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Indian Political

System

Ankur Jain
Chief Knowledge Expert, T.I.M.E. Delhi
www.time4education.com

WHO IS A POLITICIAN?

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Decline in morality or reflection of society ? .

Role of the Judiciary 4. Lok Sabha. Religious and Political Thought 6. Constitution of India 3. Rajya Sabha and the States 7. fronts and alliances 8. Political parties. The Semicircle of Economic. Country 2. Power of the President/Governor 5. Regional Parties . National Parties 9. groupings. What we will cover 1. Nation Vs.

Nation Vs. Sikh Nation? . Bengali Nation. Country • India – One Nation? – One Country? • Europe – One Nation? – One country? • Two Nation Theory • Nationalists/Nationalism • Tamil Nation.

Could India have gone the European way? .

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA .

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IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty sixth day of November. and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation. The Preamble to the Constitution WE. belief. expression. . faith and worship. EQUALITY of status and of opportunity. ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION. THE PEOPLE OF INDIA. economic and political. 1949. do HEREBY ADOPT. having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE. social. LIBERTY of thought.

The Preamble to the Constitution WE. faith and worship. economic and political. . LIBERTY of thought. and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation. IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty sixth day of November. having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE. social. ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION. belief. THE PEOPLE OF INDIA. EQUALITY of status and of opportunity. do HEREBY ADOPT. expression. 1949.

Democratic. Important Terms • Sovereign. Secular. Liberty and Equality • Promote – Fraternity • Unity and Integrity . Integrity – 42nd Amendment in 1976 • Secure – Justice. Republic • Socialist.

g. UK. Russian Federation . the USA. Federalism • Not mentioned in the preamble but we are Federal in nature Unitary – Power with Federal – Power Confederation – strong central govt. India. France. E. states and center. weak central govt.g. Spain. Confederate Netherlands States of America (1861-65). sharing between Powerful states with e.. Germany.

• System of Checks and Balances • Role of Media – “Fourth Estate” . Other features of our country • Representative / Indirect Democracy • Universal Adult Franchise • Federal Structure of Government – Devolution of power – Center  State  Local Self Governments – Local Self Governments • Municipalities in cities and towns • Panchayats in villages with 50% reservation for women • Legislature. Executive. Judiciary – The three pillars of democracy. the other two not. The first elected.

M E D I A .

Religion plays a big role !!! .

Iftaar Daawat Anyone? .

ROLE OF THE JUDICIARY .

USA . Role of the Judiciary • Independent judiciary • Judicial Review • Judicial Activism – Governance deficit? – Interference in policy making? • Ninth Schedule – immune from judicial review – OBC Reservation – Makes legislature supreme • Non-Elected Judges in India. unlike e.g.

Judicial Activism? .

Judicial Activism .

Identify 1 2 3 5 6 4 .

POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT/GOVERNOR .

Postal Bill 1986 – APJ Abdul Kalam. Office of Profit Bill (came close to exercising it) • Coalition/Political Exigencies – Buta Singh – HR Bhardwaj – Pratibha Patil • Dismissal of opposition led state governments – 1966-77 – 39 times by Indira Gandhi – 1977-79 – 11 times by Opposition .Powers of the President/Governor • Envisioned as Rubber stamp • Power during hung parliament/assemblies • Pocket Veto – Zail Singh.

Economic and Political Thought The Centrists The Leftists Republicans (US) / Rightists Congress Conservatives- Tories (UK) Labour (UK) / Democrats (US) Third Front/SP/Janta Dal Shiv Sena BJP MNS BSP VHP/RSS CPI CPI(M) Bajrang Dal Ranvir Sena SIMI/Al- Qaeda/Taliban/Nazi Maoists/Naxalites/MCC .The Semicircle of Religious.

