You are on page 1of 10

c  c 

 

   c     .

             .

c         .

                          .

       .

      .

                       c        ‘   ‘  .

 ‘   .

 | ||  | |.

 |.

 ||  |.

||  | | | |  .

 |.

| | || || ||| | | | | |||    || .

|   ||| || | .

  .

  .

 .

 .

  .

| | |||.

|| |  | | |  || .

 | |||  | ||     | || |.

| || |  ||  || | | | |  | |! || |  || | | ||||| @| |||   |.

||.

"|   ||| | || | | ! | #||   |  | | | | ||| .

| | #  || | | |  |  |  |.

| |  | .

.

| | ||  |  |  |||.

"|   || $  ||.

||||.

 |.

%.

|  |  .

|.

| | |&| '|(| ||.

%.

| |  |.

| &|/|& |'|+|/|.| #|   || |#||)|***|+||.|+|.| +| .| ½ &| ½-| ½#.| - ||  | |.| ½ &| +|.| |#||)|| || #| || ½ -| ½#.

|.| | .

|$|| &|/|& |'|+|'|½ &| !|& |'|.

| |  | |  | &|'|.

| | .

| | | 0 %  | |.

| | | |i i | || |  | |  | )  | |||'| | ||   |  |  |  | |  |  | |  |  | - ||| |1|   |  |  | | |%|1|| |1|'||2|3|(|!|1 .

||4 |5|1 .

|6| 2.

| |& .

.

 | |1|.

 | | 3| .

 3|#| |1|  | ||.

.

| .

3|(|78| .

 62 | #  ||-|96| | | | | | ||  || |# |.

 ||| || || |# | .

  ||| || | || |# |   ||| | | ||| |# | || || | | | :|  i || .

| |   ||  || .

 | |  | 0 %  |.

| || |&||| |&|| | |&||  | | | | .

| 1|# || |   pp      .

            .

                          i                 !    .

          "   .

.

 .

#  pp               @| $%&'()*$%&''+ @| $.-%00)*0 >| -'''%00)*0 .0)*0 >| $''%.0)*0 02 */1$1-%020)*0 >| $3''%020)*0 2 $1-%20)*0 >| ƒ''%20)*0 20 -%200)*0 >| -''%200)*0 0 -$.-%. *$1$%.'()*/%$0''+ >| -%-''+ c       .

-'+/3) 00-0'89+)/3''+  %Œ3.ƒ+/3)"Œ353&/#.5 -225872.5 -215801.½20$'5-6.$3+/3)"Œ0$/3'$0/#.½0'"#$'5-6. C) 35.5 22320  0 %"½.-+/3)"Œ-ƒ.0ƒ.06 33.1 28.25 -96655 -375886. 298 K (J/mol) -74520 -241818 -110525 -393509 0 o Cp (J/(mol.5 13680 ½H1073 K (J/mol) -47348.3$'/'9+1$'''+)"Œ/53ƒƒ/9+#1-'''+)"Œ0-.5-. â >|  !"#  >| !# >|  $# % >|  $# & >| !#&    4$  CH4 H2O(g) CO CO2 H2 ½ Hf.ŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒŒ .33.5/ƒ/#.5/9+#  %'%'()  pp    ! *.3$'/'9+ Ñ %01$Œ/  %Œ.½2$'5-6.½0$'5-6#)/3''+  %7$+/3)"Œ.5 -234264.33.0'-ƒ-9+)/3''+  %Œ.57 29.8 ½H523 K (J/mol) -66631.3/#.5 6480 ½H773 K (J/mol) -57866.75 -103955 -385161.2 37.25 -87895 -364756.$'5-6.

62931  0 %"½.5 -215801.    0 CH4 H2O(g) CO CO2 H2 ½ Hf.  (. % &". C) 35.½0$'5-6#)/3''+ .06 33. >|  $#.5 22320 -84203.25 -87895 -364756.$'5-6.½2$'5-6.½20$'5-6.2 37.57 29.1 28.½0'"#$'5-6. >| !#-& (.8 -488381050 ½H1073 K (J/mol) -47348. â-â >|  !"#. >|  $#. & (. 298 K (J/mol) -74520 -241818 -110525 -393509 0 o Cp (J/(mol. + . >| !#-& &.

