where it is unnecessary to consider aeroelastic instability. It is recommended that the critical damping ratio be estimated with reference to “Damping in buildings” 7). (3) Buildings with circular planes Across-wind responses of buildings with plane shapes other than rectangular planes can be estimated with the same concept. 56). an estimation equation for across-wind load has been derived from data of across-wind fluctuating overturning moment obtained from wind tunnel tests. it is difficult on the whole to theoretically estimate across-wind vibrations in the same manner as for along-wind vibrations. (2) Modeling of overturning moment The overturning moment varies with building shape and wind characteristics.(A6. Subjects for this estimation equation are structures with rectangular planes (side ratio D / B = 0. across-wind wind loads can be calculated using the method indicated in the recommendations. Moreover. unclear points remain. but in the subjective scope the breadth-depth ratio has the greatest effect on the overturning moment: the effects of other parameters are slight. since the behavior is greatly affected by building shape. Along-wind vibration is caused by turbulence in natural wind. and that aeroelastic instability easily occurs in these buildings. by taking into account the fact that experimental data for buildings with an aspect ratio H / BD exceeding 6 are insufficient. across-wind loads are calculated using the spectral modal method considering only to the first translational mode. Furthermore.4. in the same manner as for along-wind loads. the profile of fluctuating across-wind force is set to be vertically uniform and the magnitude of the fluctuating wind force is decided to agree with the fluctuating overturning moment. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-59 – U H /( f L BD ) > 10 . but across-wind vibration is caused by wind turbulence as well as by the vortex in the wake of the building. aeroelastic instability may well occur and wind load will need to be calculated from the wind force and the response in wind tunnel tests. The parameter . in the recommendations. the scope of application is limited to aspect ratios of 6 or less. For the non-resonance component. With consideration of the first mode. Although there are many study examples with regard to the behavior of a vortex in the wake of a building. Furthermore.2 ~ 5 ) from which many experimental data have been obtained.2 Procedure (1) Concept of wind load estimation Since a fundamental mode usually predominates in across-wind vibration. The resonance component estimates the inertia force due to vibration and the vertical profile is determined using φ L in Eq. data of across-wind fluctuating overturning moment for buildings with plane shapes other than rectangular planes can be obtained from wind tunnel tests. This section details buildings with circular planes.33) so as to be proportioned to the first translational mode.

5 Torsional Vibration and Resulting Wind Load A6. the equation for computing the torsional wind load is based on the estimate of the response angle acceleration56). κ 1 = 0.06 . the method for assessing the torsional wind load is derived from the fluctuating torsional moment data obtained from wind tunnel tests as for the across-wind direction. m = 1 .2 or less for which any effect of eccentricity can be ignored are subject to the formulation of the estimation equation. With regard to the non-resonant component. data of torsional moment for buildings with plane shapes other than rectangular planes can be obtained by carrying out wind tunnel tests.(A6. side faces and leeward face. it is difficult to formulate the power spectral density as a simple algebraic function. it is relatively easy to collect experimental data of the response angle acceleration.15U H / B . The resonant component estimates the inertia force due to vibration and the vertical profile is determined using φ T in Eq. Buildings with an eccentric factor (eccentric distance / radius of rotation) of 0. This is due to both wind turbulence and the vortex in the building’s wake. The wind load on a building for which the eccentricity cannot be ignored needs to be calculated by carrying out wind tunnel tests. aeroelastic instability may well occur and the wind load needs to be calculated from the wind force or the response in wind tunnel tests.– C6-60 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings values used in Eq. Furthermore. These parameter values are in the transcritical critical region of Reynolds number ( U H D ≥ 6 (m2/s)). torsional wind loads can be calculated using the method indicated in the recommendations.9 . the profile of fluctuating torsional moment is set as vertically uniform and the magnitude of the fluctuating torsional moment is decided to agree with the fluctuating torsional moment at the base of the building. f S1 = 0. β1 = 0. A6. Therefore. For the design wind speed expressed by U H /( f T BD ) > 10 .2 .34) so as to be proportioned to the first translational mode.(A6.5. Torsional vibration is caused by asymmetric wind pressure distribution on the windward face. A6. Subjects for this estimation equation are buildings with rectangular planes (side ratio D / B = 0.20) need to be set to C L' = 0.2 ~ 5 ) and aspect ratio H / BD of 6 or less.1 Scope of application The procedure described in this section applies to the equivalent static wind load with consideration of torsional vibration with a design wind speed lower than the non-dimensional critical wind speed for vortex-induced vibration or aeroelastic instability.5. from which many experiment data have been obtained. Where aeroelastic instability does not need to be considered. . The torsional moment induced wind force is subject to the effects of building shape and wind behavior. Therefore.2 Estimation equation (1) Concept of wind load estimation Since the effects of pressure acting on both sides on the torsional moment are complex. However.

6. wind force coefficients of each panel are uniform. A6. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-61 – It is recommended that the critical damping ratio be estimated with reference to “Damping in buildings” 7). The projected area in Eq.6. the peak response x max. and can be applied to lattice structures of varying widths and solidity ratios in the vertical direction. (2) Modeling of torsional moment The torsional moment varies according to building shape and wind characteristics. Therefore.(A6.1) where β = 2 . the fluctuating torsional moment is set as a function of only the breadth-depth ratio of a building based on wind tunnel test data 52. ii) A fundamental mode shape can be given by Eq. A6. and vibration modes higher than the fundamental one are neglected.2.(A6.23). β ⎛Z⎞ μ =⎜⎟ (A6. but in respect of buildings in the subjective scope the breadth-depth ratio exerts the greatest effect on the torsional moment and the effects of other parameters are slight.3 Gust effect factor In deriving Eq.(A6. The wind loads are calculated from the local design velocity pressure because lattice structures often have varying widths and solidity ratios in the vertical direction.1 Scope of application This procedure has been prepared for estimating horizontal wind loads on lattice structures built directly on the ground. The area per panel is usually calculated. it is assumed as follow: i) Solidity ratios in the vertical direction are uniform.6. the effects of accessory ladders are considered by the evaluation of wind force coefficients of those obtained from wind tunnel tests and so on. In addition. and whose members all have small enough sections in comparison with the width of the structure for the flow field around a member to be dominated by the local wind speed. A6.2 Procedure for estimating wind loads Horizontal wind loads are estimated by a gust effect factor method57).6 Horizontal Wind Loads on Lattice Structural Frames A6.6. in the recommendations.6. that is to say.22) is the total projected area of all elements on one face normal to the wind. 56). The procedure for estimating wind loads on lattice structures is basically the same as that described for horizontal wind loads on buildings in Section 6.Z at height Z is given as a function of the generalized stiffness K of the fundamental mode by: .1) ⎝H⎠ According to the above assumptions.

Z = g D (A6.7 Vortex Induced Vibration A6. However. which can occur in tall slender buildings.1 Scope of application This section describes vortex-induced vibration. According to the alternate shedding. the mean response X Z at height Z is given by: qH CD H ⎛ B0 B − BH ⎞ XZ = ⎜⎜ − 0 ⎟⎟ μ (A6. chimneys. the periodic fluctuating wind loads act on the buildings in the across-wind direction.(A.6. respectively. A6.1 Definition of B0 . respectively. BH . the resonance factor and the back ground excitation factor.6.23). Figure A6. This is vortex-induced vibration. g D .2) K 0.7.6. When the natural frequency of the building coincides with the vortex shedding frequency.95 + α + β However.6. which is a problem for many structures. at H height. Gust effect factor is given by Eq. and α is the exponent of the power law in the wind speed profile.2 Vortex induced vibration and resulting wind load on buildings with circular sections Shear layers separated from windward corners of both sides of buildings roll up alternately to shed into wake and form Karman vortex streets behind the buildings. causing the building to vibrate at large amplitude in the across-wind direction.3) K ⎝ 1 + 2α + β 2 + 2α + β ⎠ where qH . I H are the velocity pressure and the turbulence intensity. The critical wind speed of the resonance is larger than the design wind speed for most buildings.7. so these phenomena are not normally important.– C6-62 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings 2I H μ BD (1 + RD ) q H C D HB0 x max. and structural components with circular sections. as the critical wind speed is smaller than . H A6. RD and BD are the peak factor. particularly chimneys. the vibration of the building can be resonant with the periodic fluctuating wind loads.