Indian Parliament – Lok Sabha
• Total Number of seats - 545
• Elections held for 543, 2 seats reserved for
Anglo-Indians
• Magic Mark - 272
• Seats to be distributed as per population
after each census, however, suspended since
1976 due to population distribution concerns.
• Delimitation carried out regularly
• Reservation for SC and ST candidates
• Proposed 33% Reservation for Women

Lok Sabha Seats and State Govts.
• UP – 80
• Maharashtra – 48
• AP – 42
• WB – 42
• Bihar – 40
• Tamil Nadu – 39
• MP – 29
• Karnataka – 28
• Gujarat – 26
• Rajasthan – 25
• Odisha – 21
• Kerala – 20

Indian Parliament – Rajya Sabha
• Council of states
• 250 Seats Maximum
• 245 Seats currently, 233 elected, 12
nominated.
– Can you name two currently nominated
members, other than Sachin Tendulkar?
• Vice-President – Chairperson
• Members elected/nominated for 6 years,
with one third retiring every 2 years.
– Ensures that balance of power in state
legislatures is adequately reflected at the
national level

Rajya Sabha Seats State Seats State Seats Andhra Pradesh 18 Kerala 9 Arunachal Pradesh / Goa / 1 each Madhya 11 Manipur / Meghalaya / Mizoram Pradesh / Nagaland / Sikkim / Tripura Assam 7 Maharashtra 19 Bihar 16 Odisha 11 Chhattisgarh 6 Paschima 16 Banga Gujarat 11 Punjab 7 Haryana 5 Rajasthan 10 Himachal Pradesh 3 Tamil Nadu 18 Jammu & Kashmir 4 Uttarakhand 3 Jharkhand 6 Uttar Pradesh 31 Karnataka 12 Delhi + 3+1 Puducherry .

Chairperson & Vice Chairperson Hamid Ansari & PJ Kurien .

GROUPINGS.POLITICAL PARTIES. FRONTS AND ALLIANCES .

Members of the Union cabinet of India as on 31st January 1950 .

ALLIANCES .

4 .206 • DMK – 18 • NCP – 9 • JKNC – 3 • Total .United Progressive Alliance (UPA) • Congress .259 Out side supporters: • SP – 22 • BSP – 21 • RJD .

National Democratic Alliance (NDA) • BJP – 116 • JD (U) – 20 • Shiv Sena – 11 • SAD • AGP • Janhit Congress .

!!! • Trinamool Congress – 19 • CPI + CPM + Forward Bloc • TDP • AIADMK • Others…. Third Front/United National Progressive Alliance Floating…. .

Third Front .

NATIONAL PARTIES .

Indian National Congress .

Hume • To serve as a safety valve – a pressure release mechanism through dialogue between Indians and Rulers after the 1857 “debacle” • Morphed into demand for more power • Moderates and Extremists (Naram Dal & Garam Dal) .O. Indian National Congress • GOP • Founded 1885 – A.

The First Indian National Congress .

Morarji Desai. • Left-Right tendencies – Garibi Hatao. Nehru. Kingmaker • Samyukt Vidhayak Dal Crisis • Split – Cong (O) (Morarji Desai) and Cong (I). Shastri. Bose. Role of Nijlingappa. merged into Janta Party in 1977 • India wins against Pakistan. Nehru led at various times • Independence. unrest. Soviet Union • Cong O  Later.Sampoorna Kranti • Emergency . Indira Gandhi • Syndicate and K Kamaraj – Kamaraj Plan. Birth of Bangladesh • Rise of Autocracy and Sanjay Gandhi in the 1970s • Widespread poverty. Patel. Indian National Congress • Gandhi. unemployment • Rise of JP – Back into politics .

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Autocrat? .

Sampoorna Kranti Rally 5th June 1975 .Patna .

Who? Justice Jagmohan Lal Sinha .

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Emergency Power Centers .

Emergency Power Centers .

Maruti Factory! .

thus not responsible to anyone • Power centered. offices worked! • Political imprisonment • Forcible sterilizations • MISA . Autocratic rule • Fear environment – Govt. Emergency – An Analysis • Rule of Non-elected people.

Compulsory Sterilisation ! .

Morarji Govt falls. Indian National Congress • Regrouping during opposition rule • Support to Bhindrawale • Outside support to Charan Singh. • Back to power • Death of Sanjay Gandhi • Khalistan and Punjab problem • Operation Bluestar • Assassination of Indira Gandhi • Anti-Sikh Riots .

Protest against Arrest .

