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ACTA TEHNICA CORVINIENSIS – Bulletin of Engineering

Tome VII [2014] Fascicule 1 [January – March]
ISSN: 2067 – 3809

1. Mitar JOCANOVIĆ, 2. Velibor KARANOVIĆ, 3. Darko KNEŽEVIĆ

1-2.University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences,
Trg. D. Obradovića 6, Novi Sad, SERBIA
3 . University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Mechanical Engeneering,

S.Stepanovića 71, Banja Luka, BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA

Abstract: Technological production systems within food processing industry use machines which have specific
requirements regarding the lubrication of particular components that come into contact with raw processing
material. To satisfy stringent requirements, different types of lubricants have been developed. The problem of
lubricating components and assemblies in the processing and packaging machines lies in the fact that the lubricant
must possess qualities which allow it to come into contact with tobacco without compromising its safety. This
paper gives an example of a synthetic ester-based gear oil used in tobacco industry. This paper reviews an example
of gear reducer oil in a circulation system used for lubrication of working components of a cigarette filter making
machine - Filter Maker.
Keywords: tobacco industry, gear oil, lubrication 

INTRODUCTION must often meet stringent requirements of machine
Application of food-grade lubricants in food exploitation, while remaining safe in contact with
processing industry demands special types of base processed food [2].
oils and additives which must meet stringent This paper reviews an example of gear reducer oil
requirements set by the NSF (National Sanitation in a circulation system used for lubrication of
Foundation ) Class H1 standard. NSF was working components of a cigarette filter making
established as early as 1944 as the national machine - Filter Maker.
foundation for standardization, setting special GEAR REDUCER OILS IN TOBACCO
requirements for lubricants used in food industry INDUSTRY
on American market. The H1 specification refers to Machines used for processing and packaging in
food-grade lubricants used in food-processing tobacco industry are specific both design- and
environments where there is the possibility of application-wise. The problem of lubricating
incidental food contact [1]. components and assemblies in these machines lies
In addition to the discussed criteria, food-grade in the fact that the lubricant must possess qualities
lubricants meet other international standards in which allow it to come into contact with tobacco
food-processing industry, such as: without compromising its safety. Furthermore, just
− Kosher, and as with other types of standard industrial
− Halal – food-safety standards. lubricating oils, all other physical/chemical
Beside requirements related to food-processing properties food-grade lubricants must match the
compatibility, food-grade lubricants must also meet quality of conventional mineral oils.
certain requirements regarding physical/chemical The base oils which are used in food-grade gear
and exploitation characteristics. reducer oils are manufactured according to HF1
Depending on the mode of application (liquid, and are predominantly of ester type [3]. The
semi-liquid, solid or aerosol), food-grade lubricants majority of synthetic esters (among various types)

