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Bakung

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Lilium regale
Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kerajaan: Plantae
Divisi: Magnoliophyta
Kelas: Liliopsida
Ordo: Liliales
Famili: Liliaceae
Genus: Lilium
Spesies: baca artikel

Tanaman Bakung merupakan bagian dari genus Lilium. Nama tanaman ini dalam bahasa Inggris
adalah lily. Ada sekitar 110 suku dalam keluarga bakung (Liliaceae).

Daftar isi
 1 Kawasan
 2 Gambaran
 3 Suku-suku bakung
 4 Pranala Luar

Kawasan
Kawasan tumbuh bakung meliputi sebagian besar Eropa, sebagian besar Asia sampai Jepang, ke
selatan yaitu India, ke Indocina dan ke Filipina. Tanaman ini bisa menyesuaikan diri dengan
habitat hutan, seringkali pegunungan, dan kadang-kadang habitat rerumputan. Beberapa mampu
hidup di rawa. Pada umumnya tanaman ini lebih cocok tinggal di habitat dengan tanah yang
mengandung kadar asam seimbang.

merah muda. merah.3 Liriotypus o 3. Lilium (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs.2 Classification of garden forms . Terdapat pula corak berupa bintik-bintik. Kebanyakan suku bakung membentuk umbi polos di bawah tanah. warna tembaga. all with large prominent flowers.7 Daurolirion  4 Distribution and habitat  5 Ecology  6 Cultivation o 6. hingga hampir hitam.Gambaran Bakung adalah tumbuhan tahunan dengan tinggi 60–180 cm.5 Sinomartagon o 3. Many other plants have "lily" in their common name but are not related to true lilies. though their range extends into the northern subtropics. dan terdapat dalam berbagai warna dari putih. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much of the world. Bunga bakung yang besar memiliki tiga daun bunga. Contents  1 Names  2 Description  3 Taxonomy o 3. Bakung biasanya memiliki tangkai yang kokoh. jingga.4 Archelirion o 3. dasar dari umbi ini berkembang menjadi rizoma.1 Awards o 6.1 Martagon o 3. Di beberapa suku Amerika Utara. acapkali wangi. ungu. kuning. Most species are native to the temperate northern hemisphere.6 Leucolirion o 3.2 Pseudolirium o 3.

2.2. All English translations of the Bible render the Hebrew shūshan. henryi)  6. for instance. albeit for non- white lilies.5 Not lilium  9 Gallery  10 See also  11 Notes  12 External links o 12.  6. Fayyumic) hleri. from standard hreri.[5] For a list of other species described as lilies. Description .2.8 Other hybrids (Division VIII)  6.4 Propagation and growth  7 Toxicity  8 Culinary and herb uses o 8.2. substratum language of the Eastern Mediterranean. ginger lily.2 Martagon hybrids (Division II)  6. Peruvian lily.1 China o 8.2. cobra lily. lily of the valley.1 Asiatic hybrids (Division I)  6. including Aurelian hybrids (with L. white lilies as exemplified by the Madonna lily. The Latin name is derived from the Greek λείριον.[citation needed] Meillet maintains that both the Egyptian and the Greek word are possible loans from an extinct.3 Candidum (Euro-Caucasian) hybrids (Division III)  6. but the "lily among the thorns" of Song of Solomon.9 Species (Division IX) o 6. The term "lily" has in the past been applied to numerous flowering plants. krīnon.[3][4] The word was borrowed from Coptic (dial.6 Trumpet lilies (Division VI). leek lily. calla lily.3 Taiwan o 8.[citation needed] The Greeks also used the word κρῖνον. shōshannā as "lily". fire lily. Amazon lily. shōshan. may be the honeysuckle. from Demotic hrry.7 Oriental hybrids (Division VII)  6.5 Longiflorum hybrids (Division V)  6. leírion. from Egyptian hrṛt "flower". and others.2. lily of the Nile.2 Japan o 8.1 Flora Names The botanic name Lilium is the Latin form and is a Linnaean name. trout lily.4 American hybrids (Division IV)  6. kaffir lily.2. including water lily.4 South Korea o 8. often with only superficial resemblance to the true lily. see Lily (disambiguation). daylily.2.2.3 Pests and diseases o 6. generally assumed to refer to true.

