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Training Report

On
Core java
In Partial fulfillment for the course of
Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science
(2009-10)

Submitted To:- Submitted By:-
Er. Ritu Lalit Mudgil
1607005,CSE,A-1

Department of Computer Science Engineering

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am grateful to Jind Instt. of Engineering & Technology for permitting me to
undergo for a minor project for the development of an expert system. While
developing this project, I have learnt a lot. This will be an un-forgetful experience.
While developing this project, a lot of difficulties were faced by me. But it was the
help of some special people that I have gained much confidence and developed the
project quite well.
I would like to thank all the lecturers of NIIT(GURGAON) to co-ordinate with me
and provide me the information needed to complete the analysis part of this project. I
would like to thank everyone who in anyway helped me in this project.

Contents

Chapter 1: History
1.1 Principles

Chapter 2: Features of Java
2.1 Encapsulation
2.2 Java Platform
2.2.1 Implementations
2.2.2 Performance
2.3 Automatic memory management

Chapter3: Syntax

Chapter 4: Examples
4.1 Hello world
4.2 A more comprehensive example

Chapter 5: Special classes
5.1 Applet
5.2 Servlet
5.3 JavaServer Page
5.4 Generics

Chapter 6: Swing Application

Chapter 7: Class libraries

Chapter 8: Documentation
8.1 Examples

Chapter 9: Editions

Chapter 10: See also

Chapter 11: Notes

Chapter 12: References

Chapter 13: External links

Chapter 1: History

Duke, the Java mascotSee also: Java (Sun) history and Java version history.
James Gosling initiated the Java language project in June 1991 for use in one of
his many set-top box projects. The language, initially called Oak after an oak tree
that stood outside Gosling's office, also went by the name Green and ended up
later renamed as Java, from a list of random words.

Gosling aimed to implement a virtual machine and a language that had a familiar
C/C++ style of notation.

Sun released the first public implementation as Java 1.0 in 1995. It promised
"Write Once, Run Anywhere" (WORA), providing no-cost run-times on popular
platforms.

Fairly secure and featuring configurable security, it allowed network- and file-
access restrictions. Major web browsers soon incorporated the ability to run Java
applets within web pages, and Java quickly became popular.

With the advent of Java 2 (released initially as J2SE 1.2 in December 1998), new
versions had multiple configurations built for different types of platforms. For
example, J2EE targeted enterprise applications and the greatly stripped-down
version J2ME for mobile applications. J2SE designated the Standard Edition. In
2006, for marketing purposes, Sun renamed new J2 versions as Java EE, Java ME,
and Java SE, respectively.

In 1997, Sun Microsystems approached the ISO/IEC JTC1 standards body and
later the Ecma International to formalize Java, but it soon withdrew from the
process. Java remains a de facto standard, controlled through the Java Community
Process.

At one time, Sun made most of its Java implementations available without charge,
despite their proprietary software status. Sun generated revenue from Java through
the selling of licenses for specialized products such as the Java Enterprise System.

Sun distinguishes between its Software Development Kit (SDK) and Runtime
Environment (JRE) (a subset of the SDK); the primary distinction involves the
JRE's lack of the compiler, utility programs, and header files.

On 13 November 2006, Sun released much of Java as open source software under
the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL).

and dynamic". aside from a small portion of code to which Sun did not hold the copyright. and familiar". object oriented. threaded. making all of Java's core code available under free software / open-source distribution terms. It should be "interpreted. It should be "robust and secure".On 8 May 2007 Sun finished the process. It should be "architecture neutral and portable".1 Principles There were five primary goals in the creation of the Java language:[14] It should be "simple. It should execute with "high performance". 1. .

1 Encapsulation The nature of encapsulation We call the access methods getters and setters although some prefer the fancier terms accessors and mutators.) . we don't like the word "mutate". (Personally.Chapter2: Features of Java 2.

Standardized libraries provide a generic way to access host specific features such as graphics. However. Java bytecode instructions are analogous to machine code. but are intended to be interpreted by a virtual machine (VM) written specifically for the host hardware. A major benefit of using bytecode is porting. End-users commonly use a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed on their own machine for standalone Java applications. instead of directly to platform-specific machine code. . and Java suffered a reputation for poor performance. } } 2. or in a Web browser for Java applets. // Provide public getters and setters public int getSize() { return size.Regardless of what you call them. which means that computer programs written in the Java language must run similarly on any supported hardware/operating-system platform. threading and networking. only an instance // of Box can access it " d " "dfdf" private int size. They look simple. they're methods that other programmers must go through in order to access your instance variables. } public void setSize(int newSize) { size = newSize.2 Java Platform Main articles: Java Platform and Java Runtime Environment One characteristic of Java is portability. This gap has been narrowed by a number of optimization techniques introduced in the more recent JVM implementations. and you've probably been using them forever: public class Box { // protect the instance variable. the overhead of interpretation means that interpreted programs almost always run more slowly than programs compiled to native executables would. This is achieved by compiling the Java language code to an intermediate representation called Java bytecode.

such as Web services. Javadoc.1 Implementations Sun Microsystems officially licenses the Java Standard Edition platform for Linux. have made available free Java run-time systems for those and other versions of Windows. and in recent versions of Windows. and others. This resulted in a legal dispute with Microsoft after Sun claimed that the Microsoft implementation did not support RMI or JNI and had added platform- specific features of their own. in the past Sun has licensed Java to Microsoft.[20] . and Enterprise JavaBeans.2. Through the new GlassFish project. Sun sued in 1997. which includes development tools such as the Java compiler. Sun. the license has expired and has not been renewed.2.2. Sun's trademark license for usage of the Java brand insists that all implementations be "compatible". Microsoft no longer ships Java with Windows.[15] Mac OS X. [19] As a result.[18] alternative Java environments are available for these and other platforms. Jar and debugger. and in 2001 won a settlement of $20 million as well as a court order enforcing the terms of the license from Sun.[16] and Solaris. as well as with embedded systems based on OSGi. unified open source implementation of the Java EE technologies. and an even more rigorous validation is required to certify an implementation. Sun is working to create a fully functional. Platform-independent Java is essential to the Java EE strategy. Internet Explorer cannot support Java applets without a third-party plugin. Sun also distributes a superset of the JRE called the Java Development Kit (commonly known as the JDK). This environment enables portable server-side applications.[17] Through a network of third-party vendors and licensees. using Embedded Java environments. 2. Java Servlets.2 Performance Programs written in Java have had a reputation for being slower and requiring more memory than those written in some other languages. Although.

