You are on page 1of 7

Quest International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Vol - I , Issue - I June - 2012 ISSN : 2278 - 4497

Research Paper


Mr. Viki M. Modi
Assistant Professor in English
Science and Humanities Department
Merchant Polytechnic College, Basna


The paper is examined to present the recent and popular trends in ELT that have been
used practically in recent years in the entire world reviewing the past trends. Moreover,
this is also an endeavour to encourage the ELT trainer to modernize their classroom
arrangements (managements). The ELT trends that were very popular in the past have
vanished today and have been substituted by others. Several factors have contributed to
the adoption of new trends in ELT. The research found that the following trends are the
very popular.

01 Teaching with Technology
02 Teachers connect with web 2.0
03 Blockbuster course books kept alive through “New” versions
04 English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)
05 Learner Centeredness and Needs
06 Portfolio Development for Teachers
07 Syllabus Design and Materials Development
08 Corpus Linguistics
09 Reflective Practice and Teacher Learning
10 Bottom-Up and Top-Down Skills in L2 Learning

Key Words : Web 2.0, English Language Teaching, Corpus Linguistics, English as
Lingua franca core (ELF)

This paper shows the ELT education trend of English: (A) The decline of methods,
has recently been gaining in significance (B) A growing emphasis on both bottom-
in education systems throughout the world. up and top-down skills, (C) The creation
English Language Teaching (ELT) has of new knowledge about English and, (D)
tremendously changed over the last one Integrated and contextualized teaching of
decade. Language teaching in the multiple language skills. TESOL has been
twentieth century underwent numerous and continues to be a dynamic field, in
changes and innovation. In the past ten which new venues and perspectives are
years the crucial factors have combined to describing.
affect current perspectives on the teaching

Copyright © 2012 Viki Modi. This is an open access refereed article distributed under the
Creative Common Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

as distinct from learning more pejoratively. Late 1970s. we can note 4. Computers and technology are still a source of uncertainties and Generally every type of language anxiety for many teachers everywhere in teaching has its own technologies to the world despite the latest advances maintain it. another excellent features that make its use a valuable source medium for the teacher-dominated for input but some teachers may not trust classroom. deal information that method implied. with technology. Learning were known as "drill-and-practice" (or. The with the ICT in the language curriculum.S. as well as by early computer technology or just be reluctant to include software programs which provided what computer in their classrooms. at least learn how to use technology in meaningful in part owing to poor results achieved from ways: expensive language laboratories. have their implications in terms of how to 5. achieved poor results. (GTM) (in which the teacher explained language teaching methodology.Quest International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Vol . "drill-and-kill") about technology has the capacity to grammatical exercises. future teachers As laptop computers. Teaching with Technology education. interactive Modern Trends of Teaching whiteboards and broadband internet became cheaper and more available around through ELT the world began to introduce them into Computers and language teaching classrooms. The pedagogical integration of teaching. search through constant repetition in the target engines. transform learning environments in ways the audio-tape was the perfect medium for that are difficult for most educators to the audio-lingual method (in which imagine. The 1980s and 2. Within this teachers. grammatical rules and students performed and so.I . and presentation software is the language). Some adults have in using basic students were believed to learn best computer functions such as email. journals. the audio. The 21st century facility. with an emphasis on student technology by instructors during engagement with authentic. Whether in the lab or in the classroom. repetitive 1. classroom and build the confidence to lingual method fell into disregard. the blackboard a perfect vehicle for the one-way transmission of Teaching with the technology. The value placed on technology by integrate technology into the classroom. Issue . blackboard was later supplemented by the According to the authors ICT have basic overhead projector. where students would perform the teachers integrate technology into their repetition drills.4497 Overview of Historical Trends the classroom. both of which success in integrating technology.2012 ISSN : 2278 . Language teachers who applicable to language teaching such as followed the grammar-translation method specialized websites. general communicative trend. A future teacher’s expectations of two distinct perspectives. The future teacher’s degree of 1990s have seen a full-scale shift in the computer literacy. University provided the lab much larger issue. The pedagogical integration of drills which focused only on language technology in which they are form and ignored communicative meaning placed for practicum experiences. translations) relied on one of the most omnipresent technologies in U. university education of future contextualized discourse. often and sadly without have been walked hand to hand for a long appropriate training.I June . This was the decade time and contributed as teaching tools in International Refereed Research Journal 53 . wikis. On another side. direction of communicative language 3. blogs. meaningful.

