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IIHS, SHIMLA

TRAINING REPORT

FIELD VISITS AND PRACTICALS PERFORMED
AT NITTTR CHANDIGARH

(FROM 18/01/2016 TO 10/02/2016)

MBA (RURAL DEVELOPMENT)
(2014-2016)
SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:
DR. UN ROY (PROF. RURAL DEVELOPMENT) NARESH KUMAR
NITTTR CHANDIGARH ROLL NO: 225
IIHS, HPU SHIMLA

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Training is the most vital part of any course, both as a link between theory and actual
knowledge as well as an opportunity for hands on experience in actual environment.

I, therefore consider myself fortunate to receive the training in an esteemed organization
like NITTTR Chandigarh. Yet the opportunity could not have been utilized without the guidance
and support of many individuals who, although held varied positions, but were equally instru-
mental for completion of my training.

First of all, I owe a lot of debt of gratitude to Dr. Randhir Ranta (Coordinator IIHS) and
Dr. AJ Singh (director, IIHS Shimla) for his kind support and guidance. I acknowledge my sin-
cere thanks to Director (NITTTR Chandigarh) Dr. MP Poonia, Head of rural development dept.
(NITTTR Chandigarh) Dr. JS Saini, Prof. of rural development dept. (NITTTR Chandigarh) Dr.
UN Roy for allowing us permission to pursue our training under their roof and guidance.

I separately express my profound indebtedness to Dr. UN Roy (Prof. rural development
dept., NITTTR Chandigarh) for his guidance and mentoring throughout the tenure of my train-
ing.

I would also like to thank the management, employees and the entire unit of NITTTR
Chandigarh for their cooperation during my training.

In addition, I would also like to express gratitude to the respected faculty members and ex-
perts from different fields for their invaluable inputs and direction.

Last but not least, I thank my family, friends, mentors and all well- wishers without whose
cooperation this training would have been a dream.

Shimla Naresh Kumar

06/03/2016

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INDEX

SR.NO. FIELD VISITED/ PRACTICAL PERFORMED PAGE NO.

ABBREVIATIONS 4

LIST OF FIGURES 5

1 NITTTR CHANDIGARH 6
2 ETV LAB NITTTR 7

3 RS FARM 8

4 KAMALJEET DAIRY AND ORGANIC FARM 11

5 RAJ KUMAR ARYA FARM 12

6 RAMPUR JANGI VILLAGE 13

7 SUKHOMAJRI WATERSHED PROJECT 16

8 CONSTRUCTION OF A LOW COST CHULLAH 19

9 CONSTRUCTION OF A LOW COST CEMENTED CLOSURE 21

10 ORGANIC MANDI 22

11 GURUKUL KURUKSHETRA 23
12 JAYPEE BIOTECH FUEL PLANT 26

13 SHERGILL BEE AND ORGANIC FARM 27

CONCLUSION 29

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ABBREVIATIONS

NITTTR: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNICAL TEACHERS TRAINING AND RESEARCH

GOI: GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

DEPT.: DEPARTMENT

PTU: PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

ICT: INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

CRP: COMMUNITY RESOURCE PERSONS

SHG: SELF HELP GROUP

NRLM: NATIONAL RURAL LIVELIHOOD MISSION

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LIST OF FIGURES

SR.NO. FIELD VISTED/ PRACTICAL PERFOFRMED PAGE NO.
1 A FRONT VIEW OF NITTTR CHANDIGARH 6
2 TV STUDIO LAB OF NITTTR CHANDIGARH 7
3 A GROUP OF STUDENTS VISITING RS FARM 9
4 COWS IN THE COW SHED 11
5 A VISIT TO RAJ KUMAR ARYA FARM 12
6 A VIEW OF RAJ KUMAR FARM 13
7 WOMEN PARTICIPATING IN SHG 14
8 A BOARD SHOWING THE DATA OF WATERSHED PROJECT 17
9 SUKHOMAJRI WATERSHED 19
10 CONSTRUCTION OF ROOF FOR CHULLAH 20
11 CONSTRUCTION OF CHULLAH 21
12 HOARDING OF ORGANIC MANDI 22
13 ORGANIC PRODUCTS IN A SHOP OF ORGANIC MANDI 23
14 ADMINISTRATIVE BLOCK OF GURUKUL KURUKSHETRA 24
15 BIO GAS PLANT IN GURUKUL 24
16 COWS IN THE CATTLE FARM OF GURUKUL 25
17 GURUKUL ORGANIC FARM 25
18 JAYPEE BIOTECH FUEL PLANT IN DADUMAJRA, CHANDIGARH 26
19 BEES FORMING HONEY IN A BOX 27

