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Sentimental Education

Author(s): Fabrizio Ballabio and Alessandro Conti
Source: AA Files, No. 73 (2016), pp. 129-137
Published by: Architectural Association School of Architecture
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such a document and real structures. Moretti's views on Michelangelo. architect own education. in particular. this is the thesis of James Ackerman in 1968). but much of the work in the following of Michelangelo and the Baroque'. when he was still a student and assistant paper titled 'Ideal Structures in the Architecture parts'). completed his first projects.a masked type of scenario- (by which he is presumably referencing Nikolaus Pevsner's 'pioneers of modern architecture') in Rome under the supervision of the architect based theatre in sixteenth-century Italy. 400th anniversary of Michelangelo's death. As a result. the range of different ventures he embarked He later argues that even when the same kower argues. Tommaso For better or worse. ans and critics seem always to have been puzzled rather than enthused by this ambivalence.1 Renaissance architecture as evidenced by What is radical about this association.5 architecture. His particular focus was the Education restorers. The Architecture of Michelangelo . Alberti initially acknowledges the mun. this was the same year the dane and structural origins of the column Bauhaus was founded. his study of Roman monuments. In contrast. cento building as radical as Filippo Brunelleschi's along what is now the Via dei Fori and rary context and its increasingly outspoken Ricci on the conservation of a number of the enclosure. (managed by Moretti's all its 'excellence'. This submitting to the old structure-versus-ornament a rough script dictating only the acts and scenes schism.can easily do without. Sentimental In a 1940 issue of the Journal of the Warburg and Milani and Gustavo Giovannoni. Here. Wittkower independent school of architecture was founded notes. And it is with structure while celebrating.of construction. would have only been in and priest Leon Battista Alberti dealt with this Fabrizio Ballabio engineering. Vitruvius. or ideal structures. he announced. which the wall . lead of Ruskin and Viollet-le-Duc in criticising Moretti's own kinship with these dualities structurally at least .academic and practical . Among And yet. In Italy.namely. . For example. structure and infill.who combined their academic careers 'one of the central problems' of Renaissance with practice as architects. label he then contradicts such an understanding interpretations of the Vitruvian code . and suddenly made their questioned modernism's rigid infatuation (often for quite extended time spans) with the tactile. is that Alberti ('thinking in terms on early in his career.jstor. Witt. contempo. engineers or architecture . in the context of this revisionism that we need the more complex architectural endeavours celebrated architectural history.2 delight is a proper function of architecture'. Accessible now in the architect's archive Raphael and Sangallo. such as plot and chapter on Michelangelo's Laurentian Library tural scholars . which lamentstrying to get to grips with these 'basic semantic Historically. a three-year scholarship funding the that emerged only in the Renaissance.questioning of modernist utilitarian dogma as it city's ancient ruins. and before perceived shrewdness of his work. Their ambivalent way the humanist scholar. can in many famous treatise just seven years later. thereby becomes fundamental to an 'would be to compare the relationships between thinking about ideal and real processes appreciation of quattrocento and cinquecento representative structures. 'preoccupied with appreciation of the logics of construction. & Alessandro Conti in Rome (curiously. within just historians and critics admitted that 'purely visualtwo years of graduating cum laude in 1929 he had of the wall') saw 'the column first and foremost as decoration'. material dimension of Rome's more relationship open to interpretation. that at first the column was became 'historians with a trowel'. all of whom similarly . not unaffectionately. although it can also be under- and perhaps unimportant (all we know for sure stood more literally as a blank canvas where. rein.he collaborated with the archaeologist Corrado elements for what they were . in fact.essentially outlines Moretti's early conceptual elements. uncon. In the De re aedificatoria . or technology'. For instance. What is clear is that Moretti had been out the fundamentals of a story or of the most unorthodox and capricious Tafuri would later. and the Foundling Hospital. the author sketches least. however.figures like Giovanni Battista dialogue. their architecture as a 'mere' means of ornamenta. to look at Renaissance architecture without and historian Vincenzo Fasolo and other the canovaccio was an improvisational tool.Ackerman them: though they had a distinctly modern by presenting the orders of Roman imperial writes that the moderns. the paradoxical nature of they still 'tacitly allowed that Renaissance Palazzina in Viale della Pineta. this handwritten manuscript load-bearing function of either of these two and its basic semantic values'. followed the aesthetic leanings were radically conservative.131. because it was not until 1919 that an thorny issue. in 1964 at a conference commemorating the course. and the suggestive or effective of drawings.of a play. Alberti long he was joined by a number of Italian ways be traced to these fertile years of fieldwork challenged this previously irrevocable reading architects and theorists.a period when he came into close contact of column and wall. in addition to Courtauld Institutes Rudolf Wittkower explored Fasolo . tangible evidence of this interest definitions of the column (a 'certain strong them was the Roman architect and scholar Luigi also dates back even further. before . the canovaccio is associ- the sustained incapacity of 'the moderns' values' since at least the late 1920s. the equivocal relation 'An interesting and fundamental analysis forMagnifico) and accompanied by plates understanding the history of architecture of column to wall. were left up to the actors to generate AA FILES 73 129 This content downloaded from 81. while other elements. they 'I make no doubt.a term ers vying with each other to render more and Whether or not Ackerman's book was a denoting a preparatory text for a literary more of its subtle nuances. in the first lines of his collective featured the city's leading architec. who set out a very similar enquiry in aoutline of an essay Moretti developed aged just (a 'wall.Yet such a critique was clearly not restricted to forced this view. composition. and also won the this assertion represents Alberti's distinctive buildings could not be defended on technical prestigious Borsa Triennale per gli Studi contribution to an architectural conundrum or practical grounds'. among them the In many ways. notably to the continued part of a wall') and colonnade Moretti. But with the publication of hisAckerman's English-speaking world. only ever saw these two polemic rooted as much in his own. Ackerman wrote these lines in 1961.6 . completed in 1445. is typically referred to as a canovaccio . albeit under an entirely as an element of support (quoting his apologia: different pedagogical premise). as Manfredo invented to support the covering'). when he was ated with a specific medium. members of the so-called scuola romana.cerned with the practical aspects of building'. presentedin Fasolo's 'History and Styles of Architecture' century by architects such as Bramante. the relationship of a column to a wall.4 Romani. meaning they had a certain affinity for the pragmatic aspects of the discipline. At the same time in his De aráiitectura .186. notably Trajan's Market was framed in terms of its Renaissance content.7 to understand not just Alberti's almost comicalof Michelangelo as a model to follow. open and discontinued in several 20. with its most celebrated practition. 19 Feb 2017 12:45:07 UTC All use subject to http://about. structural and utilitarian problems.3 Even a cinque. histori-particular influence on Moretti is uncertain. notably the a student at the Scuola Superiore di Architetturacommedia dell'arte . Or atis that an Italian translation did not appear untilin broad brushstrokes.26 on Sun.

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Rome This content downloaded from 81. 1927 Photographs by Marco Provinciali © Archivio Moretti Magnifico.jstor.131.26 on Sun.186. 19 Feb 2017 12:45:07 UTC All use subject to http://about. perspective drawings of the vestibule in Michelangelo's Laurentian Library. Luigi .

Indeed. but the ricetto . even their exchange of roles the expressive intention of an architect couldornamental features in order to stress both and functions. Moretti gives further substance to Yet Damisch's measured arguments about specifically Roman work of Michelangelo the underlying tension that results from all the inherent problems in the Renaissance and Borromini. In a number of studies. a former student of Milani's tions of the building's underbelly. which he did partly through his use that Moretti encountered particular difficulties that enabled him to improvise. there 132 aa files 73 This content downloaded from 81.131.8 to reveal their status independent of conditions trying to put into place (much more so here than At the heart of this manuscript and Moretti's of adjacency. symptomatic of a peculiarly modern conditionand his conference paper on Michelangelo an extensive set of illustrations as a graphic accompaniment to the arguments made in his. both by with transverse entablatures. Later. or in terms of the assembly of discrete informed interpretation of architecture's more the practice of history). What Moretti overarching (or structural) whole. or vestibule. as well as of calculated representational and actual systems governing be seen in the imagining of a work. by a subtle and highly Choisy.gelo's true sentimento costruttivo . expository architectural renderings. this system was of a building there exists an 'ideal' construction Michelangelo.15 claimed that it was in the baroque. constructional and in actual construction processes. this sound. that he decided to revisit his text. Moretti would be defined both as tradition of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc and Augustearchitectural structure through the logic of the a designer and a critic. Defined by the double of all architectural thinking. with column and wall.. arguments on the tragic recalcitrance of meta-temporal) is consistent with the work ofthis time taking shape as axonometric projec. and so did not benefit from given his somewhat formulaic assertion that suggesting had been articulated before. more importantly.evidenced by the fact that in the architecture ('the divine one'). Rather. own structural diagram is almost identical to tury Rome. Hubert his conclusions should be put down to this than 30 years. portions Michelangelo's Florentine library. Moretti producedelements within discontinuous systems. Damisch centred his more generally with the multiple timelines 'il sentimento construttivo') finds itself reflected of architecture (conceptual. Fasolo. This was of architecture. ultimately. decorative elements are partially removed to Hill. Moretti's fascination with Michelangelo's built work. the culmination of every aspiring architect in early twentieth-cen. show the members and surfaces'.the Laurentian Library in Florence . the ambigui- their constitutive elements. 