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Indefinite Integrals Calculus

Consider the function Can you think of a function such that ? (Answer:
many other examples.)
Since we differentiate to get we see that will work for any constant Graphically, we can
think the set of all antiderivatives as vertical transformations of the graph of
Notation and Introduction to Indefinite Integrals
The process of finding antiderivatives is called antidifferentiation, more commonly referred to as integration. We
have a particular sign and set of symbols we use to indicate integration:

We refer to the left side of the equation as “the indefinite integral of with respect to
" The function is called the integrand and the constant is called the constant of integration. Finally the
symbol indicates that we are to integrate with respect to

Using this notation, we would summarize the last example as follows:
Using Derivatives to Derive Basic Rules of Integration
As with differentiation, there are several useful rules that we can derive to aid our computations as we solve problems.
The first of these is a rule for integrating power functions, and is stated as follows:

If and are integrable functions, and is a constant, then
Example 2:Compute the following indefinite integral.

Solution:
Using our rules we have Sometimes our rules need to be
modified slightly due to operations with constants as is the
case in the following example.
Example 3:
Compute the following indefinite integral:
Solution:We first note that our rule for integrating exponential functions does not work here since
However, if we remember to divide the original function by the constant then we get the correct antiderivative and have

We can now re-state the rule in a more general form as
In problems #1–3, find an antiderivative of the function
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1 1 x2 4
7. xx4 x
dx
x4 xx dx 
2
 4 C
x
Indefinite Integrals Practice
1. Verify the statement by showing that the derivative of the right side is equal to the integrand of the left side.
 9  3  1 
   x dx  3  C  1   dx  x  3 x  C
3
4 
a. b.
 x x 
3 2

2. Integrate.

1

t  csc t  C c.  cot   sin   C d.  3 x 2 dx l. t   C o. u 4  u 2  C p. you could have checked all of yours using differentiation!) 5 2.  cos t  C 3 7. c. dx f.  2  C 5 4 x 4x x4 6 73 3 2 3 5 1 1 i. dx d. t 3  C c. 6x  C b. x C g. (2sin x  3cos x)dx b.5 Evaluating Definite Integrals If is continuous on the closed interval then where is any antiderivative of We sometimes use the following shorthand notation to indicate Example 1:Compute the following definite integral: Solution:Using the limit definition we found that We now can verify this using the theorem as follows: We first note that is an antiderivative of Hence we have We conclude the lesson by stating the rules for definite integrals. x 1 3 dx t2  2  u  3u  1 du p.  2 dx n. 3 dx x i.  C 4 7 2 5 2x 4x 2 3 1 11 2 72 n. ydy 4x t Answers: (Of course.  2 dt   x  1 6 x  5 dx y 2 2 o. t3 a. x  x  xC k. x 3  2  dx j. a. 2.  2x  C j. b.  a. x C f. most of which parallel the rules we stated for the Example 2: Compute Example 3:Compute 1.  C h.  1  csc t cot t  dt   csc   cos  d   t  sin t  dt 2 2 c. d. 1 m. u  C 2x2 2 52 33 4 2 1 e.  2  C m. 2cos x  3sin x  C b. Integrate. x 3  C l.  6dx  3t dt  5x  du 2 3 a. dx h. xdx g. q. 2 . 2 x3  x 2  5 x  C q.   2x 4 3   3x  1 dx k. y C t 4 2 2 7 1.  C d. 3 1 1 x  x  2x 2 3 e.

3 . However. The definite integral computes the net area under the curve. 7. the area between the curve and the x-axis is given by: We observe that the regions of interest are in the first and third quadrants from to We also observe the symmetry of the graphs about the origin. 4. Your friend states that there is no area under the curve of on since he computed Is he correct? Explain your answer. 9. 3. From this we see that the total area enclosed is Example 2:Find the area between the curves of and the axis from to Solution: We observe from the graph that we will have to divide the interval into subintervals and Example 3:Find the area enclosed by the curves of and Solution:The graph indicates the area we need to focus on. Review Answers 1 6 He is partially correct. 8. 6. 5.