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1) NITTTR CHANDIGARH:

Fig.1) A front view of NITTTR Chandigarh

In the realisation of the need of training better quality technicians to meet the large scale
industrialization of the country, the ministry of Human Resource Development (the then ministry
of education), GOI established four regional technical teachers training institutes (now
NITTTRs) in 1967. The institute of Chandigarh is one of these four NITTTRs, started in collabo-
ration with Royal Netherlands Government (up to 1974). It was designed to meet the require-
ments of developing polytechnic education in the northern region covering the states of Jammu
and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Delhi
and UT of Chandigarh. The institute is registered under the societies registration act, 1860 and is
managed by a Board of Governors.

The institute established a media centre in 1981 for preparing print and non-print instruc-
tional materials.

The institute also set up the dept. of rural development and the dept. of the entrepreneur-
ship development to assist polytechnics in directing their efforts towards training man power and

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disseminating information in these areas. the educational television and computer science depart-
ments were established in the year 1981 and 1982 respectively. Since 1983, the institute has been
guiding and assisting the states in the areas of educational planning and management. Since
1992, the institute started offering regular master of engg. programmes.

The institute has been recognised as a Research centre by Punjab University, Chandigarh
(in 2006) as well as by PTU, Jalandhar (in 2005) for pursuing research work leading to the de-
gree of philosophy.

2) ETV CENTRE (EDUCATION AND TELEVISION CENTRE),
NITTTR CHANDIGARH:

Fig.2) TV studio lab of NITTTR Chandigarh

ETV centre was set up in the year 1985 for production of video programmes in various
technical subjects and to popularize electronic media. It is well equipped with latest equipment.

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It has one of the best studios in the northern India and is deeply involved in video film produc-
tion and ICT based training activities. The centre conducts programmes and provide technical
support to other departments to conduct technical and induction training programmes through
ICT. Keeping in mind the need of hour, it is setting up milestones in education through ICT. In
addition to short term courses, the centre is also offering 6 months and I year programmes like
certificate course in video film and animation production and PG diploma in video film and ani-
mation production respectively.

In the TV studio lab. we were taught about production of a film. A whole film is divided
into parts like starting phase, introduction phase, body of the film and then the end phase. Start-
ing phase is included by names of movie and the players in the movie. This is of 20 seconds
means it can include 10 shots of 2 seconds each. The introduction phase of the movie is of 1 mi-
nute. Then the body of the play comes. In the last 30 seconds end phase is shown. The end phase
is included by the credit to the various bodies. In this way the time and steps are divided in the
movie.

3) RS FARM:

This farm is situated in village Bahadurpur of district Ropar, Punjab. This farm is running
by the son (He) of a farmer.

Some points how he started this farm from his speech.

This farm is our parent’s hard work. It is our cultural system of work. We have our own
business of transporting and scraps in Dubai. Our aim is to stand up our village on their own feet.
We are working to make our village better than the towns. We (the joint family) wanted to shift
from village to town in 2007. One day in our childhood one of us said that why not the village be
developed as the town. This point stroked our parents and they started to work in the village and
set up a farm.

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Fig.3) A group of students visiting RS Farm.

This farm constitutes following activities:

 Dairy farm
 Bio gas plant
 Organic farm
 Slurry/ compost making

They made a slurry pump for bio gas plant themselves in less than the cost of 50000rupee.
He was told the price of the slurry pump in the market of 50 lakh rupee. The slurry pump is used
to mix up the cow dung and the urine properly. Slurry pump consists of:

 Two gear box
 Blades for mixing
 Chain like mechanism for maintenance

This farm is totally cemented, so there is no chance of coming soil into the bio gas tank.
The urine and the dung of all cows are slanted through the underground pipe directly to the tank.

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 No’s of cows were approximately: 60-80 cows
 The avg. milk production per day from the farm was 1000litre.
 The avg. milk from each cow was 20-25 litre per day.
 They were using a German machine to extract the milk from the cow.

The biogas plant was constructed of concrete and bricks. There is no need of adding water
to the bio gas plant because urine I acting as the liquefying agent to the cow dung. Cow urine is
full of N, P, K elements which increase the more gas production and hence the enriched slurry.
The PAU (Punjab Agricultural University) scholars were experimenting the power of cow urine.
They directly used it to the crops, which destroy the crops. In the 2 nd experiment they liquefy the
urine with water & then apply to the fields, but it put the crops unaffected. At last He experi-
menting on the mixing of cow dung with the cow urine and this gave the best results when the
slurry from the bio gas are used in the fields.