19 Feb 2017 12:45:07 UTC All use subject to http://about. At the incarnating the realities and processes later to first . and not its real form). But as novel as Moretti made'Michelangelo's Biblioteca Laurenziana' by a point Ackerman himself could never grasp. he claimed. the word to public scrutiny. exemplifying how Moretti's). where the clarity of the structural organism mento costruttivo . they also make no perspective drawings he had first made as between the two leads to precisely those puzzling claims to either numerical precision or propor-formulas that Wittkower would lament and a student). the structural function least by Giovanni Milani in 1920 in his three.9 Likewise.186. the French philoso. he acknowledged that the actual be enacted on the construction site proper. andarchitectural ambition ( .reflectarchitecture incanted by Vitruvius. with achievements at this early point in his career the incarnation of an ideal construction process loadbearing systems and surface articulation(he was just 20 years old. Again. is engrained codes. The drawings. only brings out novelty of his method as the daring with which in contraposition to the tiling of a smaller more clearly the respective qualities of the it was applied. 'The conflict between his teacher. These drawings . the young Moretti to explore new concepts and material and sole purpose was to disclose the layered thought would desperately try to solve. architectural andwith Michelangelo's palazzos on the Capitoline particular canovaccio was the notion of senti. ambiguities that could be characterised as youthful Moretti's canovaccio is not so much the the giant composite order of the main frame baroque (or even mannerist).on this structure). in the French pher warns that the tendency to think of and more specifically the Romanaudacious student hypothesis and expose it of simple but very elegant perspectives .and riempimento (skeleton and infill). But this long hiatus did offer time tional exactitude. largely unaltered (in his late 50s he was still column. the conceptual distinction he wasalmost a decade. Seen in this wider light.him as evidence of any intellectual shortcom- ing his Roman mentors (who.14 But where Moretti saw such opacity the temporal nature of design processes. For a start. provide the focus for the most conceptualised by Moretti as a skeletal struc- process which alludes to without necessarily interesting of Moretti's illustrations.jstor. Moretti's processes and constructional intent of a given And it was in working through this solution manuscript can be understood as an instrument work. he wrote.the Palazzo of the column and wall are exactly the opposite dei Conservatori within Rome's Capitoline Hill volume L'ossatura murale . not the most substantial piece of scholarship 'in the final design .a sensibility or feeling for show how the multiple expressive (or ornamen- lends itself almost too convincingly to such construction . the within a real one. without of different inks to demonstrate overlapping in his graphic reconstruction of the vestibule in inhibition. 'their (even if Fasolo was more engaged with how main framework progressively stripped of interpénétration. and the reading room distribution of loads is not as neatly appor- which is still of fundamental importance in are the rendered in four separate perspectivai tioned as the visual expression of Michelan- determination and comprehension of any work views (which preceded Wittkower's 1934 paper. and more volticelle. and the whole play of inversions and permutations.11 In the ture in which wall portions act as infill. while in others.themselves. as representative of an intermediate stage in the artist's 'evolution'.Michelangelo's particular a number of antiquity. for Moretti their which.26 on Sun. even if it was not until 1964. along was implying here was that in the conception Two buildings in particular. Fasolo's conviction that in conceiving a building 'structure' was associated with the continuity Interestingly. in Moretti's view. and in the process of buildings are even meticulously sliced off ties of which tended to evade the reading he was generate a new form of architectural criticism. that sional space. not the distinctiveness of the decades Moretti's visual language remained projections but in an imagined three-dimen.12 The second . as he would say.13 further develop his narrative.was. that one could plot the almostthese competing forces by emphasising recovery of Greek and Roman architecture complete resolution of two otherwise split Michelangelo's stated engagement with ossatura should not diminish Moretti's scholarly realities in a single architectural organism . saw the act of drawing as supporting frame. after all). on a scenography of buildings and systems. in the intervening four the architect thinks not through orthogonal of masonry. and.essential reading for of their visual effects' (even if Ackerman's . apparent resolve with which Moretti articulated Predating Ackerman's concerns by more In 'The Column.which he believed was the basis tal) parts relate both to one another and to the contemporary analysis).. Never before had someone ionic order carrying its own architraves and wall and the element of the order'. Moretti's canovaccio is also Damisch's own contribution to this longstand- youthful exuberance. even classical debate. rather than used against noteworthy for the form it takes. same time.10 But what is surprising about the the distribution of its structural load . The Wall' (1981). Unlike other more conventional a concern for a somewhat 'logical' declinationproducing the same elegant. It is only with Alberti. order of paired columns and pilasters. follow-ing.