4 3 7 16 1 1 3  1 4 m  2 2  C 3 C 6.  1    2  dt 12.) dx x  1 3 2 4x  6 6. x  1  2 x  dx  3  x3  3x2  dx   x  3 2 3 52 1. t  5  6t   C 11. C 3 15 4  t 3x 1  3  2x  4x2   C 2 13. 7. 4. f ( x)  x2  1. 3) (Hint: you will need to add 2 integrals) Area = 6 Integration by Substitution Practice Find the indefinite integral. g ( x)  x Area = 1/6 6.) 2 dx 4.  C C   5. on the interval (0. 4. 3 x3  1 2 1  x  2 2  x  3x  7  2 2 6 1  1  4 2 2 32 1 9.  3x dx 13.  dt 11. g ( x)  3  x . dx 8. 1  x3  C 10. dx 6. 2. C 2. 4 x2 1  2 x  x 2  1 dx 2. 9. 5.) 5. dx 5. dx x2  x 1  2 x  6x   2 3 4. 1    C 12. 3.)  3x 2 3  x3 dx   x  3  x 1  2 x  dx  3 5 2 3 3.)  dx x  3x  7  2 3 Integrate. 2. 8. g ( x)  4 2 Area = 32/3 59 7. f ( x )  x . dx  x3  1 1  x2  2 3 4x  6 x2  m m  2dm  3 4 7. 1. 2  t  t  2 t Answers: x  1 2 4 2 1  3  x3  2  C 2 1  2 x2   C 3  x  3 2  C 7 4 1. 3. dx  x 2  3x  7  3 1  x3 3 t  2t 2  1  1   3  2 x  4 x  1  4 x  dx 1 10. 3.   3t dt  3) 5x 3dx 2 1) 6dx 2) 3  du  x dx  2 3 4) 5) 6) xdx x  2  dx 1 1 x  2 x3 dx 3 7) dx 8) 9) x 10)   2x 4 3  3x  1 dx  11)  3 x 2 dx 12) 1  x3 dx 4 . f ( x)  x .

 x  x 2 dx (e  e ) Integrate. dx 2. dx 7. dx 1 1 2 e2 x  2e x  1  3e  x3 e 4 x dx 8. dx * H int : Simplify by dividing by e x 2(e x  e x ) 9.25 x 0.  3e e  3xe  (2x+1)e  3 x  4e 3 x 0.5 x2 x2  x x 2 8 x 1. t2  2    1 13)  4 x 2 dx 14)  t 2 dt 15) u 3u 2  1 du 16)   x  1 6 x  5 dx 17)  y 2 ydy x3 3 x 3  2 x2  4x   5/3 3    3)  5 dx    6 x  2  2  dx 5 4 1) x dx 2) dx 4) dx 5) x 4x x  x  x2  x  1 2   2x  1  x  3 dx  u 5u  1 du 3   2  3  2  dx 2 6) dx 7) 8) 9) x  4x x   t  4 t  4 x3  x  1 dx 10)  t 2 dt 11)  12)  y3 4 y3 dy Integrate the following using U-substitution. dx 3.  2 1  2x  dx  (2x)  x 1 dx 4 2 3 1) 2) 3)  (10 x) 5x  4dx 4)   x  4  dx 2 4 5)  x  x  1 dx 6)  x 1  2 x  dx 2 3 2 7 x2 x 1 7)  dx 8)  dx 1  x  3 2 x  2 x  3 2 2 x2 4x  6 9)  dx 10)  dx x  3x  7  3 x2  4 x  3 2 Integrate the following using U-substitution. 4x 3 x3 1)  5x 3 1  x 2 dx 2)  dx 3)  dx 4)  dx 1 x 2 2x  3 1  x4  5)  x3  3x x2  1 dx  6)  1 2x  dx 7)  3  2 x  4 x2 1  4 x  dx   8)  x  2  3x  2 3 3/2 dx Integrate.  (e x  e  x ) 2 dx * H int : FOIL 10.  ex  ( x 1) / 2 6. dx 4. dx 5. 1 1 x x2 x3 1)  x 1 dx 2)  3  2x dx 3)  2 x 1 dx 4)  x3  1 dx 5)  x  6x  7 2 dx 1 e x 4e2 x 6)  dx 7)  dx 8)  dx x ln x 1  e x 5  e2 x 5 .  (6 x  e x ) 3x 2  e x dx 12.  9 xe x dx  x  2 x  e x 3 x 1dx 2  3 2   3 2 1) 2e2 x dx 2) e4x dx 3) 4) 5x2e x dx 5) 1 2/ x 1 x 6)  5e2 x dx 7)  x2 e dx 8)  x e dx Evaluate.  e x 1  e x dx 11.