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CHAPTER 2

EXPERIMENTAL

2.1. INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the study of thermodynamics, compressibility and transport

properties of homologous low molar mass compounds which are constituents of proteins, i.e.

Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine and L-Histidine which is a semi essential amino acid having

positively charged R group in aqueous solutions containing monosaccharides such as xylose

and fructose. The various experimental techniques, employed in the present investigation along

with the chemicals used, are discussed in detail.

The experimental procedures for the measurement of density are done by using a

single capillary pycnometer, viscosity by using Ubbelohde type suspended level viscometer,

ultrasonic speed by using a single-crystal variable-path multifrequency ultrasonic interferometer

operating at 2 MHz. (Model M-84, Mittal Enterprises, India). Also, the precautions to be

followed with handling of the experimental setup are discussed. The standardization of the above

instruments has been done by evaluating the thermodynamic parameters such as partial molal

volume Vφ0, partial molal compressibility K φ0, and viscosity B-Coefficient of all the amino

acids, and monosaccharides are reported in this thesis in aqueous solution from experimentally

measured physical parameters density ρ, ultrasonic speed u , and viscosity η are compared with

those from the literature.

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2.2. MATERIALS

The chemicals used in the present investigation along with their abbreviated names,

chemical formula, chemical structure, purity and their sources are listed in Table 2.1

Table 2.1. Chemicals Used for the Study with Abbreviated Names, Chemical Formula,

Chemical Structure, Purity, and Their Make

Name Abbreviation Chemical structure Purity Make
and Formula
H O Merck Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai
Gly
Glycine NH 2 C C OH 99.7 %
C2H5NO2 H

Ala
H O Sisco Research Lab. Pvt.
NH 2 C C OH Ltd., Mumbai
DL-Alanine C3H7NO2 99%
CH3

H O
Val NH2 C C OH
DL-Valine 99% Aldrich, U.S.A
C5H11NO2 CH
H3C CH3

H O

DL-Leucine NH2 C C OH 99% Aldrich, U.S.A
Leu
CH2
C6H13NO2 CH
H3C CH3

H O
NH 2 C C OH
L- Histidine His 99% Loba Chemie Pvt. Ltd.,
CH2
C6H9N3O2 Mumbai
N
NH

D- Xylose 99% S.D fine Chem Ltd.,
Xyl
Mumbai
C5H10O5

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Density Measurements 2. PREPARATION OF TERNARY SOLUTIONS All amino acids (glycine. Ltd.1. The solutions have been prepared by mass and have been stored in special airtight bottles to minimize absorption of atmospheric moisture and carbon dioxide. Japan) with a precision of ± 0. Precautions To prevent the formation of air bubbles. all solutions have been preheated to 5 °C.1. 2006). DL-leucine.D. Mumbai C6H12O6 2. and L.4. 2. DL-alanine. and d-fructose used in the study have been dried over P 2O5 in a desiccator for 72 hrs. above the measuring temperature before taking reading (Ali et al. Description of Pycnometer 51 .1 mg.3.4. The mass measurements have been made using a high precision AND electronic balance (Model HR 300. 2. DL-valine.histidine) d-xylose.1. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES 2. Double distilled deionised water with a conductivity of 1. before preparing necessary solutions..5×10-4 Ω-1·m-1 has been used to prepare aqueous monosaccharide solutions.9% Merck Pvt.4. 3.Fructose Fru 99.1..

1. The change in volume of water has been recorded at each mark on the pycnometer as a function of temperature in order to determine the total volume of pycnometer as well as volume between the two successive divisions of the graduated stem. Calibration and Calculation The marks on the stem of the pycnometer have been calibrated by making use of known densities (Kell. the exact volume of the pycnometer at different marks on the stem of the pycnometer has been calculated. The sample solution has been transferred into it with the help of jet. Necessary care has been taken to avoid the formation of air bubble in the sample. Figure 2.2. The excess solution sticking to the capillary has been removed using the strips of Whatman filter paper.1.4. The weight of pycnometer with the sample solution has been measured again. The calibrated empty pycnometer has been dried initially and then weighed. The densities of the solutions have been measured using a single stem pycnometer (pyrex glass) of bulb capacity of 13×10-3 dm3 having a graduated stem with 5×10-8 m3 division. The capillary has a uniform bore and could be closed by a well-fitted glass cap as shown in Figure 2. 1975) of triple distilled water at different temperatures. The pycnometer with the sample solution has been 52 . From the known weight of water and density of water at different temperatures.1. Pycnometer 2.

