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Eucharist in the Catholic Church
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Eucharist in the Catholic Church is the celebration of Mass, the
eucharistic liturgy. The term Eucharist is also used for the bread and
wine when transubstantiated (their substance having been changed),
according to Catholic teaching, into the body and blood of Jesus Christ.
"At the Last Supper, on the night he was betrayed, our Saviour instituted
the Eucharistic sacrifice of his Body and Blood."[1]

Blessed Sacrament is a devotional term used in the Roman Catholic
Church to refer to the eucharistic species (the Body and Blood of
Christ).[2] Consecrated hosts are kept in a tabernacle after Mass, so that Ecce Agnus Dei during a Solemn
the Blessed Sacrament can be brought to the sick and dying outside the High Tridentine Mass
time of Mass. This makes possible also the practice of eucharistic
adoration. Because Christ himself is present in the sacrament of the
altar, he is to be honored with the worship of adoration. "To visit the Blessed Sacrament is ... a proof of
gratitude, an expression of love,... and a duty of adoration toward Christ our Lord."[3]

Contents
1 New Testament foundations
1.1 The First Eucharist in Scripture
1.2 Other New Testament accounts of the Eucharist
2 Old Testament prefigurings
3 Eucharistic liturgy
3.1 Transubstantiation
3.2 Minister of the sacrament
3.3 Receiving the Eucharist
3.4 Matter for the Sacrament
3.5 Historical development
3.6 Communion of reparation
3.7 Nuptial Mass and other Ritual Masses
4 Adoration and Benediction outside of the Liturgy
5 See also
6 References
7 Works cited
8 Further reading
9 External links

New Testament foundations
The First Eucharist in Scripture

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[5] Saint Paul implied an identity between the apparent bread and wine of the Eucharist and the body and blood of Christ.org/bible/Acts.22:19)) and Saint Paul's 1 Corinthians 11:23-25 (http://www. the Eucharist. shocked at the idea.14:22).org/bible/John.. though not always.. where "the two recounted what had taken place on the way and how he was made known to them in the breaking of the bread. when he wrote: "The cup of blessing that we bless.usccb.org /bible/1Corinthians. in the one prayer given to posterity by Jesus. (Luke 24:35 (http://www.24:35))" This same phrase is used to describe a core activity of the first Christian community: "They devoted themselves to the teaching of the apostles and to the communal life."[7] The first example.usccb. Old Testament prefigurings Early medieval block-printed Catholic prayer books or psalters Wikimedia Commons has contained many illustrations of pairings of prefigurings of the events of media related to Biblia the New Testament in the Old Testament." and elsewhere: "Therefore whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord unworthily will have to answer for the body and blood of the Lord" (1 Corinthians 11:27 (http://www." The Catholic understanding of these words. in the Gospel of Luke.org/bible/Luke.usccb. and gave it to them.org/bible/John.26:1).org /bible/1Corinthians.11:23) recount that in that context Jesus said of what to all appearances were bread and wine: "This is my body … this is my blood..11:27)).usccb. With that their eyes were opened and they recognized him. denoted by the phrase "the Breaking of Bread.org/bible/Mark.org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church The Catholic Church sees as the main basis for this belief the words of Jesus himself at his Last Supper: the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew 26-28 (http://www.usccb.wikipedia. has The Breaking of Bread (fractio panis) emphasized their roots in the covenantal history of the Old Testament. from the Patristic authors onward. Moreover. The disciples were unable to recognize him for who he was until "while he was at table.10:16)). to the breaking of the bread and to prayers. 11:26 AM . he took bread. and uniquely.. The Discourse on the Bread of Life.2:42)). Luke 22:19-20 (http://www. the resurrected Christ walked with two disciples on their way to Emmaus (see: Road to Emmaus appearance). said the blessing. in the Eucharist[4] at a The Gospel of John in Chapter 6. after the Last Supper.[6] Other New Testament accounts of the Eucharist Accounts of Eucharist services in the New Testament are often. Neocatechumenal Way celebration presents Jesus as saying: "Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood. is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break. Jesus did not tone down these sayings. (Luke 24:30-31 (http://www.usccb.6:53)). even when many of his disciples abandoned him (John 6:66 (http://www.Wikipedia https://en.usccb.org/bible/Matthew.usccb. you do not have life within you.usccb.org/bible/Luke.org/bible/Luke.usccb. broke it.usccb. Mark 14:22-24 (http://www. the Lord's Prayer. every day they devoted themselves to meeting together in the temple area and to breaking bread in their homes" (Acts 2:42-47 (http://www. a form known as biblical 2 of 15 6/27/17.6:66)). According to John.Eucharist in the Catholic Church .24:30))" After this they returned to Jerusalem. the word epiousios —which does not exist elsewhere in Classical Greek literature—has been linguistically parsed to mean "super- substantial" (bread). Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me and I in him" (John 6:53-56 (http://www. is it not a participation in the body of Christ? (1 Corinthians 10:16 (http://www. of this phrase used in a way that recalls a Eucharist celebration occurs when. and interpreted by the Vatican as a reference to the Bread of Life.org/bible/1Corinthians.