The following qualities the learner should develop: (a)  Word processor Showing a high degree of motivation. (b) the teacher mediation in the Teachers process of learning. Two key concepts of digital natives. which created an extra gap the learner centred classroom are first. it might contain several language structure and use through the COMPLETE units. Every student teacher will prepare most of the students said that they knew two types of portfolio first is Working what to learn and what to do in order to Portfolio and second is professional improve.2012 ISSN : 2278 . The Meanings of Words across Registers. (c) demonstrating an awareness of learning needs and of the  Digital video role of language learners. also had to learn a bunch of new acronyms and second. The study of Discourse developing learners’ communicative Characteristics. ICT. URL etc). open-minded. Working Portfolio: Your crucial for successful learning. to an interview and contains material Issues open to Corpus Linguistics include specific to the interview. Different features and learn how to learn rather than being the uses of technology in to the classroom: source of knowledge. We the students to manage their own learning. teachers taking roles as (IWB.I .I June .  Presentation software The learners’ needs motivation and  Computer games confidence were positively affected by  Spreadsheets and database’ their awareness of learning: (a) a thorough orientation at the beginning of the Portfolio Development for program. Register Variation. working portfolio will contain such more information and is larger and basically Corpus Linguistics contains all of the information that you may include in a presentation portfolio. as if we didn’t have facilitators of knowledge to help learners enough already. (e)  Internet being curious and creative in thinking. and (c) the self assessment of strengths and weaknesses.Quest International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Vol . (d) being strategic and enthusiastic in learning. (b)  Digital camera having self-confidence. They were aware that being portfolio as part of the student teaching involved in the learning process was experience. for An approach to investigating example. and  Web page (f) holding democratic. Issue . Professional Portfolio: analysis of large databases of real This is the portfolio that you take with you language examples stored on computer. and competence and on promote learning strategies and learner autonomy in International Refereed Research Journal 54 . and critical attitudes were identified by the  Email participants as essential attributes of  Video conferencing positive language learners. The Distribution and Function of Learner centeredness and Learner Grammatical Forms and Categories. between teachers and students who were placing more responsibility in the hands of often considered in separate camps.4497 that we learned of digital immigrants and language classrooms. The needs Investigation of Lexico-Grammatical Associations (Associations of Specific The English Language Teaching Words with Particular Grammatical pedagogies which have focused on Constructions).

