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SDH

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

Technology Training
SDH Overhead

Multiplex Section

Regenerator Section

STM-1 REG STM-n


REG STM-1

PTE MSTE MSTE PTE


(ADM, DSLAM,... (ADM, DSLAM,...

Regenerator Regenerator
Path Multiplex Section Section Multiplex Path
Termination Section Termination Termination Section Termination
Termination Termination

service (E1,E3,E4.) Path service (E1,E3,E4.)


mapping mapping
demapping demapping

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SDH STM-N Frame

270 x N columns
9 x N columns

RSOH
3 rows

Regenerator
Section
Overhead
9 rows

Administrative Payload
Unit (Pointer)

MSOH
5 rows

Multiplex
Section
Overhead

125 us

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SDH STM-1 Frame Format

A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 Z3
B1 E1 F1 Z4
D1 D2 D3 Z5
H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 J1
B2 B2 B2 K1 K2 B3
D4 D5 D6 C2
D7 D8 D9 G1
D10 D11 D12 F2
S1 M1 E2 H4

Regenerator & Multiplex Section Overhead VC-3/4 Path Overhead


Overhead Overhead
Function Function
Byte Byte
A1,A2 Frame alignment J1 Path indication
B1, B2 Quality monitoring, parity bytes B3 Quality monitoring
D1D3 DCCr network management
C2 Container format
D4D12 DCCm network management
G1 Transmission error acknowledgment
E1, E2 Order wire
F1 User channel
F2 Maintenance
J0 (C1) Regenerator Trace Identifier H4 Superframe indication
K1, K2 Automatic Protection Switching (APS) control F3 Maintenance
S1 Clock Quality (Synchronization Stauts Byte) K3 Automatic protection switching
M1 Transmission error acknowledgment MS-REI N1 Tandem connection monitoring
H1 H2 H3 AU Pointer
Media dependent
National use

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SDH STM-4 SOH Format

A1|A1|A1|A1 A1|A1|A1|A1 A1|A1|A1|A1 A2|A2|A2|A2 A2|A2|A2|A2 A2|A2|A2|A2 J0 | | | X|X|X|X X|X|X|X

B1 | | | ||| ||| E1 | | | ||| F1 | | | X|X|X|X X|X|X|X

D1 | | | ||| ||| D2 | | | ||| D3 | | |

B2|B2|B2|B2 B2|B2|B2|B2 B2|B2|B2|B2 K1 | | | K2 | | |

D4 | | | D5 | | | D6 | | |

D7 | | | D8 | | | D9 | | |

D10| | | D11| | | D12| | |

S1 | | | M1 | | | E2 | | | X|X|X|X X|X|X|X

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SDH Multiplex Structure

According to ITU-T G.707


STM-16

AUG-16
x4
GFP-T C4 VC-4 AU-4 AUG-1 AUG-4
x4
3
GFP-F C3 VC-3 TU-3 TUG-3 x

7
x
TUG-2

3
x
C12 VC-12 TU-12

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SDH SOH
4TCC-PCN-2G1U+2G5 support

RSOH:
Supported: A1 fixed 0xF6, A2 fixed 0x28, B1, J0 set to
0x01
Supported: D1-D3 as SDCC, E1, F1, J0 not monitored

Pointer
H1, H2 with pointer adjustments supported

MSOH:
Supported: B2, D4-D12 as LDCC, K1, K2[6-8],M1,S1
fixed to 0xFF
Not supported: E2

Not processed Overhead bytes are set fixed to 00 in


transmit direction

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SDH Path Overhead
4TCC-PCN-2G1U+2G5 Support

Supported: B3; C2 default 0x1B [27]


G1 [1-4] path Status REI
G1 [5-7] path status RDI
H4 Sequence ID and multi frame Identifier

Not supported: J1;F2;F3;K3;N1

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SDH Performance Monitoring

According to the standards (ITU-T G.784), SDH delivers a


variety of performance parameters which clearly indicate and
verify the quality of a link/path. Typical parameters are:

Error Seconds (defect or error block)


Severely Error Seconds
(defect or error blocks > threshold, typ. 30%)
Unavailable Seconds (each second in unavailable time)
Background Block Error Rate (ratio of error blocks in
available time over total blocks)

These values are available for the regeneration section,


multiplex section and path level (VC)

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SDH Performance Monitoring:
4TCC-PCN-2G1U+2G5 implementation

B1 (regeneration section):
Errored Seconds
Severely Errored Seconds
Out of Frame Seconds
Background Block Error Rate

B2 (multiplex section):
Errored Seconds
Severely Errored Seconds
Unavailable Seconds
Background Block Error Rate

B3 (VC-4 path):
Errored Seconds
Severely Errored Seconds
Unavailable Seconds
Background Block Error Rate

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SDH Protection Switching

Ring protection schemes:


2fibre/4fibre MS shared protection rings (BSHR)
Dedicated protection rings

SNCP
for all network structures

Trail protection:
Multiplex section protection (MSP)

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SDH MSP Principle

Line A
Client signal

Client
Line B

Permanent bridging at transmitter side for total STM-N signal


Selector at receiver side
Duplicated optics on line side
Duplicated fibre on line side, ideally with route diversity
Switching time < 50 ms

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SDH MSP Types

Unidirectional / bidirectional

Revertive /non-revertive

1+1 / 1:1 protection schemes

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SDH MSP Types
4TCC-PCN-2G1U+2G5 implementation

1+1

Unidirectional

Non-Revertive

Switching criteria:
LOS, LOF, MS-AIS, SD

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SDH 1+1 MSP

working multiplex section

protection multiplex section

working multiplex section

protection multiplex section

Note: Only one direction is depicted. The other direction is identical

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SDH 1:1 MSP

working multiplex section


Normal Normal
traffic traffic
Extra traffic Extra
protection multiplex section traffic

working multiplex section


Normal Normal
traffic traffic
Extra traffic Extra
protection multiplex section traffic
(pre-
empted)
Note: Only one direction is depicted. The other direction is identical

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Thank You
info@advaoptical.com

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