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Volume : 1 | Issue : 12 | September 2012 ISSN - 2249-555X

Research Paper Literature

Current Trends In English Language Teaching

*Dr. Hetal J. Mehta
*Principle, Swami Sahajanand College of Commerce, Bhavnagar.
ABSTRACT

The paper is examined to present the current and popular trends in ELT that have been used practically in current years in
the entire world reviewing the past trends. Moreover, this is also an endeavor to encourage the ELT trainer to modernize their
classroom arrangements (managements). The ELT trends that were very popular in the past have vanished today and have
been substituted by others. Several factors have contributed to the adoption of new trends in ELT. The research found that the
following trends are the very popular.
• Teaching with Technology
• Teachers connect with web 2.0
• Blockbuster course books kept alive through “New” versions
• English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)
• Learner Centeredness and Needs
• Portfolio Development for Teachers
• Syllabus Design and Materials Development

Keywords :Web 2.0, English Language Teaching, Corpus Linguistics, English as Lingua franca core (ELF)
Introduction: student engagement with authentic, meaningful, contextual-
This paper shows the ELT education trend has recently been ized discourse. Within this general communicative trend, we
gaining in significance in education systems throughout the can note two distinct perspectives, both of which have their
world. English Language Teaching (ELT) has tremendously implications in terms of how to integrate technology into the
changed over the last one decade. Language teaching in the classroom.
twentieth century underwent numerous changes and innova-
tion. In the past ten years the crucial factors have combined to Modern Trends of Teaching through ELT:
affect current perspectives on the teaching of English: (A) The Computers and language teaching have been walked hand
decline of methods, (B) A growing emphasis on both bottom to hand for a long time and contributed as teaching tools in
up and top-down skills, (C) The creation of new knowledge the classroom. Computers and technology are still a source
about English and, (D) Integrated and contextualized teach- of uncertainties and anxiety for many teachers everywhere in
ing of multiple language skills. TESOL has been and contin- the world despite the latest advances applicable to language
ues to be a dynamic field, in which new venues and perspec- teaching such as specialized websites, blogs, wikis, language
tives are describing. teaching methodology, journals, and so.

Overview of Historical Trends: Teaching with Technology:
Generally every type of language teaching has its own tech- Teaching with the technology, deal with the ICT in the lan-
nologies to maintain it. Language teachers who followed the guage curriculum. According to the authors ICT have basic
grammar-translation method (GTM) (in which the teacher features that make its use a valuable source for input but
explained grammatical rules and students performed transla- some teachers may not trust technology or just be reluctant to
tions) relied on one of the most omnipresent technologies in include computer in their classrooms. Learning with technol-
U.S. education, the blackboard a perfect vehicle for the one- ogy, as distinct from learning about technology has the capac-
way transmission of ity to transform learning environments in ways that are difficult
for most educators to imagine. Some adults have in using
information that method implied. The blackboard was later basic computer functions such as email, search engines, and
supplemented by the overhead projector, another excellent presentation software is the much larger issue. The 21st cen-
medium for the teacher-dominated classroom, as well as by tury teachers integrate technology into their classroom and
early computer software programs which provided what were build the confidence to learn how to use technology in mean-
known as “drill-and-practice” (or, more pejoratively, “drill-and- ingful ways:
kill”) grammatical exercises. On another side, the audio-tape
was the perfect medium for the audio-lingual method (in 1. The pedagogical integration of technology in which they
which students were believed to learn best through constant are placed for practicum experiences;
repetition in the target language). University provided the lab
facility, where students would perform the repetition drills. 2. The future teacher’s degree of computer literacy;
Late 1970s, the audiolingual method fell into disregard, at 3. The pedagogical integration of technology by instructors
least in part owing to poor results achieved from expensive during university education of future
language laboratories. Whether in the lab or in the classroom, teachers;
repetitive drills which focused only on language form and ig- 4. A future teacher’s expectations of success in integrating
nored communicative meaning achieved poor results. The technology;
1980s and 1990s have seen a full-scale shift in the direction 5. The value placed on technology by future teachers As lap-
of communicative language teaching, with an emphasis on top computers, interactive whiteboards and broadband

