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150315579 Surface Mine Design and Practice

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AND PRACTICE

Mehran University of Engineering & Technology

Jamshoro, Sindh

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

GEOMETRICAL CONSIDERATIONS

The ore deposits being mined by open pit techniques today vary considerably in size,

shape, orientation and depth below surface. The initial surface topographies can vary

from mountain tops to valley floor. In spite of this there are a number of geometry based

design and planning considerations fundamental to them all.

The ore body is mined from top to the down in the series of horizontal layers of uniform

thickness called benches and after a sufficient floor area has been exposed, mining to the

next layer can begin. The process continues until the bottom bench elevation is reached

and the final pit outline achieved. To access different bench a road or ramp must be

created. The width and steepness of this road or ramp depends upon the type of

equipment to be accommodated. Stable slopes must be created and maintained during the

creation and operation of the pit.

impact. Open pit mining is very highly mechanized. Each piece of mining machinery has

an associated geometry both related to its own physical size, but also with the space it

requires to operate efficiently. There is a complementary set of drilling, loading and

hauling equipment which requires a certain amount of working space. This space

requirement is taken into account when dimensioning the so called working benches.

From both operating and economic view points certain volumes must or should at least be

removed before others. These volumes have a certain minimum size and an optimum size.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

The basic extraction component is an open pit mine is the bench. Bench nomenclature

is shown in Figure 1.

BENCH HEIGHT: each bench has an upper and lower surface separated by a distance

H equal to the bench height. The bench height is determined by the size of mining

equipment and formation of the area.

The loose/soft rocks allows, bench height up to shovel reach.

In hard and very strong rock, bench height is usually 10-40 meters.

BENCH SLOPE: the bench slope or the bench face angle is the inclined plane of the

bench made an angle with the horizontal. Or the average angle that a face makes with the

horizontal. The exposed sub-vertical surfaces are known as bench faces. The bench faces

are described by the toe. The crest and he bench face angle . The bench face angle

can vary considerably with rock characteristics, face orientation and the blasting

practices. In most hard rock pits it varies from about 55O to 80O. A typical initial design

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

value might be 65O. This should be used with care as the bench face angle can have a

major effect on the overall slope angle.

BENCH FLOOR: The exposed bench lower surface is called as the bench floor.

BENCH WIDTH: The bench width is the distance between the crest and toe measured

along the upper surface.

There are several types of benches; a working bench is that one which is in process of

being mined. The width being extracted from the working bench is called the cut. The

width of working bench WB is defined as the distance from the crest of the bench floor to

the new toe position after the cut has been extracted as shown in figure 2. After the cut

has been removed, a safety bench or catch bench of width SB remains.

The purpose of leaving safety benches is to:

a) collect the material which slides down from the benches above; and to

b) stop the downward progress of the boulders.

During primary extraction, a safety bench is generally left on every level. The width of

safety bench SB varies with bench height H. Generally the width of the safety bench is

of the order 2 3 of the bench height. At the end of mine life, the safety benches are

In addition to leaving the safety benches berms (piles) of broken materials are often

constructed along the crest. These serve the function of forming a ditch between the berm

and the toe of the slope to catch falling rocks.

A safety berm is also left along the outer edge of the bench to prevent trucks and other

machines from backing over. It serves much the same function as a guard rail on bridges

and elevated highways. Normally the pile has a height greater than or equal to the tire

radius. The berm slope is taken to be about 35O, i.e. also called the angle of repose.

The steps which are followed when considering bench geometry are:

certain geometrical approach and production strategy.

ii) The production strategy yields daily ore-waste production rates, selective

mining and blending requirements, numbers of working places.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

iii) The production requirements leads to a certain equipment set (fleet type and

size).

iv) Each equipment set has a certain optimum associated geometry.

v) Each piece of equipment in the set has an associated operating geometry.

vi) A range of suitable bench geometries results.

vii) Consequences regarding stripping ratios, operating v/s capital costs, slope

stability aspects etc are evaluated.

viii) The best of the various alternatives is selected.