06 33.$3+/3)"Œ0-.½20/0-6.$3+/3)"Œ0$/3'$0/#.57 29.5/#.ƒ+/3)"Œ$'-&//#.½2/0-6.8 ½ H523 K (J/mol) -66631.ƒ+/3)"Œ353&/#. C) 35.3$'/'9+#  /'&")  pp  &  0  â"â& >| !#".-+/3)"Œ-3/$ƒ$/#.    O  O    .-'+/3) ƒ.½0'"#/0-6.5-.1 28.5 6480  0%"½.-+/3)"Œ-ƒ. %7$+/3)"Œ.0ƒ.2 37.75 -103955 -385161. >| !$#.-'+/3) 00-0'89+)/3''+  %Œ3.5 -234264.0'-ƒ-9+)/3''+  %Œ.3/#. 298 K (J/mol) -74520 -241818 -110525 -393509 0 o Cp (J/(mol.5/ƒ/#.33.33-3$'/'9+    0 CH4 H2O(g) CO CO2 H2 ½Hf./0-6.½0/0-6#)/3''+  %7$+/3)"Œƒƒƒ-$/#.3'89+)/3''+  %Œ$'$$5ƒ'ƒ9+)/3''+  %Œ/3ƒ30$$/'9+ Ñ& %010  %Œ/3ƒ30$$/'9+1"Œ.

    ½O  .

-'''+)--/5 9+"#)"0/'Œ0.0Œ0/#.'-0'9+.!.     Ñ%)"#)½Î.)"#)½Î  %-'''+)5/ƒ9+"#)"0.0#  (')  pp  "  01 6  4$ .-'''+).

  .

      i            .

       .

 *ƒ1ƒ%.3)*3 >*ƒ%ƒ$# 02  ƒ%023)*30# 20  ƒ%203)*3-# 20  '0$)*51ƒ%'  '0$)*5%ƒ:.# .# c0  '5&)*5%c03)*3:/#    $# .c       .

5ƒ$&)*ƒƒ#                   .  *5%$+'0$)*ƒ >| *5%.

  .

      .

4 2 (g) .

298  ( /mo ) -74520 -241818 -393509 0 0  .2 2 N2  ½ f.

p ( /(mo . .

57 37.5ƒ$&)*ƒ.5ƒ$&)0.39 29.$005/)0231-ƒ0&'$/)203.$$0-6)./0')*ƒ%1"0$. 0/ƒ&ƒ$&5$/    0#-#/# ƒ# >| Œ5.0.5 -214122."0./0')*ƒ%10$.0/ƒ&ƒ$&5$/ >| /'0/'.Œ-ƒ0&'$/)203.$005/)0231-ƒ0&'$/)203.5     ƒ ƒ%½./0')*ƒ# >| Œ5.$005/)023.1 29.½20$$0-6)203.0.½02$$0-6)023.0/ƒ&ƒ$&5$/ >| -33$30&-ƒ)*ƒ%0/ƒ&ƒ$&5$/ >| â%%%' % â( %.0.Œ0$.)o 35.''5/)c03#)*31"Œ5.1  ½ 1123  ( /mo ) -45595.75 -362901.''5/)c03#)*3  %"10$.½c0$$0-6)c03#)*3  %"'./0')*ƒ    3 3 %"½.5 24246.75 24007.0/)*ƒ%0.''5/)*ƒ.3.''5/).''5/)c03)*3#..$005/)*ƒ1-ƒ0&'$/)*ƒ .''5/)c03#)*3       *ƒ *3 4$ %31ƒ >| Œ0/ƒ&ƒ$&5$/%"10$.0&36)*ƒ  %Œ5.5ƒ$&)*ƒ  & ' .$005/)023)*3#1"-ƒ0&'$/)203)*3#.06 33.