Indira Gandhi .

Jarnail Singh Bhindrawale .

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Gen. K. (retd) K. Vaidya at the Golden Temple after Operation Bluestar in 1984. .From left: Lt-Gen. Gen. Sundarji and Gen. Vaidya was assassinated in 1986. Sundarji died in 1999. Brar.S. Lt-Gen. Brar has been on the hit-list of militant organisations and was targeted in London in 2012. A.S. Gen.

Assassination of Indira Gandhi .

Anti Sikh Riots .

Protests continue till date .

Clean • Scandals. 1986 – Charges of Muslim appeasement • Ram Janmabhoomi opened • 1989 – Congress loses power • Backs Chandrashekhar • Rajiv Gandhi assassinated • PV Narasimha in power • Sitaram Kesri . Scams • Shah Bano Case – Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act. Indian National Congress • Rajiv Gandhi – Mr.

? .Rajiv.. Sonia and ….

Identify! Shah Bano .

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Ottavio Quattrochi .

Election Campaigning in 1989 .

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1999. • Appeals to Sonia force her out of retirement • Back to power in 2004 • Sonia Gandhi makes Manmohan Singh PM? – Why? • 2009 .Another victory with increased margin • 2014 – Rahul Gandhi to lead . Indian National Congress • Out of power in three consecutive elections – 1996. 1998.

The First Family of Indian Politics .

Gandhi .Some KHADI for Mrs.

Religious Trips are a part of the initiation to politics ! .

Electoral Victories – UPA I and UPA II .

No end to cartoons! .

No end to cartoons! .

No end to cartoons! .

No End to Cartoons ! .

No End to Cartoons! .

No End to Cartoons! .

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No end to cartoons! .

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Masterchef UP Contest? .

Future Prime Ministers? Miraya and Raihan .

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Coalition Trouble! .

Identify! .

Prime Ministers all….Identify! 1 2 4 5 3 .

Bhartiya Janta Party .

Rajagopalachari • Merged with Congress (O). Janta Morcha (of JP and Morarji Desai) in 1977 • Split in 1980 and reborn as BJP . Bhartiya Lok Dal. Socialist Party of India (Raj Narain). Bharatiya Janta Party • Born as Bhartiya Jana Sangha • Shyama Prasad Mukherjee – 1951 • Death of SPM in 1953 in a Kashmir Jail • Deen Dayal Upadhaya – Gen Secy 1953-1968 • Aligned with right wing Swatantra Party of C.

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1952 2003 .

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Janta Party .

Janta Party .

Bhartiya Janta Party • Ram Janmabhoomi Case – 1986 • Bofors Scam • Post-Elections 1989 . • Support withdrawn – Govt.Support of VP Singh’s Janta Dal from outside • Rathyatra 1990 – LK Advani • Arrested in Bihar by Lalu Yadav’s govt in Oct 1990. Falls .

Uma Bharti charged…let off…charged…let off…. Bhartiya Janta Party • Elections 1991 – In opposition • 6th Dec1992 – Disputed Structure demolished • Advani.charged…let off .

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Various BJP Leaders .

Gujarat • Tehelka Sting Operation • In opposition since 2004. as the largest constituent of the NDA . Bhartiya Janta Party • 13 day govt…(1996) • 13 month govt… (1998-99) • 5 years (1999-2004) as part of the NDA • Godhara Riots .

Tehelka Scandal !

Afzal Guru .

Godhra Train Burnt .

Riots .

The BJP accuses Congress of doing appeasement politics and being pseudo-secular • Problems with allies like JD(U) . BJD – Naveen Patnaik etc. . BJP – Opinion Polariser • “Non-secular” credentials make it a pariah in “secular” politics • The Congress accuses BJP of being a fundamentalist outfit. • Even within BJP opinion divided on leaders like Narendra Modi.Nitish Kumar.

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The leadership in crisis .

Target 2014? .

1948-49. Sangh Parivar • RSS – Ideological Fountainhead • Started in 1925 • Banned thrice (British Rule. Emergency) .

If the BJP comes to power. he will be the most powerful man in India .

3 4 1 2 5 6 .