content and effect. Eucharist during the Last Supper.[15] Saint Ambrose saw the Eucharist prefigured both by the manna that provided food and by the water from the rock that gave drink to the Israelites. not with the old yeast. has been sacrificed. and that the manna was a special prefiguration of the effect of the sacrament as grace.[12] They point Shepherds and the priest celebrating out that Jesus "himself said.org /?passage=John+6–6&version=nrsv) and also in the version of the Lord's Prayer in the Gospel of Luke: where the version in the Gospel of Matthew speaks of epiousios bread. Exodus prescribed a "perpetual institution" associated with the Passover that is celebrated by feasts of unleavened bread (Exodus 12:14-20 (http://www. Melchizedek's action in bringing out bread and wine for Abraham has been seen."[13] The manna that fed the Israelites in the wilderness is also seen as a symbol of the Eucharist.org /?passage=Exodus+16:19–21:19&version=nrsv).c. depictions came to be known as biblia pauperum. but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.Wikipedia https://en.Eucharist in the Catholic Church . or poor man's bibles. Saint Thomas Aquinas taught that the most obvious Old Testament prefiguring of the sign aspect of the Eucharist was the action of Melchizedek in Genesis 14:18 (http://bible. Therefore let us celebrate the feast. Sinai is Testament sacrifices.[11] The reverence Moses showed before The second prefiguration mentioned by Aquinas is that of the Old the burning bush on Mt.usccb. but he said that the paschal lamb was the outstanding type or figure of the Eucharist under all three aspects of The Speculum humane salvationis sign. who 'brought out bread and wine'. as he committed to the Apostles the Divine the sacrifice of the Mass. that all the Old Testament sacrifices.150 . 'This is my blood of the New Testament.org /?passage=Genesis+14:18–14:18&version=nrsv).oremus. prefigured the content of the sacrament. these visual pauperum.12:14)). For our paschal lamb.[9][10] and so "the Church sees in the gesture of the king-priest Melchizedek.[8] contains illustrations of related scenes Concerning the first of the Old from the Old and New Testament Testament prefigurations that Aquinas mentioned.oremus. The Bible itself was predominantly a liturgical book used at Mass. the yeast of malice and wickedness. The custom of praying the Liturgy of the Hours spread to those who could afford the prayer books required to follow the textual cycle that mirrored the pastoral seasons of Jewish temple worship.. In addition to this ritual for Passover night itself. 11:26 AM . 215). especially that of the Day of Atonement.. (1 Corinthians 5:7-8 3 of 15 6/27/17. the Lucan version speaks of "bread for each day". Christ.wikipedia. especially that on the Day of Atonement. Other equated with the adoration of the theologians too see these as foreshadowing the Eucharist.org/bible/Exodus. interpreted as a reminiscence of Exodus 16:19-21 (http://bible. which recounts that the manna was gathered in amounts sufficient only for a single day.[14] The connection between that sign and the Eucharist is seen as having been made both in John 6 (http://bible. a prefiguring of her own offering" (in the Eucharist). namely Christ himself sacrificed for us.[16][17] The ritual of Passover night described in Exodus contains two main physical elements: a sacrificial lamb "male and without blemish" and unleavened bread (Exodus 12:1-10 (http://www. which is shed for many for the remission of sins'. as a foreshadowing of the bread and wine used in the sacrament of the Eucharist.oremus. costly to produce and illuminate by hand. The New Testament book of 1 Corinthians represents the Passover in terms of Christ: ". from the time of Clement of Alexandria (c.usccb.org/bible /Exodus. In an age when most Christians were illiterate.org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church typology.12:1)).

and become instead the Most Precious Body and Blood of Christ. but the underlying reality is. thus.org/bible/1Corinthians. the softness and the other appearances.org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church (http://www. Where one is. (For more on the philosophical concept. and. chalice is displayed to the people although the priest (or minister) says. offered on the part of the Israelites by an everlasting agreement. this separation also represents the death of Christ. a word used in the concluding formula of Mass in Latin: "Ite. they cease to be bread and wine. Soul. the change that. even if the appearances of the bread and the wine are. the Mass at the Grotto at Lourdes. Therefore. that the "substance" of the bread was converted to that of his body.24:5))" Since the time of Origen. see Substance theory. and Divinity". "Substance" here means what something is in itself. The term Mass is derived from the Late Latin word missa (dismissal). what he held in his hands had all the appearances of bread. Whereas the appearances. according to the belief of the Catholic Church. the dismissal is made")[23] Transubstantiation According to the Catholic Church. it actually was his body. the size. The hat itself (the "substance") has the shape. being called "most sacred among the various oblations to the Lord " : a sacrifice of bread anointed with oil. chalice. It concerns what is changed (the substance of the bread and wine). However. nor is its size. not how the change is brought about.5:7)" Christ is the new lamb. "The body of Christ". since according to Catholic dogma Christ has risen. nor its softness to the touch. nor is its colour the hat. "The blood of Christ". the Catholic Church teaches that the underlying reality was changed in accordance with what Jesus said. The consecration of the bread (known afterwards as the Host) and wine represents the separation of Jesus' body from his blood at Calvary. but is distinct from them. the communicant who receives either one receives Christ. nor anything else about it perceptible to the senses. This is called the doctrine of concomitance. The empirical appearances and attributes are not changed. [20][21][22] Eucharistic liturgy Eucharistic liturgy and Mass are the terms used to describe celebration of the Eucharist in the Western or Latin liturgical rite of the Catholic Church.Eucharist in the Catholic Church . the substance is not. whole and entire— "Body. "Regularly on each Sabbath day this bread shall be set out afresh before the Lord. 11:26 AM . while all the appearances open to the senses or to scientific investigation were still those of bread. and the Eucharist is the new bread of the Passover. occurs in the Eucharist. the Church teaches that his body and blood are no longer truly separated. When at his Last Supper Jesus said: "This is my body". which are referred to by the philosophical term accidents are perceptible to the senses. The other must be. when presenting the the wine.) A hat's shape is not the hat itself.wikipedia.usccb. (Leviticus 24:5-9 (http://www. missa est" ("Go. In other words. exactly 4 of 15 6/27/17. Blood. Transubstantiation (from Latin transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ. the colour. when the bread and wine are consecrated by the priest at Mass.usccb.Wikipedia https://en. some theologians have seen this "showbread" as a prefiguring of the Eucharist described in Luke 22:19.[18][19] Among the many proscription of the Old Testament Law that affirm the covenant. when immediately after the consecration of administering the host.org/bible/Leviticus. one stands out. However.

