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Structural Design of Pergola

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**Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering
**

ISSN 2319-5347, Vol. 04, No. 03, July 2015

**Structural Design of Pergola with Airfoil Louvers
**

MUHAMMAD TAYYAB NAQASH

Aluminium TechnologyAauxiliary Industries w.l.l. P.o box 40625, Doha, Qatar,

Email: tayyab@alutecqatar.com

Abstract: The here presented paper deals with the structural calculation for a Pergola consists of Airfoil

Louvers and its supporting beams that are connected to the wall. The overall height of the pergola is about 5.0m,

subjected to a wind load of 1.2 Kpa, calculated for a mean hourly basic wind speed of 25m/sec [1]. Therefore

the pergola is checked for the prescribed wind load. Stresses and deflection checks obtained from the numerical

model [2] have been carried out for louvers and the supporting beams and found SAFE according to different

acceptance criterion. [3, 4]. The louvers are attached to the Aluminum plate when then is connected to a steel

tube. The paper gives complete design procedure for the design of a pergola using SAP 2000 software.

Keywords: Airfoil Louvers, Structural design, Aluminum, Steel, Numerical models

Introduction: Materials:

The materials and its properties used in the pergola are

mentioned here. All structural steel shall have fy

nominal yield strength of as specified below and

having similar chemical composition and mechanical

properties to those specified in BS 4360 [5] for the

specified grade of steel. Grade 43 (BS 5950) [6, 7],

Modulus of Elasticity E= 210000 MPa

Allowable stresses: Strength Py = 275 Mpa (for t ≤

16mm), Poisson Ratio µ=0.3, Shear Modulus G=E/

(2(1+ µ)), Coefficient of thermal expansion

α=12x10-6/0C

Aluminum extrusions used 52i54 alloy to Structural

Use of Aluminum BS 8118 Part 1: 1991 [8, 9]