a memory leak occurs. i. those where the memory is still referenced but never used.1. Either way the responsibility of managing memory resides with the programmer. and the program is likely to become unstable and/or crash.e. the unreachable memory becomes eligible to be freed automatically by the garbage collector. The programmer determines when objects are created. the result is undefined and difficult to predict.[clarification needed] and optimizations in the Java Virtual Machine itself.2. If the program attempts to access or deallocate memory that has already been deallocated. . but these add overhead and complexity. Java programs' execution speed improved significantly with the introduction of Just-in-time compilation in 1997/1998 for Java 1. Note that garbage collection does not prevent 'logical' memory leaks. or explicitly allocated and deallocated from the heap. Once no references to an object remain.3 Automatic Memory Management Java uses an automatic garbage collector to manage memory in the object lifecycle. In some languages memory for the creation of objects is implicitly allocated on the stack. This can be partially remedied by the use of smart pointers. typically when objects that are no longer needed are stored in containers that are still in use. 2. If methods for a nonexistent object are called.[24][25] One of the ideas behind Java's automatic memory management model is that programmers be spared the burden of having to perform manual memory management. a "null pointer exception" is thrown. Something similar to a memory leak may still occur if a programmer's code holds a reference to an object that is no longer needed.[21][22][23] the addition of language features supporting better code analysis. If the program does not deallocate an object.However. such as HotSpot becoming the default for Sun's JVM in 2000. and the Java runtime is responsible for recovering the memory once objects are no longer in use.

It is guaranteed to be triggered if there is insufficient free memory on the heap to allocate a new object. as of Java 5. This was a conscious decision by Java's designers for performance reasons. variables of Java's primitive data types are not objects. autoboxing enables programmers to proceed as if primitive types are instances of their wrapper classes. this can cause a program to stall momentarily. and ensures type safety and security. Java does not support C/C++ style pointer arithmetic. it will occur when a program is idle. Values of primitive types are either stored directly in fields (for objects) or on the stack (for methods) rather than on the heap. This allows the garbage collector to relocate referenced objects. . where object addresses and unsigned integers (usually long integers) can be used interchangeably. Ideally. Explicit memory managment is not possible in Java. Because of this. as commonly true for objects (but see Escape analysis).0. However. As in C++ and some other object-oriented languages. Java was not considered to be a pure object-oriented programming language.Garbage collection may happen at any time.

and characters). generic. */ . This type of comment can be used to hold a lot of information but it is very important to remember to close the comment. and a multiple line style opened with a forward slash asterisk (/*) and closed with an asterisk forward slash (*/). and object-oriented programming. which are not classes for performance reasons. Java suppresses several features (such as operator overloading and multiple inheritance) for classes in order to simplify the language and to prevent possible errors and anti-pattern design. Java was built almost exclusively as an object oriented language. boolean values. with the exception of the intrinsic data types (ordinal and real numbers. Example: //This is an example of a single line comment using two forward slashes /* This is an example of a multiple line comment using the forward slash and asterisk. Java uses the same commenting methods as C++. All code is written inside a class and everything is an object. which combines the syntax for structured. There are two different styles of comment: a single line style marked with two forward slashes. Unlike C++.Chapter 3: Syntax The syntax of Java is largely derived from C++.

java.class. } } Source files must be named after the public class they contain. Only then can it be executed. a $. . world!" and then exits */ public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String[] args) { System. world!"). using a Java compiler. The java source file may only contain one public class but can contain multiple classes with less than public access and any number of public inner classes. It must first be compiled into bytecode. producing a file named HelloWorld.class appended. and an integer.Chapter4: Examples 4.println("Hello. HelloWorld. A class that is declared private may be stored in any . or 'launched'.1 Hello world The traditional Hello world program can be written in Java as: /* * Outputs "Hello. anonymous classes are treated as if their name was the concatenation of the name of their enclosing class.java. with . For class file generation. for example. The compiler will generate a class file for each class defined in the source file.java file. appending the suffix . The name of the class file is the name of the class.out.

The parameters to main are often passed by means of a command line.The keyword public denotes that a method can be called from code in other classes. Stand-alone programs must declare this method explicitly. Since Java 5. Printing is part of a Java standard library: The System class defines a public static field called out. The Java launcher launches Java by loading a given class (specified on the command line or as an attribute in a JAR) and starting its public static void main(String[]) method. the main method can also use variable arguments. . Java classes that run in managed environments such as applets and Enterprise JavaBean do not use or need a main() method. in the form of public static void main(String. it must call System. If a Java program is to exit with an error code. which means that the VM needs to be explicitly told which class to launch from.. The class hierarchy is related to the name of the directory in which the . or that a class may be used by classes outside the class hierarchy. which is associated only with the class and not with any specific instance of that class. The keyword static in front of a method indicates a static method.. Static methods cannot access any method variables that are not static. Only static methods can be invoked without a reference to an object. allowing the main method to be invoked with an arbitrary number of String arguments. The keyword void indicates that the main method does not return any value to the caller. The method name "main" is not a keyword in the Java language.java file is. It is simply the name of the method the Java launcher calls to pass control to the program. The main method must accept an array of String objects. it is referenced as args although any other legal identifier name can be used. but allows an alternate syntax for creating and passing the array. The effect of this alternate declaration is semantically identical (the args parameter is still an array of String objects). The String[] args parameter is an array of String objects containing any arguments passed to the class. By convention.exit() explicitly. A java program may contain multiple classes that have main methods. args).