a merely figurative understanding of the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist (the change of the substance Virgin Mary by the Host by Jean is real). "By reason of their sacred Ordination. not an illusion) and that Christ is "really. Minister of the sacrament The only minister of the Eucharist (someone who can consecrate the Eucharist) is a validly ordained priest[27] (bishop or presbyter). Archbishop of Tours (died 1133) in about 1079. But the earliest known use of the term "transubstantiation" to describe the change from bread and wine to body and blood of Christ was by Hildebert de Lavardin. under the influence especially of Saint Thomas Aquinas (c. accepted Aristotelianism. long before the Latin West. He acts in the person of Christ.[28] Several priests may concelebrate the same offering of the Eucharist.[24] not physically present. who are not priests. truly and substantially present under the remaining appearances of bread and wine. the ordinary ministers of Holy Communion are the Bishop. ordinary or extraordinary. to whom it belongs therefore to administer Holy Communion to the lay members of Christ's faithful during the celebration of Mass. as he was physically present in the Judea of two millennia ago). representing Christ. 1227-1274). on the other hand. as when they spoke of the Son as being of the same "substance" (consubstantialis) as the Father. and "accidents" or humanly perceptible appearances. The Catholic Church accordingly believes that through transubstantiation Christ is really. generally in a church tabernacle. the Priest and the Deacon. for giving Holy Communion to the sick and dying. In addition to the ordinary ministers there is the formally instituted acolyte. and these were not and are not dogmata of the Church. and substantially present" in the Eucharist. purpose of adoring Christ present in the Eucharist.[25] Some put forward the idea that transubstantiation is a concept intelligible only in terms of Aristotelian philosophy. on the one hand. the concept of transubstantiation.) The term "substance" (substantia) as the reality of something was in use from the earliest centuries of Latin Christianity.org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church as before. with its accompanying unambiguous distinction between "substance" or underlying reality. who by virtue of his institution is an 5 of 15 6/27/17. and. For this reason the consecrated elements are preserved.wikipedia. but still highly lauded. distributing the sacrament to others. and also for the secondary. (The University of Paris was founded only between 1150 and 1170.[26] The corresponding Greek term is "οὐσία" the Son is said to be "ὁμοούσιος" with the Father and the change of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ is called "μετουσίωσις". The Church believes that the same change of the substance of the bread and of the wine occurs at every Catholic Mass throughout the world. In the judgment of the Catholic Church. and also acts before God in the name of the Church. truly. may act as extraordinary Ministers of Holy Communion. and that the transformation remains as long as the appearances remain. 11:26 AM . an interpretation that would amount to Auguste Dominique Ingres cannibalistic (a charge which pagans leveled at early Catholic Christians who did not understand the rites of the Catholic Church in that it was considered an "unbloody sacrifice") eating of the flesh and corporal drinking of the blood of Christ (the accidents that remain are real.Eucharist in the Catholic Church . but not as ministers of the Eucharist.[29] Others. who is the Head of the Church. safeguards against what it sees as the mutually opposed errors of.Wikipedia https://en. The doctrine of transubstantiation is thus independent of Aristotelian philosophical concepts.

even extraordinary ones."[37] Catholics may receive Communion during Mass or outside of Mass. except for only water and medicine.[31] since that would imply that they. which generally require a longer period of fasting. 11:26 AM .org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church extraordinary minister of Holy Communion even outside the celebration of Mass. the communicant bows his or her head before the Sacrament as a gesture of reverence and receives the Body of the Lord from the minister."[30] "Extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion" are not to be called "Eucharistic ministers". The consecrated host may be received either on the tongue or in the hand. Finally."[35] Eastern Catholics are obliged to follow the rules of their own particular Churches. or not old enough to receive communion.Wikipedia https://en. too. for one occasion or for a specified time. but "a person who has already received the Most Holy Eucharist can receive it a second time on the same day only within the eucharistic celebration in which the person participates". "When receiving Holy Communion. the sign of reverence is also made before receiving the Precious Blood. in accordance with the norm of law.Eucharist in the Catholic Church . They may also exercise this function at eucharistic celebrations where there are particularly large numbers of the faithful and which would be excessively prolonged Roman Catholic priest in Sicily because of an insufficient number of ordained ministers to distribute distributing the Eucharist to a child at her first Holy Communion Holy Communion.wikipedia. A rule for Catholics who are members of the Latin Church is: "A person who is to receive the Most Holy Eucharist is to abstain for at least one hour before holy communion from any food and drink. moreover.[38] 6 of 15 6/27/17. such as not being a Catholic or not being in the state of grace. If.[36] Catholics must make an outward sign of reverence before receiving. in special cases of an unforeseen nature. at the discretion of each communicant. except as Viaticum (Code of Canon Law." [34] In some countries a custom has recently arisen whereby someone who for some reason."[32] "Only when there is a necessity may extraordinary ministers assist the Priest celebrant in accordance with the norm of law. "Extraordinary ministers may distribute Holy Communion at eucharistic celebrations only when there are no ordained ministers present or when those ordained ministers present at a liturgical celebration are truly unable to distribute Holy Communion. canon 917). another lay member of Christ's faithful may also be delegated by the diocesan Bishop. permission can be given for a single occasion by the Priest who presides at the celebration of the Eucharist. in this case the person is to remember the obligation to make an act of perfect contrition which includes the resolution of confessing as soon as possible. When Holy Communion is received under both kinds. somehow transubstantiate the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ. cannot receive Communion may with arms crossed approach the priest who is distributing the Eucharist and receive from him a blessing instead. reasons of real necessity prompt it."[33] Receiving the Eucharist "A person who is conscious of grave [mortal] sin is not to celebrate Mass or receive the body of the Lord without previous sacramental confession unless there is a grave reason and there is no opportunity to confess.