Weight of pycnometer + Weight of sample = W2 g. This level has been noted and used in the calculation of densities as below: Weight of empty pycnometer = W1 g.4. From the above equation.3.kept in a temperature controlled water bath (Euro Therm. Precautions i) The pycnometer is a highly delicate glassware that should be handled gently and carefully.W1 ) the exact weight (W2 – W1) and density of water r0 at the desired temperature. V = r0 (2.e.1). The exact volume V of pycnometer for the particular mark on the stem is the ratio of ( W2 . 53 .1. 2. Weight of sample = (W2 – W1) g. i. The reproducibility in the density measurements has been within  0. volume of the pycnometer for different marks on the stem of the pycnometer can be calculated. The values of volume at each mark of the stem of pycnometer as a function of temperature are plotted to calculate the density of the solution at a given temperature. supplied by Mittal Enterprises. India) at the desired temperature until no further change in the level of the solution in the capillary has been observed.1 kg m-3.

2). are termed as ultrasonic waves. v) The pycnometer containing the test solution should be kept in thermostatic water bath at least for 30 minutes to avoid thermal fluctuations. 1952. Theory Longitudinal waves with frequencies above 20 KHz.1. An ultrasonic interferometer is a simple and direct device to determine the ultrasonic speed (u) in solutions with high degree of accuracy (Figure 2. iv) Excess liquid sticking to the walls of capillary should be removed using fine strips of Whatman filter paper. Kudryavtsev. The propagation of an ultrasonic wave in liquids and liquid mixtures has been carried out by different methods (Mikhylov. 1949.4. iii) Entrapment of air bubbles must be avoided carefully while filling the sample in the pycnometer. 2. Tissue paper should be used to avoid the sticking of dust particles which would contribute to its weight later.2. and Parthasarthy.2. 2.2. Such a crystal slab exhibits electrostriction when placed in a region of electric field. ii) Direct handling of pycnometer with bare hand is prohibited. ULTRASONIC SPEED MEASUREMENTS 2.2. 1935).4.4. Description of Interferometer 54 . The ultrasonic interferometer consists of a piezoelectric crystal slab (like quartz) with parallel faces developing charges of opposite polarity on their faces when it is strained.

The oscillators have been stabilized using a quartz crystal oscillator operating at a frequency of 2 MHz. As the reflector is moved further. gives a minimum reading. a measurement of ‘d’ and a knowledge of the frequency ‘f’ of the oscillator will enable one to determine the velocity ‘u’ of propagation of the ultrasonic wave in the given liquid medium. quartz crystal mounted to a cell. A microammeter is connected between the junction of the load resistance and the load frequency choke. At this moment. Two arms of the network are the load resistance of two identical pentode oscillators and the plate resistances of the pentodes forming the other two arms. The distance ‘d’. The ultrasonic interferometer set up has basically a wheatstone’s network. 55 . the vibrating crystal will draw energy and thus load the oscillator to which it is connected. The cell can be filled up with any desired sample in which the velocity of sound is to be determined. the standing wave pattern could not be formed and the meter needle goes back to its original position. This acts as the detector. moved by the reflector to register the two consecutive minimum readings in the microammeter. A finite current may be allowed to pass through the microammeter. Thus. The output of one of the oscillators is fed to 2 MHz. The loading causes a greater imbalance in the bridge leading to a decrease of current through the microammeter. The metal reflector can be kept as close to the crystal transducer as possible. thus. it can go to such a height and a standing wave pattern can be formed between the transducer crystal and the reflector. A thermostatically regulated bath is connected to it to maintain the temperature of the liquid constant during the experiment. This is done by adjusting the ‘adjust’ and ‘gain’ knobs. When the reflector is moved. A reflector can be moved up or down using a screw head. The meter. will correspond to ( l / 2 ) of the ultrasonic wave in the liquid.

Figure 2.3. Keep the ‘adjust’ and ‘gain’ knobs in the minimum position. about a minute or so).4. Connect the output cable from the ultrasonic apparatus to the socket provided on the metal base.2.e. (i) To find the least count of the screw head attached to the reflector (ii) The ultrasonic cell is filled with 3/4th of its capacity with the experimental sample. Operation of Interferometer The following precautions have been taken for the measurement of ultrasonic speed. Just after a minute or so.2 Ultrasonic interferometer 2. Wait for some more time (i. Fix the reflector unit on the top of the cell then. 56 . (iii) Switch on the ultrasonic apparatus. The meter will come back to zero reading on the dial. the meter reading will register a maximum. Mount the cell in given sturdy metal base.