27) are introduced in the sub-critical Reynolds number region based on wind tunnel tests59). U r Dm < 3 is the subcritical region. These wind loads are evaluated separately.(6. damping and Reynolds number are included in the resonant wind force coefficient C r . particularly for structures with circular sections. and ρ s ζ L ≥ 5 corresponds with the small amplitude.1 Scope of applications This section defines the combination of horizontal wind loads and roof wind loads on structural frames. This section shows the formula for combination of wind loads considering correlations of wind force and response. that is.8 Combination of Wind Loads A6.(A6. Most design wind speeds for components like members of truss towers are larger than the critical wind speed.1) and for buildings satisfying the conditions of Eq. tall buildings and building components. ρ s ζ L in Table A6. ρ s ζ L < 5 corresponds with the large amplitude. The formula is divided in two ways: for buildings not satisfying the conditions of Eq. 3 ≤ U r Dm < 6 is critical region and 6 ≤ U r Dm is super/trance critical Reynolds number region. but this does not mean that each wind load acts on the building independently. the vibration amplitude can be very large for components like steel pipes whose mass and damping are small. the effect of vortex induced vibration should be checked carefully in the wind resistance design stage. The equivalent wind loads described in the recommendation are based on the spectral modal method in which the Strouhal number of vortex shedding is 0. Therefore.(6.(A6. maximum wind loads do not occur at the same time. However.1). . which is shown in Table A6. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-63 – design wind speed for very slender buildings with small natural frequency and damping like steel chimneys. A lot of research has been done on vortex-induced vibration and a number of methods have been developed in the past decade for estimating vibration amplitude and its equivalent static wind loads. if they are applied to the building at the same time. The equivalent wind loads described in Eq. Combination of horizontal wind loads and roof wind loads is also described.2.2.3 Vortex induced vibration and resulting wind load on building components with circular sections Occurrence of vortex induced vibration of building components with circular section can be checked by Eq.23 depends on the amplitude at the resonant condition. The rows in the table show the effect of Reynolds number.3 for three categories of Reynolds number region and for two types of structures with various density and damping. A6.7. The effects of structural density.8.26). so the effect of vortex induced vibration should be checked carefully. The equation is applicable for various boundary conditions at the ends of components. In particular. and the power spectrum of the fluctuating wind loads depends on the vibration amplitude6) and the Reynolds number. the combination of wind loads overestimates actual loads. A6.

– C6-64 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings A6.1) have a small resonance component. an approximate equation of γ 60) for an 80m-high building is defined as per the recommendation.1) Buildings not satisfying the conditions of Eq.1) Table A6. If the overturning moments in two directions. is defined by calculation based on wind tunnel tests. across-wind and torsional wind loads. and between along-wind force and torsional wind force. γ tends to increase with building height according to the stress analysis for buildings with rectangular columns using wind load from wind tunnel tests.1 Windward load and combined Figure A6. ρ LT is calculated by a statistical analysis method61) under the conditions that the critical damping . which should be combined with maximum x-direction overturning moment M xmax . load combinations can be defined as the apexes of an octagon enveloping the oval. For such cases. but it is not practical to consider a lot of them. Therefore.8.(6.8.2 Relation between side ratio load for across wind direction (D/B) and combination factor γ A6.24 shows the combination of loads according to the upper equation considering following characteristics of along-wind.3. M x . ・Because the co-coherence between across-wind force and torsional wind force is not zero. ρ = 0 as co-coherence of response is negligible. as shown in Figure A6. Therefore.2 Combination of horizontal wind loads for buildings not satisfying the conditions of Eq. wind quasi-static wind load plan of building Figure A6. is defined by the following equation using mean y-direction overturning moment M y and maximum fluctuating component of y-direction overturning moment mymax . it is assumed that response probability is expressed by a normal distribution. M yc = M y + m ymax ( 2 + 2ρ −1 ) (A6.3 Combination of horizontal wind loads for buildings satisfying the conditions of Eq. the absolute value of the correlation coefficient of response ρ LT .1) have a large resonance component.1. the equivalence line of probability becomes an eliptical line using correlation coefficient of response. For such cases.(6. In other words.8. shown in Table A6.8. ・Co-coherence (correlation coefficient for each frequency) is negligible between along-wind force and across-wind force. as shown in figure 6. y-direction overturning moment M yc .(6.8.8.8. are expressed by a 2-dimensional normal distribution.1) Buildings satisfying the conditions of Eq.25. ρ . M y .(6. it is considered that wind load of γ times of the windward loads act in the across-wind direction. Therefore. Every point on the eliptical line (solid line) can be considered as a load combination.

CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-65 – ratios for across-wind vibration and torsional vibration are 0. However.8. it is necessary to carry out special research.5.3. the across-wind load and the torsional wind load for a conventional building. if the first mode shape function is different from μ = (Z / H )2 and the mass per height of a lattice structure is not regarded as almost constant.9.32). and with β ranging from 1 to 3.1.2 and A6. it is defined that horizontal wind loads and roof wind loads act at the same time. A6. This corrects the gust effect factor for . if the critical damping ratio differs greatly from 0. as described in A.2 Procedure The mode shape correction factor is specified by Eq. A6.3.2. as described in A.8.5 for a lattice structure when the mode shape function can be approximated by the function μ = (Z / H )β .2 to 4 for a conventional building.9.8. My mx max point A M y max my max M yc considered point of M y0 m y max ( 2 + 2 ρ − 1) combination load my max ρ My my max (1 − 2 − 2 ρ ) Mx Mx M x max Figure A6.3.(A6.3. The mode shape correction factor can be applied with β ranging from 0.8.4. because the relation between horizontal wind loads and roof wind loads is not well enough understood. The mode shape correction factor can be used in calculating the gust effect factor for a lattice structure.4 Combination of horizontal wind loads and roof wind loads Combination of horizontal wind loads and roof wind loads can be considered theoretically as in A6. and the building has no coupling vibration mode.02 or the building’s vibration mode is significantly coupled.1 Scope of application The mode shape correction factor can be used in calculating the gust effect factor.02.9 Mode Shape Correction Factor A6. respectively. Therefore. if the first translation mode shape function is different from μ = Z H and the vertical distribution of mass per height of a building over the ground is not regarded as almost constant.2 or A6.6.3 Schema of load combination in consideration of response correlation A6.6. A6.

9. σβ λ= (A6. If the vibration mode shape agrees with the reference vibration mode shape and the vertical distribution of mass per unit height can not be regarded as constant. The mode shape correction factor φ can be derived by multiplying the correct factor of the generalized wind force by the correct factor of the generalized mass or the generalized inertial moment of the building.73)⎜ ⎟ (A6.9.35) is the ratio of the resonance component σ β of the generalized wind force for its first vibration mode to σ 1 for the reference vibration mode shape (the power index of a first vibration mode β = 1 for a conventional building and β = 2 for a lattice structure).– C6-66 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings an along-wind load on a building according to its vibration mode.27 β + 0. This is to deal with the lattices of varying widths in the vertical direction. The vertical distributions of the along-wind load are taken into consideration by the vertical distribution of the mean wind load.9. As a result.(A6.1) σ1 The values of λ for a conventional building in Eq.3) ⎝H⎠ . the mode shape correction factors for the along-wind load.9. The vibration mode shape correction factors for the resonance components of across-wind load and torsional wind load are specified by Eqs. the mode shape correction factor can be replaced by the ratio of the generalized mass or the generalized inertia moment of a building to that with a uniform mass distribution in the vertical direction. in which the power index indicating the vibration mode shape β between 0.(A6.4). Furthermore.35) are approximations that fit the results62) obtained from a wind tunnel test for rectangular cross section buildings.5 B − 0. the across-wind load and the torsional wind load can be simplified by Eqs.4⎬⎪ BH lattice structure ⎩ ⎩⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎭ β −1 ⎛Z⎞ φ L = (0.(A6.2).4)⎨⎪⎜⎜ 0.6. (A6. ⎧1.(A6.34). The mode shape correction factor can be set to 1 if the vibration mode shape agrees with the reference vibration mode shape and the vertical distribution of mass per unit height of a building over the ground is regarded as almost constant. but the resonance component of the across-wind load or the torsional wind load is proportional to the vibration mode. λ given by Eq.2) ⎪(0.1β conventional building ⎪ φD = ⎨ ⎧⎪⎛ ⎞ ⎫⎪ (A6.1 − 0.16 β + 0. respectively. respectively.9.9.33) and (A. because the mean load is not considered in the recommendation.3) and (A6.3 ⎟⎟(β − 2) + 1. the mode shape correction factor of the across-wind load or the torsional wind load involves a variable for height.2 and 4 are taken into consideration. The mode shape correction factor for a lattice structure is derived from the buffeting theory. if the vertical distribution of mass per unit height of a building over the ground is regarded as almost constant.