    .

'5&)*5%*3 >| â&" " !$#%*ƒ+*3( &.  $# ( &.   0#-# /#     0)*ƒ.  #%'5&)*5+*3% '.  pp    $2  6  4-i .

  .

         .ii *ƒ*5  *3 .

  .

      .

        <                 .

%-'''+ *ƒ%ƒƒ$&ƒ$+ ƒ%ƒƒ$&ƒ$+ *5%-$/0$&0+ .       $%&''+ -%-''+ .%2   %'/)20)*0  %'/)ƒ+/3)/3''+  %-''+ /%20   %'$)200)*0  %'$)-+/3)/3''+  %-'+ *$%$'''+ *.

-''1ƒ''1&'#+ %0-)*-  0-$'+ %0-)*-:/# -2  .203)*3  -''+1-'+.# 0  -$.-)*-:$# 02  *.ƒƒ$&ƒ$+ %02-)*-.-'+.$/..'$5-//) -3$.*3%-3$.ƒƒ$&ƒ$+ %20-)*-.  *$.-10.ƒƒ$&ƒ$+1&''+Œƒƒ$&ƒ$+ %.023)*3  -'''+1&''+1-''+.-)*-  $'''+.-)*-  $''+ %.ƒ %20-)*-. %2-)*-  &''+1-''+1-''+ %2-)*-  -''+ %2-)*-:-# 20  -1/.*ƒ1$1ƒ %.$/.'$''9+ c       .-'#+ %-2-)*-  --'+ %-2-)*-:ƒ# 20  '0$)*51ƒ%'" ./ %-2-)*-  "-''.1$1-.+  $3-'$/+ %02-)*-:0# 2  $Œ-Œ.+  05'$/+ %20-)*-:.ƒ %02-)*-.'$5-//)-3$.$/.1-/ %0-)*-  "05''.+ 4-%Œ&3-./.

       # c0  '5&)*5%c03)*3" .

       #     .

0-$'+.$3-'$/+. !#&"" '".05'$/+.-''+.  !&$!#& % ".#/#ƒ#     â& %$''+.  $#&  %. !$#&& %.   $#0#-#.  .--'+  " &  !"#&  '.  $#&  ".

pp  %   3 .

.

-%$&/( 02-%-/ƒ( 2-%/3.'-+)"'ƒ3..&. %-''+ / %-'+ 40 %Œ$5'&3$03'9+"   #  40 %-10 Œ$5'&3$03'9+ %7/$.ƒƒ10'ƒ&3/51$-$303$#9+8 .( 200%-+/3%/$5( 00%-'+/3%/$50( *- %/$..$5'0&3$.$( ./.    4&     5  5 316 *0%/3''+ .&5-'/55'ƒ9+ %$5'0&3$.( 20-%/0ƒ( 0-%.Î- Î-  %Œ$ƒ55&/6   /"" '      :  .'-+ .$$&/./3ƒ30$$/'#9+ Œ./.33.-&#9+"6#)"Î-1 0&3#68Œ"Œ/3ƒ30$$/'9+# Œ$5'&3$03'9+ %"Œƒ/5-0-''5/0.'-+)"Œ$.$5$.$0&./-$.7/$.( -2-%ƒ.0.0%$+/3%$50( 0'0%$3+/3%-$'-( 20%ƒ+/3%$'-.13ƒ'350$1ƒ.$&/.Î-1/'5.

: 6    .

: .

.<< . : 6 .88>  .  %& ''(" .<=    ....

  .

     || | | | | | | | | | |.

| X | X | | | X | X | | | |  Î | | | |  |   |  |  |  |  |  |  | | | | | X| X| X|  | X  | X | |  |   |   |  | | |  | | | | | XX | XX | X  |  |  | | |  X | | | X | X |  | | | | | | | |  |  |  | | | | |  X | | |   |   |   | | | | | | | | | |  | | | | | | | | | | | | | |  | | | | | | | | | | |   |  .