Modulus of Elasticity E= 70000 Mpa, Allowable

stresses: Bending Po = 160 Mpa, Axial Pa= 175 Mpa,

Shear Pv=95 Mpa, Density of Aluminum (KN/m3) γ

=27, Coefficient of thermal expansion α = 23x10-6

Figure 1: Sectional view of the louvers

Figure 2: Composite section of the main beam

IJASGE 040301 Copyright © 2015 BASHA RESEARCH CENTRE. All rights reserved

2 of BS 8118.0 1. to create SAP 2000 model. the load factors for designing Aluminum structures are given in the Eurocode 0. When designing Aluminum structures to British This tube is considered only to produce the dead load Standards. 11] adopted in the SAP 2000 numerical model. BS EN 1990 [12. load combinations may need to be considered. MUHAMMAD TAYYAB NAQASH The louvers are connected to the Aluminum plate. Thermal loadings C/S Airfoil blades are extruded in grade 6063. For standard design situations with the imposed load or wind action giving the most severe loading action on the structure or component. pp 120-127 . for such long spans are considerable. 3mm EPDM sheet is provided. they are assumed subjected to dead Aluminum deflection = Span/175. 9] the model needs to be checked. 1. No. Where γf1 and γf2 are partial load factors and their values can be found in Tables 3. design of the louvers. Further it is seen that design loads generated with the procedure of Eurocode 0 generates higher values for the design Figure 4: Adopted equivalent tube for louver actions for the ULSs [14].2 Imposed Load 1. Overall load factors according to BS 8118: Serviceability Ultimate Loads Limit State Limit State Dead Load 1. 10. Since. therefore gap (minimum 5mm) are provided to accommodate thermal expansion and contraction. The Loading Considered for the Design Purpose: adopted Aluminum plate is not enough to satisfy the Louvers. In the case of Aluminum. 04. according to Serviceability Limit State: the BS 8118 code.2 In contrast to BS 8118.2 DL ± 1. [9]. therefore. therefore will represent the geometric properties of the Louver which are installed f f1 f 2 inclined. ΔL = α x ΔL x L = 23x10-6 x35x4000 = 3.2 mm. furthermore.2. The section adopted in needless to mention that wind can blows through the the numerical model is not taken into account the louver.3 Factored loading [8]. The calculated wind load was quite less avoid any galvanic reaction between the two materials.3 the overall load factor γf is Fig 5 are for vertical Tube but as it is rotated at 45 0 in calculated as follows: the numerical model. so quite low wind can be consider for the existence of the EPDM sheet and is shown in Fig 3. if gap will not be provided. Assume temperature variation = ± 35 °C. Design Criteria: The design load combinations in the present case are Ultimate Limit State: the various combinations of the load cases for which Aluminum 160 MPa [8.2. than the one adopted for the design. In the case.000mm (as three plates are provided for all the length). the relevant load factors are specified in BS of the louver and to apply linear load on the louver so 8118: Part 1: Clause 3. steel tube. the deal load is limit states. the expansion is more critical than that of steel material. and the following = span/200.0 1. The wind (200 x 100 x 6) and therefore a composite section is load of 1. therefore it is reinforced with a steel tube calculated by the software (SAP 2000) [2].33 Wind Load 1. and Wind load (WL). Maximum Length of Aluminum plate equals 4.1 and 3. Aluminum plate.0 1.2 DL 1. In order to is calculated. they are assumed as described here. curtain walls Steel 275 MPa consist of Aluminum material therefore. 03. Vol. stresses due to temperature need to be Figure 3: Louver profiles verified prior to the installation.2 KN/m2 as per British Standards [1.2 WL International Journal of Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering ISSN 2319-5347. and Steel deflection load (DL). and hence temperature load is not accounted for in the analysis. 13] and its National Annex. Coefficient of thermal expansion (α) of Aluminum material is 23x10- 6 . July 2015.T6 The thermal loading is an indirect loading and in Qatar Aluminium alloy as shown in Fig 4. The properties shown in According to Clause 3.

Figure 6: Wind loading on louvers (1. Therefore.4/1.7 < The allowable bending stress = 275Mpa for steel and 160Mpa for Aluminum. Maximum Induced Stress in Louvers under ULS is 20. No. Maximum Induced Stress in steel tube under ULS with 1. July 2015. pp 120-127 .2 Kpa) Stresses in the main members are checked here. where the longitudinal members are pinned connected to the main reinforced Aluminum tubes.4. 04. Vol.2 = 153. Figure 7: Stress diagram under ULS Figure 8: Deflection due to SLS (scaled to 10 for clear visibility) International Journal of Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering ISSN 2319-5347. 03. Figure 5: Frame of the SAP 2000 Numerical model Maximum Induced Stress in steel tube under ULS with 1. Structural Design of Pergola with Airfoil Louvers Nevertheless.1 Mpa < The allowable bending stress 160Mpa for Aluminum.8 Mpa x 1. the main beams and connections are checked for load combinations with load factor 1. Modeling of the Pergola: The numerical model of SAP 2000 is shown here.4 will be 131.8 Mpa.2 is 131.

the total shear force at the support is 8.8 ptb At where: ptb= 0.1 mm. pp 120-127 .1mm < 52.4 factor will be 0. Hence SAFE. usually taken as the tensile stress area.479 x 1.6 KN.4/1. Limiting bolts are adopted for the connection. AF-200 blade can resist a wind load of more than 2. 04.1 mm. July 2015. therefore the connection is checked for the shear force of 8. [15].1mm.4/1.56 < 1.0kpa.5 mm The shear capacity of a bolt.2 factor is 0.47 mm Limiting value = Span/175 = 2300/175 = 13.4. value = Span/200 = 10500/200 = 52. Vol. Since. For connection design the forces need to be factored by 1.0.2 KN x 1.2 = 0.2mm. in which case it can be taken as the unthreaded shank area. Hence Safe For the adopted span (2300mm). 03. Hence SAFE Enough. No.2 KN. The tension capacity Pnom is given by Pnom = 0. Verification of the Main Steel Tube: Maximum demand to capacity under ULS with 1.479. A sleeve of composed of 8mm thick 2 plates and 2 # of M12 SS Maximum deflection in steel tube =48. should be taken as: 48. Hence SAFE Psb = psb A where: psb is the shear strength of bolt As is the shear area.2 = 9.2 KN. MUHAMMAD TAYYAB NAQASH Maximum deflection in Louvers =0. Design of Connections: Maximum induced reaction in shear is F r = 8.47mm < 13.7 Usb (U is the tensile strength) International Journal of Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering ISSN 2319-5347. 0. therefore the demand to capacity under ULS with 1. Psb. unless it can be guaranteed that the threaded portion will be excluded from the shear plane.