In the past, when the rail bound equipments were being extensively used, great attention

was paid to bench geometry. Today highly mobile rubber tired/crawler mounted

equipments has reduced the detailed evaluation requirements some-what.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

In mining literature, going the initial knowledge about the physical access to the Ore body

is of great importance. For this, the question arises that: How does one actually begin the

process of Mining? Obliviously the approach depends upon the topography of the

surrounding ground. To introduce the topic, it is assumed that the ground surface is flat.

The overlying vegetation has been removed as has the soil/sand/gravel overburden. In this

case it will be assumed that the ore body is 700 feet in diameter, 40feet thick, flat dipping

and is exposed by removing the soil overburden. The ore is hard so that drilling and

blasting is required. The bench mining situation is shown in figure: 3.

A vertical digging face must be established in the ore body before major production can

begin. Further more a ramp must be created to allow truck and loader access. A drop

cut is used to create the vertical breaking face and the ramp access at the same time.

To access the Ore body, the ramp shown in figure: 4 will be driven it has an 8% grade

and a width of 65 feet.

Although not generally the case, the walls will be assumed vertical. To reach the 40ft

desired depth, the ramp in horizontal projection will be 500ft in length.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

The volume of access road or ramp volume is the volume of the waste rock mined in

excavating the ramp.

:. Ramp volume = Ramp width (Rw) Area of abc.

1

Rw horizontal H

2

1 H

Ramp volume (V) = Rw 100 H

2 g

1

Rw H 100 H

2 g

Example # 01:-

Determine the volume of Ore body by waste rock to develop access road at the

slope of 8%. Depth of cylindrical Ore body is 30 feet and diameter 500 ft, width of ramp

is 65 feet.

Data:

Slope = g = 8%

Depth = H = 30 feet

Diameter = d= 500 feet

Width of ramp = Rw = 65 feet

Solution:

as V = Volume of ramp

H2

and V = 50 Rw

g

(30) 2 x 65 2925000

V = 50 =

8 8

V = 365625 ft3 Ans

.

Example # 02:-

Repeat example # 01 for Depth (H) = 40 ft and Ramp width (Rw) = 60 ft.

H2

Solution: - V = 50 Rw

g

(40) 2 x 60

V = 50

8

V = 600000 ft3 Ans

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

.

ii) Ramp in ore body (Fig. 5b)

.

iii) Ramp starting in waste and ending in ore (Fig. 5c)

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

When the drop cut has reached the desired grade, the cut is expanded laterally. Figure: 6

shows the steps. Initially Fig: 6.A; the operating space is very low/limited; therefore the

trucks must turn and stop at the top of the ramp and then back down the ramp towards the

loader. When the pit bottom has been expanded sufficiently as shown in fig: 6.B; the

truck can turn around on the pit bottom. Latter, as the working area becomes quite larger

as shown in fig. 6.C; several loaders can be used at the same time. The optimum face

length assigned to a machine varies with the size and type. It is of the range 200-500 feet.

Once access has been established the cut is winded until the entire bench/level has been

extended to the bench limits. There are three approaches which will be discussed here;

they are as follows:

1. Frontal Cuts

2. Parallel Cuts Drive by

3. Parallel Cuts Turn & Back

The first two apply where there is a great deal of working area available, for example at

the pit bottom. The mining of the more narrow benches on the sides of the pit is covered

under the third approach.

Figure: 6 A

Step I

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Figure: 6 B

Step II

Figure: 6 C

Step III

FRONTAL CUTS:

The frontal cut is shown diagrammatically in figure 7.