Stigma. often fragrant. and come in a range of colours including whites. The fruit is a three-celled capsule. But a few species which distribute in hot summer and mild winter area (Lilium candidum. The flowers are large. The ovary is 'superior'. yellows. and bear a nectary at the base of each flower. They form naked or tunicless scaly underground bulbs which are their overwintering organs. Stamens. Lilium catesbaei.or summer-flowering. Naturally most cool temperate species are deciduous and dormant in winter in their native environment. 2. 3. borne above the point of attachment of the anthers. to give flowers varying from funnel shape to a "Turk's cap". Filament. 5. Most bulbs are deeply buried. In some North American species the base of the bulb develops into rhizomes. Many species form stem-roots. many adapted to cool temperate climates. 4. but a few species form bulbs near the soil surface. Flowers are borne in racemes or umbels at the tip of the stem. Markings include spots and brush strokes. Tepal Lilies are tall perennials ranging in height from 2–6 ft (60–180 cm). and each year the new stem puts out adventitious roots above the bulb as it emerges from the soil. The plants are late spring.[6] Seeds ripen in late summer. These roots are in addition to the basal roots that develop at the base of the bulb. They exhibit varying and sometimes complex germination patterns. Some species develop stolons.Lilium longiflorum) lose leaves and remain relatively short dormant . The tepals are free from each other. reds and purples. pinks. Style. with six tepals spreading or reflexed. on which numerous small bulbs are found. With these. oranges. the bulb grows naturally at some depth in the soil.Lilium longiflorum flower – 1.

Distribution and habitat The range of lilies in the Old World extends across much of Europe. Notholirion. across most of Asia to Japan. and east to Indochina and the Philippines. In general they prefer moderately acidic or lime-free soils.[10] the taxonomy of Chinese species (various sections) follows the Flora of China [11] and the taxonomy of Section Sinomartagon follows Nishikawa et al. A few can survive in marshland and epiphytes are known in tropical southeast Asia. Taxonomy Taxonomical division in sections follows the classical division of Comber.in Summer or Autumn. In the New World they extend from southern Canada through much of the United States.[9] the taxonomy of Section Liriotypus is given in consideration of Resetnik et al. forming dwarf stem bearing a basal rosette of leaves until accept enough chilling requirement. often montane. see List of Lilium species [show]Picture Section Sub Section Botanical name common name Some species formerly included within this genus have now been placed in other genera. or sometimes to grassland habitats. These genera include Cardiocrinum. sprout from Autumn to winter. south to India.[8] the taxonomy of section Pseudolirium is from the Flora of North America. Nomocharis and Fritillaria. .[13] There are seven sections. Martagon Pseudolirium Liriotypus Archelirion Sinomartagon Leucolirion Daurolirion For a full list of accepted species[2] with their native ranges. the stem begins to elongate while warming.[12] as does the taxonomy of Section Archelirion. They are commonly adapted to either woodland habitats.[7] species acceptance follows the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. 2007.