03. July 2015.22 KN International Journal of Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering ISSN 2319-5347. No. Vol. 04. Structural Design of Pergola with Airfoil Louvers Figure 9: Elevation of end details Figure 10: End details (bracket) Shear capacity of M12 SS bolt equals to 26. pp 120-127 .

to the Main Steel tube. transferring the shear forces from the Aluminum plate Lever arm equals (500-60-60-134/2) = 313mm. Diameter Class 50 Class 70 Class 80 Pv = 0. therefore Considering only two bolts (M12).27 KN > 5 KN -----OK Figure 11: Other end details Since 10Kn is the total shear acting. Vol. July 2015.75 KN > 5 kN ----- Total shear applied is Fv = 10 KN OK Fv/2 (two bolts)= 10/2 (2 bolts)= 5 kN Bearing check Checking plain shear Pbs = kbs d tc pbs. Block shear check Consider the centroid of the bolts to be 75mm from Pr = 0.12 KN > 5 kN -----OK These screws are assumed subjected to shear forces Using M12 bolts are safe and therefore and transferring the forces to the main Total shear applied is Fv = 10 KN steel tube.6 (275) (0. the main tube is quite long.6 (275) (0.6 x 275 x 6 x (30) = 29. the base of the 8mm thick plate. therefore a sleeve adopted M10 SS screws at 500mm C/C are safe in connection at 6m is proposed. therefore induced Pr= 0. net shear from the moment on the bolts International Journal of Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering ISSN 2319-5347.6 Py Av = 0. provided plates are 8mm thick. pp 120-127 . being S275 material used for 6mm thick tube.6 KN > 5 kN -----OK that e1 is only 30mm. therefore provided for connecting Aluminum plate to steel tube.41 18. Pr= 0. Pbs = 1x 12 x 6 x 460 = 33.6 Py Av = 0.2 x 0. Bearing check Countersunk M10 stainless self-drilling screws are Pbs = kbs d tc pbs. and considers Pbs = 1x 12 x 5 x 460 = 27. 04. bending moment will be 9.6 py tc (Lv + Ke (Lt-kD)). The shear capacity of SS M10 screw is Fv/2 (two bolts)= 10/2 (2 bolts)= 5 kN 18. (two shear planes and Pr = 0. two bolts).69 KNm OK resisted by two plates.04KN Checking plain shear Considering only two bolts (M12) on one side. MUHAMMAD TAYYAB NAQASH As the maximum induced reaction at the support is Block shear check only 9. being S275 material used for 6mm thick plate.9x 2x 30) 6= 53.4 Maximum shear is only 9. therefore.6 x 275 x 5 x (30) = 24. which is transferred to KN > 5 KN -----OK the bracket through the use of two M12 bolts. therefore. Therefore.7 KN > 5 kN ----. 03. Using M12 bolts are safe Pv = 0.2KN.5 M 10 8.075 = 0.9x 2x 30) 5= 44. therefore the Since. No.6 KN < 2x2 x 26.55 KN.6 py tc (Lv + Ke (Lt-kD)).04 22. Stainless Steel Bolts (Shear Strength in KN) and consider that e1 is only 30mm.