interactive Word Frequency List and gets a rank and collaborative elements have always ordering of all the words in order of been of vital importance in this field. Corpus Lexico-Grammatical Profiles Concordancing is a core tool in identify a word and its context of use in Corpus Linguistics and it simply means concordance lines e. place directly on the Web.0 applications in education. opportunities of interaction and and KWIC (Key Word In Context). Issue . For example.I June .) or virtual reality (VR) environments such as Second Life have opened up new Search Engines like WordSmith. As Word Frequency Counts or Word central features of communicative Lists: This software gives calculation of language learning and teaching. regardless of background and specialist expertise: A learner can. SARA. etc. Commonly.0 Recent years have seen a trend towards the increasing popularity of Web 2. It is very useful for Teachers manifesting in text chats and Email of English and Material Writer to prepare projects. in frequency.4497 Issues in Language Acquisition and Cluster Analysis searches word in a Development. comment on it in the target language in a blog and thereby start a discussion about the movie in a social network with his peers or even beyond the classroom context with native speakers.0 technologies.0 is the fact that English for Engineers or English for Pilot communication in the latter case takes or Doctor.2012 ISSN : 2278 .I . social software such as social networks. this is attributed to the social nature of these new developments on the Web. It analyse how language systematically clusters into Basic Linguistic Techniques for combination of the words or chunks. This is important because Web browsers are now so ubiquitous and easily accessible to almost anyone.Quest International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Vol . Unlike traditional Web 1. typical expression. What is different about CMC in Materials of Specialized courses like general and Web 2. wikis. watch a clip from a new foreign language movie.g. Concorancer Teachers connect with web 2. Collocation like using Corpus Software to find every Blonde Hair or Blonde Car (Not valid). for example. occurrence of a particular word or phrase. non-technological face-to-face teaching as well as in blended-learning approaches Key Word Analysis identifies Key with early approaches to computer- Word which is unusually frequent in one mediated communication (CMC) or more texts. blogs and micro-blogging (Twitter. All this is possible without at any stage International Refereed Research Journal 55 . collaboration between teachers and learners as well as amongst learners.

different countries are producing a common (national) culture. the countries around the (English) speakers. ethnocentric. Program book (BULATS) The primary purpose is to learn and understand different variety of English. the Development (Global and Local question that arises is whether it can count Publishing) as a variety. it is a materials produced in one country may not contact language between persons who be effective in other countries. Imported language teaching materials are English as an International in no way practicable in the context where Language: This debate relates to almost they are not produced keeping into everything: Who owns English? Which consideration the local needs.Quest International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Vol . It is suggested here that been noticeable and significant ELF could be conceptualized as a register. Lingua Franca relevant non-global publishing of courses Core is concerned with international and materials. more critical). English or Standard American are greatly wide has so far ignored one of the most outnumbered by speakers of other important functions of English today. more intercultural. and values. culture. that non-native new variety in a Expanding circle speakers of English greatly outnumber native speakers. Do you see English as an international language. (reflecting new descriptive information about language) and in methodology Lingua Franca means a language (reflecting ideas of student learning style which is routinely used in some region for and self direction). English do we teach? Who are the best teachers: natives or non native speakers? International Refereed Research Journal 56 . SCOPE intelligibility. namely that of a lingua franca between non-native speakers. but there have traditional sense. For example. less and nation-based model only on a stereotyped. Unlike in share neither a common native tongue nor the past. In integrating ELF Syllabus Design and Materials into models such as Kachru’s. ELF interaction can of course include native Today. There has also been an dealings between people who have increasing tendency towards more locally different mother tongues. or as a lingua franca? And What about linguistic imperialism? Arguments are often accompanied by statistics that English as Lingua Franc Core: A show. but what is distinctive globe have realized that the instructional about ELF is that.4497 having to change tools or technologies: the Can you separate language from culture? Web is the platform throughout. for example.I June . Locally produced Materials and to communicate with non native speakers from other countries. in syllabus functional level. in most cases.2012 ISSN : 2278 . It is a variety of English. suit to their own soil. developments in content (becoming less which can be integrated into the variety. and that language of communication. and for the teaching materials (textbooks and other whom English is the chosen foreign reference materials) on their own. Issue . and that of the native The Traditional Tripartite (3 speakers of English. Evidence from a corpus-based study of lingua franca English as it is used Some people say that the majority between European speakers indicates that of 'blockbuster' courses indicate that there it is not a non-native variety in the is not much innovation. those who speak RP Dimensional) Model of English world.I . varieties.