Keshav Baliram Hedgevaar (1925-1940) 2. Sarsanghchalak • Sarsanghchalak 1. Madhav Sadashiv Golvalkar (1940 – 1973) 3. Prof. Dr. Mohan Bhagwat (March 2009 – Present) . Rajendra Singh (1993-2000) 5. KS Sudarshan (2000-2009) 6. Madhukar Dattatreya Deoras (1973-93) 4.

Sangh Parivar • Vishwa Hindu Parishad • Bajrang Dal • Bhartiya Kisan Sangh • Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh • Akhil Bhartiya Vidyarthi Parishad • Bhartiya Janta Yuva Morcha • Swadeshi Jagran Manch • Sewa Bharti • Bharat Tibet Maitri Sangh • Hindu Swayamsevak Sangh • Shiksha Bharati • Bhartiya Itihas Sankalna Kendra .

Left Front • 1925 (or 1920?) • Split into two main parts – CPI – CPI (Marxist) – Supporters of CPSU and CPC respectively in 1960s • CPI(M) – Prakash Karat • CPI – AB Bardhan .

Identify! AB Bardhan Prakash Karat .

Bahujan Samaj Party • BAMCEF – All India Backward and Minorities Communities Employees Federation – 1973 • DS4 – Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti – 1981 • Bahujan Samaj Party – 1984 – Initially anti. िराज़ू और िलवार. – Still in alliance with BJP many times – a supposedly “upper” caste party! – Social Engineering – Brahmins and Dalits • Rivalry with SP .“upper” caste – तिलक. इनको मारो जि ू े चार.

1984 .

BSP Leaders .

Dalit Prerna Sthals .

Statues ! .

PA Sangma and Agatha Sangma – now estranged over Presidential Poll 2012. Tariq Anwar. • Currently 8 MPs in the LS plus Agatha Sangma. . Nationalist Congress Party • Split ostensibly over foreign origin of Sonia Gandhi • Sharad Pawar.

Activists or Politicians? .

Support to JP or Anna – Similar? Symptomatic of Disenchantment with politicians? .

Urban middle class angst only or wider/deeper reach? .

Lone Crusader. Maverick or Crazy? .

PROMINENT STATE PARTIES .

Trinamool Congress. E. . Federalism . • President’s rule – Article 356 • NCTC • Rise of breakaway groups is a natural consequence as they have higher bargaining power. NCP etc.g. power over State Govts.Concerns • Misuse of Central Govt.

language • Hunger for Power – Easily change alliances • Anti-defection bill makes defection tougher • Kingmakers – Negotiation power with own MPs than as MPs of a larger party . Rise of regional parties • Nationalism or centrism? Federalism Revisited! – India is a “Union of states” • Regional aspirations unfulfilled • Feeling of injustice • Preservation of culture.

Changing Electoral Fortunes 70 60 65.5 6.95 0 Difference in vote-share Percentage of seats held by percentage between the state & other parties Congress and the second-largest party Source: Center for the Study of Developing Societies .7 50 40 30 1952 32 20 2004 10 4.

TAMIL POLITICS .

2 3 2 1 4 5 4 3 .

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Dravidsthan / Dravid Nadu / Anti – Hindi / Anti Indo-Aryan cultural imposition / Tamil Language & culture preservation • Justice Party • Dravidar Kazhagham (Dravidian Association) • Split with CN Annadurai – Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (Dravid Advancement Association) .Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) • Tamil Nationalism Movement • Periyar EV Ramasamy • Joined Congress in 1919 but left in 1925 • Legacy of Rationalism / Social Reform / Women’s liberation / Self-respect movement.

Karunanidhi – 1969-71. Karunanidhi becomes CM of TN • 1972 – Cine Star MGR moves out and forms Anna DMK.Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) • 1967 – CN Annadurui is CM of Madras/TN • 1969 – CN Annadurai dies and script-writer- turned politician M. 2006-2011 . later All India Anna DMK • M. 1989- 91. 1996-2001. 1971-76.

