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and angular momentum. Comment on whether it should be possible to

simultaneously measure these two variables for a particle.

pz = ih and Lz = ih x y

z y x

h i

pz , Lz = 0

1 nm knocks an electron out of the atom. The scattered x-ray photon has

a wavelength of 2 nm. Calculate the kinetic energy of the ejected electron

in electron volts. You may assume that the initial KE of the electron is

negligible.

By conservation of energy

hc hc 1

= + mv2

in out 2

1 1 1

mv 2 = (6.626 1027 )(2.998 108 )

2 1 109 2 109

= 9.932 1017 J/1.602 1019 J eV1 = 620 eV

3. For the operator

1 2 1 1

+ +

2 r 2 r r r

(r) = er is known to be an eigenfunction. Find the corresponding eigen-

value. Normalize (r) in spherical polar coordinates, so that

Z

|(r)|2 4r2 dr = 1

0

Z

r n er dr = n!/n+1

0

d r d2 r

e = er and 2

e = +er

dr dr

Therefore

1 r

{operator}er = e

2

and the eigenvalue equals 12 . To normalize, write (r) = A er so

Z Z

2 2 2 2!

|(r)| 4r dr = 4A r 2 e2r dr = 4A2 =1

0 0 23

giving A = 1/ .

4. Azulene C10 H8 , shown below, is an aromatic hydrocarbon containing

delocalized -electrons.

(i) How many -electrons does azulene have? 5 double bonds, thus 10

-electrons.

rectangular two-dimensional box of dimensions 5.00 A by 4.65 A.

h2 n21 n22

En1 ,n2 = + 2

8m a2 b

(ii) Identify the quantum numbers of the HOMO and LUMO of the -

electron system.

The levels E11 , E12 , E21 and E22 are all doubly filled, accounting for 8 elec-

trons. The HOMO and LUMO are E13 and E31 which is which depends

on your numbering.

(iii) Calculate the wavelength (in nm) of the lowest-energy -electron tran-

sition.

hc h2 32 12 12 32

= |E13 E31 | = + 2 2 2

8m a2 b a b

where a, b = 5.00 1010 , 4.65 1010 . The absolute value bracket works

out to 0.0499 1020 . Using the constant h/mc = 2.426 1012

8

= 12 20

109 660 nm

(2.426 10 )(0.0499 10 )

(iv) Should azulene be a colored compound? If so, what color?

Yes, since it absorbs in the visible region 400700 nm. Since it takes out light

near the red end of the spectrum, the compound should be blue. Actually

azulene is named for its blue color! (yknow azure).

molecule-ion H+ 2 (which we will study in a couple of weeks), the equation

for the variable denoted by is given by:

2 2 2

d d R |E| m

(2 1) + A + 2R 2 () = 0

d d 4 1

form for ().

2

2d R2 |E|2

0

d2 4

Rp

() exp |E|

2

accounted for by a model in which the electrons in an atom were treated as

harmonic oscillators. Suppose the electron in hydrogen atom were bound

with a force constant

9e2

k=

64(40 )a30

where e is the electron charge 1.6021019 C, a0 is the Bohr radius 0.529

1010 m and 1/40 = 8.99 109 in compatible units, such that k comes

out in N m1 .

(i) Assuming that the electron behaves as a quantum-mechanical harmonic

oscillator, derive a formula for the wavelength of the radiation which can

be emitted or absorbed by a hydrogen atom.

r

1 k

=

2 m

r

m

= 2c

k

Putting in the numbers, we find = 121.6 nm. This is the actual value for

the Lyman alpha transition in hydrogen. (OK, so we fudged a little on the

constants!)

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