calculate() that will * display either "Even" or "Odd. It gets called when this class is run through a Java interpreter. which is a dialog box * The String returned by the "showInputDialog()" method is converted into * an integer. public class OddEven { // "input" is the number that the user gives to the computer private int input." .showDialog().swing. number. this method calls a second method.The out object is an instance of the PrintStream class and provides many methods for printing data to standard out.JOptionPane. It gets called when an object of the OddEven type * is being created. which brings up a prompt to ask you for a number */ OddEven number = new OddEven(). making the program treat it as a number instead of a word. // a whole number("int" means integer) /* * This is the constructor method.java import javax. including println(String) which also appends a new line to the passed string. public static void main(String[] args) { /* * This line of code creates a new instance of this class called "number" (also known as an * Object) and initializes it by calling the constructor. */ try { /* * The code below brings up a JOptionPane. */ public OddEven() { //Code not shown } // This is the main method. * the interpreter skips to "catch" to see what it should do. } public void showDialog() { /* * "try" makes sure nothing goes wrong. The next line of code calls * the "showDialog()" method.2 A more comprehensive example // OddEven. If something does. * After that. 4.

println("Odd").swing package. The OddEven class declares a single private field of type int named input."). The calculate() method is declared without the static keyword. have no return type.println("ERROR: Invalid input.*/ input = new Integer(JOptionPane. Probably some letters were typed in instead of a number.err. The private declaration means that no other class can access (read or write) the input field.println("Even"). } catch (NumberFormatException e) { /* * Getting in the catch block means that there was a problem with the format of * the number.out. } } /* * When this gets called. it sends a message to the interpreter. and unlike a method. Constructors have the same name as the enclosing class they are declared in.showInputDialog("Please Enter A Number")). This means that the method is invoked using a specific instance of the OddEven class. } else { System. A constructor is used to initialize an object that is a newly created instance of the class.(Assuming it's open) */ private void calculate() { if (input % 2 == 0) { System.out. Every instance of the OddEven class has its own copy of the input field. OddEven() is a public constructor. Please type in a numerical value.) . } } } The import statement imports the JOptionPane class from the javax. (The reference used to invoke the method is passed as an undeclared parameter of type OddEven named this. calculate(). */ System. * The interpreter usually shows it on the command prompt (For Windows users) * or the terminal (For Linux users).

The declaration initializes number by first creating an instance of the OddEven class. is a statement that converts the type of String to the primitive data type int by taking advantage of the primitive wrapper class Integer. which explicitly uses the undeclared this parameter. declares a local object reference variable in the main method named number.The method tests the expression input % 2 == 0 using the if keyword to see if the remainder of dividing the input field belonging to the instance of the class by two is zero. (The input field can be equivalently accessed as this.) OddEven number = new OddEven(). . then it prints Even. input = new Integer(JOptionPane. and then assigning this instance to the variable. calls the calculate method. If this expression is true.showInputDialog("Please Enter A Number")). The statement number.showDialog(). This variable can hold a reference to an object of type OddEven. if this expression is false it prints Odd. The instance of OddEven object referenced by the number local variable is used to invoke the method and passed as the undeclared this parameter to the calculate method.input. using the new keyword and the OddEven() constructor.

the JApplet class provides the framework for the host application to display and control the lifecycle of the applet.JApplet). import java.swing.1 Applet Java applets are programs that are embedded in other applications.JApplet. public class Hello extends JApplet { public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { g. The Hello class extends (subclasses) the JApplet (Java Applet) class.drawString("Hello. JApplet and java. world!".e. } } The import statements direct the Java compiler to include the javax.swing.e. .Chapter 5: Special classes 5. 65. 95). // Hello.Graphics classes in the compilation. javax.swing. The import statement allows these classes to be referenced in the source code using the simple class name (i.awt.Graphics. typically in a Web page displayed in a Web browser. JApplet) instead of the fully qualified class name (i.java import javax. The JApplet class is a JComponent (Java Graphical Component) which provides the applet with the capability to display a graphical user interface (GUI) and respond to user events.awt.

[27] However. the applet tag is deprecated. The paint method is called by the AWT event dispatching thread whenever the display needs the applet to draw itself. int) method to display the "Hello. Servlets are server-side Java EE components that generate responses (typically HTML pages) to requests (typically HTTP requests) from clients. A servlet can almost be thought of as an applet that runs on the server side— without a face.2 Servlet Java Servlet technology provides Web developers with a simple. . world!" string at a pixel offset of (65. <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www. it is added to the AWT display hierarchy. 95) from the upper-left corner in the applet's display. int. The host application.org/TR/html4/strict. although support for these elements by Web browsers is inconsistent. consistent mechanism for extending the functionality of a Web server and for accessing existing business systems. The paintComponent() method calls the graphic context drawString(String. The applet tag has three attributes set: code="Hello" specifies the name of the JApplet class and width="200" height="200" sets the pixel width and height of the applet. Once the applet has initialized itself.w3. 5. The paint() method is passed a Graphics object that contains the graphic context used to display the applet.html --> <html> <head> <title>Hello World Applet</title> </head> <body> <applet code="Hello" width="200" height="200"> </applet> </body> </html> An applet is placed in an HTML document using the <applet> HTML element. instantiates the Hello applet and creates an AppletContext for the applet. so the object tag is preferred where supported.dtd"> <!-. Applets may also be embedded in HTML using either the object or embed element[26]. typically a Web browser.The Hello class overrides the paintComponent(Graphics) method inherited from the Container superclass to provide the code to display the applet.Hello.