The shovel faces the bench face and begins digging forward straight ahead and to the

side. A niche is cut in the bank wall. For the case shown, double spotting of the trucks is

used. The shovel first loads to the left and when the truck is full he proceeds to the other

truck on the right. The swing angle varies from 1100 (maximum) to an angle of 100

(minimum). The average swing angle is about 600; hence the loading operation is quite

effective. There must be room for trucks to position them around the shovel. The shovel

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

penetrates to the point that the face. It then moves parallel to itself and takes another

frontal cut as shown in fig: 7.1;

With a long face and sufficient bench width, more than one shovel can work the same

face, as shown in fig. 7.2.

Another possibility when the mine geometry allows is the parallel cut with drive by. This

is diagrammatically shown in figure 8. The shovel moves across and parallel to the

digging face. For this case bench access for the haul units must be available from both the

directions. It is highly efficient for both the trucks and the loader. Although the average

swing angle is greater than for the frontal cut, the trucks do not have to back up to the

shovel and the spotting is simplified.

The expansion of the pit at the upper levels is generally accomplished by using parallel

cuts. Due to space limitations there is only access to the ramp from one side of the shovel.

This means that the trucks approach the shovel from the rear. Then, they stop, turn, and

back into the load position.

Sometimes there is a room for double spotting of the trucks (fig: 9.1) but sometimes for

only single spotting as shown in figure 9.2.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

REQUIRED FOR PARALLEL CUTS

In determing the width of operating room required for the parallel cut operations; to

accommodate the large trucks and shovels involved in loading, the dimension being

sought is the width of working bench WB. The working bench is that bench mined. The

width of working bench WB is synonymous with the term operating room and is

defined as the distance from the crest of the bench providing the floor for the loading

operations to the bench toe being created as the parallel cut is being advanced. The

minimum amount of operating room varies depending upon whether single or double

spotting of trucks is used with the latter obviously requiring some what more. The

minimum width of the working bench (wb) is equal to the width of the minimum required

safety bench plus the width of the cut.

The easiest way of demonstrating the principles involved is by way of an example: For

this, the following assumptions will be made:

A safety beam is required.

The minimum clearance b/w the outer truck tire and safety berm = 5 feat.

Single spotting is used.

Bench face angle = 700

Loading is done with a 9yd3 Shovel.

Haulage is done by 85 ton capacity Trucks.

Truck width = 16 feet

Tire Rolling radius = 4 feat.

The general arrangement of working bench (in x-sectional view) is shown in figure 10.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Figure 10:

.

Figure 10.1: Simplified representation of berm.

kl

Cut width = 60 feet

Safety bench width = 42 feet.

The basic calculations (justifications) behind these calculations are presented as follows.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Step # 01:- Highest of the berm should be at least same as the radius of the

truck tire, i.e.; = 4 feet.

Step # 02:- The distance b/w the crept and centre line of the truck = Tc = 21:

Width of Berm = 8 feet.

Clearance distance b/w safety berm and the wheels of truck = 5 feet

and; the total width of truck = 16 feet.

Step # 03:- The distance b/w the centre line of the Shovel and centre line of the

truck is also called as Dumping radius denoted by B; B = 45.5

feet.

Step # 03b:- The Maximum duping height (A) is more than sufficient to clear

the truck;

A = 28 feet.

Step # 03c:- Distance b/w the centre line of Shovel and toe = G ;

G= 35.5 feet

Total minimum width of working bench = WB = TC +B+G;

:. WB = 21 feet + 45.5 feet + 35.5 feet.

WB = 102 feet

Note: All the parameters and /or dimensions used above, depends upon the size of the

machinery which is used.

The corresponding width of cut is:-

WC = 0.90 2 G = 0.90 2 35.5 feet

WC = 63.9 feet

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Note: This is applied to the width of the pile of broken material. Therefore, to allow for

swell and throw of the material during blasting. The design cut width should be less than

this value. Thus a value of 60 feet has been assumed.

Knowing the width of working bench, and width of cut, the resulting safety bench has a

width of; SB = WB WC ;

:. SB = 102-60 = 42 feet.

SB = 42 feet.