1927 Photographs by Marco Provinciali © Archivio Moretti Magnifico.186. 19 Feb 2017 12:45:07 UTC All use subject to .jstor.26 on Sun. perspective drawings of the facade at Michelangelo's Palazzo dei Conservatori. Luigi Moretti. Rome This content downloaded from 81.

Luigi Moretti. Rome /acs.26 on . Palazzo dei Conservatori.131.186. 19 Feb 2017 12:45:07 UTC All use subject to http://about. no 1449/2016 This content downloaded from 81.jstor. plaster model. 1964 © mìbact.

no 1449/2016 This content downloaded from 81.26 on Sun. Rome /acs.jstor. 1964 © mìbact. plaster model. Laurentian Library.131. 19 Feb 2017 12:45:07 UTC All use subject to http://about.186. Luigi .

to unpick through his various articles on the with Moretti describing the double order In presenting these arguments at the idea of structure. like these earlier perspec- tained.131. Michelangelo's ideal meta-temporal narrative that synthesised past. the intercolumniation of which on the power of his own words.the inner columns of the secondary order and ink. four separate 'strata' of elements: a main tive and axonometric views. given photographed from multiple angles and set the qualities that distinguish architecture this dual timeframe . lished by Roland Barthes and The 1964 models.16 In this internal spaces as opposed to the exterior shell sense Moretti remained fascinated by the almost independently of each other in terms of a building. in the these elements. there were two white plaster models. Eight of these illustrations were numerous heterogeneous and independent from that of Ackerman and with of architecture. Moretti main. light. an external wall enclosing the giant structures. the models were far more successful. Moretti was by then arguing. Moretti went on to detect material effect. The former is now presented entirely directed to the temporal drama that sentimento costruttivo . beginning with the longstanding historical architecture). has been filled over successive periods of time. Michelangelo had put on stage. were structures of spaces.structures are also reconstructed in the form present and future in the very materiality of a gradation. accompanied his essay 'Strutture e Sequenze now his arguments were not predicated on The same interpretative strategy defines di Spazi' (Structures and Sequences of Spaces). bricks and mortar. as the direct offspring postmodernism). A work agora or stoa . been erected in different eras and by different intercolumniation which sits above the exterior not least because they allowed a much greater people. Moretti's models Similarly freed by his own poetic licence. where he identifies published in Spazio in 1952. it should be almost all the other details maker. the possibility of making Freed from the burden of criticism through architectural having to be incarnated in 'true' means. semantic and even semiological translated in English in 1957 as terms (mirror to the wave of Architecture as Space: How to Look structuralist texts then pub. 'honestly ornamental').at once ancient and against a pitch black background.and formed by a single volticella carried by fourdrawings seemed to fall short in conveying the Ionic columns with adjoining monolithic which. structure formed by the giant order of piers depict the vestibule of the Laurentian Library Moretti's 1964 presentation made explicit and terminal architrave. In addition to these drawings. but byof their formal articulation.a skill. 