For in this form the sign of the eucharistic administration of the Most Holy banquet is more clearly evident and clear expression is given to the Eucharist to children requires that divine will by which the new and eternal Covenant is ratified in the they have sufficient knowledge and Blood of the Lord. without prejudice to the prescripts of §§2. or under both kinds (both the Sacred Host and the Precious Blood). Instruction of the Roman Missal).Eucharist in the Catholic Church . and ⇒ can. "Holy Communion has a fuller form as a sign when it is In the Western Church. whole and entire.wikipedia.[41] In Eastern Catholic Churches the Eucharist is always received under both species (bread and wine). careful preparation so that they (However.) Christ.[42] With the change from receiving the Eucharist under both kinds to receiving under the form of bread alone. as its own shepherd. Holy Communion may be received under one kind (the Sacred Host alone).org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church In the Western Church. to prevent the Host or fragments of it falling on the ground. distinct from the paten. In the Eastern Catholic Churches. however. is received understand the mystery of Christ even under only one species. as also the relationship between the Eucharistic banquet and the eschatological banquet in the Father's Kingdom. The Most Holy Eucharist.[43] Non-Catholics may only receive the Eucharist in special situations: "§1. the distributed under both kinds.[40] "The Diocesan Bishop is given the faculty to permit Communion under both kinds whenever it may seem appropriate to the priest to whom. it also became customary in the West to receive the Host placed directly on the tongue. and consequently that as far as the effects according to their capacity and are are concerned. a community has been entrusted.Wikipedia https://en. Since the late twentieth century many Episcopal Conferences allow communicants (at their personal discretion) to receive the Host on the hand.. Catholic ministers administer the sacraments licitly to Catholic members of the Christian faithful alone. those who receive under only one species are not able to receive the body of Christ deprived of any of the grace that is necessary for salvation" (General with faith and devotion. except when Communion is distributed by intinction (partly dipping the Host in the Chalice before distributing it). who likewise receive them licitly from Catholic ministers alone. the Eucharist is administered to infants immediately after Baptism and Confirmation (Chrismation). The General Instruction of the Roman Missa. 118 mentions a "Communion-plate for the Communion of the faithful". canon 913). and 4 of this canon. 861. 7 of 15 6/27/17. and the true Sacrament. but this was prescribed neither by the Roman Missal nor by the Code of Canon Law. provided that the faithful have been well instructed and there is no danger of profanation of the Sacrament or of the rite's becoming difficult because of the large number of participants or some other reason" (General Instruction of the Roman Missal). beginning in about the twelfth century. §2. "the administration of the Most Holy Eucharist to children requires that they have sufficient knowledge and careful preparation so that they understand the mystery of Christ according to their capacity and are able to receive the body of Christ with faith and devotion. as was done at Mass also in the West until the opposite custom came into use. children typically receive First Communion in second grade.. 3. rather than on the hand.[39] In Catholic schools in the United States and Canada. can be administered to children in danger of death if they can distinguish the body of Christ from ordinary food and receive communion reverently" (Code of Canon Law. 11:26 AM .

The regular celebration was held each week on the day called Sunday. §4. which resumes and clarifies earlier declarations. Eucharist. and not corrupt. having been taught that "the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word.literally. Thanksgiving). (Some dioceses have allowed pastors to make this determination as regards those in hospitals. the diocesan bishop or conference of bishops is not to issue general norms except after consultation at least with the local competent authority of the interested non-Catholic Church or community. and the wine must be natural. and provided that danger of error or of indifferentism is avoided. was in all cases associated with a celebration of the Eucharist is uncertain.org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church §2. provided that they manifest Catholic faith in respect to these sacraments and are properly disposed.wikipedia. If the danger of death is present or if. a prayer by "the president of the brethren" over bread and wine mixed with water. and correctional centers. This is also valid for members of other Churches which in the judgment of the Apostolic See are in the same condition in regard to the sacraments as these Eastern Churches.[49] led to a distinct celebration of the Eucharist. The bread is unleavened in the Latin.Eucharist in the Catholic Church . some other grave necessity urges it.[53] as common bread and common drink.[46] For questions on the use of gluten-free or low-gluten bread and of "mustum" (natural grape juice) see the 24 July 2003 letter (http://www.[51] They included readings from Scripture. A small quantity of water is added to the wine. For the cases mentioned in §§2.org/CDF_Lowgluten-mustum2003. §3."[53] 8 of 15 6/27/17. and recently made. [50][52] There was also a collection to help widows and orphans and those in need because of reasons such as sickness. Canon 844)[45] Matter for the Sacrament The bread used for the Eucharist must be wheaten only. and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished. the Christian faithful for whom it is physically or morally impossible to approach a Catholic minister are permitted to receive the sacraments of penance. a homily. and then a distribution to those present of that over which thanks have been given. Armenian and Ethiopic Rites. nursing homes.[47] In any case. a full meal held by Christians in the first centuries.Wikipedia https://en. prayer by all. and anointing of the sick licitly to members of Eastern Churches which do not have full communion with the Catholic Church if they seek such on their own accord and are properly disposed.html) of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. and 4." (Code of Canon Law. abuses connected with the celebration of the full meal. 3. is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh. made from grapes. Catholic ministers administer these same sacraments licitly also to other Christians not having full communion with the Catholic Church. 11:26 AM . Eucharist. and anointing of the sick from non-Catholic ministers in whose Churches these sacraments are valid. to which all respond with "Amen". but is leavened in most Eastern Catholic churches.[50] which Christians were also calling the Lord's Day. in the judgment of the diocesan bishop or conference of bishops. Historical development Whether the agape feast.[44]) §5. Catholic ministers administer the sacraments of penance. abuses denounced by the apostles Paul[48] and Jude.adoremus. The form of this celebration in the middle of the second century is described by Justin Martyr as very similar to today's Eucharistic rites known in the West as the Mass and in much of the East as the Divine Liturgy. while "deacons" take portions to those who are absent.[50] Justin wrote that the Christians did not receive the bread and the wine mixed with water over which the thanksgiving was pronounced and which they called Εὐχαριστία (the Eucharist . Whenever necessity requires it or true spiritual advantage suggests it. who cannot approach a minister of their own community and who seek such on their own accord.