There were two plants for the bio gas. The size of the bio gas plant was 100 cubic m and
the dia. Was 44 feet each. RS farm was also supplying the bio gas to the whole village. They
have fixed a pipeline to every household of the village. When the gas inside the tank was full it
forces the slurry to exit the tank. But when the gas is in use the slurry forces the gas to maintain
pressure in the tank.

The slurry exited out are then filled into the mud tank and supply to the fields by mixing
with water. They are also making composts from the slurry and selling the composts to the farm-
ers.

The very important thing, due to which the bio gas plants are shutting down is the presence
of moisture in the bio gas.

The biogas has the following components:

 Methane: 60-60%
 Hydrogen sulphide: 0.5%
 Carbo dioxide: 5%
 Moisture: 30%

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This moisture gets filled in the pipes and reduces the gas pressure. Each household is fixed
with U type connection in the pipeline for the ejection of water from the pipeline.

4) KAMALJEET DAIRY AND ORGANIC FARM

Fig.4) cows in the cow shed.

This farm was situated in a village of the district Mohali, Punjab.

a. Bio gas plant
b. Organic farm
c. Compost making
d. Silage making
e. Dairy farm
 Approximately the number of cows were 90-100
 Milk extraction and filtering system
 Avg. milk extraction per day from each cow was 20 kg

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 The avg. milk given to cooperative per day was 600-700 litre.

Various awards and honours were given to Kamaljeet for his hard work.

5) RAJ KUMAR ARYA FARM:

Raj Kumar Arya Ji was performing natural farming in his fields. He was changed from
chemical farming to natural farming, after he meet the Rajiv Dixit Ji. He has given the name of
zero budget farming to natural farming.

Fig.5) A visit to Raj Kumar Arya Farm.

He was following the both methods of the irrigation, drip and flood irrigation. He was mix-
ing the dung and the water and then was applying the mixture to the fields.

He made a mixture which he maned as ‘Jivan Dravya’. This mixture is fed alternatively to
the fields in three months.

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Flood irrigation method is not a good practise in the fields because in this the water fills the
air gaps between the soil particles and restrict the aerobic action of the soil. So drip is better than
the flood irrigation.

The ‘Jivan Dravya’ is the mixture of following:

 10 kg cow dung
 200 litre water
 1 kg sugar
 1-2 kg (channa aata)
 1 kg fertile land.

This mixture become ready in the 3 days. This mixture is then filtered and fed to the fields.

Fig.6) A view of Raj Kumar Arya farm

6) RAMPUR JANGI VILLAGE (SHG WORKING):

This village is situated in the Solan district of Himcahal Pradesh. The main focus of the
visit is to know about the SHG (self-help group). The SHG we visited as named as “Devi”.

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It is the part of NRLM program. Every poor has the desire to come out of the state of poor.
It is not the easy task to completely eliminate the poor state, but it can be minimised. So SHG’s
help the poor to come out of this state.

It is the group of 10-15 women of the similar socio-economic status. They should be neigh-
bours to each other. There may be many SHG’s in a village. They (SHG members) first prayed
and then start the working of SHG.

Fig.7) Women participating in SHG

Panchsutra of the SHG:

 Regular meeting
 Regular saving
 Internal lending
 Regular repayment
 Maintenance of registers

Registers in the SHG:
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 Proceeding record
 Bank passbook
 Loan ledger records
 Cash book
 Member passbook (individuals)

Hierarchy of the members in the SHG

 President
 Secretary
 Treasurer
 Members

Revolving fund is given by the Govt. to the SHG initially after the completion of three
months. It comes directly into the account of self-help group.

Federations in the organisation:

 Block level federation
 Cluster level federation
 Village level organisations
 Self-help group

Self-help group may be registered or not depending upon the members of the self-help
group. But at the village level the SHG must be registered. At the village level many SHG’s are
came.

In this group activity these women members are shared some money per month or rate de-
cide by the group. If many persons are demanding the money at the same time, then the group
member decides that who will be given the first loan. Loans are also given depending on the pri-
ority of need. Their decision will be collective and participatory.

In the village level organisations, two members from the each SHG participates and shares
their activities. In this way all the information of the village is shared among all groups.