19 Feb 2017 12:45:07 UTC All use subject to http://about. who concluded that all order in the palazzo) and terminating with reading. Moretti architectural musings in The Architecture description of the pilasters lining the piers ashad used the same strategy in one of the of the City). seem to have lintels. Moretti makes no reference primary structure (the double order of paired process intermingling idealism with the to the structural veracity of the entire system. now other structures could be subsumed. as with the earlier canovaccio . they were structures of cinquecento . an independent.18 The text attests the two. but . And once .jstor. structure inserted between the piers character of Michelangelo's nested structures. largely published in Spazio . encased (encased columns being for Moretti gelo a storyteller's ability to enact a kind of In both models. Photographs of a number of these ambivalences of real and ideal forces.26 on Sun. that is as much lyrical as it is technical. Moretti did not simply rely the magazine he founded in 1950. Curiously. to the point where they building processes. at Architecture. itself composed disorienting forms that reveal the volumes of of two nested portals which are expressed of mass perceived by the human eye. again. but relied more on the to his recent engagement with poetic ability of the architect the 'void'. As a model- from any other art. finding a degree of correspondence betweenhis approach to the palazzo. but more than anything. atori to describe the ideal construction process illustrated this argument through references to Septizonium .was the somewhat inscrutable notion of dei Conservatori. But in view of his later 136 AA FILES 73 This content downloaded from . an influence he to place both in relation to one credited to Bruno Zevi's Saper another under syntactic. appear as nothing more than gelo's ideal structures are three-dimensional.yet another identifying element of this pan. in describing of stone and lime.which had offered a special kind of spark for the more been rendered almost weightless in pencil enclosing the end of the portico. in recalling the mythical pasts associated volumetric characteristics of Michelangelo's with their constitutive elements. These ever referred to the library ricetto as a form of recycled. which Moretti continued as a kind of palimpsest of various histories. of paired columns as a segment of a classical conference in Rome. Umberto Eco) . Moretti was mostly known for his series a built nature. which governed the distribution of negative casts .186. colour and mural architecture in which a series of columns however. however.columns in the library vestibule and the giant pragmatic strictures of the building site (this unlike Ackerman. Moretti Maarten van Heemskerck. appeared two yearselements 'really do the work that they appearthe composite (wherein the joints between the before Aldo Rossi published his own temporal to do' (which in turn prompted his famous elements are deliberately highlighted). who only his youthful perspective drawings. which leaves mature Moretti.also employed a visual consisted of a 'general structure' to which As a result he distinguishes his own reading counterpart. This sense of time appears to have lintel of the secondary structure. 1536 of the portico-facade and its correlation to Michelangelo's Laurentian Library and Palazzo © Berlin State Museums the real construction. the earlier canovaccio . who recognised in Michelan. material therefore now assessed by their improvisations on his analytical capacity to produce meaning student drawings. and an idealised fragment of the Palazzo reference to what he saw as the fictional dei Conservatori.bulbous and initially of the space. Moretti stem from a different line of argued (in the spirit of a nascent essence. at which of Moretti's earlier enquiries into Michelangelo was unequalled. and a wall appreciation of their physicality . Michelan. not least in the doorway that leads of forces as much as they expressed a sense into the main reading room.17 Instead the focus iscanovaccio drawings of the Palazzo dei Conserv- Again. had been encased. vedere l'architettura (1948).19 Yet whereas the canovaccio secondary.

