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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM

Rationale

A car accident, also referred to as a “traffic collision,” or a “motor vehicle

accident,” occurs when a motor vehicle strikes or collides another vehicle, a

stationary object, a pedestrian, or an animal. While some car accidents result

only in property damage, others result in severe injuries or death. There are

many factors that can contribute to car accidents, and sometimes such accidents

have legal consequences.

Every year, nearly 1.2 million people die worldwide due to road traffic

crashes — an average of 3,000 daily. In addition, about 50 million more are

injured or incur disabilities as a result of road accidents (WHO, 2007). According

to the latest World Health Organization data published in May 2014 Road Traffic

Accidents Deaths in Philippines reached 9,758 or 1.87% of total deaths. The age

adjusted Death Rate which is 11.56 per 100,000 of population ranks Philippines

#123 in the world.

As to the latest report of Ilocos Norte Police Provincial Office published in

May 2017, there are a total of 870 cases of vehicular accidents recorded in the

province from January to April 2017 whereas 26 of this resulted to homicide, 358

resulted to physical injury, and 486 resulted to damage of property.

The physical health problems that can occur due to vehicular accidents

include whiplash, which is the general term used to describe any injury to the soft

tissues or bones within the neck. Traumatic brain injuries can also occur when a
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sudden bump, blow, or other forceful impact to the head disrupts the normal

functioning of the brain. As to the psychological effects, the latest study by British

researchers suggests that at least one-third of all people involved in nonfatal

accidents have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), persistent anxiety,

depression, and phobias one year after the experience of vehicular accidents

(Mayou, 2009).

Vehicular accidents have emerged as an important public health issue

which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The number of fatal

and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real

public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The

approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road

accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted (Gopalakrishnan, 2012).

The researchers came up with this study to find out the health beliefs and

practices of public utility vehicle (PUV) drivers on the prevention of vehicular

accidents. This study will improve their practice of health beliefs to prevent the

occurrence of vehicular accidents and this will serve as a basis in formulating

and conducting health education.

Statement of the Objectives

The study primarily aims to determine the health beliefs and practices of

public utility vehicle (PUV) drivers on the prevention of vehicular accidents.

Specifically, it will be conducted to:

1. identify the socio-demographic profile of the respondents as to:
1.1 age,
1.2 civil status,
1.3 monthly income,
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1.4 educational attainment, and
1.5 length of service.

2. determine the respondents’ health beliefs on the prevention of vehicular

accidents,

3. determine the respondents’ extent of practice of health beliefs on the

prevention of vehicular accidents as to:

3.1. promoting rest and sleep

3.2. avoiding vices

3.3. controlling emotions

3.4. practicing spirituality

4. determine the significant relationship between the socio-demographic profile

and the respondents’ extent of practice of health beliefs on the prevention of

vehicular accidents.

Significance of the Study

This study will be conducted to benefit the following group of people or

agencies:

Public Utility Vehicle (PUV) Drivers. The research findings will improve

their extent of practice of health beliefs to lessen their risk for vehicular accidents.

LTO personnel. The results of this study will provide the Land

Transportation Office personnel a basis in formulating lectures to the PUV drivers

on the prevention of vehicular accidents.

PNP personnel. The results of this study will provide the Philippine

National Police especially the Laoag City Police Station Directory a basis in

conducting different seminars on the prevention of vehicular accidents.
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Local Government. The results of this study may serve as bases for the

local government in providing support to the undertakings of the PNP especially

on the implementation of traffic rules and regulations to lessen the occurrence of

vehicular accidents.

Health Care Providers. The results of this study will serve as a basis for

health care providers by formulating health education lectures and conduct

counselling among PUV drivers to prevent the occurrence of vehicular accidents.

Community people. The findings of this study serve as an eye opener to

the commuters for them to be more observant to the drivers whom they hire.

Researchers. The findings of this study will provide basis for the

researchers to conduct additional studies related to the topic.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study

The study determines the health beliefs and practices of PUV drivers on the

prevention of vehicular accidents. It also looks into the relationship between the

respondents’ socio-demographic profile and their extent of practice of the health

beliefs on the prevention of vehicular accidents. The respondent’s socio-

demographic profile includes age, civil status, monthly income, educational

attainment, and length of service.

The respondents that will be included in the study will be delimited to PUV

drivers at least 18 years of age and above, male, currently driving jeepney

around Laoag City, Ilocos Norte which are from the following terminals: Gabu,

Calayab/Suba, La Paz, Caaoacan, Dibua, and San Mateo. Excluded are those

who are below 18 years old, female, driving bus and tricycle, and driving jeepney
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outside Laoag City, Ilocos Norte.

The descriptive-correlation design will be used and data will be gathered

directly from the respondents with the aid of a guided structured checklist

questionnaire. The health beliefs and the extent of practice of health beliefs on

the prevention of vehicular accidents among PUV drivers will be delimited to their

responses in the structured questions.

The study will be conducted on September to October 2017.

Operational Definition of Terms

For better understanding of the research, the following terms are defined as how it

will be used in the study.

Extent of practice. This term refers to the respondents’ degree of adherence to the

health beliefs to prevent vehicular accidents which include driving safely, managing

distractions, and maintaining discipline.

Health beliefs. This term refers as personal convictions that influence

health behavior of Public utility vehicle drivers on the prevention of vehicular

accidents.

Health practices. This term pertains to those actions by which public

utility vehicle drivers can prevent diseases, promote self-care and make

choices that enhance health.

Prevention. This term refers to the ways on how to avoid vehicular accidents

which the respondents should be aware which include driving safely, managing

distractions, and maintaining discipline.
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Public Utility Vehicle Drivers. This term pertains to the respondents who are

male individuals, aged 18 years old and above who are driving jeepney within Laoag

City, Ilocos Norte.

Public Utility Vehicle. This refers to the vehicle which the respondents drive that

includes:

 Jeepney. It refers to a twin-benched vehicle the respondents drive which

route is within Laoag City, Ilocos Norte.

Socio-demographic profile. This refers to a set of descriptions and information of

the respondents regarding their age, civil status, family income and educational

attainment.

Vehicular Accident. This term pertains to the collision of jeepney with another

vehicle or object along the roadway in Laoag City, Ilocos Norte.