Note: This is of the order of the bench height (40ft) which is a rule of thumb, sometimes

employed.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

CUT SEQUENCINGS:

After the initial geometry of the bench is completed; the mining of first bench is started as

shown in figure: 12.

The above figure shows that while performing the cut mining operation of bench # 01, the

overall slope angle was 01.

After the mining of bench # 01, the next bench (i.e.: Bench # 02) is mined, as shown in

fig. 13:

Fig: 13:- Cut mining from bench # 02

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Where

= individual slope angle.

and 01 = overall slope angle (while mining Bench # 01) of pit.

0 2 = overall slope angle of pit (while mining bench # 02)

It is observed that; the overall slope angle 0 always keep varying as we will advance

the mining from the upper to the lower benches.

i.e.:- 01 02

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

There are a number of slopes which enter into pit design. Care is taken so that there is

no confusion as to how they are calculated and what they mean. One slope has already

been introduced. That is the bench face angle (shown in figure). It is defined as the

angle made with the horizontal of the line connecting the Toe to the crest this def: will

be maintained through this piece of literature.

Now consider the slope consisting of 5 such benches (shown in figure). The angle made

with the horizontal of the line connecting the lowest most toes to the upper most crests is

defined as the overall pit slope.

5x50 (Y)

overall tan 1 50.4O

4x35 5x50

tan75O

Height of each bench = y = 50 feet.

Horizontal distance = x = 35 feet

Distance under slope = x =?

Bench face angle = 750 =

:. tan y

x'

y 50 50

x' 13.4 '

tan tan75 3.732

Since we have 5 benches,

i.e.: - 5 slopes, X= (4*x) + (5*x).

X = (4 x 35) + (5 x 13.4) = 140 + 67 X = 207

Y = 5 x 50 Y = 250

:. Overall pit slope angle = overall

y 250

overall tan 1 tan 1

x 207

overall 50.4O

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

An access ramp with a width of 100 feet; introduced at the half way up bench 3, the

overall pit slope becomes;

y

overall tan 1

x

where, Y = 250

5x50

and X 4x35 O

100'

tan75

:. X = 307 feet.

250

overall tan 1 39.18

O

307

overall 39.2 O

It can be seen that the presence of the ramp n a give section has an enormous impact on

the overall slope angle.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

The ramp breaks the overall slope angles overall into 2 portions as shown in following

figure; each of these 2 portions can be described by slope angles. These angles are called

as the Inter ramp (Between the ramps) angles.

IR1 IR 2 tan 1 y

x

Y 50 50 24 Y 124feet

50 25

X 2x35 2

O O

tan75 tan75

X 70 26.8 6.7 103.5

125

IR1 IR 2 tan 1 50.38

O

103.5

IR1 IR 2 50.4 O

The inter-ramp wall height is 125 ft for each segment. Generally the inter ramp wall

heights and angles for different slope segments would not be the same. From a slope

stability view point each inter-ramp segment would be examined separately.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

GEOMETRY

While active mining is underway, some working benches are included in the overall

slope. The fig. ; shows a working bench 125ft in width included as bench 2.

The overall slope angle overall now becomes;

overall tan 1 y

x

50

As; Y 250' , X 4x35 ' 5 O

'125'

tan75

X 140' 67' 125' X 332 feet

250

overall tan 1 36.98

O

332

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

INCLUDED

The working bench is treated in the same way as a ramp in terms of interrupting the slope.

Therefore from following figure, two inter-ramp angles are shown:-

x

50

200 X 3 x 35 4 O

IR 2 tan 1 tan75

158.6'

X 105 53.6 158.6'

IR 2 51.58O or 51.6O

As; for the above inter ramp angles, the inter ramp heights are,

H1= 50 and H2 = 2

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

PLANNAR FAILURE

view of plannar

failure.

Fig. 20: Dimensions and forces in a rock slope with a potential failure plane.

As figure 20 shows the dimensions and forces in a rock slope with potential failure plane.

The Mohr-coulomb failure criterion has been used.