1 Therefore.4/1. Total shear = 68. The lever arm acceptance criteria both for ULS and SLS between the bolts is the governing factor for the length of a sleeve when subjected to bending moment. the shear capacity of one bolt with a single shear plan as calculated in the previous section equals 26. Vol.22 = 209.1KN). so there are no such verifications to check the deflection the shear is almost negligible (it is only 1.5 KN. Factored planes = 4x2x26.7 KN.5 x 1.22 KN Figure 12: Elevation of sleeve connection Figure 13: Section of sleeve connection The sleeve is located at the center of the steel tube. pp 120-127 . The 3mm EPDM sheet in between Aluminum plate and total length of the sleeve is 500mm. the bending moment. even of a sleeve tube. Reinforce the main 8mm thick Aluminum plate connecting the louvers with a MS tube 200 x 100 x International Journal of Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering ISSN 2319-5347. 03. The sleeve is of the same size as Conclusions: that of the steel tube in thickness. the shear capacity of 4 bolts with 2 shear KN. July 2015. 04. in the present case The adopted Aluminum Airfoil louvers meets the the adopted bolts govern the design.7 + 1.Hence shear = 69.1 = 69. The sleeve is provided only for the though at it is combined with the shear induced from continuation of the main steel tube.76 KN > 81 KN ---. It is not subjected steel tube for avoiding any galvanic reaction to buckling as there is no axial compression moreover.2 = 81 KN Safe. Structural Design of Pergola with Airfoil Louvers equals 21.4/0. No.313 = 68. Using 4 M12 SS through bolts on one side. Induced shear equals 1.

" in European Committee for 3: General method of calculation and Standardization." British Standard. 2000. CA. Berkeley. July 2015. Use stainless steel M12 countersunk bolts 1991. prEN 13474-3. CEN.Part 1-1: General actions ." Computers and Structures. "Loading for buildings. [14] N." British [1] BS 6399-2. [13] Ulrich Muller." British Analysis and Design of Structures Basic Analysis Standard.." in European glass panes-Part 2: Design for uniformly Committee for Standardization. fabrication and erection — Rolled and welded sections. "Structural use of aluminium. "Glass in building . 2001. 1996." British Standard. Part 1: ULS and SLS Code of Practice for Design. USA. 2004. [9] BS 6399-1. of practice for wind loads. determination of strength of glass by testing. workmanship and Use M12 chemical anchors protection. MUHAMMAD TAYYAB NAQASH 6 which then satisfy the acceptance criteria both for [7] BS 8188-1. "Eurocode 0. 2000." British Standard. Part 2: Code Standard." British Standard.Part design. et al. Introduction to Structural [4] BS 4360. S. "Specification for materials. The Behaviour and Design of [5] BS 5950-1.Design of weight." British Standard. "Integrated Finite Element of practice for imposed roof loads. 2008. European Standard." British Standard. 1990. Basis of structural Determination of the strength of glass panes . pp 120-127 ." European Standard. "Specification for Weldable Structural Aluminium Design: Whittles Publishing. Use 8mm thick MS S275 grade.. "Structural use of aluminium. Part 2: sleeve tube Specification for materials. building. [11] EN-1991-1-1. [12] EN-1990. [6] BS 5950-2. . "Loading for buildings. 36 B- distributed loads. 1997 [10] BS 6399-3. Part 1: Code References of practice for dead and imposed loads. International Journal of Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering ISSN 2319-5347. "Structural use of steelwork in Steel Structures to EC3 4E: Taylor & Francis. 2009. Trahair. Brussels. Brussels. CEN. 04. 1991. 36 B-1050. sleeve plates and [8] BS 8188-2." 2002. "Glass in building. Reference Manual. "Eurocode 1. 2002. Steel. 03. self- [3] prEN 13474-2.4] 1050. 1988. Actions on structures Inc. "Loading for buildings. 2011.Densities. ed. Vol.. No. imposed loads for buildings. Part 3: Code [2] CSI SAP V15. ed.

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