116 X INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH

and Corpus Linguistics: that of the native speakers of English. For example. and criti. watch • Video conferencing a clip from a new foreign language movie. often and interaction and collaboration between teachers and learners sadly without appropriate training. cal attitudes were identified by the participants as essential attributes of positive language learners.2249-555X internet became cheaper and more available around the such as Second Life have opened up new opportunities of world began to introduce them into classrooms. in syllabus (reflecting new descriptive informa- tion about language) and in methodology (reflecting ideas Teachers connect with web 2. dicate that there is not much innovation. speakers of other varieties. in most cases. The Syllabus Design and Materials Development (Global and Distribution and Function of Grammatical Forms and Catego. in non-technological face-to-face teaching as well also had to learn a bunch of new acronyms (IWB. It is The English Language Teaching pedagogies which have fo. ELF interac- velop: (a) Showing a high degree of motivation. placing more responsibility in between people who have different mother tongues. All this is possible without at any stage having to change tools or Portfolio Development for Teachers: technologies: the Web is the platform throughout. Issues open to Corpus Linguis- tics include The Meanings of Words across Registers. and (c) the self assessment of strengths and weaknesses. that non-native speakers of English greatly outnumber native speakers. with non native speakers from other countries. those who speak RP An approach to investigating language structure and use English or Standard American are greatly outnumbered by through the analysis of large databases of real language ex. and Issues in Language Acquisition and ing less ethnocentric. and to communicate of knowledge. The learners’ needs English as an International Language: This debate relates motivation and confidence were positively affected by their to almost everything: Who owns English? Which English do awareness of learning: (a) a thorough orientation at the be. interactive and col- which created an extra gap between teachers and stu.0 applications in education. Working Portfolio: ing circle Your working portfolio will contain such more information and The Traditional Tripartite (3 Dimensional) Model of English is larger and basically contains all of the information that you worldwide has so far ignored one of the most important func- may include in a presentation portfolio. variety. Two key concepts of the learner language which is routinely used in some region for dealings centred classroom are first. The study of Discourse Characteristics. but what self-confidence. ICT. Unlike traditional Web 1. English is the chosen foreign language of communication. speakers? cess of learning. panied by statistics that show. is attributed to the social nature of these new developments SCOPE Program book (BULATS) on the Web. In integrating ELF into models such as This is the portfolio that you take with you to an interview and Kachru’s. (b) the teacher mediation in the pro. noticeable and significant developments in content (becom- Register Variation. most of the students said that they knew what Can you separate language from culture? Do you see English to learn and what to do in order to improve. (b) having tion can of course include native (English) speakers. we teach? Who are the best teachers: natives or non native ginning of the program. This was the decade as well as amongst learners. for example. Development. and (f) holding democratic. The following qualities the learner should de. Lingua the hands of the students to manage their own learning. This is important • Digital video because Web browsers are now so ubiquitous and easily ac- • Internet cessible to almost anyone. Every student teacher will prepare two types of portfolio first is Working Portfolio and second is professional portfolio as English as Lingua Franc Core: A new variety in a Expand- part of the student teaching experience. blogs and micro.0: of student learning style and self direction). regardless of background • Web page • Email and specialist expertise: A learner can. etc. As central features of commu- that we learned of digital immigrants and digital natives. teachers taking roles as facilitators of knowledge to is a variety of English.Volume : 1 | Issue : 12 | September 2012 ISSN . comment on it in • Presentation software the target language in a blog and thereby start a discussion • Computer games about the movie in a social network with his peers or even • Spreadsheets and database’ beyond the classroom context with native speakers. There has also Recent years have seen a trend towards the increasing popu. Local Publishing): ries. namely that of a lingua franca between contain several COMPLETE units. Lingua Franca means a in language classrooms. for example. nicative language learning and teaching. suggested here that ELF could be conceptualized as a regis- cused on developing learners’ communicative competence ter. What is different about CMC • Word processor in general and Web 2. Evidence from a corpus-based study of lingua franca English as it is used between European speakers indicates Learner centeredness and Learner needs: that it is not a non-native variety in the traditional sense. for example. it might tions of English today. been an increasing tendency towards more locally relevant larity of Web 2. and Franca Core is concerned with international intelligibility. which can be integrated into the varietyand nation-based and on promote learning strategies and learner autonomy model only on a functional level. amples stored on computer.0 is the fact that communication in the • Digital camera latter case takes place directly on the Web. and for whom thinking. as if we didn’t have enough already. more critical). open-minded. We this field. it is a contact needs and of the role of language learners. It second. Professional Portfolio: non-native speakers. social software such as social networks. (e) being curious and creative in tive tongue nor a common (national) culture. Different to computermediated communication (CMC) manifesting in features and uses of technology in to the classroom: text chats and Email projects. this non-global publishing of courses and materials.) or virtual reality (VR) environments Today. but there have been cal Constructions). The primary purpose is to learn and help learners learn how to learn rather than being the source understand different variety of English. (d) being strategic language between persons who share neither a common na- and enthusiastic in learning. or as a lingua franca? And What that being involved in the learning process was crucial for about linguistic imperialism? Arguments are often accom- successful learning.0 technologies. The Investigation of Lexico-Grammatical Associations Some people say that the majority of ‘blockbuster’ courses in- (Associations of Specific Words with Particular Grammati. wikis. more intercultural. (c) demonstrating an awareness of learning is distinctive about ELF is that. as in blended-learning approaches with early approaches URL etc). the question that arises is whether it can count as a contains material specific to the interview. the countries around the globe have realized that the INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH X 117 . laborative elements have always been of vital importance in dents who were often considered in separate camps. They were aware as an international language. Commonly. less stereotyped. Locally produced Materials: blogging (Twitter.