= the angle of discontinuity from the horizontal (degrees),

W = block weight;

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

R = resisting force;

C = cohesion,

= friction angle.

Wcos= normal force

Wsin= driving force

A= Area of the failure plane.

Total force available to resist sliding

F

Force tending to induce sliding

For the case shown in Fig:20

cA Wcos tan

F

Wsin

If there is water present then;

cA Wcos - U tant

F

Wsin V

where,

U= water pressure along potential failure surface,

a = friction angle (affected by water),

V= force along potential sliding plane.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example # 01:-

The average planned slope angle i = 700, the orientation of the potential failure plane =

500 and the friction angle = 300. The thickness of he plane is 1ft; the cohesion is 1600

lb/ft3. The unit weight of the rock is 160 lb/ft3, and height of the wall is 100ft.

Sol:-

frictional force

S.F

Sliding force

Frictional force cA Wcos tan

Fig. 21 (a)

i 70, 50

A 70 0 50 0 A 20 0

C 50 0

B 180 0 A C 180 0 70 0

B 110 0

Fig. 21 (b)

1 2 sin A sin C

b

2 sin B (a)

1 2 sin B sin C

a

2 sin A (b)

1 2 sin A sin C

c

2 sin C (c)

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

H 100

sin B

as, b b

100 100

b 0

130.54feet

or sin50 0.766

0 0

1

2 sin 110

1 0.262

17040.692

2 0.9396

0.279

2375.62 ft 2

2375.62 1ft

V 2375.62 1ft 3

(W) Weight of sliding block is = volume unit weight

W V 2375.62 160lb/ft 3

W 380099.2lbs

As

cA Wcoscos

F

Wsin

A= Area of the failure plane, and

A= length of failure plane thickness

A= b 1ft= 130.54ft 1ft

A= 130.54ft2

Wcos 380099.2 cos50 0 244323.05lb

Wsin 380099.2 sin50 291172.88lb

c 1600lb/ft 2

Tan Tan30 0 0.577

F

1600 130.54 244323.05 0.577

291172.88

349838.4

F

291172.88

F 1.2

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

X 2 i 2 70 5050 30

X Slope angle function 2 400

or X 40

Y slope height function H/

Y 160 100 /1600

Y 10

failure the safety factor for X= 40 and Y= 10

is;

S.F = 1.6

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example 02:

Determine the limiting pit slope angle (i) using the following data:

0

i.

0

ii.

Cohesion = C 7800 kg m

3

iii.

v. Height of slope = 150m

Solution:

H 2.5 150 375

Y

c 7800 7.8

Y 48.07

From the slope design chart, at Y=48 and S.F = 1.0, X=18

X 2 i

:. We know that

18 2 i 5050 35 2 13i 750

Now, squaring both sides

324 4 15i 750

324 60i 3000

60i 324 3000 3324

3324

i 55.4 0

60

i 55.4 0

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

factors (Hoek, 1970a)

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example 03:

Determine the height of slope using the following data.

Slope angle i 65

0

i.

0

ii.

0

iii.

Cohesion c 7800 kg m

2

iv.

3

v.

vi. Safety factor = S.F = 1.4;

Sol:

X 2 i 2 65 5050 35

2

15 15 2 255 2 15

X 30 0

By using the graph of slope design chart for plane failure including various safety

factors

0

H

Y ,

:. As c

Y c 16 7800

H 49.92m

2.5

H 49.92m

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

CIRCULAR FAILURE

Fig. 22 (a):

As we know that;

M 0

Mw Mc 0.; Mw w d

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Area of Arc AB= length thickness

[For simplicity, here we have considered the value of thickness of Arc as Unit]

Area of Arc AB = R 1

Mc = (Area of Arc) (cohesion) (R)

R C R

Mc CR 2

as, Mw+Mc= 0

wd CR 2 0

wd CR 2

CR 2

or S.F

wd

If the portion is in equilibrium state,

it is stable, and will not slip down.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example:

A cutting in saturated clay inclined at a slope of 1 vertical and 1.5 horizontal and has a

vertical height of 10.0 m. the bulk unit weight of soil is 18.5 KN/m3 and its un-drained

cohesion is 40 KN/m2. Determine the safety factor against immediate shear failure along

the slip circle as shown in figure.