2) The wavelength is calculated from the relation l d = ( n . In this position. Now turn the ‘adjust’ knob so that the meter reading is around 80 microampere. Let the screw be turned and the reflector moved up. 57 .4. The meter reading in the ultrasonic interferometer will change. (v) Turn the screw gauge head such that the pitch scale reading is the least.2. the reflector is close to the crystal–the source of ultrasonic vibrations. 2. Note the head scale as well as the pitch scale reading (on the screw gauge) when the micro ammeter reading is the least.3) 2 where d is the total distance moved by the micrometer screw for a maximum or minimum deflection. n is the number of maxima (or minima) ( 20) of anode current for a distance d. The plate current is extreme corresponding to the variation of the reflector distance by half wavelength or integral multiple of half wavelength. The ultrasonic speed is calculated by the relation: l u= f � (2. (iv) Turn the ‘gain’ knob to a maximum. Calculation of Ultrasonic Speed Measurements of ultrasonic speed with the help of ultrasonic interferometer are based on finding the wavelength ( l ) in the medium. The reading in the meter may be around 50 or 60 microampere.1) (2.4.

(ii) The generator should always be switched on after filling the experimental sample in the cell. (iv)The experimental sample should be taken out of cell after use and the cell should be kept clean and dry. care must be taken not to spoil the gold plating on the quartz crystal.2. The reproducibility in the ultrasonic speed measurements is  0.4. (iii) Generator should be given a time of 15 minutes for warming up before the observation (Interferometer). 2. after use.5.03 %. the micrometer should be kept open at 25 mm. (v) Care must be taken to see that the reflector is not touching the bottom of the cell.1) Thus. The velocity is given by the relation 2 fd u= (2. Generally. Other General Precautions to Be Taken with Ultrasonic Interferrometer (i) Sudden rise or fall in temperature of the circulated sample should be avoided to prevent thermal shock to the quartz crystal. 58 . (vi)While cleaning the cell. the ultrasonic interferometer is a simple device by which the ultrasonic speed in liquid can be directly determined with a high degree of accuracy.4). ( n .

4. Description of Viscometer The viscosities of the samples have been measured by using Ubbelohde type suspended level viscometer (Stokes and Mills. 50 Hz.2. Technical Specifications 1) Model . approximately.4.1. 2.4. (11 freq.6. displacement of the reflector .0. Viscosity Measurements 2.3. The viscometer consists of a suspended 59 . 4) Shielded Cable Length of connecting cable between the generator and the cell is 50 cm. approx.220 V.3 V. Least count of micrometer . Fuse .3. 20 mm. 0.5 kg.5 cc. Required quantity of liquid . 3) Measuring Cell Max.500 mA.001 mm. 1965).) Glow lamp .3. 12 MHz.3 amp.6. Measuring frequency .1-10.M-84 2) High Frequency Generator Main voltage . Weight .2.

e.3. 60 . receiving. i) The centers of gravity of the three bulbs A. The two marks X and Y. ii) The resulting flow time for triply distilled water was 466 sec.4.level arrangement formed by three parallel arms. thus forming U–shape of viscometer. have been used for recording time. one above the other. The third arm auxiliary tube has been sealed to the measuring tube through a bulb C. have been sealed to the measuring tube. measuring. and auxiliary tubes (Figure 2. 2. the kinetic energy corrections are not necessary (Pal and Kumar 2004). Two bulbs. marked near the bulbs A and B.2. As the flow time has been greater than 100 sec.15 K.3). at 303. The capillary of appropriate length and diameter lies in between bulbs B and C. Special feature of a suspended level viscometer is that the capillary effects of the two liquid surfaces have been neutralized by each other so that the surface tension correction for the apparatus is negligible and the transport of momentum is carried out freely under the weight of the total volume of the test solution. i. B and C have been aligned vertically so as to reduce the effect of gravity. Special Feature The viscometer has been designed in such a way that the measuring and receiving tubes have been connected to each other through a bulb D. namely A and B.