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CRP’s came to the villages, survey the village and study the people from socio economic
point of view. In 1965 when China attacked the Tibet, then more refugees has come to India. For
the welfare of these refugees an organisation named MERADA was made, whose headquarter
was in Bangalore.

SERP (society for the elimination of the rural poverty) is an organisation which is func-
tioning in the Andhra Pradesh. It is also a NRO (non-resource organisation) which helps in im-
plementing the NRLM activities in other states. In 2010-11 the number of SHG’s working under
the SERP were 125000.

The main focus of the NRLM is to create an environment or condition so that the potential
of the women can come out publically. To expose of their talents in the development of the soci-
ety, and also to coordinate them towards the reduction of poverty.

7) SUKHOMAJRI WATERSHED PROJECT

Catchment area: the area from where the water drainage take place

Command area: the area where the water from the shed is used

Sukhna lake was constructed in the 1978. Initial the volume of the sukhna lake was
3200cubic m, but today it reached to 1500 cubic m because the catchment area of the shivalik is
very fragile in nature. The silt started filling the lake.

Shivalik hills are 62% in Himachal alone and rests are in Punjab, Haryana, UK and Chan-
digarh. A sop was done to check the soil of the shivalik in the catchment area of the sukhna lake,
it is found that every year 141ton per hectare soil is silted down, it means that 1cm layer of the
shivalik every year is silted down.

Total catchment area of the sukhna lake is 4214hectare. Out of which 3060hectare is forest
area and rest are agricultural area.

Three thing in the watershed management:

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 Agricultural production
 Ground water recharge
 Forest cover

All these things would increase then it would be said that the watershed project has suc-
ceeded.

Fig.8) A board showing the data of watershed project in Sukhomajri

For the cultivation of the 1kg rice 3000 litre water is needed. And for the cultivation of 1
kg wheat this amount would be 1500 litre. In Punjab the time of cultivation of rice has delayed.
In rain water 40% water is recharged into the ground.

Watershed management needs top to bottom planning. In these type of projects, we start
from the top and moves downward. There are two measure for this:

 Mechanical measures
 Vegetative measures

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In the mechanical measures we place barriers in the way of water speed. The barriers re-
duce the kinetic energy of the water and hence reduces the soil erosion. In the vegetative meas-
ure we start planting trees from top side toward downward side. This will provide strength to the
soil of the land.

Biotic interferences constitute people and animals, which play major roles in plantation and
protection of trees.

Dept. of forest and soil has planted many trees. Today the cost of these trees collectively in
the Sukhomajri is 1.8crore rupee. Since villagers are also helping in the preservation of the forest
and these trees. So the total revenue generated from the selling of these trees should also be
given to villagers.so 1% of the total revenue would be given to village society and 3% would be
utilised in the plantation of the trees in that area.

In this village a society has been made in the year 1980 which is called as Hilly resource
management society (HRMS). After the creation of watershed in the Sukhomajri, the HRMS is
caretaking this area. The water is distributed equally to each households according to need. The
water from the watershed is transferred with gravity to the houses. Alpha valves are provided in
the fields for field irrigation.

HRMS is earning the money in the village in the following ways:

 Sale of water (24rupees per hour)
 Fishing
 Forest area lease out (350 rupees per head load)

In the earlier days the villagers have the source of income from animal. But now the trend
has changed. They left the animals and start cultivating crops and vegetables. In the 1980’s the
underground water resource was very low, but today the level rose up and many tube wells are
also available there.

The Sukhomajri watershed is having the dam catchment area of 9.2 hectare. The equity
distribution law is acting here, means providing equal share to all land or landless people.

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Fig.9) Sukhomajri watershed

8) CONSTRUCTION OF A LOW COST CHULLAH:

Requirement for making low cost chullah:

a. Preparation of roof
 Bamboo strips
 Jute bags
 Cement
 Water
 Nails and fine wire
b. Preparation of chullah
 Soil
 Water
 Bricks

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 Stone chips or boulders
 Exhaust pipe

Fig.10) Construction of roof for Chullah

c. Water heating arrangement
 Radiator
 Two water storage buckets
 Connecting pipe
 Tap

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Fig.11) Construction of Chullah

9) CONSTRUCTION OF A LOW COST CEMENTED CLOSURE
FOR BIO GAS PLANT:

Steps in the construction of closure:

 Preparation of soils mould, according to the shape and size of the closure.
 Place one layer of sand over it
 Place wet paper on it so that the whole surface covered
 Mix sand and cement with water and make mortar
 Place one layer of mortar on the papered surface
 Now cut the chicken mess according to the size of the closure and place over the mor-
tar layer
 Again place one layer of mortar and left it in the sun light for some days.