Pope Benedict XVI celebrates the The earliest known use. 1227-1274).va/holy_father/paul_vi/encyclicals/documents/hf_p- vi_enc_03091965_mysterium_en. which conversion is. by the holy Catholic Church.D.html) In his 1968 Credo of the People of God (http://www.org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church As Justin indicated. 1) Christ's body and blood are really present. and this presence and absence is real and not merely something in the mind of the believer. He did May 2007. where the consecration has entered in. in about 1079. Saint Ignatius of Antioch criticized those who "abstain from the Eucharist and the public prayer.Eucharist in the Catholic Church . The attempt by some twentieth-century Catholic theologians to present the Eucharistic change as an alteration of significance (transignification rather than transubstantiation) was rejected by Pope Paul VI in his 1965 encyclical letter Mysterium fidei (http://www. 11:26 AM . In the visions of Christ reported by St.2.wikipedia. he reiterated that any theological explanation of the doctrine must hold to the twofold claim that.1339." (Session XIII. which means thanksgiving.hanover. Brazil on 11 was by Hildebert de Savardin.' But that bread is bread before the words of the Sacraments.com/library /papaldoc/p6credo. the Fourth Lateran Council used the word transubstantiated in its profession of faith. In 1551 the Council of Trent officially defined that "by the consecration of the bread and of the wine. in about 106. not the other way around. 333/339-397 A. 7). Catholics typically restrict the term 'communion' to the reception of the Body and Blood of Christ by the communicants during the celebration of the Mass and to the communion of saints. the word Eucharist is from the Greek word εὐχαριστία (eucharistia).vatican. this in response to Berengar of Tours declaring that the Eucharist was only symbolic. of the term "transubstantiation" Eucharist at the canonization of Frei to describe the change from bread and wine to body and blood of Christ Galvão in São Paulo. the bread becomes the Flesh of Christ" (The Sacraments. Pope John Paul II taught that all authority of bishops and priests is primarily a function of their vocation to celebrate the Eucharist. and which the Father in His goodness raised up again" (Epistle to the Smyrnaeans 6.html). canon II). This was long before the Latin West. St.edu /texts/trent/ct13. cf. Similarly. (The University of Paris was founded only between 1150 and 1170. suitably and properly called Transubstantiation.) In 1215.1340). when speaking of the change that takes place in the Eucharist. and of the whole substance of the wine into the substance of His blood. v. Archbishop of Tours (died 1133). under the influence especially of Saint Thomas Aquinas (c. Their governing authority flows from their priestly function.ewtn. accepted Aristotelianism. a conversion is made of the whole substance of the bread into the substance of the body of Christ our Lord. because they will not admit that the Eucharist is the self-same Body of our Savior Jesus Christ.htm).Wikipedia https://en. In his encyclical Ecclesia de Eucharistia of 17 April 2003. chapter IV (http://history. which [flesh] suffered for our sins. Margaret Mary Alacoque in the 17th 9 of 15 6/27/17. Communion of reparation Receiving Holy Communion as part of First Friday Devotions is a Catholic devotion to offer reparations for sins through the Sacred Heart of Jesus. after the consecration. and 2) bread and wine are really absent. writing "You may perhaps say: 'My bread is ordinary. Earlier still. Ambrose of Milan countered objections to the doctrine.

one of which included final perseverance. based on the tenet of the presence of Christ in the Blessed by a kneeling altar server Host. though not obligatory. the rite of Marriage outside Mass is to be followed. in exceptional cases and provided the bishop of the diocese gives permission. one is not a Catholic. say. then. Jesus. it may be considered suitable to celebrate the Marriage within Mass. However. Communion is not given to the non-Catholic (Rite of Marriage.[59][60] Christian meditation performed in the presence of the Eucharist outside of Mass is called Eucharistic meditation. This section has special texts for the celebration. The host is generally reserved in the tabernacle after Mass and displayed in a monstrance during adoration. and is normal. for the Sacrament of Confirmation. [61][62][63][64][65] Authors such as the Venerable Concepcion Cabrera de Armida and Blessed Maria Candida of 10 of 15 6/27/17. Holy Communion at a Nuptial Mass If. and Marriage. the adoration is a form of flanked by candles being adored latria. Adoration of the Eucharist is a sign of devotion to and worship of Christ. the Dedication of a Church and several other rites. within Mass. Eucharist. within Mass. who is believed to be truly present. of Baptism.wikipedia. but a continuation of what was celebrated in the Host displayed in a monstrance. a person is to attend Holy Mass and receive communion.[56] Nuptial Mass and other Ritual Masses A Nuptial Mass[57] is simply a Mass within which the sacrament of Marriage is celebrated. On these days. It has been practiced by saints such as Peter Julian Eymard. the prayers are taken from the section of the Roman Missal headed "Ritual Masses".[55] In many Catholic communities the practice of the Holy Hour of meditation during the Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament during the First Fridays is encouraged.Wikipedia https://en. Religious Profession.Eucharist in the Catholic Church . Jean Vianney and Thérèse of Lisieux. Confirmation. There are also texts for celebrating. Adoration and Benediction outside of the Liturgy Exposition of the Eucharist is the display of the consecrated host on an altar in a Monstrance. according to the general law. This is necessarily so for the sacrament of Orders. leaving Confession (Penance or Reconciliation) as the only sacrament not celebrated within a celebration of the Eucharist. 8).org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church century. if the non-Catholic has been baptized in the name of all three persons of the Trinity (and not only in the name of.[58] From a theological perspective. of a couple being married in the Catholic Church. Unless the date chosen is that of a major liturgical feast. as well as that of Marriage. as is the baptismal practice in some branches of Christianity). except that. As a Catholic devotion.[54] The devotion consists of several practices that are performed on the first Fridays of nine consecutive months. Eucharistic adoration and meditation are more than merely looking at the host. The rites involving exposition of the Blessed Sacrament are the Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament and Eucharistic adoration. Anointing of the Sick. Orders. Other sacraments too are celebrated within Mass. several promises were made to those people that practice the First Fridays Devotions. 11:26 AM .