setContentType("text/html"). to HTTP requests from clients. The Hello class overrides the service(ServletRequest. The service() method is passed a ServletRequest object that contains the request from the client and a ServletResponse object used to create the response returned to the client.io.*. IOException { response. } } The import statements direct the Java compiler to include all of the public classes and interfaces from the java. The Hello class extends the GenericServlet class.io and javax. The service() method declares that it throws the exceptions ServletException and IOException if a problem prevents it from responding to the request.println("Hello. final PrintWriter pw = response. pw.*. import javax.// Hello.3 Java Server Page JavaServer Pages (JSPs) are server-side Java EE components that generate responses. typically HTML pages.servlet packages in the compilation. 5. . world!"). which causes the data that has been written to the stream to be returned to the client. world!" string to the response and then the close() method is called to close the print writer. public class Hello extends GenericServlet { public void service(ServletRequest request.close(). The println(String) method is called to write the "Hello. pw.getWriter().java import java. ServletResponse response) throws ServletException. The setContentType(String) method in the response object is called to set the MIME content type of the returned data to "text/html". The getWriter() method in the response returns a PrintWriter object that is used to write the data that is sent to the client.servlet. the GenericServlet class provides the interface for the server to forward requests to the servlet and control the servlet's lifecycle. ServletResponse) method defined by the Servlet interface to provide the code for the service request handler.

4 Generics In 2004 generics were added to the Java language. Prior to the introduction of generics. the first time it is accessed. each variable declaration had to be of a specific type. each containing almost identical code. this is a problem because there is no easy way to create a container that accepts only specific types of objects. Generics allow compile-time type checking without having to create a large number of container classes.0. a Java application in its own right. After that. For container classes. usually Object. A JSP is compiled to a Java servlet. or a different container class has to be created for each contained class. Either the container operates on all subtypes of a class or interface. as part of J2SE 5. the generated servlet creates the response. . for example.JSPs embed Java code in an HTML page by using the special delimiters <% and %>. 5.

world!" inside: // Hello. Swing in Java SE 6 addresses this problem by using more native GUI widget drawing routines of the underlying platforms. world!")).swing.EXIT_ON_CLOSE). Where prior implementations of these looks and feels may have been considered lacking. import javax.setVisible(true).BorderLayout. pack(). public class Hello extends JFrame { public Hello() { super("hello"). add(new JLabel("Hello.Chapter 6: Swing application Swing is a graphical user interface library for the Java SE platform. Apple also provides an Aqua look and feel for Mac OS X. setLayout(new BorderLayout()). This example Swing application creates a single window with "Hello. It is possible to specify a different look and feel through the pluggable look and feel system of Swing.java (Java SE 5) import java. } public static void main(String[] args) { new Hello(). . setDefaultCloseOperation(WindowConstants.*. GTK+ and Motif are supplied by Sun. Clones of Windows.awt.

The Hello() constructor initializes the frame by first calling the superclass constructor.swing package. } } The first import statement directs the Java compiler to include the BorderLayout class from the java.*. public class MyApp1 { public static void main (String arg[]){ Frame myFrame = new Frame("example Frame for cosc210").Building a graphical interface • Adding a Frame and using the show() method package com. which is used as the window's title. myFrame. // necessary for the frame to be visible } } Used the mouse to drag the Window to a larger size � .awt. import java. passing the parameter "hello". the JFrame class implements a window with a title bar and a close control. the second import includes all of the public classes and interfaces from the javax.awt. The Hello class extends the JFrame class.cosc210. It then calls the setDefaultCloseOperation(int) method inherited from JFrame to set the default operation when the close control on the title bar is selected to AWT .show().awt package in the compilation.

A JLabel is created for the string "Hello. WindowConstants. the layout of the frame is set to a BorderLayout. Once the frame is displayed. exiting the main method does not cause the program to terminate because the AWT event dispatching thread remains active until all of the Swing top-level windows have been disposed. Next. in the manner indicated by the BorderLayout. which allows the JVM to exit and the program to terminate.EXIT_ON_CLOSE — this causes the JFrame to be disposed of when the frame is closed (as opposed to merely hidden). AWT . world!" and the add(Component) method inherited from the Container superclass is called to add the label to the frame. The main() method is called by the JVM when the program starts. It instantiates a new Hello frame and causes it to be displayed by calling the setVisible(boolean) method inherited from the Component superclass with the boolean parameter true. this tells Swing how to arrange the components that will be added to the frame.Building a graphical interface • Adding a component • Example the component Window we have already used by creating a Frame Notice: Window extends Container Container is the generic component that Defines how all containers work . The pack() method inherited from the Window superclass is called to size the window and lay out its contents.

dictionaries. These libraries include: . which include: Collection libraries that implement data structures such as lists. trees and sets XML Processing (Parsing. Validating) libraries Security Internationalization and localization libraries The integration libraries. which allow the application writer to communicate with external systems. Examples of these libraries are: The core libraries. Transforming.Container is abstract – you have to choose An implemented container to use containers Chapter 7: Class libraries Java libraries are the compiled bytecodes of source code developed by the JRE implementor to support application development in Java.

. which enable applets to be run in Web browsers Java Web Start. processing. or native) Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT). which allows Java applications to be efficiently distributed to end- users across the Internet Licensing and documentation.The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API for database access Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) for lookup and discovery RMI and CORBA for distributed application development JMX for managing and monitoring applications User interface libraries. which are built on AWT but provide (non- native) implementations of the AWT widgetry APIs for audio capture. which include: The (heavyweight. and playback A platform dependent implementation of Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that is the means by which the byte codes of the Java libraries and third party applications are executed Plugins. the means for laying out those components and the means for handling events from those components The (lightweight) Swing libraries. which provides GUI components.

Javadoc comments have an extra asterisk at the beginning. */ . Whereas normal comments in Java and C are set off with /* and */.Chapter 8: Documentation Javadoc is a comprehensive documentation system. created by Sun Microsystems. used by many Java developers. so that the tags are /** and */. 8.1 Examples The following is an example of java code commented with simple Javadoc-style comments: /** * A program that does useful things. It provides developers with an organized system for documenting their code. the multi-line comment tags.