2) and (A6. M L and the generalized inertial moment I T of a building can be calculated according to Eqs.9. A6.(A6. Each formula considers only the first vibration mode.9.4) ⎝H⎠ In addition.10.1 Scope of application This section defines the maximum along-wind response acceleration for ordinary buildings.10.5) and (A6. f is frequency and K g is generalized stiffness as described in the following equation.13).1.5.1) 0 K g2 where σ aD is rms of generalized acceleration.10. Because the resonant component is dominant in acceleration.5) 2β H⎛Z⎞ IT = 0∫I Z ⎜ ⎟ dZ ⎝H⎠ (A6. K g = M D (2πf D ) 2 (A6. other special research should be carried out. χ m ( f ) 2 is mechanical admittance as described in Eq.10 Response Acceleration A6.9.6) where m Z and I Z are the mass and the inertial moment at height Z . the maximum across-wind response acceleration for buildings with rectangular plan satisfying the conditions of A6.1).1.9.2 Maximum along-wind response acceleration Rms of generalized response acceleration σ aD is given by the following equation.10. as described in the following equation.10.5).27 β + 0. the generalized mass M D .2) where M D is generalized mass. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-67 – β −1 ⎛Z⎞ φ T = (0. If a building has a large dynamic response in higher modes or partial vibration. as shown in A6.3. S g ( f ) is power spectrum density of generalized wind force. . A6. 2β H ⎛Z⎞ M D (L ) = ∫0 mZ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝H⎠ dZ (A6.(A6.(A6. If Eqs.1 and the maximum torsional response acceleration for buildings with rectangular plan satisfying the conditions of A6.(6. FD S g ( f D ) = (qH BHCH C 'g λ ) 2 (A6. respectively.3) fD where FD is along-wind force spectrum factor. S g ( f ) can be substituted by white noise having power spectrum density at natural frequency f D . 2 ∞ χm ( f ) 2 σ aD = ∫ S g ( f )(2πf ) 4 df (A6. the equation become the following. respectively.10.3) are incorporated in Eq.9.3.73)⎜ ⎟ (A6.10.10.4.

A6. Because the resonant component is dominant in acceleration. σ aD is multiplied by the peak factor in the recommended equation for the acceleration at the top of the building. the wind loads shall be increased appropriately. The reference height and the projected breadth shall be less than 15m and 30m. resulting in enhanced dynamic pressures and motions especially on neighboring downstream structures. Therefore. A6.11 Simplified Procedure A6. for example. For terrain categories less than III.10. This procedure can be applied to buildings that have regular shapes and structural systems. level crossing rate ν D for calculating peak factor is approximated by the natural frequency f D .4 Maximum torsional response acceleration admax = aTmax d (A6.6. this procedure can be applied to terrain categories IV and V with some overestimates in wind loads. A. Therefore.1 Scope of application A simplified procedure is used for estimating wind load for small buildings.2 Procedure The simplified procedures are derived from the results of calculation for buildings with reference heights of 5 .12 Effects of Neighboring Tall Buildings When groups of two or more tall buildings are constructed in proximity. Wake-induced oscillation in the downstream structure is considered to be affected by interference from upstream buildings of various sizes placed in various locations and .10. by multiplying by the square of the topography factor Eg . such as detached houses.30m.3 Maximum across-wind response acceleration The equation consists of coefficients according to across-wind direction as a development in the along-wind direction. respectively.– C6-68 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings RD σ aD = qH BHCH C 'g λ (A6.4) MD Furthermore.11.10.0 and the terrain category is III.15m and projected breadths of 5 .11. When wind speed is expected to increase due to local topography. study of mutual interference among closely-located tall buildings is an important problems not only in wind resistant structure design but even in minimizing wind-motion discomfort to building occupants. the exposure factor C e is introduced.5) A6. A6.10. assuming that the wind directionality factor K D is 1. the fluid flow through the group may be significantly deformed and have a much more complex nature than is usually acknowledged.10.2. A6.

1 1.1 1.0 x 1. the dynamic responses of the downstream building are relatively independent of mutual interference effect. 64) .1 12 BD 6 4 2 12 BD 6 4 2 1.0 1. When the flat terrain subcategories increase from Category II to Category IV.12.0 1.1 1.1 exceed the regions indicated in the figure.0 x 1. Figure A6.2 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.1 Contours of response ratios63). The response ratios in the across-wind direction are usually larger than those in the along-wind direction.2 1. shedding vortices from an upstream building and the alternately deformed wake surrounding the vortices are not clearly formed in the wake owing to increased entrainment and diffusive action. This is closely related to the fact that when turbulence is added to an incident flow. along-wind direction (b) Terrain category II.2).2 1.3 0.0 1.0 1. 64) shows contours of the increase or decrease ratios for the maximum along/across wind responses of the downstream building exposed to interference from an upstream building at various locations to those of an isolated building where the maximum responses including mean deflection are estimated at near the design wind speeds of 40～60m/s by a modal-spectrum method (1.2 are generally restricted to regions of 12 BD in the x-direction and 6 BD in the y-direction. across-wind direction Figure A6.2 y 6 BD 1.1 1.4 1.1 1. across-wind direction 1. and the production of additional turbulence by the introduction of the upstream building is unlikely because of the sufficiently high turbulence in the incident flow (3) 65). Interfering positions producing response ratio contours higher than 1.1 1.2 1.12. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-69 – also by the turbulence of incident flows.2 2 1.2 4 4 1.2 4 1.1 12 BD 6 4 2 0. whereas interfering positions higher than 1.3 2 2 1.8 (a) Terrain category II. y y 6 BD 6 BD 1.8 (c) Terrain category IV.163).0 x 1.2 1. The contours are illustrated for an identical pair of square tall buildings with aspect ratio H / BD = 4 where two coordinate axes are normalized by the non-dimensional distance using the reference building breadth BD .

which becomes the same acceleration is also different for the wind direction.13.(A6. Therefore. a reasonable design becomes possible. which are the parameters to calculate the right side of Eq. and the Gumbel’s moment method for other cities.13.(A6.13.41).– C6-70 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings A6.1). The 1-year-recurrence wind speeds at the metrological offices are established based on the daily-maximum wind speed data regardless of wind directions collected from 1991 to 2000. This wind direction characteristic in the range of the wind speed to evaluate the habitability is generally clarified.13. because the wind response characteristic is not the same for the wind direction. Figure A6.2).3) i =1 where Fa (≤ a max ) : probability that maximum acceleration does not exceed a max pi : occurrence frequency for wind direction i { } FU ≤ f i −1 (a max ) : probability that the wind speed does not exceed the wind speed that the maximum acceleration is equal to a max for wind direction i The occurrence frequency at each wind direction pi . the frequency of exceedance of each wind speed can be understood. with the least square method applied for the data at Naha where typhoon is dominant.3). FU (≤ U i ) = exp[− exp{− ai (U i − bi )}] (A6.13 1-Year-Recurrence Wind Speed 1-year-recurrence wind speed U 1H is used to calculate the acceleration of wind response for the evaluation of the habitability.13.3).(A6.5 is smoothing of the wind speed map based on the 1-year-recurrence wind speed at the metrological offices. These parameters ai and bi should be used for the return period less than 1 year. The probability at the right side of Eq.2) 1 − Fa (≤ amax ) Fa (≤ amax ) = ∑ pi FU {≤ } 16 f i −1 (amax ) (A6.13.(A6.13. defined in Eq. parameters ai and bi in Eq.(A6.4) where U i (m/s): 10-minute mean wind speed at 10m above ground over a flat and open terrain for wind direction i ai .13.13. bi : parameters estimated based on the daily maximum speed for wind direction i .13.4). On the other hand. if the wind direction characteristic. a max = f (U ) (A6. from which the wind speed U 1 at any locations can be estimated. These parameters are estimated based on the daily maximum wind speed at 30 cities.(A6. are shown in Table A6.2) is expressed as the total sum of the occurrence probability of the wind speed in every 16 azimuths shown in Eq.(A6. that is.1) 1 t a max = (A6. the wind speed.13. the return period t a max for maximum acceleration a max is calculated by Eq.1. When the maximum acceleration a max is approximated as a function of wind speed U shown in Eq.