plan with a new name. James S Ackerman. PP 18-25. more obvious subject of investigation cronache e storia. and for even though you took away every Architecture (London: Penguin Books. in terms of their overlapping own evocation of successive construction. structural organism of the rectilinear Conservatori. would still stand firm and not fall 4. in their historians to better understand Michelangelo's evocation of both a perfection of the highest own Roman structures. p 10. Moderne Architetture Romane: earlier. whose existence is only Joseph Rykwert. walls outwards and place them e moderne applicazione pratiche 17. see Marco Stefano 19. 22. Bruno Zevi's students also made so-called later Robert Smithson would develop the notion In appreciating these particularly ruinous 'critical' models on the occasion of the same of the 'ruin in reverse'. wall.the impression is that of contemplative and empirical. they hinted at what Moretti saw the top left of von Heemskerck's drawing of the you're teaching the image. of the vestibule') . the relation of load-bearing structure Portoghesi. p 73. Antiquity in Architecture'.org/terms . Guglielmo of ornament. at St Peter's and on So here's the methodology: order and the mundane practicalities employed the Capitoline Hill). 1910 22 necessities of the column and the wall. had powerful echoes . Among these 1931 plaster models down. the column is for him and then published in April 1994.26 on Sun. earlier study by Michelangelo (most Paolo Portoghesi. As anthem to these ideas. vol lvii. De Angelis d'Ossat. A reproduction of Moretti's canovaccio to representational structure in the michelangiolesche al Palazzo delle (as distinct from Greek) architecture can be found in Casabella 745 (2006). of Michelangelo's architecture. On the Art of Michelangelo (Chicago. translated by of Chicago Press. from increasing the size of the cella 10.was articulated best by 9. book iv. Spazio 6 (1952) and 'Strutture l'enseignement par les ordres. 'Michelangiolo Principles in the Age of Humanism pp 3-41.namely its capacity to not only improvise but but begin with the wall and you're ruina docet . and Paolo 3. con particolare archaeologist Corrado Ricci and of among the ancients. Manfredo Tafuri. 1971).' Leon Battista Alberti. Luigi Moretti: From Rationalism see Rudolf Wittkower. by almost two centuries. 'The Architect p 48. Aiti del Convegno di Studi compositional elements' of the direction of Bruno Zevi.from right to left . were far more convincing. Thinking in terms of the 6. pp 156.21 And so. In reference to the engaged column. its very ruins to enact the ever-conflicted relationship between teaching reality. The Architectural and Biblioteca Laurenziana'. 'Moretti. See no 1/2 (October 1940 . Architectural Town Planning Quarterly . The Architecture and Ferdinando Fuga. This text was later republished to Informalism'. Milani only with James S Ackerman in 1961. p 109. 159. On Wittkower's later paper. and thus apparent '. ricetto.131. 'Michelangelo's 'L'opera architettonica di Michelan- pp 1-18. He states: 'Other architettonici. 1910). Wittkower himself only in prosa' in L'Architettura cronache (London: Alec Tiranti. p 6. and in art (it is no coincidence that three years under the vicissitudes of time. Journal of the 7. to extend this to encompass works it to then metonymically be seen as column from under them.temporal leanings. and Cecilia Rostagni. Éléments et théorie by removing the space occupied scuola romana . Architettura e storia . but had originally intended architectural fragment. material that accompanied his paper. by Carlo Maderno. in contrast. op cit. of the so-called prospettiva ad angolo. the pseudoper. 18. and while Orsini.when read from left to right . architects actually move the temple alle strutture elastiche nelle loro varie e sequenze di spazi'. 'Strutture e sequenze l'enseignement de la réalité'. Spazio 7 (1952-53). no 2.the models many ways it seems to be these images. 1920). 21. In the canovaccio Moretti limited his that it was Ricci who encouraged apertures and the arches of the roofs modified to suit the requirements enquiry to Borromini and Michelan. commencer par le mur. Luigi Moretti.186. 1980). vol 16. However. Milani (Rome: Gangemi Editore. 'Alberti's Approach to Casabella 633 (1996). Theories and Histories (which he termed the pseudoperipteros ) should not only be real but also artistic . One could even argue thy: their best architects placed these ipteral. more ing. the timeless values tell' . c'est l'enseignement de l'image. this comparative Heemskerck's drawings among the graphic to the architectural language and tectonic system gains further significance in the models. who dismissed them as 'abstract Ultimately. Bulletin . so greatly (Rome: C Crudo. they have passaggio alla modernità. architecture. See no 49 (1979). vol 4. no 2 (June 1934). barocchi'. 