. * @param args The arguments */ public static void main(String[] args) { //do stuff } } Chapter 9: Editions See also: Free Java implementations#Class library Java editions Java Card Micro Edition (ME) Standard Edition (SE) Enterprise Edition (EE) PersonalJava (discontinued) Sun has defined and supports four editions of Java targeting different application environments and segmented many of its APIs so that they belong to one of the platforms. The platforms are: Java Card for smartcards.public class Program { /** * A main method.

The set of APIs is controlled by Sun Microsystems in cooperation with others through the Java Community Process program. Companies or individuals participating in this process can influence the design and development of the APIs.Java Platform. Java Platform. standards-based Java ME configuration-profile pairings. The classes in the Java APIs are organized into separate groups called packages. Java Platform. Each package contains a set of related interfaces. Sun also provided an edition called PersonalJava that has been superseded by later. Standard Edition (Java SE) — targeting workstation environments. This process has been a subject of controversy. Enterprise Edition (Java EE) — targeting large distributed enterprise or Internet environments. Micro Edition (Java ME) — targeting environments with limited resources. Refer to the separate platforms for a description of the packages available. classes and exceptions. Chapter 10: See also Comparison of programming languages Comparison of Java and C++ Comparison of Java and C# JavaOne Javapedia List of Java virtual machines List of Java APIs List of JVM languages C# Java version history .

com/docs/white/langenv/Intro.sun. [1] ^ James Gosling cites UCSD Pascal as a key influence on the design of the Java virtual machine. autoboxing. stating that notable direct derivatives include Java interfaces (derived from Objective-C's protocol) and primitive wrapper classes. . http://java.0 added several new language features (the enhanced for loop. May 1996.doc 1. varargs and annotations).Chapter 11: Notes ^ Patrick Naughton cites Objective-C as a strong influence on the design of the Java programming language. after they were introduced in the similar (and competing) C# language [2][3] ^ "The Java Language Environment". ^ Java 5.html#943.

com .m spx .Not .computerworld.fp.itworld.com/dev- news/article. 2nd Edition". O'Reilly.com/java/.fpid.pp.3. 2007. 2005.sun.2 Design Goals of the JavaTM Programming Language ^ Andy Patrizio (2006). Apple Developer .4194304. Apple.The bulk of Java is open sourced ^ "Sun’s Evolving Role as Java Evangelist".com/pub/a/onjava/2002/04/17/evan ^ 1. Internet News.com/docs/books/jls http://www. "Sun Embraces Linux With New Java License". http://www. Retrieved April 22.microsoft.apple. Retrieved 2009-09-29. 1998]. http://onjava.com/jonathan/entry/better_is_al ways_different. Sun Developer Network.php/id.com/mscorp/java/default.^ "The Java Language Specification.internetnews.php/3606656.Standardized Twice. Once Upon an Oak.1 ^ Jon Byous. Retrieved -09-29. Web Media Brands. Artima. no date [ca. ^ http://www. ^ Heinz Kabutz.com.au/index. ^ "Java for Mac OS X". What is ECMA —and why Microsoft cares ^ Java Community Process website ^ open. http://developer. ^ http://blogs. Java technology: The early years.JAVAONE: Sun . http://java. ^ Java Study Group. Retrieved April 29. 1422447371. Why Java Was .sun.

http://www.1".html.htm. ^ "Symantec's Just-In-Time Java Compiler To Be Integrated Into Sun JDK 1.htm.^ Java SE . Microsoft settle Java lawsuit". http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6676/is_/a i_n26150624.ehjdk.javaworld.com/articles/why_java_is_slo w. 2001).Licensees ^ James Niccolai (January 23. Retrieved 2008-07-09. http://www. ^ Jelovic. JavaWorld (IDG). "Why Java Will Always Be Slower than C++". ^ "Java gets four times faster with new Symantec just-in-time compiler". http://www. Retrieved 2008-02-15.com/javaworld/jw-01- 2001/jw-0124-iw-mssuncourt.pl?980416. "Sun.com/cgi- bin/displayStory.jsp?prid=19970407_03.symantec.infoworld. http://www. Dejan.jelovic.com/about/news/release/art icle. ^ NullPointerException ^ Exceptions in Java ^ Using the applet Tag (The Java Tutorials > Deployment > Applets) ^ Deploying Applets in a Mixed-Browser Environment (The Java Tutorials > Deployment > Applets) . ^ "Apple Licenses Symantec's Just In Time (JIT) Compiler To Accelerate Mac OS Runtime For Java".

second edition. 2005. Guy Steele. Java technology: The early years.net. 1998]. . A brief history of the Green project. Sun Developer Network. ISBN 0-321-24678-0 (see also online edition of the specification). third edition. James Gosling. Addison-Wesley.Chapter 12: References Jon Byous. Retrieved April 22. Bill Joy. Tim Lindholm and Frank Yellin. The Java language specification. The Java Virtual Machine specification. 2005. and Gilad Bracha. 2007. Java. Retrieved April 29. no date [ca. Q1/1998]. James Gosling. no date [ca.

Sun Microsystems: Developer Resources for Java Technology. 1999. Chapter 13 : External links Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Java Programming Wikiversity has learning materials about java Sun Microsystems: java. ISBN 0-201-43294-3 (see also online edition of the specification). Sun Microsystems: Java Language Specification 3rd Edition. Java SE 6 API Javadocs .com: Java + You: Java home page.Addison-Wesley.