86 7.97 5.92 1.8 SSE 0.9 0.25 2.73 6.38 8.0 0.36 7.8 WSW 0.23 3.45 6.1 0.8 0.59 4.63 6.8 0.76 4.7 0.74 23.4 0.15 3.23 0.5 0.17 0.47 8.2 0.5 0.0 0.14 4.7 0.29 0.62 9.5 1.65 1.82 0.53 7.9 0.05 2.2 0.4 should be used for 100-year-recurrence wind speed.44 7.63 6.1 0.29 18.4 0.5 1.61 5.4 0.83 4.51 6.88 3.7 1.94 0.00 4.19 4.1 0.2 NE 1.74 0.81 1.89 7.12 2.19 5.77 4.7 0.02 1.46 8.25 4.28 5.8 0.47 8.4 0.27 5.52 2.38 8.43 7.45 8.55 4.65 9.2 0.2 0.66 4.0 1.78 1.8 0.82 4.69 8.63 4.9 WSW 0.5 0.99 5.40 8.58 4.8 0.9 1.59 0.3 0.6 1.44 7.50 0.6 0.55 5.47 12.70 6.50 7.05 6.6 0.61 0.9 1.7 0.80 1.8 0.4 SSW 0.6 0.1 0.58 1.38 8.2 0.05 23.1 0.7 WNW 0.48 7.79 1.7 0.5 1.55 0.4 1.2 0.45 17.62 8.43 6.2 0.9 0.82 4.68 4.70 4.58 3.5 1.49 18.90 5.79 0.31 1.50 5.48 8.7 0.06 1.52 7.3 0.98 5.82 26.95 8.6 E 1.55 4.2 0.69 4.57 9.07 4.40 6.93 2.50 9.20 4.8 0.49 7.10 8.43 26.50 4.9 0.58 7.63 19.56 10.96 6.40 8.86 5.1 WSW 0.03 5.15 23.94 5.74 6.37 6.26 9.13.5 0.26 15.14 3.61 3.29 7.58 6.57 7.0 SW 0.3 0.4 SE 1.14 1.8 0.97 0.2 ENE 0.44 5.47 5.9 0.5 1.68 6.57 2.59 7.3 S 1.5 0.79 0.38 6.3 1.0 1.8 SE 0.75 4.40 1.2 WNW 0.22 5.8 NW 0.88 4.88 0.04 5.92 0.0 0.43 8.90 4.0 0.32 1.4 0.0 1.4 1.54 4.48 7.10 6.72 5.42 16.59 0.76 5.1 0.6 0.9 0.3 1.4 0.94 4.60 6.8 2.38 1.4 0.78 1.03 3.8 0.3 0.80 4.71 4.47 6.11 5.74 4.5 0.44 9.27 2.58 4.42 8.65 14.81 6.73 3.68 4.87 5.51 1.21 44.9 SSE 0.53 7.91 2.83 4.2 0.46 7. and it is not possible to use it here.38 6.6 NE 0.59 6.2 0.84 3.44 6.56 7.96 2.44 7.37 25.64 7.7 0.33 0.99 2.27 4.74 15.94 3.99 4.84 0.38 3.26 9.66 7.5 1.9 N 0.9 0.46 7.37 9.50 4.60 5.1 0.68 7.89 6.58 4.0 1.26 3.46 7.8 0.34 3.26 4.32 1.04 5.89 16.72 0.5 0.17 4.81 0.6 0.80 2.62 2.8 E 1.98 12.68 11.2 0.3 1.7 0.1 0.92 4.1 0.30 0.75 5.49 9.34 6.59 5.3 0.1 ENE 0.1 0.2 1.85 11.46 17.1 2.81 1.7 0.27 0.66 6.8 0.06 6.1 parameters ai .88 0.9 0.05 3.01 4.3 ESE 0.86 0.69 7.87 3.51 10.7 SSE 0.85 3.4 0.39 0.2 N 0.10 5.67 5.28 9.35 5.55 8.03 4.00 13.2 0.3 S 0.65 8.36 7.02 10.4 0.76 1.64 7.46 3.56 4.0 NNW 0.7 0.78 1.9 0.49 12.75 3.29 19.80 4.61 17.5 S 0.45 8.5 0.43 15.84 0.6 0.10 3.36 7.83 8.58 10.83 0.02 1.45 7.42 7.46 8.53 7.76 5.20 6.64 7.84 3.78 3.87 3.21 0.47 6.72 1.60 7.11 14.7 0.83 4.62 9.6 SE 0.65 6.75 5.61 14.17 11.3 0.56 5.72 6.53 5.5 0.7 1.1 0.2 1.1 0.0 0.78 4.21 3.1 0.30 3.77 0.8 0.9 0.56 0.9 0.45 7.26 1.68 0.0 SW 0.83 6.07 2.37 3.39 8.0 0.6 Niigata Kanazawa Utsunomiya Maebashi Tokyo ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) NNE 1.6 1.81 5.45 6.00 8.57 4.65 4.5 0.1 5.8 0.68 4.30 16.2 0.13 3.66 4.5 0.1 1.62 9.2 1.70 0.7 0.63 12.6 0.45 2.85 2.47 18.3 0.91 17.93 4.27 0.75 7.86 3.42 8.2 0.54 3.39 7.9 1. the wind direction factor in A6.39 7.47 7.65 5.17 3.63 0.9 NNW 0.2 SSW 1.5 0.84 3.28 0.68 6.5 0.81 4.37 6.76 5.8 N 0.7 0.2 0.4 1.35 3. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-71 – In addition.32 6.4 Chiba Yokohama Shizuoka Hamamatsu Nagoya ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) NNE 0.36 8.8 1.1 NNW 0.89 4.95 2.69 13.2 0.6 0.78 8.6 0.54 5.95 1.25 17.3 0.8 0.59 6.58 2.28 4.25 3.51 11.49 3.2 0.38 5.45 7.48 6.8 0.46 7.7 0.45 9.24 4.7 0.8 SW 0.8 － － 0.3 0.52 1.52 4.9 0.64 5.6 0.58 5.1 0.56 9.96 3.59 6.64 5.3 0.9 NW 0.01 4.78 3.80 9.49 8.33 3.7 0.7 0.1 0.49 16.50 6.5 0.5 0.4 W 0.69 4.81 5.50 5.72 1.9 0.48 8.93 4.3 1.47 6.50 1.66 6.99 0.52 6.0 0.4 0.56 0.76 4.8 0.5 0.47 3.7 0.63 5.61 1.37 3.44 6.02 4.8 E 1.8 0.53 20.67 3.81 3.1 0.2 0.6 1.71 5.2 0.08 6.05 5.88 0.41 3.1 0.87 5.80 19.3 .6 0.41 4.46 5.0 0.00 1.2 NW 0.6 0.49 14.77 5.43 6.32 0.80 5.2 0.82 3.43 8.94 4.39 9.56 6.48 6.39 0.81 5.1 0.1.17 0.67 3.74 9.0 SSW 0.56 5.75 4.47 8.19 22.00 4.76 0.66 5.11 0.61 1.7 NE 0.1 0.66 5.40 9.4 2.16 4.6 W 0.75 2.73 4.59 7.4 0.45 9.54 13.8 0.66 6.59 3.09 0.42 8.43 9.78 0.2 0.28 4.59 2.96 1.09 1.16 8.0 0.77 3.67 2.93 4.48 6.4 WNW 0.84 2.5 0.71 0.2 0.77 5.22 3.7 ENE 0.46 6.86 13.2 0.7 0.8 0.49 6.18 0.76 9.85 10.58 13.1 1.85 7.74 4.7 0.35 9.42 3.62 10.3 W 0.61 2.0 1.7 ESE 1.2 1.3 0.20 3.88 5.17 3. bi and occurrence frequency p i for each wind direction at 30 cities Asahikawa Sapporo Aomori Akita Sendai ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) NNE 0.53 8.85 4. Table A6.46 4.1 ESE 1.0 4.9 0.56 5.