1984-87 • Janaki Ramachandran – brief spell as CM • J Jayalalitha – Film heroine turned politician • 1991-96. 2011-Present . 1980-84. • MGR .First film hero to become CM in 1977 • 1977-80. 2002-06. All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) • MGR formed in 1972.CM .

aligned with Congress • So. there are no permanent enemies or friends .Relationship with National Parites • Initially. therefore. DMK aligned with anti-Hindutva. AIADMK aligned with BJP • However. DMK opposed to Congress • So. AIADMK aligned with Congress • Later.

MGR with Indira .

Jayalalitha with AB Vajapayee .

Sonia Gandhi with DMK Leaders .

Arrested!! .

No permanent enemies or friends! .

No permanent enemies or friends! .

The Rajinikanth Factor :-) .

TELUGU POLITICS .

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Telugu Desam Party
• NTR – 1982
• Alternative to ruling Congress
• Govt. dismissed
• Fresh Elections, greater mandate
• Died in 1996
• Lakshmi Parvathy - Widow
• “Coup” by Son-in-Law N. Chandra Babu
Naidu

Identify!

Trinamool Congress

Rashtriya Janta Dal .

Janta Dal (United) .

A quick look at some others • Biju Janta Dal • Janta Dal (Secular) • Janta Dal (United) • Asom Gana Parishad • Shivsena • Maharashtra Navnirman Sena • Jharkhanda Mukti Morcha • Rashtriya Janta Dal • Lok Janashakti Party • Samajwadi Party • Indian National Lok Dal • Shiromani Akali Dal • People’s Democratic Party • National Conference .

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The sad story of the upliftment of the disadvantaged sections .

com/node/146358 • http://www.org/?p=2007 • http://media.economist.edu/saisphere/article/ethnicity-and-politics-south-asia • http://rajyasabha.economist.asp • http://www. Selected Bibilography • http://en.com/article.aspx • http://www.outlookindia.indiatimes.com/headon/entry/governing-our-governors • http://swaminomics.wikipedia.timesofindia.com/watch?v=spS1m3wbSzE • http://www.india-today.aspx?224873 • http://www.youtube.outlookindia.com/News-Feed/Samar/The-end-of-Empire/Article1- 875788.com/news/2005/jun/27sld.nic.sais-jhu.aspx?263878 • http://specials.html • http://www.in/rsnew/faq/freaq1.com/article.com/itoday/millennium/100people/narayan.rediff.com/node/146272 • http://blogs.org/wiki/The_Emergency_(India) • http://www.hindustantimes.htm .

com . Thanks! www.time4education.

MISA • Madhavrao/Jyotiraditya. Rabri. Jagmohan Mundhra an influence over Mayawati Scam • ND Tiwari • P Chidambaram – Chettiyar legacy / VK Krishnamenon • Arjun Singh • LN Mishra • Harkishan Singh Surjeet • Karpoori Thakur • Devi Lal • Anugrah Narayan Sinha • Chautala • Ajit Singh . • BJP’s on off relationship with Rajesh/Sachin Pilot Mayawati despite Periyar being • TT Krishnamachari. To – Do • Rajiv Assassination • Siddhartha Shankar Ray – Role in • Tashkent and Shastri Emergency • Green Revolution – Jai Jawan Jai Kisan • Nijlingappa – Role in expulsion of • Lohia Ke Log Indira Gandhi • Mayawati beaten up • Jagmohan. Bansi Lal etc • Karunanidhi arrest shown on SUN TV • Sidhu/Hema/Dharmendra/Shatrughan • Chikmanglur Photo Sinha/Vinod Khanna .BJP • Indira Gandhi Riding Elephant • Rajesh Khanna/Azhar/Raj Babbar – • TN Seshan Congress • VP Singh • Arun Govil / Arvind Trivedi / Deepika Chikhlia – Single grab with party • Chandrashekhar affiliation • EMS Namoodripad • Neetish Bhardwaj – Krishna • Maulana Mulayam. Natwar Lal. • Nehru Gandhi Family Portraits Photo of Mulayam Singh Yadav • Gangadhar Nehru/Motilal / Jawahar with APJ Abdul Kalam Lal / Indira Feroz / Sajay Maneka/ Rajiv Sonia/Rahul Priyanka Varun • Laloo. MY Factor.