Lilies are usually planted as bulbs in the dormant season. for instance. Some lilies. Numerous ornamental hybrids have been developed. at a depth 2½ times the height of the bulb (except Lilium candidum which should be planted at the surface).[17] They have contractile roots which pull the plant down to the correct depth. They may also be grown as potted plants.[18][19] Awards Below is a list of lily species and cultivars that have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:[20][21][22]-  Lilium African Queen Group (VI-/a) 2002 H6 Reconfirmed 2013  Lilium 'Casa Blanca' (VIIb/b-c) 1993 H6 Reconfirmed 2013  Lilium 'Fata Morgana' (Ia/b) 2002 H6 Reconfirmed 2013  Lilium 'Garden Party' (VIIb/b) 2002 H6 Reconfirmed 2013  Lilium Golden Splendor Group (VIb-c/a) 2002 H6 Reconfirmed 2013  Lilium henryi (IXc/d) 1993 H6 Reconfirmed 2013  Lilium mackliniae (IXc/a) 2012 H5  Lilium martagon (IXc/d) 2002 H7 Reconfirmed 2013  Lilium pardalinum (IXc/d) 2002 H6  Lilium Pink Perfection Group (VIb/a) 1993 H6 Reconfirmed 2013  Lilium regale (IXb/a) 1993 H6 Reconfirmed 2013 . slightly sloping aspect. but those with heavy flower heads may need staking. These may be forced for particular markets.5 is generally safe. when it may be called the Easter lily. and good drainage is essential. while others bloom in late summer or early autumn. A soil pH of around 6. They are best planted in a south-facing (northern hemisphere). therefore it is better to plant them too shallowly than too deep. form important cut flower crops. Lilium longiflorum for the Easter trade. and as patio plants. The flowering periods of certain lily species begin in late spring. loamy soil.Ecology Lilies are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Dun-bar. The soil should be well-drained. and plants must be kept watered during the growing season. They can be used in herbaceous borders. in sun or part shade. Cultivation Many species are widely grown in the garden in temperate and sub-tropical regions. Most prefer a porous. woodland and shrub plantings. Some plants have strong wiry stems. Most species bloom in July or August (northern hemisphere). especially Lilium longiflorum.

and are classified in the following broad groups:[23][24][25] Asiatic hybrids (Division I)     . mostly hybrids. They vary according to the species and interspecific hybrids that they derived from. are grown for the garden.Classification of garden forms Numerous forms.

Lilium dauricum.[29] 'Tiny Dessert'. These are plants with medium-sized. Lilium callosum.[30] Martagon hybrids (Division II)   . Lilium wardii and Lilium wilsonii. Lilium pumilum. upright or outward facing flowers. Lilium lankongense.[26][27] They are derived from central and East Asian species and interspecific hybrids. including Lilium amabile. Lilium × hollandicum. e.g. Border) varieties are much shorter.   These are derived from hybrids between species in Lilium section Sinomartagon. Lilium davidii.  Dwarf (Patio. Lilium × maculatum. Lilium bulbiferum. Lilium × scottiae. mostly unscented. such as the 'Lily Looks' series. Lilium lancifolium (syn. 'Tiny Padhye'. c. Lilium tigrinum). Lilium leichtlinii.[28] They often bear the cultivar name 'Tiny'.36–61 cm in height and were designed for containers. Lilium concolor. Lilium cernuum.

Candidum (Euro-Caucasian) hybrids (Division III)  This includes mostly European species: Lilium candidum.     These are based on Lilium dalhansonii. . Lilium pyrenaicum and Lilium × testaceum. Lilium chalcedonicum. Lilium hansonii. Lilium monadelphum. Turk's cap style (with the petals strongly recurved). The flowers are nodding. Lilium medeoloides. Lilium pomponium. and Lilium tsingtauense. Lilium kesselringianum. Lilium martagon.

Lilium grayi. Lilium michiganense. Lilium humboldtii. and are less often grown in the garden than other hybrids. Lilium kelloggii. Lilium michauxii. henryi)    . Lilium kelleyanum. originally derived from Lilium bolanderi. Trumpet lilies (Division VI). Lilium occidentale. Lilium parryi. Many are clump-forming perennials with rhizomatous rootstocks. They are most important as plants for cut flowers. Lilium philadelphicum. Lilium × pardaboldtii. Lilium superbum. Lilium canadense. Lilium pardalinum. Lilium washingtonianum. and Lilium wigginsii. including Aurelian hybrids (with L. Lilium × burbankii. Lilium pitkinense. Lilium maritimum. Lilium parvum. Lilium ollmeri. Lilium columbianum. Longiflorum hybrids (Division V) These are cultivated forms of this species and its subspecies.American hybrids (Division IV) These are mostly taller growing forms.