– C6-72 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

**Table A6.13.1(continued) parameters ai , bi and occurrence frequency p i for each wind
**

direction at 30 cities

Kyoto Osaka Kobe Wakayama Okayama

ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%)

NNE 0.75 4.05 5.6 0.88 4.24 17.6 0.57 6.22 1.4 0.82 5.92 8.9 0.47 5.61 4.2

NE 0.73 4.01 5.1 0.72 5.23 4.4 0.32 5.41 1.2 1.28 4.44 5.3 0.89 3.61 2.3

ENE 0.93 4.97 6.1 0.56 5.95 4.4 0.48 6.50 12.1 1.90 3.99 10.3 1.13 4.17 7.6

E 0.85 5.15 6.6 0.63 5.80 1.7 0.59 5.67 3.3 1.63 4.19 1.4 0.67 5.30 5.2

ESE 0.78 4.80 3.9 0.89 4.80 1.3 1.01 4.06 0.5 0.29 4.96 0.3 0.56 5.13 4.3

SE 0.84 4.64 1.5 0.57 5.16 0.5 1.71 3.33 0.7 0.64 7.04 0.5 0.73 4.27 7.9

SSE 0.95 4.06 3.3 0.68 4.96 0.5 0.95 3.56 0.3 0.39 8.26 1.0 1.26 3.72 1.8

S 0.92 4.99 8.9 0.51 6.42 0.5 1.56 3.84 1.6 0.35 7.97 5.3 1.35 3.43 5.3

SSW 0.80 5.76 10.3 0.31 7.86 1.8 0.60 5.27 6.9 0.43 7.32 9.0 1.01 4.37 5.7

SW 0.58 6.03 2.5 0.64 5.75 14.4 1.05 5.54 5.9 0.94 4.71 10.7 0.60 5.24 14.1

WSW 0.72 6.56 4.6 0.80 5.57 19.0 0.65 5.89 13.7 0.61 4.44 9.0 0.62 5.34 6.0

W 0.69 6.83 3.8 0.46 6.47 12.7 0.50 7.15 11.8 0.38 6.58 4.0 0.45 7.01 5.9

WNW 0.61 6.74 4.7 0.39 6.80 1.9 0.51 7.17 7.2 0.54 8.19 5.3 0.40 8.07 5.8

NW 0.58 7.53 3.1 0.63 6.32 3.6 0.72 5.91 3.9 0.61 6.99 7.7 0.58 6.09 6.5

NNW 0.85 6.55 10.0 0.77 6.66 7.4 0.56 6.72 13.2 0.77 5.48 9.3 0.62 5.24 8.6

N 0.75 5.49 20.0 0.77 5.73 8.3 0.72 5.78 16.3 0.80 5.61 12.0 0.51 5.60 8.8

Matsue Hiroshima Takamatsu Kochi Matsuyama

ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%)

NNE 0.72 5.15 1.6 1.26 4.40 31.5 1.29 3.65 2.5 0.82 7.11 6.7 0.91 6.61 3.4

NE 0.64 5.77 8.2 0.58 5.18 0.9 0.79 3.39 1.2 1.04 6.95 1.0 0.74 6.15 2.6

ENE 0.59 6.07 7.1 0.42 7.43 0.3 1.17 3.90 12.7 0.96 4.78 2.4 0.96 4.74 3.6

E 0.78 5.25 10.0 1.48 5.93 0.4 1.10 3.86 9.8 0.75 3.85 4.2 1.57 3.26 4.5

ESE 1.35 3.90 8.0 0.68 5.19 0.5 0.70 4.24 6.2 0.57 4.99 6.9 0.91 3.50 4.7

SE 0.61 5.22 1.7 1.39 5.13 0.2 0.87 3.71 2.2 1.38 4.02 21.7 0.87 4.45 2.7

SSE 0.45 5.62 0.5 0.23 5.84 0.6 0.93 3.88 0.2 1.93 4.19 6.0 0.47 6.18 2.6

S 0.68 5.75 0.2 0.49 4.66 5.7 0.77 2.89 0.4 1.11 4.50 8.5 0.42 6.40 2.0

SSW 0.40 8.19 1.8 0.84 5.28 8.2 0.69 5.39 0.6 0.71 5.18 2.4 0.89 4.59 2.1

SW 0.55 6.61 1.5 1.05 4.60 10.8 0.61 4.48 3.2 0.80 6.32 1.2 0.79 5.48 2.2

WSW 0.45 6.91 12.1 0.67 5.11 0.5 0.57 6.10 13.0 0.78 4.55 4.0 0.91 5.31 6.8

W 0.41 7.72 28.3 0.69 7.13 3.3 0.57 6.90 19.4 0.55 4.62 19.9 0.66 5.92 20.7

WNW 0.42 7.10 5.9 0.64 7.44 3.2 0.49 7.19 5.6 0.55 4.30 7.2 0.66 5.99 20.1

NW 0.59 5.91 8.6 0.70 6.54 0.9 0.50 6.53 2.9 0.59 7.03 1.7 0.99 5.09 13.0

NNW 0.67 5.93 3.4 0.79 6.65 3.7 0.87 4.32 11.4 0.56 7.08 1.4 0.92 5.04 6.6

N 0.64 6.08 1.1 0.99 4.54 29.3 0.98 4.41 8.7 0.66 7.22 4.8 0.69 6.99 2.4

Fukuoka Oita Kumamoto Kagoshima Naha

ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%) ai bi pi(%)

NNE 0.67 5.37 3.2 0.78 4.67 8.7 1.52 3.06 1.5 0.56 5.50 9.7 0.54 4.98 11.2

NE 0.95 5.61 1.6 0.95 4.27 7.3 0.56 5.42 2.1 0.52 6.03 7.0 0.63 5.75 2.6

ENE 0.87 5.82 0.5 1.54 3.91 11.3 0.60 6.28 3.7 0.36 5.95 0.9 0.79 6.17 7.2

E 1.18 5.42 0.2 0.80 3.71 3.3 0.50 6.42 2.9 0.42 6.55 0.9 0.30 -0.27 8.9

ESE 1.03 5.01 0.7 0.47 5.92 0.6 0.59 5.74 2.5 0.31 5.67 1.7 0.43 3.63 8.6

SE 0.77 5.41 9.7 0.37 5.99 2.1 0.34 3.88 1.2 0.46 5.17 5.0 0.20 -4.53 6.7

SSE 0.40 7.33 4.5 0.60 5.39 6.4 0.72 3.69 1.5 0.50 4.48 7.5 0.20 3.93 4.1

S 0.37 7.29 2.2 0.97 3.42 7.9 0.38 3.71 3.3 0.43 4.28 4.7 0.20 -1.73 5.2

SSW 0.63 8.48 3.1 0.52 4.11 4.1 0.57 5.09 6.0 0.57 6.88 0.9 0.39 2.01 9.8

SW 0.65 6.43 0.7 0.56 6.41 2.0 0.83 5.15 17.7 0.39 7.90 2.0 0.16 -9.17 4.4

WSW 0.62 8.56 0.6 0.56 6.86 2.6 0.65 6.35 9.8 0.52 7.37 4.0 0.09 -25.88 2.5

W 0.55 7.92 3.1 0.57 8.41 7.1 0.52 5.52 4.9 1.03 5.41 11.6 0.39 5.35 1.1

WNW 0.56 8.60 6.3 0.63 8.08 2.7 0.52 6.14 7.6 0.67 6.23 18.1 0.46 4.52 1.3

NW 0.63 6.15 3.1 0.65 7.36 10.3 0.64 5.23 18.5 0.56 7.25 8.5 0.22 -5.84 1.9

NNW 0.63 5.84 31.7 0.71 6.66 17.8 0.70 4.89 13.8 0.71 5.52 13.2 0.52 7.13 7.3

N 0.69 5.82 28.8 1.62 3.64 5.8 0.77 4.86 3.0 0.75 5.23 4.3 0.72 7.89 17.2

CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-73 –

Appendix 6.6 Dispersion of Wind Load

**1. Factors influencing wind loads
**

The horizontal wind load for structural frames is obtained from Eq.(6.4), and the roof wind load for

structural frames is based on this equation.

WD = q H C D G D A (6.4)

where qH is velocity pressure, C D is wind force coefficient, G D is gust effect factor for

along-wind load and A is projected area at height Z .

The wind load for components/cladding is obtained form Eq.(6.6).

W = q Cˆ A

C H C C (6.6)

where qH is velocity pressure, ĈC is peak wind force coefficient and AC is subject area.

The velocity pressure qH is expressed as Eq.(Appendix 6.6.1) form Eq.(A6.1) and Eq.(A6.2)．

1 1

qH =ρU H2 = ρ (U 0 K D EH k rW ) 2 (Appendix 6.6.1)

2 2

where ρ is air density, U H is design wind speed, U 0 is basic wind speed, K D is wind

directionality factor, E H is wind speed profile factor at the reference height H and k rW is return

period conversion factor.

The factors influencing dispersion of horizontal wind load for structural frames WD and wind load

for components/cladding WC are air density ρ , basic wind speed U 0 , wind directionality factor

K D , wind speed profile factor E H at reference height H according to the surface roughness,

return period conversion factor k rW , wind force coefficient C D and gust effect factor G D or peak

wind force coefficient Ĉ C .

The gust effect factor G D is influenced by design wind speed U H , turbulence intensity I H ,

turbulence scale LH , reference height H , building breadth B , building natural frequency f D ,

building critical damping ratio ζ D and so on. The dispersion of these factors must be evaluated when

estimating the wind load on the frame for limit state design.

**2. Dispersion of each factor
**

(1) Air density ρ

The air density ρ varies with temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity, but the influence of

humidity can usually be ignored. In these recommendations, ρ = 1.22 (kg/m3) at 15℃ and 1013hPa

can be used. The difference between this value and that for the range of 0℃, 1013hPa to 25℃, 960hPa

is within 10%.