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10) ORGANIC MANDI:

Number of shops in the mandi were 5-10 shops and the sellers were selling by placing their
agricultural produce on the sheet on the ground. This mandi was started by the NITTTR Chandi-
garh. Mandi was running on every Friday of the week.

Fig.12) Hoarding of organic mandi

Various products in the mandi were:

 Vegetables
 Fruits
 Sugarcane products
 Bakery products
 Bee products
 Cereals and their processed products
 Milk products

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Fig.13) organic products in a shop of organic mandi.

11) GURUKUL KURUKSHETRA:

Various components of Gurukul:

 Air conditioned cow shed
 Compost making
 Biogas plant
 Organic farm
 Milk collection & filtering unit

The institution has made arrangement of milk through Shri Krishna Gopal Goshala, a sister
concern of Gurukul Kurukshetra. Such an arrangement can rarely be found in any other institu-
tion even of an international level. The per day yield of the Goshala is 600 litres and all this is

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solely for the consumption of the students itself. The Goshala has milk cows ranging from 20 li-
tres to 42 litres per day yield.

Fig.14) Administrative block of Gurukul Kurukshetra.

Fig.15) Biogas plant in Gurukul

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Fig.16) cows in the cattle farm of Gurukul

Fig.17) Gurukul organic farm

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12) JAYPEE BIO TECH FUEL PLANT:

Fig.18) Jaypee bio tech fuel plant in Dadumajra, Chandigarh

This plant is situated in Dadumajra, Chandigarh. This plant was chosen for the third year in
arrow as the 1st runner up for excellence in solid waste management at the solid waste manage-
ment awards ceremony in Hyderabad. The plant converts all of Chandigarh’s municipal solid
waste into consistently high quality refused derived fuel (RDF) with low moisture content for en-
ergy recovery in plants and cement kilns. It was set up in 2008 as a first of its kind plant in India
based on German technology and since then, has received recognition for indigenous and innova-
tive technological improvements.

RD Sharma, in charge of processing plant in Chandigarh said, “the plant is already treating
nearly 250tonnes of waste from Chandigarh. The additional 60 tonne waste coming from the
Shimla will burden the plant further.” Sharma said six vehicles coming to Chandigarh daily from
Shimla also cause pollution. “Also, Shimla MC will have to bear huge transportation charges
daily for disposing of the solid waste at Chandigarh which 100 km away. This arrangement
doesn’t appear viable,” he said.

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13) SHERGILL BEE AND ORGANIC FARM:

Fig.19) Bees forming honey in a box.

This farm is situated in village Sohali of distt. SAS Nagar, Punjab. He has started the bee
keeping with 10 boxes. Now he has increased the numbers of boxes to 450. He was also dealing
in the organic farming. The various types of the organic products were sold by him. The organic
products were vegetable like, long chilly & capsicum, brinjal, tomato, onion etc.

He was also doing the business of compost and wormy compost making and selling. He
was making the different types of honey which are given below:

 Multiflora honey
 Sunflower honey

he was also doing the business of bee selling like:

 honey bee
 queen breeding

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 honey

He was awarded by a prize, Ch. Charan Singh Award from Kheti Bari & Sahkarita dept. Of
Punjab.

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CONCLUSION

The training was designed to get the practical knowledge of the various rural development
schemes. The training was constituted by the expert lectures, field visits and the practical in the
field. The experts from various fields have shared their experience and informed us about the re-
ality of the rural development sector.

The training was also aimed to perform some practical like construction of low cost chul-
lah, construction of low cost cemented closure for bio gas. The training was also included by the
field visits also. We have visited some agricultural farms, dairy farms in Haryana and Punjab
state. The main focus of the farming was on organic production. We also visited the Gurukul Ku-
rukshetra and got to know about the biogas, compost making etc.

We were also informed about the film production and the live telecasting of the lectures to
other places. We were also learnt about the low cost technologies and the appropriate technolo-
gies which can help in the development of the rural sector.

The training was designed in such a way that we can’t left untouched from the different as-
pects of the rural life.

The lectures and the field visit data written in the report is a transformation of the recorded
voice and noted data into the written report. The pictures added in the report were also snapped
by me.

Last but not the least, the training was very helpful to me, it has opened my eyes. Earlier I was
watching this sector a limited one but actually the sector is widened to the 70% population of the
India

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