Oriental hybrids (Division VII)   . Lilium brownii. Lilium leucanthum. and tend to be strongly fragrant. Lilium × imperiale. including Lilium × aurelianense. Lilium rosthornii. Lilium regale. Lilium sulphureum and Lilium × sulphurgale. facing outward or somewhat downward. Lilium sargentiae. Lilium henryi. Lilium × kewense.   This group includes hybrids of many Asiatic species and their interspecific hybrids. The flowers are trumpet shaped. often especially night-fragrant. Lilium × centigale.

They are fragrant.    These are based on hybrids within Lilium section Archelirion.[26][27] specifically Lilium auratum and Lilium speciosum. The whole group are sometimes referred to as "stargazers" because many of them appear to look upwards. and the flowers tend to be outward facing. (For the specific cultivar. together with crossbreeds from several species native to Japan. including Lilium nobilissimum. Plants tend to be tall. Lilium alexandrae.) . and Lilium japonicum. Lilium rubellum. and the flowers may be quite large. see Lilium 'Stargazer'.

Other hybrids (Division VIII)      .

[32] Pests and diseases Scarlet lily beetles. UK Aphids may infest plants. Oxfordshire. Larvae of the Scarlet lily beetle can cause serious damage to the stems and leaves. rubrum. tiger and . The scarlet beetle lays its eggs and completes its life cycle only on true lilies (Lilium) and fritillaries (Fritillaria). Leatherjackets feed on the roots.  Includes all other garden hybrids. The flowers can be classified by flower aspect and form:[31]  Flower aspect:  a up-facing  b out-facing  c down-facing  Flower form:  a trumpet-shaped  b bowl-shaped  c flat (or with tepal tips recurved)  d tepals strongly recurved (with the Turk’s cap form as the ultimate state) Many newer commercial varieties are developed by using new technologies such as ovary culture and embryo rescue. Species (Division IX) All natural species and naturally occurring forms are included in this group.[33] Oriental.

for which whole scales are detached from the bulb and planted to form a new bulb  by seed.trumpet lilies as well as Oriental trumpets (orienpets) and Turk's cap lilies and native North American Lilium species are all vulnerable. although bulbs of some species may be very bitter. pinyin: bǎihé gān) and Lilium davidii var. The beetle could also be having an effect on native Canadian species and some rare and endangered species found in northeastern North America. which can cause acute renal failure. According to a study done by Anna Pobudkiewicz and Jadwiga the use of flurprimidol foliar spray helps aid in the limitation of stem elongation in oriental lilies. grated and used to . and especially Lilium brownii (Chinese: 百合 干. not true lilies) are excluded from this category. This is known to be so especially for Lilium longiflorum though other Lilium and the unrelated Hemerocallis can also cause the same symptoms.  by division of the bulbs  by growing-on bulbils which are adventitious bulbs formed on the stem  by scaling. and conducting urine). (1) Toxicity Some Lilium species are toxic to cats. Lilium pumilum. and to have tonic properties. snails and millipedes attack seedlings. Slugs. The dried bulbs are commonly used in the south to flavor soup. Veterinary help should be sought. The non-bitter bulbs of Lilium lancifolium. Lily flowers are also said to be efficacious in pulmonary affections. as a matter of urgency.[39] Culinary and herb uses China Lilium bulbs are starchy and edible as root vegetables. the fresh form often appears with other vegetables. collecting. which can be complex  by micropropagation techniques (which include tissue culture). Plants can suffer from damage caused by mice.including licking pollen that may have brushed onto its coat.[40] Lily flowers and bulbs are eaten especially in the summer. for any cat that is suspected of eating any part of a lily . leaves and flowers. but the beetle prefers some types over others. Various fungal and viral diseases can cause mottling of leaves and stunting of growth. there are many seed germination patterns. deer and squirrels. Propagation and growth Lilies can be propagated in several ways. but it involves damage to the renal tubular epithelium (composing the substance of the kidney and secreting. and are most often sold in dry form for herb.[35] commercial quantities of lilies are often propagated in vitro and then planted out to grow into plants large enough to sell.[41] They may be reconstituted and stir-fried.[36][37][38] The true mechanism of toxicity is undetermined. unicolor are grown on a large scale in China as a luxury or health food.[34] Daylilies (Hemerocallis. for their perceived ability to reduce internal heat. Brown spots on damp leaves may signal botrytis (also known as lily disease).