(2) Basic wind speed U 0 and return period conversion factor k rW

For allowable stress design, the wind load can be obtained from Eq.(6.4) or Eq.(6.6) and

Eq.(Appendix 6.6.1) based on basic wind speed U 0 , wind directionality factor K D , wind speed

profile factor E and return period conversion factor k rW . For limit state design, however, the

maximum wind speed occurs during the building’s service life T years ( T -year maximum value)

and its coefficient of variation is required. These recommendations provide maps for

– C6-74 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

100-year-recurrence basic wind speed U 0 and 500-year-recurrence wind speed U 500 based on the

annual maximum wind speed approximated by a Gumbel distribution. The mean value and the

standard deviation of the T -year maximum value can be obtained from these values based on the

method described in chapter 2. A calculated example for the mean value, the standard deviation and

the coefficient of variation of 50-year maximum values is shown in appendix Table 6.6.1. The

difference between U 500 and U 0 is 4m/s and the coefficient of variation is about 0.08 to 0.11 in

most areas other than the Okinawa Islands.

**Appendix Table 6.6.1 Mean value, standard deviation and coefficient of variation for 50-year
**

maximum values of wind speed

50-year maximum value

coefficient of

city U 0 (m/s) U 500 (m/s) standard deviation

mean (m/s) variation

(m/s)

Sapporo 30.5 34.5 30.2 3.2 0.11

Aomori 31.0 35.0 30.7 3.2 0.10

Sendai 30.5 34.5 30.2 3.2 0.11

Niigata 37.0 41.0 36.7 3.2 0.09

Tokyo 36.0 40.0 35.7 3.2 0.09

Nagoya 32.5 36.5 32.2 3.2 0.10

Osaka 34.5 38.5 34.2 3.2 0.09

Hiroshima 30.0 34.0 29.7 3.2 0.11

Kochi 39.0 43.0 38.7 3.2 0.08

Fukuoka 33.5 37.5 33.2 3.2 0.10

Kagoshima 42.0 46.0 41.7 3.2 0.08

**(3) Wind directionality factor
**

The wind directionality factor is decided in order to make the load effect using the wind

directionality factor equivalent to the load effect considering the wind direction. When the wind

directionality factor is considered, the standard deviation of the design wind speed is about 1m/s to

2m/s and its coefficient of variation is about 0.03 to 0.05 for each wind direction. However,

considering phenomena such as down-bursts, which cannot be caught enough, its lower limit of 0.85

and pitch of 0.05 are adopted. Furthermore, considering various uncertain parts, the maximum wind

directionality factor for adjacent wind directions is employed.

(4) Wind speed profile factor

Five flat terrain subcategories and wind speed profile factor E H corresponding to these flat terrain

subcategories are prescribed based on the observed data and the results calculated from computational

fluid dynamics. It is difficult to estimate differences between the actual values and the prescribed

values in consideration of the condition for the flat terrain subcategories of used data. When the flat

terrain subcategories entrusted to designer's judgment varies by one classification, the value of wind

CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-75 –

**speed profile factor E H deviates 25% at H = 5 m, 15% at H = 100 m and 10% at H = 200 m, and
**

the coefficients of variation can be estimated as half their values as follows;

0.13 at H = 5 m

0.08 at H = 100 m

0.05 at H = 200 m

(5) Wind force coefficient, wind pressure coefficient

The case for a rectangular plan building is introduced here as an example for wind force coefficients

of horizontal wind load for structural frames of a building whose reference height is greater than 45m.

Wind tunnel test results obtained from reference papers and so on vary with aspect ratio and side ratio

of the building, and the wind force coefficients shown in Table A6.8 are their mean. For the vertical

distribution of wind force coefficient, test values at heights from 0.2 H to 0.9 H are mostly within

the range of ±10% of these recommendation values. For the overturning moment coefficient at the

building base, most test results are within the range of ±20% of these recommendation values. If a

building has a corner recess, the wind force coefficient generally takes a safe value66). Therefore, if

these recommendations are adopted for such a building, its design is generally safe.

Horizontal wind force coefficients for structural frames of a rectangular plan building whose

reference height is 45m or less are influenced not only by building shape but also by many other

parameters such as wind characteristics. The values shown in Table A6.9(1) are simplified so that they

represent the results under various conditions. Therefore, their values are 10-30% greater than actual

ones, and 50% greater in some parts. They exceed 30% in part Lb when the roof slope is 30° or less,

but about 10-20% in parts WU and La . Furthermore, they may exceed 30% in part RLb when the

roof slope is less than 30° but about 10-20% in part RU on negative pressure parts and positive

pressure parts.

For the external pressure coefficient C pe , to calculate the roof wind load on structural frames

around the leading edge of the eave, for example, for B / H ≥ 6 and D / H > 1 , the spatial mean

value of the test results deviates within the range of ±30% of these recommendation values of -1.0.

The positive and negative peak external pressure coefficients of the roof wind load for

components/claddings are determined from the maximum and minimum peak external pressures on

each part of the building for all wind directions. These values vary with wind profile, wind tunnel test

condition (such as sampling frequency, measuring position), side ratio and size reduction rate of the

test model and so on. Their coefficients of variation are about 0.2.

(6) Gust effect factor G D

The parameters that influence the gust effect factor G D of the horizontal wind load for structural

frames, excluding the height and the width of the building, are the natural frequency f D of the first

translational mode in the along-wind direction, the critical damping ratio ζ D of the first translational

mode in along-wind direction, the design wind speed U H , turbulence scale LH , turbulence intensity

I H and the exponent of the power law α in the wind speed profile. The influence of these

parameters on the gust effect factor varies with the flat terrain subcategory, the assumed building

6. the difference between the maximum loading effect for roof structural frames obtained from these recommendations and the wind tunnel test results is within 15% and mostly around 30%.5 for reinforced concrete structures.5. (8) Turbulence intensity I H Fig. (9) Turbulence scale LH Fig. the critical damping ratio for the first translational mode ζ D = 2 %.6. about 0.1.032.1.1-0.– C6-76 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings shape and so on.29% critical damping ratio ζ D −0. When the dispersion of the values calculated from these proposed formula is evaluated as the coefficient of variation of the difference between these recommendation values and the field measurement values.20=0.17 compares the turbulence intensities of these recommendations and field measurements.2. The coefficient of variation of the difference between these values can be estimated as about 0.55% turbulence scale LH −0.2 for flat terrain subcategory III where many field measurement data have been obtained. that for the gust effect factor caused by the critical damping ratio is estimated as 0. steel reinforced concrete structures and steel structures.2 for reinforced concrete structure and steel reinforced concrete structures. . The increase of the gust effect factor ΔGD when each parameter is increased by 1% individually is shown in appendix Table 6.5 Hz.02% For example.07% exponent of power law α 0. Here. Appendix Table 6. the basic wind speed U 0 = 39 m/s and the flat terrain subcategory III are assumed.A6. The coefficient of variation of the difference between these values can be estimated as about 0. if the coefficient of variation of the critical damping ratio is 20%.3 for steel structures.16% design wind speed U H 0.2 Increase of gust effect factor ΔGD when value of each parameter is increased by 1% individually parameter increase of gust effect factor ΔGD natural frequency f D −0. and that of the critical damping ratio for the first mode is about 0. (7) Natural frequency and critical damping ratio of first mode “Damping in Buildings”7) proposed an estimation formula for the natural frequency and the critical damping ratio of the first mode. the coefficient of variation of the natural frequency for the first mode is about 0. the reference height H = 80 m. the width B = 40 m.34% turbulence intensity I H 0. Although the gust effect factor of the roof wind load for structural frames is influenced by various parameters.A6.16×0.21 compares the turbulence scales of these recommendations and field measurements. the natural frequency for the first translational mode f D = 0.