3. AD X B Y C D Figure 2.3. Viscometer 2. The volume of the solution in the viscometer should be adequate to avoid any air bubble being entrapped in the capillary tube while the fiducial bulb is filled. Working of the Viscometer The sample solution is taken in the viscometer through the receiving tube. The viscometer containing the solution is clamped and immersed vertically in the thermostatic water bath and allowed to stand in it for about 30 minutes to minimize thermal fluctuation.4. The sample liquid is sucked into the 61 .3.

t1 and t2 are their times of flow.bulb A above the fiducial bulb with the help of a rubber tube fitted to the measuring tube. Calculation The viscosity of the test solution is obtained according to Poissuelle’s law p r 4 Pt h= (2. India) capable of registering time accurate to + 0.01 sec. 2. The viscosity of the sample solution is obtained using the well-known equation: h1 r1t1 = (2. An average of four sets of flow times for each solution has been taken for the purpose of calculation of the viscosity.4. Then the solution is allowed to fall under its own weight by removing the stopper of the tube.3. 62 .5) 8Vl where r = radius of the capillary P = pressure head t = time of fall V = volume taken l = length of capillary.4.6) h 2 r 2t 2 where h1 and h2 are the viscosities of the sample and water. Necessary care has been taken to allow the solution to stand for sometime in the limb to compensate the upward force on the solution. The flow time has been measured by a digital stop watch (Racer. and r1 and r 2 are their densities at the corresponding temperature.

3.5. The bath consists of an immersion heater. viscosity. 2.1.01 K. Mittal Enterprises. TEMPERATURE CONTROL All the measurements of density. 2. Precautions i) The volume of solution in the viscometer should be adequate to avoid any air bubble being entrapped in the capillary tube while the fiducial bulb is filled. The overall temperature of the test liquids during the measurements is maintained within an uncertainty of ± 0.4. ii) The viscometer containing the test solution is to be kept in a thermostatic water bath for about 30 minutes to attain thermal equilibrium. The samples have been allowed to stand for 30 minutes in thermostatic water bath to maintain thermal equilibrium with the bath liquid so that temperature becomes constant. and ultrasonic speed have been made in an electronically controlled thermostatic water bath (Euro Therm.5. The reproducibility in the viscosity measurements is within  2  10-3 mPa·s. Specifications Name : Digital Ultra Cryostat Circulator with Microprocessor based temperature controller Eurotherm make 63 . and a check and contact digital thermal sensor with digital display with a relay to control the variations in temperature. India) in order to maintain a uniform temperature. 2. a circulating pump.5.

The variance σ2 of the probability distribution of q is given by n ( s 2 ( q k ) = (1 / n . Temperature range : -5 ºC.9). Heater rating : Control 500 W. 50 Hz.q ) 2 (2. The variance of the mean is given by () s 2 q = s 2 ( qk ) / n (2. 64 .8).1)  j =1 q j . Single Phase AC.7). Accuracy of control : 0. ±2%. ±2% Catalogue number : IRI 017 2.e. ±1 digit Mains power supply : 230 V. to 80 ºC. i.01 ºC. The standard uncertainty is estimated by taking square root of the equation (2.6.9). The arithmetic mean or average q of the n experimental observations is given by: n 1 q= n q k =1 k (2. PROCEDURE FOR MEASURING UNCERTAINTY The procedure for the measurement of uncertainty is carried out using the format given in JCGM 100:2008 as follows.

5 0. A fair agreement is noticed between the estimated values from our experimental results and the literature values has substantiated the standardization of the experimental procedure.02 0.99831 1498.04 0.06 0.15 0.8905 303. viscosity (ubbelohde viscometer). Ultrasonic Speed (u). Density (ρ).9026 65 . partial molar compressibilities. ultrasonic speed.10).99894 1499.15 0. in water at different temperatures and the estimated values are compared with those reported in literature.7.8998 0.7190 313.1 0.8943 0.15 0. and viscosity obtained by the above method are reported in the respective tables. reported in this work.3 0.08 0.8968 0.1 0.99220 1529. and viscosity B coefficients of the amino acids and saccharides.7. Density (ρ). Ultrasonic Speed (u). and Viscosity (η) of Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures T/K ρ *103 /(kg m-3) u / (m s -1) η / (m Pa s) 298.6 0.6523 Table 2.99564 1509.6 0.99564 1496. 2. Table 2.7969 308.15 K Glycine 0.2. and Viscosity (η) of α–Amino Acids in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures ρ *103 /(kg m-3) u / (m s -1) η / (m Pa s) -1 m / (mol kg ) T=298.1 0. and ultrasonic speed (ultrasonic interferometer) are standardized using the evaluation of partial molar volumes. STANDARDIZATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL SETUP USED IN THIS THESIS The instruments used in the determination of density (single stem pycnometer). The uncertainty values in density.1.99956 1500.15 0.4 0.7.99402 1520.99768 1497. ( ) u ( xi ) = s X i (2.