gloriosoides. 药百合(变种)Lilium speciosum var. 百合(变种) Lilium brownii var. 渥丹 Lilium concolor. Lilium candidum Loureiro. viridulum. Lilium pumilum[50] Taiwan  Culinary use: The parts of lilium species which are officially listed as food material are the flower and bulbs of Lilium lancifolium Thunb. 毛百合 Lilium dauricum. maximowiczii. 药百合(变种)Lilium speciosum var. although the individual bulb scales are much smaller.  Herb use:[44][45] 野百合 Lilium brownii. or processed to extract starch.thicken soup. 卷丹 Lilium lancifolium. 新疆百合(变种) Lilium martagon var. 东北百合 Lilium distichum. such as 'Batistero' and 'California' among 15 lilies in Beijing. 川百合 Lilium davidii. 山丹 Lilium pumilum.[47] Japan  Culinary use: Yuri-ne (lily-root) is also common in Japanese cuisine. 淡黄花百合 Lilium sulphureum. Lilium pumilum DC. 百合(变种) Lilium brownii var. Lilium brownii var. The major lilium species cultivated as vegetable are Lilium leichtlinii var.. especially as an ingredient of chawan- mushi (savoury egg custard). 山丹 Lilium pumilum. 毛百合 Lilium dauricum. Lilium brownii var. 南川百合 Lilium rosthornii. Lilium brownii var.[46] and 'Prato' and 'Small foreigners' among 13 lilies in Ningbo. pilosiusculum. Lilium lancifolium.[48][49]  Herb use: Lilium lancifolium. 渥丹 Lilium concolor. viridulum.[42]  Culinary use:[43] 野百合Lilium brownii. Their texture and taste draw comparisons with the potato. colchesteri. and Lilium auratum. viridulum. 南川百合Lilium rosthornii. gloriosoides]]. viridulum Baker. There are five traditional lily species whose bulbs are certified and classified as "vegetable and non-staple foodstuffs" on the National geographical indication product list of China. There are also species which are meant to be suitable for culinary and/or herb uses. And there are researches about the selection of new varieties of edible lilies from the horticultural cultivars..[51] Most edible lily bulbs which can be purchased in a market are mostly . 卷丹 Lilium lancifolium.

. maximowiczii). 또는 큰솔나리 Lilium pumilum DC. Lilium pumilum DC.[56][57] . unicolor) and Japan (whole bulbs. 백합 Lilium brownii var. There are already commercially available organic growing and normal growing edible lily bulbs. Lilium brownii var. The varieties are selected by the Taiwanese Department of Agriculture from the Asiatic lily cultivars that are imported from the Netherlands. viridulum Baker.[55] South Korea  Herb use: The lilium species which are officially listed as herbs are 이 약은 참나리 Lilium lancifolium Thunberg. should mostly be Lilium leichtlinii var. and most marked as 蘭州百合 Lilium davidii var. imported from mainland China (only in the scale form. the seedling bulbs must be imported from the Netherlands every year.[52][53][54]  Herb use: Lilium lancifolium Thunb. viridulun Baker.