11:26 AM . 8.org. q.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism /p2s2c1a3. and of the sign of charity by the fact that the one bread is distributed among the brothers and sisters. Catechism of the Catholic Church §1323 2.acbc.wikipedia. 73.. in a monastery or convent. in no way ruled out when the number of those receiving Holy Communion or other pastoral needs require it.pdf) Archived (https://web.[73] See also Bread of Life Discourse Eucharistic credo Paschal mystery Sacraments of Initiation Directory for Masses with Children Communion as perichoresis References 1.vatican. "The meaning of the sign demands that the material for the Eucharistic celebration truly have the appearance of food.archive.archive.htm) August 18. be made in such a way that the priest at Mass with a congregation is able in practice to break it into parts for distribution to at least some of the faithful.. the local priest must obtain permission from his Bishop by submitting a request along with the required information for the local "perpetual adoration association". 6 (http://www.[69] In order to establish a "perpetual adoration chapel" in a parish. 5. etc. will bring out more clearly the force and importance of the sign of unity of all in the one bread.vatican. 2008. which gave its name to the Eucharist in apostolic times.org/web/20160818210304/http://www.htm) Archived (https://web. CCC §1418 4.[70] In Ecclesia de Eucharistia Pope John Paul II stated that "The worship of the Eucharist outside of the Mass is of inestimable value for the life of the Church. Catechism of the Catholic Church (San Francisco: Ignatius Press.Wikipedia https://en. "Paragraph 1329" (http://www. and exposition of the Blessed Sacrament.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p2s2c1a3. CCC §1330 (http://www.[69] Since the Middle Ages the practice of Eucharistic adoration outside Mass has been encouraged by the popes. Thomas Aquinas. 3. the Pontifical Council for the Laity issued specific guidelines that permit perpetual adoration in parishes. it is done by the resident monks or nuns and in a parish. even though unleavened and baked in the traditional shape. however.[69] On June 2. it is called Perpetual adoration.vatican.. Libreria Editrice Vaticana.pdf) July 20.acbc.au/documents /200707031933.au/documents/200707031933. 2016.[72] Pope Benedict XVI instituted perpetual adoration for the laity in each of the five districts of the Diocese of Rome. by volunteer parishioners since the 20th century. The action of the fraction or breaking of bread. 1991 (feast of Corpus Christi).com/search?tbm=bks&tbo=1& q=Aquinas+Barden+%22outstanding+type%22&btnG=Search+Books) 11 of 15 6/27/17. at the Wayback Machine. It is the responsibility of Pastors to encourage. 2012.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p4s2a3.[71] In the opening prayer of the Perpetual chapel in St.org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church the Eucharist have produced large volumes of text based on their Eucharistic meditations.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p2s2c1a3. its officers. Catechism of the Catholic Church.org. Peter Basilica Pope John Paul II prayed for a perpetual adoration chapel in every parish in the world.vatican. Small hosts are.[66][67][68] When the exposure and adoration of the Eucharist is constant (twenty-four hours a day).. at the Wayback Machine. also by their personal witness.catholic. 1994) 1336 6. Summa Theologica III.org/web/20080720091216/http://www." General Instruction of the Roman Missal (http://www. 321.Eucharist in the Catholic Church .htm). CCC §2837 (http://www. the practice of Eucharistic adoration. art. Second Edition. It is therefore expedient that the Uucharistic bread.catholic.htm) 7.google.