8905 0.99785 1501.02 0.9139 δρ = 4.60 0.620 δη=2.04 0.70 0.3 0.269 δη=5.0 0.0 0.08 0.50 0.6×10-4 δu =1.2 0.99850 1505.9051 0.02 0.99835 1503.899 δη=3.90 0.7×10-4 δu =0.02 0.6 0.99851 1501.8095 0.02 0.99689 1511.30 0.8985 0.6 0.99616 1511.7 0.50 0.2 0.99812 1511.8905 0.08 0.8016 0.4 0.99751 1511.9137 0.06 0.06 0.8107 0.04 0.99757 1516.04 0.91×10-3 Alanine 0.312 δη=5.06 0.8175 δρ = 4.99873 1511.9054 δρ = 4.99805 1500.06 0.10 0.99799 1517.7 0.99748 1498.10 0.99934 1505.08 0.8039 0.10 0.00 0.12×10-3 Valine 0.9128 0.99921 1501.8048 0.3 0.8000 0.15 K Glycine 0.8 0.99627 1510.2 0.8307 δρ = 3.9000 0.365 δη=1.06 0.7 0.99813 1502.0×10-4 δu =0.15×10-3 T=303.3×10-4 δu =1.9003 0.8137 0.06 0.893 δη=3.05 0.04 0.20 0.1×10-4 δu =0.9174 δρ = 2.99816 1499.9 0.0 0.04 0.2 0.99674 1511.9087 0.99666 1513.5×10-4 δu =1.10 0.9 0.8×10-4 δu =0.00018 1500.9215 δρ = 3.0.99713 1514.9060 0.85×10-3 Leucine 0.28 δη=5.99620 1510.8958 0.5 0.20 0.02 0.3 0.10 0.8024 0.00 0.08 0.56×10-3 Valine 0.2 0.24×10-3 Alanine 0.8072 0.8242 0.99894 1503.16×10-3 66 .08 0.8174 0.99725 1513.99774 1514.99821 1515.08 0.04 0.99870 1500.9096 0.02 0.99756 1498.8057 0.10 1.99972 1502.99761 1497.8096 δρ = 4.

6598 0.8168 0.99460 1531.7294 δρ = 4.9×10-4 δu =1.99646 1522.5 0.08 0.2 0.02 0.59×10-3 Leucine 0.7372 δρ = 4.02 0.241 δη=4.4 0.99616 1525.02 0.99564 1523.7431 0.8051 0.8280 δρ = 2.10 0.1×10-4 δu =1.6×10-4 δu =0.99502 1525.7231 0.75×10-3 Valine 0.99444 1522.7 0.7368 0.42×10-3 Alanine 67 .2 0.7260 0.10 0.05 0.7275 0.99401 1531.02 0.99686 1515.99668 1514.7490 δρ = 3.0 0.99696 1518.04 0.99498 1523.8207 0.7334 0.7 0.99705 1522.1×10-4 δu =1.99511 1522.8130 0.8 0.99341 1530.08 0.7 0.928 δη=2.6579 0.06 0.06 0.7254 0.15 K Glycine 0.398 δη=1.7401 0.2 0.04 0.6 0.06 0.05 0.3 0.99477 1524.08 0.50 0.02 0.99518 1531.375 δη=4.7 0.04 0.6542 0.4 0.6561 0.4 0.99607 1511.7210 0.08 0.08 0.6 0.0 0.60×10-3 Alanine 0. Leucine 0.2 0.30 0.99607 1529.04 0.99586 1522.0×10-4 δu =0.70 0.06 0.99457 1521.6 0.99642 1513.5 0.15 K Glycine 0.10 0.7464 δρ = 1.99516 1526.99281 1530.7268 0.99538 1525.06 0.7250 0.99452 1521.7337 0.06 0.7234 0.99464 1521.03×10-3 T=313.54×10-3 T=308.10 0.201 δη=4.2 0.7372 0.99667 1526.8 0.390 δη=1.04 0.08 0.90 0.99525 1521.7314 0.6616 δρ = 4.99575 1527.0 0.04 0.6×10-4 δu =0.99525 1528.7301 0.02 0.10 0.0 0.5 0.