Creation of java was deeply rooted in the process of refinement and adaptation that has been occurring in computer programming language for the past several decades. 1996. March 18.It took 18 months to develop the first working version.12 (December 1995). Prentice Hall. 1998. The emergence of the World Wide Web. Many of java’s OOPs features were influenced by C++. is-research GmbH: List of programming languages for a Java Virtual Machine. java was propelled to the forefront of the computer language design. David Bank: The Java Saga. ed. SunWord. Open University (UK): M254 Java Everywhere (free open content documents).Beyond the Basics. Chris Warth. because the Web too demanded portable programs. A Brief History of the Green Project Michael O'Connell: Java: The Inside Story. the primary motivation was the need for a platform independent language that could be used to create software to be embedded in various consumer electronic devices. Patrick Naughton: Java Was Strongly Influenced by Objective-C (no date).The original impetus for java was not the Internet! Instead. the forces that shaped it. July 1995. Like the successful computer language that came before. Kevin Gao: C# & Java conversion. Shahrooz Feizabadi: A history of Java in: Marc Abrams. one must understand the reasons behind its creation.thi s effort ultimately led to creation of java.. Wired Issue 3. Patrick Naughton. about HISTORY OF JAVA Java was conceived by james gosling. INTRODUCTION TO JAVA To fully understand java.” but was renamed “java” in 1995. World Wide Web . Patrick Naughton: The Long Strange Trip to Java. java is blend of the best elements of its rich heritage combined with the innovative concepts required by its unique mission. FEATURES OF JAVA JAVA APPLETS . This language was initially called “OAK. Inc. in 1991. java derives its syntax. Much of the character of the java is inherited from C and C++.From C. and legacy that it inherits. Ed Frank and Mike Sheridan at Sun Microsystems.

” The first release of Java 2 carried the version number 1. it is bytecode. including increased performance. If the user click a link that contain the applet. . Soon after the release of Java 1. with the advent of the servlet. which is called the Java Virtual Machine(JVM).Translating a java program into the bytecode makes it much easier to run a program in a wide variety of environments because only the JVM needs to be implemented for each platform.2. Bytecode is a highly optimized set of instructions designed to be executed by the java run time system. servlets dynamically extend the functionality of a web server. an applet is downloaded on the demand.An applet is a special kind of java program that is designed to be transmitted over the Internet and automatically executed by a java-compatible web browser. Java’s Magic: The Bytecode The output of the java compiler is not the executable code Rather. Servlent are used to create dynamically generated content that is then served to the client.The next major release of Java was Java 2.1. The java 1. A servlet is a small program that executes on the server. Although the details of the JVM will differ from platform to platform. Where the “2”indicates “second generation. but it did not mark the end of java’s era of rapid innovation. Java spanned both sides of the client/server connection.0.0 was the first release of java. the designers of Java had already created Java 1. Furthermore. Just as applets dynamically extend the functionality of a web browsers. without further interaction with user. Thus. The creation of the applet changed Internet programming because it expanded the universe of objects that can move about freely in the cyberspace. marking the beginning of Java’s “modern age. Servlets: java on the server side A servlet is a small program that executes on the server. the applet will automatically downloaded and run in the browser. Instead of above main features there are several other important features are as following:-  Simple  Secure  Portable  Object-oriented  Robust  Multithreaded  Architecture-neutral  Interpreted  High performance  Distributed  Dynamic The Evolution of java The initial release of java was nothing short of revolutionary. Because servlents(like all Java programs) are compiled into bytecode and executed by the JVM.” The creation of Java 2 was watershed event. all understand the same bytecode. The servlent offers several advantages. they are highly portable.

For example. distance=lightspeed*seconds. With the release of Java SE 6. As withJ2SE5. it added to existing functionality and “tightened up” the development environment.out .6. Standard Edition 6. long seconds.4 further enhanced Java. long days. System. the platform now has the name Java SE. days=1000. class chap3basics { public static void main(String[] args) { int lightspeed. and it was revolutionary.3 was the first major upgrade to the original Java 2 release. long distance. notice that the “2” has been dropped. For the most part. The release of J2SE 1. First. such as Swing and the Collections Framework.  Generics  Annotations  Autoboxing and auto-unboxing  Enumerations  Enhanced. and additions.println("in"+ days+"days light will travel . for-each style for loop  Variable-length arguments (varargs)  Static import  Formatted I/O  Concurrency utilities JAVA SE 6 The newest release of Java is called Java SE 6. seconds= days*24*60*60. enhancements. Thus. lightspeed =186000. and it enhanced the Java Virtual Machine and various programming tools. and the official product name is Java Platform.Java 2 added support for a number of new features. J2SE 1. it added the new keyword assert. 1# :-> Write a program to illustrate the use of various Data Types of java. J2SE 5 fundamentally expanded the scope. The next release of Java was J2SE 5. Sun once again decided to change the name of Java platform. The release contained several important upgrades. the 6 in the Java SE 6 is the product version number is 1. power and range of language.

System. if(b) System. System.println("9>10"+(9>10)). System. } } The output of the above program is as follows:- In1000days light will travel about1607040000000miles.println("this will not executed coz b is false").out.out .out .println("b is "+b). ch2='y'. char ch1. Ch1 $ch2X y Y 2# :-> Write a program to illustrate the use of boolean Type of java. b=true. } . ch1=88."). b= false.out .println("this is executed coz b is true").out . System.out .println("10>9"+(10>9)). System. class chap3booltest { public static void main(String[]args) { boolean b. if(b) System.println("b is" +b).println("ch1 $ch2"+ch1+" "+ch2).ch2.about"+distance +"miles.out .println(ch1).out . ch1++. b=false. System.

println("double to byte").println("i $ b"+i+" "+b).134. class chap3conversion{ public static void main(String[]args){ byte b.println("d $ i"+d+" "+i). System. b=(byte) i.out. System. } }} The output of the above program is as follow:- int to byte i $ b 257 1 double to int d $ I 323. double d=323.println("int to byte"). System.134 323 double to byte . i= (int) d. {System.println("d $ b"+d+" "+b).out. int i=257.out.out. b= (byte)d.} The out put of the above program is as follow:- b is false b is true this is executed coz b is true 10>9true 9>10false 3# :-> Write a program to illustrate some type conversion that required casts.out.println("double to int"). System. System.out.