and  Comprehension: The grammar will be seen as more of a process identification of the intended than as a thing out there to be learnt (see meaning of written or spoken for example Scott Thornbury's book). to find out how we could do  Listening Comprehension: The things differently or better (Underhill. Reflecting upon our own way of a first or second language. It is a sort of systematic curiosity about going beyond the edges of what we know and do.4497 Blockbuster course books kept words and sentences in the text ( alive through “New” versions i. reaching across the predictions that the reader brings to globe for our communicative practice.Quest International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Vol . process of understanding speech in 2007).I . teaching. information from the context and from the listener’s and speaker’s This is about teachers’ questioning purposes or intentions (TOP- and exploring their own practice of DOWN PROCESSING). more  Interactive Processing: A theory recent approaches emphasize the of reading comprehension that sees role of listening in building up reading as involving both the language competence and suggest accurate and sequential that more attention should be paid understanding of text based on to teaching listening in the initial identification of the meanings of stages of second or foreign International Refereed Research Journal 57 .g. BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING) as well as the experiences. It therefore includes Bottom-Up and both TOP-DOWN PROCESSING and bottom-up processing. WORDS. Perhaps we might be using real text background information. context. what is happening in his/her own grammatical structures) as well as classroom. communication.I June . and and real situations. process drawing both on information contained in the message (BOTTOM-UP Reflective Practice and Teacher PROCESSING) as well as Learning background knowledge. Contemporary Learning would be emergent and theories of comprehension facilitated rather than prescribed and emphasize that it is an active taught. Perhaps methodology will be modify and act on each other. While Top-Down Skills traditional approaches to language in L2 Learning teaching tended to underemphasize the importance of teaching listening comprehension. the situation and and so on.e. Both kinds of than creating situations to provoke desired processing are involved and they language. The basic idea processes in second language about reflection is that a teacher learns learning focuses on the role of about his/her teaching and how to improve individual linguistic units (e. background knowledge and the topic. reflecting on it. Issue .2012 ISSN : 2278 . it by trying to observe and understand PHONEMES.e. the text (i. TOP-DOWN working with what students produce rather PROCESSING). more participatory than teacher led. learning from it the role of the listener’s and trying out something slightly different expectations. The teaching tremendously helps the teachers study of listening comprehension to improve the practice.

(1992). and the today. orientation (ascertaining essential facts about • Trends in English Language Teaching the text. Retrieved genre).4497 language learning.From Corpus to Course and more significantly most teacher Book by Michael McCarthy Cambridge trainers adhere to communicative University Press methodology today.cambridge. A. Anna Cermakova – language to equipping learners with Oxford University Press. 13 (2).Quest International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Vol .html applicable for other teacher in the same or similar context. ELT practitioners around the globe put into practice a great deal of diverse activities to keep themselves up-to-date and enhance their practices which have been dealt above. • www. ELT practitioners have not remained reliant on fixed prescribed and imposed practices.htm Likewise. Listening Reference comprehension activities typically address a number of listening • Maley. A large number of articles and conference talks have been devoted to exploring precisely the communicative approach of language teaching. A. The • An Introduction to Corpora in English successful language teacher will not Language Teaching by Michael confine himself to only a single method. 2007 from Practical (focusing on some aspect of the English Teaching. of details. Trends in English language teaching topic. Issue . code itself). such as participants. 73. including recognition English Language Teaching. International Refereed Research Journal 58 .2012 ISSN : 2278 . and Steve method which is appropriate with one Walsh class on one occasion will not necessarily suit to the same class at another time. communicative skills for interaction globally. the emotional tone. Nonetheless. particular language item may not be s_and_sdl.I June . Most English language teachers • Touchstone . the general April. MED Magazine.teachingstylesonline. A McCarthy. the Today by Adrian Underhill. Global issues in functions. a method which is suitable for one language teacher while teaching a •www. shift from a literature based foreign – Wolfgang Teubert. issue 18. comprehension of main September 15. 2004. Anne O'Keeffe. • Current Trends in ELT around the Globe Conclusion by Sajan Kumar Karn (Article Published in EJournal) There is no single most excellent way of teaching foreign languages. situation or context. There has been a gradual • Corpus Linguistics: A Short and understanding and recall http//macmillian.I .