04 0.043) 107.6584 0.10 0.02 0.6620 0.10 0.99294 1533.6589 0.99376 1532.86 0.99318 1534.06 0. 43.4 0.99382 1536.99350 1534.6687 0.280(0. Partial Molal Volumes Vφ0 of α–Amino Acids in Aqueous Solutions Different Temperatures Vφ0* 106 / (m3 mol-1) at various ms / (mol kg-1) Amino Present Work Literature Acid T = 298.099) 60.41×10-3 Valine 0.6554 0.123 Valine 90.15 K Glycine 43.2 0.6649 0.591 68 .162 Alanine 60.6633 0.6 0.04 0.343 δη=4.394 Leucine 108.1 0.141.99325 1531.6740 0.15 K Glycine 43.6767 δρ = 1. Table 2.9×10-4 δu =1. 60.765 T = 303.08 0.2 0.06 0.7.99261 1531.2 0.90 0.50 0.99426 1534. δη-denotes uncertainty in viscosity values.6790 δρ = 2.08 0.9×10-4 δu =0.9 0.003(0.752.6706 0.06 0.99332 1535.100) 90.651.99313 1532.3.6680 δρ = 3.6677 0.04 0.412.1 0.2 0.11×10-3 Leucine 0.171 δη=3.9×10-4 δu =1.6650 0.99273 1530.56×10-3 m-stands for molality of amino acids.99409 1537.6576 0. 90. δu-denotes uncertainty in ultrasonic speed. 107.523(0.30 0. δρ-denotes uncertainty in density values.095) 43.99269 1530.581(0.08 0.10 0.0 0.095) 43.02 0.99475 1535. 0.930 δη=2.02 0.99338 1537.166(0.05 0.

074) -21.076) -21. 1985). Table 2.77(0.981.097) 43.587 Leucine 109.631 Valine 90.60(0.050) T = 303. 1995).427 Leucine 108. 2006)..100) 60.35(0.61(0.959 .055) -26. of α-Amino Acids in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures Kφ0 * 1015 / (m3mol-1Pa-1) at Various m / (mol kg-1) Amino Present Work Literature Acid T = 298.511 Alanine -22.007(0.165) -25.614(0. -27.62(0.15 K Glycine -23.058) Alanine -23. 3-(Sinha et al.538(0.0310 Valine -30.100) 91.21(0. 1983).268 Alanine 61.4. 4-(Sharma et al.075) 109.00 13 69 . 1997)..718(0.255(0.15 K Glycine -22.100) 90.0012 Valine -23.097) 44.151) T = 313.527 Alanine 62.1511.076) 108. 2-(Banipal et al.022) T = 308...62(0.681(0.082) Leucine -27.148(0. 44. 2007).034) -22.4013 Alanine -21. 6-(Lark et al.061) Leucine -31.100) 62. 2006). 2004.065) T = 308.540(0.0010 Alanine -24. Alanine 60. 5-(Kikuchi et al.100) 91..15 K Glycine -24.83(0.907.87(0..418 Valine 91.407 T = 313.907 Valine 91.006) -23..151) Valine -26.. -23. 7-(Zhao et al.15 K Glycine 44.20(0.24(0. 90.673(0.012) Leucine -24.09(0.92(0.100) 61.74(0.7.226 Leucine 108. Partial Molal Compressibility Kφ0.15 K Glycine -26. a).356(0.007 Parenthesis indicates standard error in Vφ0 1-(Bhat et al. 8-(Wadi et al.15 K Glycine 44.617(0.

5. 1999).15 K Glycine 0. 13-(Chalikian et al..24720 Valine 0.244(0.007) 0. 12-(Mohanty et al.63(0.48316 T = 313.473(0. 1987).7.25815 Valine 0.422(0.1936). Viscosity B-Coefficient of α– Amino Acids in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures B * 103 / (m3 mol-1) at various ms / mol kg-1 Amino Present Work Literature Acid T = 298.. 2007).107) 0.015) Leucine 0.153(0.024) 0. 2010. c).045) T = 308.487(0.024) 0.. 1988).480(0. 2004. 11-(Wadi et al. 15-(Lark et al. 19-(Islam et al. Table 2..052) 0.24718 Valine 0..159(0.065) 0. 0.148(0.15 K Glycine 0.002) Alanine 0.427(0.1998)... 18-(Sandhu et al.. 9-(Soto et al. c).259(0.14818 Alanine 0.493(0. 1997).101) Parenthesis indicates standard error in Kφ0.87(0.42317 Leucine 0.15314 Alanine 0.48715 T = 303.41814 Leucine 0.1993).17-(Banipal et al.253(0. 70 . 20-(Bhattacharya et al.033) 0..043) 0.248(0.033) 0.418(0. 16-(Yan et al. 10-(Millero et al.. 1980).021) 0..15 K Glycine 0. Valine -20.48021 Values within parenthesis indicate the standard error in viscosity B-coefficient.14419 Alanine 0. 2004).41321 Leucine 0. 1978).433(0.037) 0..115) Leucine -22.15 K Glycine 0.144(0.. 14-(Daniel et al.025) 0. 21-(Rajagopal et al.44716.021) Valine 0.