CCC §1333 (http://www.org/dorothyday/daytext. bottom of page 104 to middle of p 106. (1913).org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church 9. (400 yrs before Aquinas). there is present on the altar the Eucharistic Body of Christ which is identical with His historical Body. Mike. at the Wayback Machine. Canon 899.vatican. Scott. Nash. pp. Tom. echoing the Church fathers.org /?passage=Matthew+26:28–26:28&version=nrsv) 14.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/laity /documents/rc_con_interdic_doc_15081997_en. Cannibalism (http://members. Quoted in Aquilian. 2007.wikipedia.Eucharist in the Catholic Church . 154-155 (http://www. 37-38 17.com /books?id=j1BjjBe4dL4C&pg=PA192) (Liturgical Press 1996 ISBN 978-0-8146-6152-9). Eugene. The Biblical Basis for the Eucharist. Francis. A foundling.vatican. quoting Matthew 26:28 (http://bible. used the word 'substance' to mean the reality that makes a thing what it is: so. 18. St. 75. cf. cf. who became schoolmaster and abbot of Corbie in Picardy. through the conversion of the substance. 2008. 18 15.archive.html) Archived (https://web.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3Z.html) February 3. 19. 2008. we have the writings of renowned teacher. 192 16.com/johnprh/eucharist. The Lamb's Supper. 'This is my Body'. Worthy Is the Lamb (https://books. 21. CCC 1374 (http://www.google. 27. John.. LaVerdiere. Tyneh." (Kalberer. 22. 74. Aquilian. canon 900.HTM) 12.com/books?id=clcAYIDSQnAC&pg=PA74) (Nova Science 2002 ISBN 978-1-59033-466-9). New York: Doubleday. article 8 (http://www. and the author of the first speculative treatise on Transubstantiation (although this Latin word was not invented until the first half of the 13th Century). This 9th-century theologian. The Mass of the Early Christians.html) 12 of 15 6/27/17. On the Body and Blood of the Lord.oremus. Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division: Huntinton Indiana. at the Wayback Machine. 105 13.D. He taught. Salza. p. it is no longer true to say. Catechism of the Catholic Church (San Francisco: Ignatius Press. On Leviticus 13. as Jesus said. p. However. The Mass of the Early Christians. he was a voluminous writer. Lives of the Saints). Another Letter to an Agnostic (http://www.va/archive/ENG0015/__P41. 25.google. p25-27 23.html#Prot%201). after Consecration. Paschasius Radbertus.va/archive/ENG0015/__P41. p.google. but rather. Mike. 'This is bread'. and there are writings from the ninth century (by Radbertus.aol. ed. who was not an Aristotelian (like Aquinas). Origen of Alexandria. Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division: Huntington Indiana. Catholic Encyclopedia. 1994) 1334 20.google. The Eucharist in the New Testament and the Early Church (https://books. The Hidden Manna (https://books. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Canon 902. also Instruction Ecclesiae de mysterio. O'Connor. The Melchizedek Tradition (https://books.vatican. 76. Horton.archive. Ratramnus and Rabanus Maurus) that use the word to refer to the reality of the Eucharist..com/books?id=5ncOiWK48YsC&pg=PA39) (Ignatius Press 2005 ISBN 978-1-58617-076-9). Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division: Huntington Indiana. Carl S.com/books?id=PqvAzJVBrDMC&pg=PA18) (Ignatius Press 2006 ISBN 978-1-58617-158-2). 1999.google. p.vatican. "Substance" continued to be used to mean the reality of something. Fred L. Herbermann. nor much influenced by philosophy of any kind. 24.org /web/20080203210044/http://www. 11. p.com/books?id=2tnEgSfuq_MC&pg=PA89) (Cambridge University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-521-01871-5).org /web/20150101045530/http://www.HTM) January 1.va/roman_curia/congregations/ccdds/documents /rc_con_ccdds_doc_20040423_redemptionis-sacramentum_en. Crockett 1989. 2007.catholicworker. France. CIC 1983 30. 89 10.va/roman_curia/congregations/ccdds/documents /rc_con_ccdds_doc_20040423_redemptionis-sacramentum_en.vatican. Radbertus did use the word 'substance' in his famous book. p. Hahn. CIC 1983 28. "Liturgy of the Mass".vatican. James Thomas. p 14-27. Celebrating the Holy Eucharist (https://books. Redemptionis Sacramentum. Charles.com/books?id=TFML2HYN8j0C&pg=PA105) (Ignatius Press 2004 ISBN 978-0-89870-994-0). Orthodox Christianity (https://books. Arinze. CIC 1983 29.google.cfm?TextID=54) 26. that after the words of Consecration. "Around the year 860 A.HTM) Archived (https://web.. 2015. Crockett 1989.Wikipedia https://en. 11:26 AM .

va/archive/ENG1104/__P39.html) Archived (https://web.www. White 2003 ISBN 0-8146-6194-7 page 35 56. 1998. 36.archive. First Apology.vatican.vatican. 319-324. at the Wayback Machine.archive. at the Wayback Machine. Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. Encyclopedia of World Religions by Johannes P.intratext.org/fathers/0126. canon 707 (http://www. 58. Catholic Encyclopedia. 1 Corinthians 11:17-34 (http://bible.va/archive/ENG1104/__P39.vatican.org/web/20110628182123/http://www. Code of Canon Law.html) February 3. Code of Canon Law. 2012. 2008.org/prayer-and-worship/roman-missal/general- instruction-of-the-roman-missal/). Code of Canon Law.org/the-chancery/special- circumstances-for-the-admission-of-other-christians-to-communion-at-catholic-celebrations-of-the-eucharist-in-the- diocese-of-rockville-centre. 41.com/IXT/ENG1199/_PJN.va/roman_curia/congregations/ccdds/documents /rc_con_ccdds_doc_20040423_redemptionis-sacramentum_en. First Apology.newadvent. ed.vatican. The seven sacraments by Anselm Grün. Catholic Encyclopedia. 65 (http://www.org/web/20110628182123/http://www.htm) 48. 156 (http://www. Charles. "Nuptial Mass".org/prayer-and-worship/roman-missal/general- instruction-of-the-roman-missal/). 35. 1938 ASIN B00087ST7Q 13 of 15 6/27/17.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/laity/documents /rc_con_interdic_doc_15081997_en.html) 33. 44.html). New York: Robert Appleton Company. Roman Catholic worship: Trent to today by James F.org/fathers/0126. Justin.org /web/20080203210044/http://www. John Cumming 2003 ISBN 0-8264-6704-0 pages 82-83 59.org/?passage=1+Corinthians+11:17–34:17&version=nrsv) 49.newadvent.archive. Justin.HTM) June 28.vatican.oremus. canon 919 §1 (http://www. Jude 1:12 (http://bible. Redemptionis Sacramentum. Peter Stravinskas.html#TITULUS_XVI) Archived (https://web.newadvent.org/web/20121130144307/http://www.HTM) Archived (https://web.vatican.Eucharist in the Catholic Church .drvc.vatican. 283. Redemptionis Sacramentum.newadvent.wikipedia.org /web/20080203210044/http://www. 281–282. 160.org. 37.usccb.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii /apost_constitutions/documents/hf_jp-ii_apc_19901018_codex-can-eccl-orient-2_lt. Herbermann. (1913). cf. Revelation 1:10 (http://bible.org" (https://www. 2011.html#TITULUS_XVI) November 30. 2011. 118. canon 917 (http://www. 45.htm) 51. at the Wayback Machine.htm) 53.pdf).va/archive/ENG1104/__P2T.HTM) 40.org/liturgy/current/GIRM. Sentinel Press.com/IXT/ENG0017/_P39.HTM).vatican.HTM) Archived (https://web. First Apology.va/roman_curia/congregations/ccdds/documents /rc_con_ccdds_doc_20040423_redemptionis-sacramentum_en.usccb.html) Archived (https://web.org/cathen/01200b. canon 913 (http://www. OSV Press ISBN 0-87973-669-0 page 428 55.HTM) 46. OSV's Catholic Encyclopedia.oremus.oremus. Catholic Encyclopedia: Agape (http://www. canon 713 §2 (http://www. 11:26 AM . article 8 (http://www. Code of Canon Law.vatican.org/fathers/0126. at the Wayback Machine.Wikipedia https://en. 38. No. General Instruction of the Roman Missal (http://www.org/?passage=Jude+1:1–1:12&version=nrsv) 50. "Special Circumstances for the Admission of Other Christians to Communion at Catholic Celebrations of the Eucharist in the Diocese of Rockville Centre . Justin.intratext. 47.HTM) 39.nccbuscc. General Instruction of the Roman Missal (http://www. www.vatican.org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church 31.html) February 3.va/archive/ENG1104/__P39.va/archive/ENG1104/__P39. Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.HTM). 67 (http://www. 32. see entry under Eucharistic adoration 61. 43.va/archive/ENG1104/__P39. New York: Robert Appleton Company.org/?passage=Revelation+1:10–1:10&version=nrsv) 52. Canon 844 (http://www.htm) 54. The Real Presence: eucharistic meditations by Saint Pierre Julien Eymard.va/archive/ENG1104/__P39. Code of Canon Law.vatican. "Communion under Both Kinds". (1913). and General Instruction of the Roman Missal.drvc.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_constitutions /documents/hf_jp-ii_apc_19901018_codex-can-eccl-orient-2_lt.va/roman_curia/congregations/ccdds/documents /rc_con_ccdds_doc_20040423_redemptionis-sacramentum_en. bayoulandcs. Charles.archive. Code of Canon Law. ed. 42.archive. Instruction Ecclesiae de mysterio. The History of Eucharistic Adoration by John A Hardon 2003 ISBN 0-9648448-9-3 pages 4-10 60. 66 (http://www. 34.vatican. canon 916 (http://www. General Instruction of the Roman Missal. at the Wayback Machine. 88 (http://www. Retrieved 2017-02-28. canon 924 and 926 (http://www.HTM) June 28. Meditations on the Sacred Heart by Joseph McDonnell 2008 ISBN 1-4086-8658-9 page 118 57. General Instruction of the Roman Missal (http://www.va/roman_curia/congregations/ccdds/documents /rc_con_ccdds_doc_20040423_redemptionis-sacramentum_en. 2008. Schadé 2006 ISBN 1-60136-000-2. Herbermann.drvc.vatican.