Soln:

1 vertical Slope

1.5 horizontal Slope

18.5 KN m 3

C 40 KN m 2

Figure 23

5m

1 Tan 1

16.7m

1 16.7 0

According to Pythagoras theorem,

2 2 2

2 2

R 303.9

R 17.43m

1 ?; since given slope of cutting plane ad is 1 vertical and 1.5 horizontal;

1

1 Tan 1

1.5

Thus, 1 33,7

0

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

90 0 1 1

90 0 33.7 0 16.7 0 39.6 0

39.6 0

6.7

cos 2

17.43

2 cos 1 0.384

2 67.4 0

3 180 0 90 0 67.4

3 22.6

6.7

2 sin 1 2 22.6

0

17.43

3 180 1 2 180 0 33.7 0 22.6 0

0

0

3 180 56.3 3 123.71

0

0

as 90 1 1 90 0 33.7 0 16.7 0

0

84.10

180 0 180 0 84.10 39.6

180 0 123.7 0

56.3 0

1 sin sin

aod 1 R2

Area of 2 sin

1

1

17.43

2

sin 84.10 sin 39.6 0

2 sin 56.3 0

1 115.85m 2

In order to find the area of bcd , we must know any one side of bcd . Lets find DB

for sake of ease.

OD R

DB R OD and

sin sin

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

OD

Rsin 17.43 sin 39.6 0

13.36m

sin sin 56.3 0

DB 17.43 13.36 DB 4.07m

sin 2 sin 3

4.07

1

2

2

2 sin 1

2 4.77m 2

Now area of polygon oabc=Ap

Ap 120.62m 2

1

aoc R 2

180

0

(as) Area of sector 2

As

1

17.43 84.10

180

0

2

As 222.86m 2

A 222.86 120.62

A 102.24m 2

Volume of slip mass= V A t 102.24 1

V 102.24m 3

W 102.24 18.5

W 1891.44KN

CR 2

S.F

Wd

S.F

40 17.43 80.10

2

180

0

1891.44 6.54

S.F 1.44

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

STRIPPING RATIO

Figure 24 (a)

Vm = Vol. of mining

Vc = Vol. of cone

VT = Vol. of truncated portion

:. Vm = Vc- VT

Fig. 24 (b)

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

As we know that;

1 2

r h

Vol: of cone= 3

2

Vo= r h (1)

2

1

VT r 2 h

3 (2) (:.) Height of small cone is h). and h tan

as height of big cone, is Hc;

and Hc h h

or Hc h tan

Vc R 2 Hc r 2 h h

1 1

3 3

or Vc R 2 h tan

1

(3)

3

:. Mined Vol: Vm VC VT

1 1

Vm r 2 H c r 2 h (4)

3 3

Vol: of waste:

Vw Vm V0

2

Where, Vol: of Ore V0 r h

:. Vol: of waste

Vw Vm V0 (5)

SR Vol : of waste m3

3

:. Stripping Ratio

Vol : of ore. m

Vw Ww

SR (6) SR

V0 or W0

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example:

A cylindrical ore body with radius of 50m and Depth of 250m is to be excavated by

developing a cone. Slopes of the sides of the cone with the horizontal are 550. Unit

weight of the ore is 3.1 tons/m3 and that of the waste rock is 2.6 tons/m3.determine the

stripping ratio (SR).