6701 δρ = 8.2 0.2 0.9143 0.06 0.099) 71 .092 δη=5.Table2.097) 98.10 0.99962 1526.99789 1512.10 0. 98.7 0.04 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.6×10-4 δu =0.Vφ0/ (m3 mol-1) at various ms / mol kg-1 T/K Present work Literature 298.99513 1521.99849 1525.04 0. δu-denotes uncertainty in ultrasonic speed.8277 δρ = 8.15 K 0.02 0.946 δη=3.02 0.06 0.6633 0. 98.9 0.3 0.08 0.99331 1530.6 0.08 1.99776 1534.305(0.8037 0.67×10-3 T=308.7236 0.900(0.9 0.histidine.9296 δρ = 8.5×10-4 δu =0.4 0.00043 1501.6 0.00270 1503.99930 1499.99817 1498.7332 0.7378 0.7284 0.99552 1532.8990 0.6596 0.9624 22 303.4 0.7 0.9 0.15 98.92×10-3 T=303.04 0.15 99.99441 1531.10 1.08 1.00014 1514.15 K 0.9218 0.9068 0.1 0.99737 1524.7.6×10-4 δu =1.6 0. Ultrasonic speed (u). and Viscosity (η) of L-Histidine in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures ρ *103 / (kg m-3) u / (m s-1) η / (m Pa s) m / (mol kg-1) T=298.863 δη=2.7. δη-denotes uncertainty in viscosity values.06 1.89023 . Table 2.2 0.00157 1502.99625 1522.5 0.00127 1515.08 0.04 0.99676 1510.7 0. Density (ρ).6.10 1.7.99901 1513.54×10-3 T=313.15 K 0.5×10-4 δu =0.8157 0.02 0.73×10-3 m-stands for molality of L. δρ-denotes uncertainty in density values.15 K 0.6668 0.7420 δρ = 8. Partial Molal Volumes Vφ0 of L-Histidine in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures 106.961 δη=4.02 0.06 0.99664 1533.8217 0.8097 0.860 .6560 0.

7. 23-(Yasuda et al.05 1.24(0. 24-(Yuan et al.021) 0.5025 303..0 0.030) 0.15 22.15 K 0.099) 100.15 100.21(0.434(0.(..8 0.9302 0.15 30.00051 1499.276(0..7.20 1.9023 313.7. Ultrasonic speed (u).. 2006).00746 1503.08) 308.1998).01094 1505. 2011) Table 2.15 0.0 0.00398 1502. 308.38426 308.10.15 27.15 1.9673 72 .8.90022 313.07) Parenthesis indicates standard error in Kφ0..15 0.047) 0.13(0. 22-(Zhao et al.43626 303. and Viscosity (η) of Fructose in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures ρ *103 / (kg m-3) u / (m s -1) η /(m Pa s) ms / (mol kg-1) T=298. Viscosity B-Coefficients of L-Histidine in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures B * 103 / (m3 mol-1) at various ms / (mol kg-1) T/K Present work Literature 298.15 99.9112 0.336(0..32926 313. 23-(Yasuda et al.28026 Values within parenthesis indicate the standard error in viscosity B coefficient.Kφ0 ) / (m3 ·mol-1· Pa-1) at various ms / mol kg-1 T/K Present work Literature 298.15 0.6 0. 26-(Nain et al.097) 99.07) 29. 32.9.327(0.9492 0.6023.753(0.10) 25. 2006) Table 2.15 25. Density(ρ).1998). Partial Molal Compressibility Kφ0 of L-Histidine in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures 1015.382(0.10 1. 1991) Table 2.82(0. 25-(Kharakoz et al.005) 0.40022 Parenthesis indicates standard error in Vφ0.15 0.