London: Harvill Press.Eucharist in the Catholic Church . "On The Council of Trent on the Eucharist (http://www.com the Sacrament of the Eucharist" (Summa /library/COUNCILS/TRENT13.: The French text.org/w/index. New & Eternal Testament [i. The eucharistic meditations of the Curé d'Ars by Saint Jean Baptiste Marie Vianney Carmelite Publications (1961) ASIN B0007IVDMY 63.org/ . and Mary Benvenuta 1998 ISBN 0-940147-03-3 64. and Ascetically Explained Monstrances.vatican.html) 73.vatican.org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church 62. Louis: Freiburg im Breisgau. had been published in 1958.va/edocs/ENG0821/__P4.vatican. of the rev. Retrieved text related to this article: 2011-04-20.e. Alan Bancroft 2001 ISBN 0-85244-547-4 page 75 66.worldcat. Eucharist: Symbol of Transformation (https://books. Trans. P.ewtn.Wikipedia https://en. Helmuth Nils Loose. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Liturgically. OCLC 262469879 Wikisource has original (https://www. 11:26 AM .Live Video Stream of the Eucharist Wikimedia Commons has Fr.org/oclc/262469879). C.wikipedia.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/speeches/2006/march/documents/hf_ben- xvi_spe_20060302_roman-clergy_en.B.HTM) 72.vatican. Therese and Lisieux by Pierre Descouvemont. Nikolaus Gihr (1902). Vatican website Ecclesia de Eucharistia (http://www. by Roger Capel. M. with a Foreword by C. at 17:32.html) 69.savior. (1989). Convert. In the presence of our Lord by Benedict J. St.va/news_services/press/sinodo/documents/bollettino_21_xi-ordinaria- 2005/02_inglese/b10_02. Vatican website (http://www. Further reading Laferrière. James Monti 1997 ISBN 0-87973-920-7 pages 167-171 70. Collected poems of St Thérèse of Lisieux by Saint Thérèse (de Lisieux). additional terms may 14 of 15 6/27/17.HTM) Theologiae) Retrieved from "https://en. Liturgical Press.org/details/holysacrificeofm00gihriala). Thomas Aquinas. I Am: Eucharistic Meditations on the Gospel ISBN 0-8189-0890-4 67. Vatican website (http://www. Ann Ball. William R.va/news_services/liturgy/saints/ns_lit_doc_20040321_candida_en. Eucharistic Meditations: Extracts from the Writings and Instructions of Saint John Vianney by H. Jean Baptiste Marie. Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Almanac by Matthew Bunson 2008 ISBN 1-59276-441-X page 255 68. Saint Vianney.php?title=Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church& oldid=785833541" Categories: Sacraments of the Catholic Church Eucharist (Catholic Church) This page was last edited on 15 June 2017. 1961.html) Works cited Crockett. Martindale. 1996 ISBN 0-8028-3836-7 page 245 65. Vatican Website (http://www. (https://archive. the Holy Eucharist].wikipedia. of this work.com /books?id=98Aefvi_MTAC&pg=PA75).google. ed. External links http://www. Groeschel. 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X page 11 71. Concepción Cabrera de Armida. ISBN 978-0-8146-6098-0. N. The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass: media related to Dogmatically.

org/wiki/Eucharist_in_the_Catholic_Church apply. a non-profit organization. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation..Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.Eucharist in the Catholic Church . 11:26 AM . you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Inc. 15 of 15 6/27/17. By using this site.