© copyright Faculty of Engineering - Hunedoara, University POLITEHNICA Timisoara 

under the 40 kg load and 1200 − viscosity index (VI) . gear reducer ƒ FZG test (DIN 51517). more stringent for food-grade lubricant oils. and the third 10 minute by numerous experiments [2. regarding: specifications. of which the most widely used − thermal stability. ƒ Shell Four Ball EP test (ASTM D-2783) − resistance to radiation. [12]. Another advantage is their ability to be monitored. One of the most widely accepted specifications Base oils of synthetic esters are used for manufacture of for such testing is ASTM D-892 [9]. are: − oxidation stability. Tests are interval [14]. The MAKING MACHINE USING HF1 GRADE result is expressed as 40/40/0 GEAR REDUCER OIL (oil/water/emulsion) [8]. followed by the second 10 matching vegetable oils in that respect. − resistance to flame. oil mixtures for Diesel type of oil must meet stringent exploitation engines used in ecologically sensitive environments requirements.4]. between 8. However. ƒ Four Ball test – a test with four balls where − replacement intervals (longer. ASTM D-130 copper values depend on the meshed pair used .. As regards chemical characteristics. According to ASTM D-665 A&B (forestry. the stage at 24°C. During operation. This experiment simulates real advantage of synthetic esters lies in their better oil operating conditions of oil at various oxidation properties and flow point at low temperatures and loads. oil sample is tested at a compact circulation system for lubrication. ƒ Oxidation stability test by a rotating bomb. corresponds to heavy loads.1).class corrosion test. − operating temperature limitations.9 – 1. as proven minute stage at 94°C. 10 corresponds to light loads.3. which uses various oils used in tobacco industry must meet following loads to monitor the intensity of wear requirements: between a meshed pair of gears. The cigarette filter making machine is specific in − Foaming of gear reducer oils should also be terms of operating at very high speeds which range minimized to meet stringent requirements. performed according to ASTM D-974 standard The discussed physical/chemical properties are [7]. Generally.000 rpm.temperature properties. the synthetic ester base oils perform − Lubricating characteristics of food-grade gear exquisitely in comparison with their mineral base reducer oils are tested according to various counterparts.). ƒ Timken OK wear test (ASTM D-2782) [13]. oils − Corrosion protection test also shows that this for two-stroke gasoline engines. from − Resistance to demulsification of food-grade gear conventional to the specific ones. gear reducer oils specification. approximately 1 (0. tested oil conventional gear reducer oils which feature 2 should be stable after a 250 minute test and 3 mgKOH/g Oil and higher. as opposed to according to ASTM D-2272. the result of test should be . compared to the oil sample is tested for a period of one mineral oils) hour at 75°C. Test result − Good corrosion properties.000 and 20. The test result should equal zero. a three-hour test at 100°C. allowing the foaming to temperatures. differ with respect to boundary values which are According to ASTM D 1401 10-minute test. common to all types of gear reducer oils. The result is a wear trace on the test − flow properties at low temperatures.pass and all other industrial oils which must meet ecological and food-safety requirements [5].. rpm. mix with mineral oils. During first stage of test. However. ball which must not exceed 0. mixture of 40ml oil and 40 ml water in a test LUBRICATION OF CIGARETTE FILTER tube must not result in a visible emulsion. [10]. river and lake shipping. while class 12 allowed limits 1a and 1b [6].4 mm (ASTM D – 4172) [11]. − Lower values of total acidity number –TAN. etc. with | 172 |  . almost 24°C for 10 minutes. they reducer oils should also meet high standards.ACTA TEHNICA CORVINIENSIS Fascicule 1 [January – March] – Bulletin of Engineering Tome VII [2014]  are quickly biologically degradable. including: hydraulic oils. various types of products.

gear reducer oil used in the circulation system should. | 173 | . The manufacturer 3 recommends oil change at every 4000 hours of machine operation.ACTA TEHNICA CORVINIENSIS Fascicule 1 [January – March] – Bulletin of Engineering Tome VII [2014] a 40 liter tank and lubrication pump capacity of The Filter Maker machine has a total of six 5. However. the oil must be sampled and tested for Figure 3: Circulation system for lubrication on the physical/chemical characteristics on a regular basis Filter Maker machine [15] in certified laboratories.. Figure 3). − Roller bearing DIN 625 (Position 5) – the ball and cage maintain a point contact. in order to keep its properties within the required limits throughout exploitation period. this type of gear reducer oil allows very long exploitation providing regular maintenance (absence of water and solid particles. circulation system. possess good EP (Extreme Pressure) and AW (AntiWear) characteristics. within the discussed system. Filter Maker machine [15] Due to specific contacts. in addition to other properties. and friction reduction Figure 2. − Main axle bearing the rotating head (Position 3). Naturally. performs the task of lubricating all lubrication points which are vital to machine critical points. 5 6 4 The advantage of gear reducer oil of this type is their solid base. together with the roller bearings (Positions 4 and 5) which maintain a point contact between work elements. and stable operating temperature . In order to reduce wear. Considering its characteristics. the worm/worm wheel pair is the most critical component (Position 1). i. this oil retains its lubricating characteristics even after 8000 hours of machine provided by the discussed system). − Worm/worm wheel pair (Position 1) teeth while Figure 2 shows the head which rotates at contact is maintained over a point.8 l/min. high speed and attaches filters to cigarette paper − Gear reducer with conical gears (Position 2) – (position 3. Rotating wheel which attaches filters under high rpms. − Roller bearing DIN 628 (Position 4) – the ball and cage maintain a point contact. teeth contact is maintained across a line. − Gear reducer with conical gears (Position 6) – teeth contact is maintained across a line Figure 1.e. which. operation: Shown in Figure 1 is a photo image of the machine. The compact circulation system to cigarette papers [15] provides just the adequate lubrication with a quick Figure 3 illustrates the lubrication circulation circulation of lubricant fluid which takes 8 minutes system and the cross-sections of all lubrication to pass through the pump and the entire points. good lubrication properties which are maintained under high load pressures. beside high fluid 1 throughput also allows a long-lasting oil operation 2 2 during machine operation.