.534.35 for wind load on components/claddings.43-50.31-.2) or Eq. No.3) C where VWD : coefficient of variation of horizontal wind load for structural frames WD VWC : coefficient of variation of wind load for components/cladding WC Vρ : coefficient of variation of air density ρ VU H : coefficient of variation of design wind speed U H VCD : coefficient of variation of wind force coefficient C D VG D : coefficient of variation of gust effect factor G D VĈ : coefficient of variation of peak wind force coefficient ĈC C When a building with reference height H = 80 m. Marukawa. Ohkuma. M. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-77 – 3. pp.27-32. S: Motion-induced wind forces acting on rectangular high-rise buildings with side ratio of 2 －Characteristics of motion-induced wind forces during across-wind and torsional vibrations－ .25-32. Ohkuma. Marukawa. .37. J. Part I. H. T.5 Hz. No. pp. Transactions of Architectural Institute of Japan. References 1) Nishimura.3 to 0. Horizontal wind load for structural frames: VWD = Vρ2 + 4VU2H + VC2D + VG2D (Appendix 6.1. S: Motion-induced wind forces and coupled across-wind torsional unstable aerodynamic vibrations of rectangular high-rise buildings with various side-ratio.6. and Shimomura.456. Coefficient of variation of wind load The coefficient of variation of horizontal wind load for structural frames and of wind load for components/claddings can be obtained from Eq. width B = 40 m. No.560. pp. Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering AIJ.482.2) Wind load for components/cladding : VWC = Vρ2 + 4VU2H + VĈ2 (Appendix6. 2002 (in Japanese) 4) Fujimoto. Katagiri. natural frequency for first translational mode f D = 0.. Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering AIJ. Y: Aeroelastic Instability of High-Rise Building in a Turbulent Boundary Layer.(Appendix 6. H. Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering AIJ. and Shimomura.32 to 0.6. J. T: A theoretical study on evaluation of wind-induced vibrations of towers with a circular cross section.. T.3).. 1994 No. H. the coefficient of variation VWD can be estimated as around 0. No.6.33 for wind load on structural frames and the coefficient of variation VWC can be estimated as around 0. 1996 (in Japanese) 2) Katagiri.6.185. and Taniike.6. pp. 2000 (in Japanese) 3) Ohkuma. and critical damping ratio for first translational mode ζ D = 2 % is constructed in a region of flat terrain subcategory III in each city of appendix Table 6.(Appendix 6..

. Ohtake.– C6-78 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings pp. J: Extreme wind speeds in mixed climates. Journal of Wind Engineering. R.35-48. pp. Kareem. 92. No.42. pp. pp. Vickery. Transactions of Architectural Institute of Japan.. B. Ishibashi. Fujii. K. Y: Study on estimation of flat terrain for each wind direction. No. Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering (Transactions of AIJ). Iwatani. Sasaki. pp. K. T: A theoretical study on evaluation of wind-induced vibrations of towers with a circular cross section. 2002 (in Japanese) 19) BS6399-2: British Standard. Loading for buildings. Y: . 2000 18) Matsui. Hibi. K. Y. K.1-11. L. Code of practice for wind loads. Part 2 : Wind actions.. 1988 (in Japanese) 12) Guide book for engineers on wind tunnel test of buildings: The building center of Japan. Y.2.. No. Transactions of Architectural Institute of Japan. January. Maruyama. and Tanaka.37-44. pp. J: Improving the Gumbel analysis by using M-th highest extremes. Highett. pp.: The application of statistical concepts to the wind loading of structures. Proceedings of 17th National Symposium on Wind Engineering. 2002 21) Melbourne.. A. 1971 (in Japanese) 5) Ohkuma. pp59-67. Marukawa. Y. K. 1980 11) Matumoto. ASCE. July. S: Wind load of Tall Buildings Considering Wind Directionality Effects. Journal of Structural Engineering. 1994 13) Ishihara.168-178. A: Gust loading factor: new model. B-1... W. No.331-334. 2000 (in Japanese) 8) Davenport. Part III. 2002 (in Japanese) 15) Gomes. Revision of ANSI/ASCE 7-95. Part 2.. K. 499-504. 119-120. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan 2002. T. T. H: Designing for directionality. T: A theoretical study on evaluation of wind-induced vibrations of towers with a circular cross section. 2002 14) Ohtake. 1961 9) Zhou. pp25-32. Victoria. A. 1971 (in Japanese) 7) Damping in Buildings.19. No. 2001 10) Ohkuma. 1971 (in Japanese) 6) Ohkuma. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics.. G.. N. Proceeding of Institution of Civil Engineers. Tamura.188. and Matsui. 1984 22) Suda. Hibi. T. Vol.. H: Mechanism of aero-elastically unstable vibration of large span roof. Vol. Wind Engineers. pp. M.2: Australian/New Zealand Standard. AIJ..187.. M: A Database of Annual Maximum Wind Speed and Corrections for Anemometers in Japan. H.90-96. Kato. Structural design actions. 1978 16) Cook. 1997 20) AS/NZS 1170. and Tamura.384. Part II. T: Wind tunnel study of self-excited oscillation of one-way type suspension roofs in a smooth flow. 2000 17) ASCE 7-98: Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures. Revision of ANSI/ASCE 7-95. . 1st Workshop on Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics.449-472. Tamura. pp.

pp. Tamura. 1997 (in Japanese) 33) Kikuchi. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan. AIJ. Suda.61-66. H: Characteristics of stress generated by wind pressures and wind loads acting on stiff two-dimensional arches supporting a barrel roof. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. M. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan. and Maruta. Architectural Institute of Japan. pp. Part 1 mean internal pressures. pp.177-178 (in Japanese) 35) Chino.103-104.13-18.147-148 (in Japanese) 34) Nogichi. 1991 (in Japanese) 32) Ueda. pp. Vol. 2002 (in Japanese) 28) Eurocode ENV 1991-2-4: 1997 29) Kamei. M. M.. Journal of Wind Engineering. 2003.56. pp. Hibi. and Maruta.. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-79 – Observation of wind speed profiles in Tokyo city area using doppler soda.91-99. 1998 27) Goto. A: Topographic multipliers for mean and fluctuating wind velocities around up-slope cliffs. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan. pp. E: Study on design wind pressure coefficient of low rise buildings with a flat roof or a gable roof -Part 3. and Oda.105-106. No.119-120 (in Japanese) 31) Ueda. pp. 1981. No.133. H. JAWE. K: Effect of turbulence of approaching wind on mean wind pressures acting on flat roofs -Part 1.... 425. K: Profiles of turbulence intensity on the basis of full scale measurements. I. JAWE. K: Characteristics of wind pressures acting on the curved roofs. pp. 1993.Study on characteristics of wind pressure acting on flat roofs. Kondo. 1992.95. K. Structures.. Uematsu. H.1041-1042 (in Japanese) 30) Kanda. H: Wind-induced internal pressures in buildings...265-285. 1983 . Architectural Institute of Japan. Kawaguchi.. S: Effect of micro-topography on design wind velocity. Hagura. N. pp.. Proceedings of 16th National Symposium on Wind Engineering. pp. H. 1999 (in Japanese) 26) Meng. T.Averaging wind pressure coefficient and wind direction. pp.. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting. and Hibi. 2003. 2003 (in Japanese) 25) Tsuchiya. K. No. K. Y: Design wind pressure coefficients for spherical domes. Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan B-1. pp. E: Wind Tunnel Test for evaluating wind pressure coefficients of buildings with a gable roof -Part 2-. Sanada. No.119-120. H.29-35. Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering. Structures Ⅰ.111-112. 2000 (in Japanese) 23) Kondo. Structures Ⅰ. Kawai. Y. S. pp. Journal of Wind Engineering. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting. H. Ueda. K: Topographic multipliers around micro-topography. 2001 (in Japanese) 24) Kawai. Kawai. and Okada. Proceedings of 15th National Symposium on Wind Engineering. Y. Architectural Institute of Japan. Kondo. H. and Fujii. K: An experimental study of turbulent boundary layer over steep hills.11-20 (in Japanese) 36) Schewe. 496，pp. H.. G: On the force fluctuations acting on a circular cylinder in crossflow from subcritical up to transcritical Rynolds numbers. Miyashita.