/** here the values of a and b are not taken from string*/ ."0011"."1110". k++.d $ b 323."1111"}.out. b=6."0001".print(twodarray[i] [j]+ "\t ").} for(i=0."0111". class chap3twodarray{ public static void main(String[]args){ int twodarray[] []=new int[7][7]. class chap4bitlogic { public static void main(String[] args){ String binary[]={"0000" .j++) System.i<6.println().j<4.l."0100".j++){ twodarray[i] [j]=k.134 67 4# :-> Write a program to illustrate a two-dimensional array in java.i++){ for(j=0. System."1000"."1101"."0101".i++) for(j=0."0010"."0110".j<4. "1001".k=0."1011".i<6. for(i=0."1010"."1100".out. int a=3.j. } } } The output of the above program is as follow:- 0123 4567 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 5# :-> Write a program to illustrate the bitwise logical operators. int i.

i<6.println("b="+"\t"+binary[b]). class ch5sampleswitch{ public static void main(String[]args) { for(int i=0. int g=~a &0x0f.println("f="+"\t"+binary[f]).out.out. int e=a^b.println("g="+"\t"+binary[g]).out.out.out. System. System. System. System.println("c="+"\t"+binary[c]). System. . System.println("d="+"\t"+binary[d]).out.out. int d=a &b.int c=a|b.println("a="+"\t"+binary[a]). break. } } The output of the above program is as follows:- a= 0011 b= 0110 c= 0111 d= 0010 e= 0101 f= 0101 g= 1100 6# :-> Write a program to illustrate the switch statement.println("e="+"\t"+binary[e]).println("i is=" + i). System.out.i++) switch(i) { case 0: System. int f=(~a&b) | (a & ~b).

out. case 2: System. }} The output of the above program is as follows:- i is=0 i is=1 i is=2 i is=3 i is greater then 3 i is greater then 3 7# :-> Write a program to illustrate the for-each style for loop in java.5.println("i is=" + i). default: System. break. class ch5foreach { public static void main(String args[] ) { int num[] = {1.println("i is greater then 3" ). break. case 3: System.8.println("i is=" + i). for (int x : num) { System. if(x==5) break.out.case 1: System. x= x*10.9.out. // this statement will not have any effect on for-each statement } . int sum=0.10 }.2.4. sum += x.6.3.7.out.println("i is=" + i).println("value is="+x). break.out.

double depth. depth=d. } box(double w.width=w. } double vol(){ return width*height*depth.System. double height.println("summation:"+sum). box() { width=height=depth=10.out. } } } The output of the above program is as follows:- Value is=1 Value is=2 Value is=3 Value is=4 Value is=5 Summation:15 8# :-> Write a program to illustrate the concept of classes with the help of constructor. height=h. } } class ch6boxdemo6 { public static void main(String[] args) { .double h.double d) {this. class box { double width.

0 The vol is 1000. box mybox2=new box(). b=a*4. System.out.println("the vol is " +mybox. System.out.println("the vol is " +mybox2.6. methods and blocks in java. System. } } The output of the above program is as follows:- Static block initialized X=42 a=3 .out.out.println("b=" +b). static void meth(int x){ System.out. } public static void main(String[] args) { meth(42).box mybox=new box(5.0 9# :-> Write a program to illustrate static variables. static int b. class ch7usestatic { static int a = 3. System.println("static block initilized" ).vol()).out. } static { System.4). } } The output of the above program is as follows:- The vol is 120.vol()).println("a=" +a).println("x=" +x).

double d) { width =w.double h. System. box(box ob) { width=ob. class ch7varargs2 { static void vatest(String msg.2.b=12 10# :-> Write a program to illustrate the variable-length arguments. v) { System.10). vatest("three varargs:". } } The output of the above program is as follow:- one vararges :1contents :10 three varargs :3contents :1 2 3 no varargs 0contents: 11# :-> Write a program to illustrate the concept of inheritance using super in java.height.print(msg+ v. height=ob.height..width. class box{ private double width. depth=ob.out.length +"contents:").1.out. for(int x: v) System. . } box(double w.3). vatest("no varargs").depth.println(). int .out.depth.print(x+" ").. } public static void main(String args[]) { vatest("one varargs:".

} boxweight(boxweight ob) . } boxweight() {super(). height=-1. boxweight(double w.double d. depth=d. } box() { width = -1. } double volume() { return width*height*depth.height=h. weight =m. } boxweight(double h. double m) {super(w.h.d). } box(double len) { width=height=depth=len.double h. weight =m. } } class boxweight extends box { double weight. depth=-1.double m) {super(h). weight =-1.

println("\n the volume is:" +vol). vol=ob5.out.3.println(" \nthe volume is:" +vol).{super(ob). double vol.19).12.2.volume().println("\n the volume is:" +vol).out.println("\n the volume is:" +vol).out. boxweight ob2=new boxweight(1. box boxob=new box(4). weight =ob.volume(). System.volume().out. System.weight).//a refrence variable of SUPER class can be//assigned a refrence to any SUB class vol=boxob.volume(). System.out.4).weight.14. vol=ob2. System. System. System. vol=ob3. . boxweight ob5=new boxweight(ob2).println(). System. vol=ob1.println("\n the volume is:" +vol). System. boxob=ob2. boxweight ob4=new boxweight(3. vol=boxob.out.out.4). vol=ob4. boxweight ob3=new boxweight().out.println(" the volume is:" +vol).volume().volume(). } } class ch8demoboxweight { public static void main(String[]args) { boxweight ob1=new boxweight(10.println(" \nthe weight is:" +ob1.volume().

//method overrriding.int b. B(int a.0 the volume is:6.System.b).int c) { super(a.out.0 the volume is:6. int b) { i=a.0 the volume is: -1. class A { int i.println("\n the volume is:" +vol).0 the volume is:6.0 the volume is:1680. } //display i and j void show() { System.j. A (int a.0 the volume is:27.println("i and j"+i +j). } } The output to the above program is as follows:- the volume is:64.out.0 the weight is:19. } } class B extends A{ int k.0 12# :-> Write a program to illustrate the concept of Overriding in java. . j=b.

k=c. package mypack. }} . balance(String n.println("k ="+" "+k). System. bal =b.print("---> ").2. } // display k-this overrides show() in A void show() { System.out. } } class ch8override { public static void main(String[] args) { B subob =new B(1.println(name +":$"+bal).out. class balance { String name. } } The output of the above program is as follows :- K=3 13# :-> Write a program to illustrate the concept of packages in java.3).out. } void show() { if(bal<0) System.show(). subob. double bal. double b) { name =n.