Standard Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test. American dominated by ester based oil lubricants. [4. 5. Revolutiei.] ASTM D-2783. replacing the conventional oil types due to their [14.Gear lubricants for use in food   manufacturing equipment. Standard Test Method for operation without replacement. International. American Society for   Testing and Materials. Characteristics and Degradation of Lubricating | 174 |  . together with turbine oils. maintenance. and-tip/filter-cigarette-maker. (2004). Hunedoara. this [13. CASSIDA FLUID GL . New York. Jocanović. American Society for Testing and Materials.] ASTM D-130.html.(2000).] ASTM D – 4172. that (Four-Ball Method). ROMANIA Separability of Petroleum Oils and Synthetic http://acta. M.] Keit. IKOS. food-grade International. gradually Society for Testing and HANDBOOK OF HYDRAULIC FLUID TECHNOLOGY. Compared to conventional mineral oils. 2004. International. from http://www. food processing industry shall be Lubricating Fluids (Timken Method). American Society for Testing and Materials.nsf. Arnold. Standard Test Method for Wear which operate in extreme conditions. G.] ASTM D-974.Inc. 2010. 2013   REFERENCES [1. Standard Test Method for type of oil can be considered top-quality lubricant.] HAUNI PRIMARY GmbH.] Savić. Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara. E. University “POLITEHNICA” Timisoara. American It is exactly these elements that are key to Society for Testing and Materials. [2.fih. Marcel Dekker..Hydraulic fluids. Mineral Oil in the Presence of Water. operation.] ASTM D-2782. Standard Test Method for Water 331128. [8. [6. Standard Test Method for Acid and copyright © Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration.] FUCHS LUBRICANTS (UK) PLC.   [7. oil which guarantees long-lasting exploitation.. providing good lubrication to gears and reducers [11. gear reducer oils possess two key elements: [9. the price of Oxidation Stability of Steam Turbine Oils by synthetic ester oils keeps dropping which means Rotating Pressure Vessel.000 hours of Lubricating Fluids (Four-Ball Method). [10. for their use. over 20. P. Standard Test Method for superior characteristics.ACTA TEHNICA CORVINIENSIS Fascicule 1 [January – March] – Bulletin of Engineering Tome VII [2014]  CONCLUSION Fluid. [ industry. especially in the food processing http://hauni.] ASTM D-2272. V.] ASTM D-892. providing yet another reason [15. International. the oil can withstand long periods of [12. International.] NSF International standards. American Society for that in a matter of years these oils shall equal the Testing and Materials. American Society for Testing and Materials. (1996). International. American Society for Testing providing the adequate monitoring and and Materials. Thus. price of mineral oils.] ASTM D-665 A&B.B. American Society for Testing and Materials. extending. New York. Standard Test Method for − Package of additives which enhance particular Rust-Preventing Characteristics of Inhibited physical/chemical properties. Moreover. Standard Test Method for Foaming − Good base component – a high-quality ester base Characteristics of Lubricating Oils.upt. Hodge. Novi Sad. It has been Preventive Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid shown in real exploitation conditions. in some Measurement of Extreme-Pressure Properties of branches of industry. International. [5.] ASTM D 1401.] Totten. Measurement of Extreme-Pressure Properties of In the future.