7.09 .11.82 111. a ). 112..15 1. 34-(Galema et al..05 0.110. 31-(Nikam et al.7048 Table2. Table 2.15 K 0.1133 .15 -21. 2011).15 110. 30-(Jasra et al. Partial Molal Volumes (Vφ0) of Fructose in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures 106.7641 0.05 0.00596 1516.20 1. 1990.9030 27 303. 32-(Banipal et al.9 0.8146 0.0629.15 113. Partial Molal Compressibility (Kφ0) of Fructose in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures 1015.99555 1531. 1984).99741 1522.6 0.12.00764 1527.(Kφ0 ) / (m3 ·mol-1· Pa-1) at various ms / (mol kg-1) T/K Present work Literature 298.10 1.8 0.1227 . a) 73 . 2000.99891 1533.00081 1525.728.20 1. a).6794 0.8314 0.1 0..1997). 110.8 0.6660 0..8638 T=308...7495 0.7 0.99907 1512.20 1.0932 313.6924 0.28 -21.05 0.15 111.93 111. 111. b). 1989).7781 T=313.5 0..00567 1535.00941 1517.13 308.7344 0.6 34 303. T=303.72 112.2010.15 K 0.15 K 0.18 -20.09 33-(Hundal et al.0531 308.80 33 313.2010.3 0..15 1.Vφ0/ (m3 mol-1) at various ms / (mol kg-1) T/K Present work Literature 298.00229 1535.10 0.00423 1526.64 27-(Banipal et al.15 -19.15 1.15 112.15 -17. 28-(Goldberg et al.3 0. -21.1 0.2 0.15 -15.2 0.8480 0.00251 1514. 29-(Banipal et al.7.10 1.

Ultrasonic Speed (u).444 308.00622 1517.99747 1533.8 0.15 K 0.00363 1516.20 1.00511 1503.7.422 35 313.99670 1522.15.05 0.15 K 0.5 0.15 0.6932 Table 2. 0.7539 0.7. 2013).9 0.8 0.15 0.00774 1506.45136 303.00005 1536.449 35 .452 0.10 0. and Viscosity (η) of Xylose in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures ρ *103 / (kg m-3) u / (m s -1) η / (m Pa s) ms/ (mol kg-1) T=298.9054 0.8235 0.99834 1511.7300 0..20 1. Viscosity B-Coefficients (B) Fructose in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures B * 103 / (m3 mol-1) at various ms / (mol kg-1) T/K Present work Literature 298.429 35-(Banipal et al.6729 0.5 0.00193 1526.8095 0.1 0.Table 2.10 1.20 1.7426 0.1 0.0 0.7 0.14.05 0.15 1.0 0.00100 1514.8363 0.05 0.00448 1528.99934 1524.00245 1501. Partial Molal Volumes (Vφ0) of Xylose in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures 106.05 0.8480 T=308.13.10 1.9 0.9352 0.437 0.15 K 0.9495 T=303.6833 0.15 1.15 1.7640 T=313.0 0.99486 1531.10 0.15 K 0.8 0. 2006) Table 2.00258 1538. Density(ρ).5 0.9212 0..7.15 0.15 0.Vφ0/ (m3 mol-1) at various ms / (mol kg-1) T/K Present work Literature 74 .6631 0.0 0.20 1.99976 1499.15 1. 36-(Zhuo et al.9 0.

1141 303.85 97. 37-(Jasra et al.6037 303..32 96.. 2013).55 40-(Hoiland et al.95 308. 2011). 2006). 2006).31142 42-(Banipal et al...39 -11.33643 303.54 95.15 0.9 40.15 95. 1978).15 -12.331 308. 75 . Partial Molal Compressibility (Kφ0) of Xylose in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures 1015.32443 313. 43-(Banipal et al.3039 36-(Zhuo et al..6441 313.325 0. 1982). 95.4736.15 0.16.15 -10. 2011) Table 2...32742 .. 41-(Hundal et al.15 96.7. 0.17. 39-(Paljk et al.15 95. 1990) Table 2. 38-(Zhang et al.33842 .15 -9. 0.337 0.318 0. Viscosity B-Coefficients of Xylose in Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures B * 103 / (m3 mol-1) at various ms / (mol kg-1) T/K Present work Literature 298.33 308.15 0.46 .15 0.7.3238 313.12. 298. -13.15 -11.15 96.(Kφ0 ) / (m3 ·mol-1· Pa-1) at various ms / (mol kg-1) T/K Present work Literature 298.