23 will tell:$157.i++) current[i]. -12. interface callback { void callback(int param).23).j. } } .33).fielding:$123. current[0] =new balance("k.out. } } class ch9testface { public static void main(String args[]) { callback c=new client().class ch9accountbalance { public static void main(String args[]) { balance current[] =new balance[3]. }} The output of the above program is as follows:- k. c.02). current[2] =new balance("tom jackson". } class client implements callback{ //implements callback interface public void callback(int p) { System.j. 157.callback(42). 123.println("callback called with " +p). current[1] =new balance("will tell".show().33 14# :-> Write a program to illustrate the concept of interfaces in java.02 ---> tom Jackson:$-12. for(int i=0.fielding".i<3.

"). class ch10throwdemo { static void demoproc() { try { throw new NullPointerException("demo"). } System. try{ d=0.println("this will not be printed. } catch(NullPointerException e) { System.")."). After catch statement. . } } The output of the above program is as follows :- division by zero. class ch10exc2 { public static void main(String args[]) { int d.println("after catch statement. System.println("division by zero. 16# :-> Write a program to illustrate the concept of Exception handling by using throw keyword in java.out.The output of the above program is as follow:- Callback called with 42 15# :-> Write a program to illustrate the concept of Exception handling in java. } catch(ArithmeticException e) { System.out.").out.out.a. a=42/d.println("caught inside demoproc.

println("Recaught: "+e).start () . // Start the thread } // This is the entry point for thread.lang. } catch(NullPointerException e) { System.throw e. NewThread(String threadname) { name = threadname.println("New thread: "+ t) .out. } } public static void main(String args[]) { try { demoproc(). class NewThread implements Runnable { String name. t = new Thread(this. t. Recaught: java. // name of thread Thread t . public void run () { try { . name) . //Create multiple threads. System. } } } The output of the above program is as follow :- Caught inside demoproc.out.NullPointerException: demo 17# :-> Write a program to illustrate the concept of Multiple threads in java.

5. } } class MultiThreadDemo { public static void main (String args [ ] ) { new NewThread ("One") . } System.out.println("Main thread exiting. } catch (InterruptedException e) { System.println(name + " exiting. i--) { System. Thread.sleep(1000) . } } The output from this program is shown here: New thread: Thread[One.out.println("Main thread Interrupted") . } } catch (InterruptedException e) { System. 5.for(int i = 5.out.out. i > 0. try { // wait for other threads to end Thread. println(name + ": " + i) .println(name + " Interrupted")."). } System.main] One: 5 Two: 5 . new NewThread ("Three") .main] New thread: Thread[Three. // start threads new NewThread ("Two") .5.out.main] New thread: Thread[Two.").sleep(10000) .

RedDel. Winesap. Three exiting. ap= Apple.println("Value of ap: " + ap). Two exiting.Three: 5 One: 4 Two: 4 Three: 4 One: 3 Three: 3 Two: 3 One: 2 Three: 2 Two: 2 One: 1 Three: 1 Two: 1 One exiting.out. Main thread exiting. . System. Cortland } class EnumDemo { public static void main(String args[ ]) { Apple ap. 18# :-> Write a program to illustrate the concept of enumerated data type in java.out. GoldenDel. // An enumeration of apple varieties.RedDel. enum Apple { Jonathan.println(). System. // Output an enum value.

println("Winesap is red. break.println("Red Delicious is red. import java. break.ap = Apple.out. case Cortland: System. if(ap ==Apple. case Winesap: System. break."). case GoldenDel: System. break. \n").println("Jonathan is red . } } } The output of the above program is as follows:- Value of ap: RedDel ap contains GoldenDel.out. Golden Delicious is yellow."). switch(ap) { case Jonathan: System.").*.awt. // Use an enum to control a switch statement. case RedDel: System.GoldenDel) System. break. // Compare two enum values.println("Golden Delicious is yellow.println("Cortland is red.").out. . 19# :-> Write a program to illustrate the concept of applet in java.out.GoldenDel.println("ap contains GoldenDel.out.out.").

import java. } // show type of T. The following is the content of the applet. . t is a type parameter that //will be replace by a real type // when an object of type gen is created. class Gen { T ob.*. //A simple genric class //here. T getob() { return ob. 200. } //return ob. } } To run the above code a html code is also required which is as follows:- After running the above to codes the applet run in thewindow produced by SimpleApplet. // declare an object of type T // pass the constructor a reference to an object of type T Gen(T o) { ob=o.drawString(" A Simple Applet" . A Simple Applet 20# :-> Write a program to illustrate the concept of Generics in java. /* */ public class SimpleApplet extends Applet { public void paint(Graphics g) { g. 20).applet.

/* create s Gen object and assign its reference to iob. System.println("Type of T is " + ob. Gen strob = new Gen("Generics Test"). */ iob= new Gen(88).Notice that no cast is needed int v=iob.println("value: "+ str). notice the use of autoboxing to encapsulate the value 88 within an Integer object.showtype().void showtype() { System.println("value:" +v).getName()).getob(). // show te type of data used by strob.Again.showtype().Integer . iob. notice that no cast is neede. Gen iob. } } class ch14gendemo { public static void main( String[] args) { // create a Gen reference for the integers.out.out.out. System. } } The output of the above program is as follows:- Type of T is java. //get the value in iob.getob().lang.out. strob. // get the value of strob. // show the type of data used by iob. String str =strob. // create a Gen object for strings. System.getClass().println().

Value:88 Type of T is java.String Value: Generics Test .Lang.