H. 1992. pp. 2003. Vol. Okada. Structures Ⅰ. K: Peak wind pressure coefficients for cladding of a tall building . Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan.. and Kanda. 2001. Kondo. Hibi. JAWE. 2002. Structures Ⅰ.43-53 (in Japanese) 49) Chino. JAWE. Y. Journal of Wind Engineering . and Kikitsu. Part 2 gust response factor of internal pressure. pp. Kawabata.143-144 (in Japanese) 45) Maruta. 2002 (in Japanese) 52) Asami. S. 1994 38) Uematsu. H. H. H. Proceedings of the 8th East Asia-Pacific Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction. Structures Ⅰ. M: Aerodynamic forces on circular cylinders of finite height. pp.19-24 (in Japanese) 41) Nishimura. Y. O: A proposal for alongwind load model. H: On a new way to estimate wind load on cladding considering correlation between external and internal pressures. Y.47-48 (in Japanese) 43) Ohtake. D: Effective static load distributions in wind engineering. 1992. : Peak wind pressure coefficients for cladding of a tall building . pp. AIJ.Part 2 Stretch of Peak Wind Pressure. pp. No. N. 1995. 2000. K: Experimental research of aerodynamic force on rectangular prism. E. GBRC.95.33-36 (in Japanese) 46). Takamori K. H: Aerodynamic Characteristics of Shapes yielding Stagnated Flow.83-88. Structures I.358-368 48) Okada.57-58 (in Japanese) 42) Katagiri. M: Fluctuating wind pressures on buildings and structures of circular cross-section at high Reynolds numbers. pp.197-198 (in Japanese) 50). 2001 47) Uematsu. Structures I. pp. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting College of Industrial Technology Nihon University. Asami. Journal of Wind Engineering. pp. No. pp. and Nakamura. Ueda. 2000. J.193-194 (in Japanese) 44) Ohtake. K. International Standard ISO4354. Yamada. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Wind Engineering.106. Nakamura. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of JAPAN. O: Pressure Characteristics of Rectangular cylinders with Cut Corner. Y. 1997 51) Asami. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. Y. 1991. pp. pp.58. Y: Design wind force coefficients for free-standing canopy roofs，Journal of Wind Engineering. M: Local wind pressure on gable roofs. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan.249-265.Part 1 Characteristics of peak pressure. Y. New Delhi.195-196. 2002 (in Japanese) 53) Holmes. Yamada. N: Wind-induced internal pressures in buildings. Journal of Wind Engineering.– C6-80 – Recommendations for Loads on Buildings 37) Uematsu.181-182 (in Japanese) 39) JEC-127. pp. and Chino. 1994. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan. Uematsu. No.51. pp. Niihori. Structures Ⅰ. Y: Peak gust pressures acting on low-rise building roofs. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting.. J. 91. JAWE. and Okeya M: A wind tunnel study of fluctuating pressures on buildings – Part4 Pressure coefficient and drag coefficient. Singapore. The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan 1979 (in Japanese) 40) Nishimura. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan.

. H. Proceedings of the 16th National Symposium on Wind Engineering. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting.34. 2002 54) Harris. pp. O: Lift and across-wind response of q 200m concrete chimney. Vol. 1984 (in Japanese) 60) Hibi. Y. K.65-72. K. 2001 (in Japanese) 65) Taniike. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting. Architectural Institute of Japan. J: Mode correction factor for modal wind forces. Nishimura. A. 2000 (in Japanese) 64) Takamori. T: Aerodynamic interference effect between twin tall buildings – Part1 Square sectioned buildings. Y. 1996 (in Japanese) 57) Holmes. 1984 (in Japanese) 59) Tamura. Architectural Institute of Japan..4.. Kikuchi. 2000 (in Japanese) 62) Marukawa.33-42. CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-81 – and Industrial Aerodynamics. 1988 (in Japanese) 66) Structural Design Concepts for Earthquake and Wind. Architectural Institute of Japan. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting. Y: Combination method for wind loads on high-rise buildings. Engineering Structures. JAWE. Tamura. H. Structures I. Okazaki. pp. 337. Noguchi.482.16. AIJ. pp.. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting. 1996 58) Marukawa. T: Formula of fluctuating wind forces for estimation of across-wind and torsional responses of prismatic high rise buildings，Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering AIJ.. No.169-184.251-252. H: Peak normal stresses and wind load combinations of middle-rise buildings.. Y.. Vol. No. Taniguchi. 96.. Vol. I: The propagation of internal pressures in buildings. Sasaki. Y. J.91-109. T. Sone. Journal of Wind Engineering JAWE. H.. pp. Taniike. M: Aerodynamic interference effect between twin tall buildings – Part2 Study of influences on the wind load. pp. Taniike. pp. Y. A: Vortex induced vibration of circular cylinder Part III.33-42.. Structures I. 1990 55) Uematsu. pp. Y: Interference effect between tall buildings with square section in a high-turbulent boundary layer. Sanada. pp.249-250. M: Geometric and structural characteristics and wind resistant design method of spatial structures constructed in Japan. R. Y. Transactions of AIJ.173-174. D: Along-wind response of lattice towers: Part I – Derivation of expressions for gust response factors. Nishimura. Nakamura. AIJ.90..531-534. Okazaki.. K. H. pp. 1999 (in Japanese) . S.107-116. Proceedings of 10th National Symposium on Wind Engineering. Tamura. Journal of Wind Engineering. H. 2003 (in Japanese) 56) Marukawa.247-252. pp. pp. 1999 (in Japanese) 63) Takamori. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics.. pp. pp. Itou. 2003 (in Japanese) 61) Asami.. M.37-52.113-114. and Ohkuma. Amano.

- Stability and Nonlinear Vibrations of Closed Cylindrical Shells Interacting With a Fluid Flow (Review)Uploaded bybanad
- The Mysterious One Third IncreaseUploaded bymarcelofgt7841
- trud-dafUploaded byDejan Janev
- Combis EtabsUploaded byakagarse
- Wind LoadsUploaded byAnju
- 1-s2.0-S1877705813008412-mainUploaded byHeńřÿ Łøĵæń
- SACS TrainingUploaded byasma
- STRUCTURE_DESIGN_OF_PARKING_BUILDING_SUN.pdfUploaded byHoHo Windyanto
- Aerodynamic ForcesUploaded byAiswariaGr
- 11. Application Examples for STAADUploaded byRamilArtates
- Part1 ModelingUploaded byAkbar
- Water Treatment Container Calculation ReportUploaded byJuragan Iwal
- Introduction FreeSpanningPipelinesDNV RP F105Uploaded byNabil37
- IRC_045-1972Uploaded byharivennela
- Loadings and Structure GroupsUploaded byFatmir Jashari
- Highway Wind EnergyUploaded byDevangMarvania
- Bridge Time Period, FrequencyUploaded byankurshah1986
- Wind Loading Calculator WebpageUploaded bybalajiselvaraj
- Wind ASCE 7-10 vs 7-05Uploaded byHomer Silva
- Assessment the Terrain Complexity and the Turbulence Intensity in Con Dao IslandsUploaded byLe Hang
- Aerodynamic Problems of s Super-long Span Cable-stayed Bridge_IABSE 2005Uploaded bymonolith80
- Build 134 78 Research Wind Induce Motion of Tall BuildingsUploaded byTuroy
- "Greetings From" by Chanice Hughes-GreenbergUploaded byjentynes
- epa 13.5Uploaded byNicholas Martin
- Temporary Loads During Construction Undergraduate Research and Course DevelopmentUploaded byAshwin B S Rao
- 2RD e2 PAUploaded byMatheus Cipriano Goncalves
- AGS019-02Uploaded byForbes Kamba
- Lecture Notes Structural Steel DesignUploaded byPeter Jean-jacques
- dyn_loadsUploaded bySuresh nathan

- Pryout Capacity of Cast-in Headed Stud Anchors.pdfUploaded byaungps_sone82
- 14-EIGENUploaded byaungps_sone82
- Essential-Guide-BEP.pdfUploaded byaungps_sone82
- EN1997_4_Frank.pdfUploaded byaungps_sone82
- Pryout Capacity of Cast-In Headed Stud AnchorsUploaded byaungps_sone82
- RC beam Web opening.pdfUploaded byaungps_sone82
- Design_Trusses.pdfUploaded byaungps_sone82
- EC3-EC4-Worked-Examples.pdfUploaded byaungps_sone82
- MESH BROCHURE.pdfUploaded byaungps_sone82
- steel-detailing-example-drawings.pdfUploaded byaungps_sone82
- EN1994_4_Hanswille.pdfUploaded byaungps_sone82
- EN1994_4_HanswilleUploaded byaungps_sone82
- DG to EN1992-1-1Uploaded byaungps_sone82
- Shell Forces Stresses FormUploaded byaungps_sone82
- Windload Standard for Building in VietnamUploaded byaungps_sone82
- Arup_Journal_1_2012Uploaded byaungps_sone82
- Solved MDOF ExampleUploaded byaungps_sone82
- Research Review 250112lr2Uploaded byaungps_sone82
- Cmc Deck CatalogUploaded byaungps_sone82
- Long Term Deflections Do Not Adjust for Entered ReinforcementUploaded byaungps_sone82
- Adv Concrete EurocodeUploaded byaungps_sone82
- Specialisations_Conditions for Award of Specialisations_Sep 16Uploaded byaungps_sone82
- Prestressed ConcreteUploaded byaungps_sone82
- chapter_02.pdfUploaded byaungps_sone82
- CP23-2000Uploaded byaungps_sone82
- Solved_MDOF_Example.pdfUploaded byaungps_sone82
- Ritz Vector RSIAUploaded byaungps_sone82
- RCC81 Foundation PadsUploaded byaungps_sone82
- Chapter 02Uploaded byaungps_sone82