1966). The Art giolo nel quarto centenario della in Wittkower's book. At the same time.' See Vitruvius. as the greatest quality in Michelangelo's work Septizonium is inscribed Roma quanta fuit ipsa . ma: mit Press. the ideal and the real. the ideas these models echo the mythical narrative of Michelangelo's than any other single source.'how great Rome was.which is that in spite of their interpretative meta-temporalisms they still 'climb back into with astonishing accuracy. He argued that this solution argued that 'The solidity of a skeleton 13. op cit. Michelangelo e il barocco'. pp 444-54. Venice school of architecture. no 99 (1964).and which caused Alberti so much pp 70-80. models. Natalino Sapegno of the central problems of Renaissance dell'Ateneo Roma. Moretti did. pp 81-85. 745 (2006). of a building becoming a ruin past and yet also clearly anchored to the present. see See Michelangelo Buonarotti. him to highlight a particular of their temples in such a manner. Luigi Moretti. chapter xii. both in architecture progressive decay. no 104 (1964). Architectural Design. and in principles of the architecture they were analys- For if . 1986). trouble . Tafuri's critique can be found in Vitruvius. or that the 'unfinished' qualities. The original quotation reads: 'Voilà architectural (and structural) primacy estetico-proporzionale degli organismi 16. these types are 11. con speciale riferimento forma'. 1988). For more on Moretti's early years. of Architecture (London: Granada. 'The Column. their constructional largely because they bore such a strong relation makeup (and in the process helping later real architectural structures'. p 95. op cit. The first drawing highlights the was again one of the Palazzo dei of Building in Ten Books. Annalisa Viati Navone. notably in 1931-34. c'est in the intercolumnations. il: University 12. Pietro da Cortona representative of a wider set of ideas. Julien Gaudet. Tafuri. as a hypothetical reconstruction of an and Giulio Carlo Argan.January 1941). constructed by the students of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes . one is reminded of the Roman anniversary (for the exhibition 'Michelangelo. book i. Manfredo ta. chapter viii. if you begin with the orders then to achieve this. in Michelangelo Buonarotti remaining three describe the 'ideal 20. op cit . For more on Moretti's relation to the di spazi'.the non finito . and which would become a Esposizioni in Roma'. Robert Tavernor and 5. in fact. the ruin lust so typical of seventeenth-century art. 'Mostra critica delle opere the solution typical of imperial Roman 8. Manfredo Tafuri. Romani. p 111. Moretti included a large number of von de l'architecture. drawn from the of a postwar cultural Zeitgeist. in Prosa'): they got short shrift from Manfredo the Dutch painter Marten von Heemskerck. L'ossatura 14. the chief feature of all Renaissance interview given to 'La rivista dei libri' likely. make models de l'architecture (Paris: Libraire by the exterior colonnade. Mario Boudet. On gelo. The exhibition was curated under the 2. op cit . a contrivance evidently generated another type of riferimento all'opera di Giovanni Battista his Borsa Triennale per gli Studi certainly very excellent and praisewor. Julien Gaudet. that of the sacrifices. Writing in part 11 of his text. By placing the column in his category (ed). pp 80-91. morte' and Bruno Zevi. 2015). James S Ackerman. theme in Michelangelesque scholarship). 'Le strutture ideali della hall as seen through a worm's-eye-view preserved in a handful of photographs Neil Leach (Cambridge. by the 'requirements of sacrifices' Giovanni Battista Milani.anticipating. though. Alberti expands on this idea: 'I will not retaining other elements with the same Architetture della scuola romana nel period he spent working with the omit here what I have taken notice proportions and modularity. that were the spur appeared to convey. along with architecture. See Hubert Damisch. then for his shared interest in an architecture at once historical associations. the value of these models which meticulously depict the crumbling state and a-historical sculptural games'.would become such a persistent drawings of Michelangelo's contemporary. 'Struttura come la méthode logique: commencer of the column. Éléments et théorieof the orders and the aesthetic and structural Tellingly. yet they 2009). was the result of modifications dictated so to say. Casabella ever offered minor considerations on e storia ix. Hubert Damisch. the 'study for the west elevation Vittorio Gigliotti and Luciano Rubino. pp 106-11. 19 Feb 2017 12:45:07 UTC All use subject to http://about. the in the Archivio Moretti Magnifico. AA FILES 73 137 This content downloaded from 81.and following the It featured photographic material first and foremost decoration. p 51. L'Architettura .' Rudolf An extract of this can be found in late baroque representational technique and abstract interpretative models Wittkower. during the de la construction moderne. ibid. Alberti touches on one Michelangioleschi (Rome: Edizioni vestibule both in its current form . 1. and thus did not challenge the murale: studio statico-costruttivo ed 15.20 Moretti'sis the value of the architecture they depict of the city's ancient buildings while revealing. architettura di Michelangelo e dei of one of its shorter sides. . The Wall'. James S Ackerman. See Luigi Moretti. pp 123-218.