class on one occasion will not necessarily suit to the same BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING) as well as the experiences. different coun. happening in his/her own classroom. listening comprehension processes in second language REFERENCES • Maley. Contemporary guage teachers and more significantly most teacher trainers theories of comprehension emphasize that it is an ac. MED Magazine. issue 18. | • Touchstone . A. Likewise. a method which is suitable background information. to find out functions. orientation (ascertaining essential Reflecting upon our own way of teaching tremendously helps facts about the text. Listening compre- practice of teaching. culture. Global issues in English Language Teaching. and Steve Walsh | •www. WORDS. a literature based foreign language to equipping learners with • Comprehension: The identification of the intended mean. Anna Cermakova – Oxford University Press. The basic idea about context. There has been a gradual shift from on each other. (e. himself to only a single method.com/elt/learner s_and_sdl. information from the context and ing. approaches emphasize the role of listening in building up language competence and suggest that more attention Reflective Practice and Teacher Learning: should be paid to teaching listening in the initial stages of This is about teachers’ questioning and exploring their own second or foreign language learning. pect of the code itself). such as participants. class at another time. The successful language teacher will notconfine • Interactive Processing: A theory of reading comprehen. and that tion and context. the general topic. The study of their practices which have been dealt above. and predictions that the reader for one language teacher while teaching a particular lan- brings to the text (i. | • Current Trends in ELT around the Globe by Sajan Kumar Karn (Article Published in EJournal) | • An Introduction to Corpora in English Language Teaching by Michael McCarthy. • Conclusion: There is no single most excellent way of teaching foreign Bottom-Up and Top-Down Skills in L2 Learning: languages. (1992).html | • Corpus Linguistics: A Short Introduction. It therefore includes both TOP-DOWN PROCESSING and suit to their own soil. It is a sort of systematic curiosity about hension activities typically address a number of listening going beyond the edges of what we know and do. the situa- other reference materials) on their own. A large number tive process drawing both on information contained in of articles and conference talks have been devoted to explor- the message (BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING) as well as ing precisely the communicative approach of language teach- background knowledge.April. ELT (TOPDOWN PROCESSING).g. Most English lan- ing of written or spoken communication. 2004. communicative skills for interaction globally. practitioners around the globe put into practice a great deal of • Listening Comprehension: The process of understand. Imported language bottom-up processing.– Wolfgang Teubert. TOP-DOWN PROCESSING). background knowledge and the topic.e. reflecting on it. Trends in English language teaching today. diverse activities to keep themselves up-to-date and enhance ing speech in a first or second language. 2007). and understanding how to improve it by trying to observe and understand what is and recall of details. more recent local needs. Retrieved September 15. A method which is appropri- sion that sees reading as involving both the accurate and ate with one sequential understanding of text based on identification of the meanings of words and sentences in the text (i. Both guage item may not be applicable for other teacher in the kinds of processing are involved and they modify and act same or similar context. and values. 13 (2). learning from it and trying out something slightly different and so on.From Corpus to Course Book by Michael McCarthy Cambridge University Press | 118 X INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH .e. A. PHONEMES. Instead. the emotional tone. ELT practitioners have not remained reli- from the listener’s and speaker’s purposes or intentions ant on fixed prescribed and imposed practices. comprehension of main ideas.Volume : 1 | Issue : 12 | September 2012 ISSN . 2007 from | http//macmillian. Anne O'Keeffe. Unlike in the past. and the reflection is that a teacher learns about his/her teaching and genre). While traditional approaches to teaching materials are in no way practicable in the context language teaching tended to underemphasize the impor- where they are not produced keeping into consideration the tance of teaching listening comprehension. | • Trends in English Language Teaching Today by Adrian Underhill.2249-555X instructional materials produced in one country may not be learning focuses on the role of individual linguistic units effective in other countries. adhere to communicative methodology today. Nonetheless.teachingstylesonline. grammatical structures) as tries are producing the teaching materials (textbooks and well as the role of the listener’s expectations. the situation or the teachers to improve the practice. 73. Practical English Teaching. including recognition (focusing on some as- how we could do things differently or better (Underhill.com//.