Data: h tan

50m h 50tan55

h 250m h 71.4m

ore 3.1 tons m 3 H C h h 250 71.4

H C 321.4m

wast 2.6tons/m3

H C RTan

Solution

HC

R

1 Tan55 0

VC R 2 H c

3 R 321.4

Tan55 0

VC 17044879.24m 3

R 225.04m

1

VT 2 h

3

VT 186924.76m 3

Vm VC VT 17044879.24 186924.76

Vm 16857954.48m 3

Vore 2 h 50 2 250 VO 1963495.4m 3

VW Vm VO 16857954.48 1963495.4

VW 14894459.08m 3

S.R

W ore Vo o 1963495.4 3.1

38725593.61

S.R

6086835.74

S.R 6.36

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

1

50 50 1250ft 2

Area of Sec: (i) = 2

A O 27500ft 2

1

Aw1 100 100 5000ft 2

2

since Aw 1 Aw 2

Aw Aw1 Aw 2 5000 5000

Aw 10000ft 2

Aw 10000

S.R 0.36

Ao 275000

S.R 0.36

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Ao 2 50 2

50 2 25 70.71 25

Ao 2 1767.75ft 2

Ao Ao1 2Ao 2 2500 21767.75

Ao 6035.5ft 2

Aw 2Aw 1 2Aw 2

Aw 1 100 2

100 2 25.10000 25 150000ft

1

Aw 2 25 25 312.5ft 2

2

Aw 2 250000 2 312.5

500000 625

Aw 500625ft 2

A = (b1 + b1) h = b1h

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

PIT LIMITS

The minable material becomes that lying

within the pit boundaries. A vertical section

taken through such a pit is shown in figure

A:

economic factors and design/production

constraints.

With an increase in price, the pit would expand in size assuming all other factors

remained constant.

The pit existing at the end of mining is called the final pit or the ultimate pit. In b/w

the birth and death of an open pit mine, there are a series of intermediate pits. This

includes a series of procedures based upon:

Hand Methods,

Computer Methods, and

Computer assisted hand methods

The above mentioned methods are used for developing the pit limits. Within the pit

materials of differing values are found. Economics criteria are applied to assign

destination for these materials based on their value (i.e. mill, waste dump, loach dump,

stock pile etc). Once the pit limits have been determined and rules established for

classifying the in pit materials, then the ore reserves (tonnage and grade) can be

calculated.

The term cut-off grade refers to the grades for which the destination of pit material

changes. It should be noted that grades were used rather than grade since there may

be several possible destinations. The simplest case is that in which there are two

destinations: the mill or the waste dump. One cut of grade is needed for many operations

today; there are many possible destinations: the mill or leach dump and the waste dump.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Mill or leach?

Leach or waste?

requires a cut-off grade.

Cut-off Grade:-

The grade at which the mineral resources cant longer be processed at a profit.

The grade at which the net value is zero; is called Break-even cut-off grade.

Example:

Determine the pit limits of an open pit mine as shown in figure: setting price of 1m3 of

Ore is US$ 1.9 and mining cost of 1m3 of waste is US$ 1.0.

Sol:

For Strip # 01:-

Vo 1 5 1.25 1

3

1

Vw 1 6.364 1.25 1 1.25 1.25

2

Vol: of waste (Strip 1) Vw 1 8.74m

3

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Vw 1

Ins (S.R) S.R 1.4

Vo 1 Ins

6.25 1.9

= Value of ore 11.875US dollars

Cost of mining of waste =

Vw 1 Mining cost of 1m 3 waste

8.74 1.0

Cost of mining of waste = 8.74 US dollars

Net value = value cost

= 11.875 8.74

N.V = 3.14 US $. for strip # 01

Calculate for strip, 2, 3 and 4.

Vol. of ore, Vo 2 5 1.25 1

Vo 2 6.25m 3

Vol. of waste, Vw 2 6.614 1.25 1 1 1.25 2

2

Vw 2 10.3m 3

Vol. of ore 11.875US $

Cost of mining waste 10.3 1 10.3US $

Vw 2 10.3

SR (ins) 1.65

Vo 2 6.25

N.V Value cost 11.875 10.3

N.V 1.58US dollars

For Strip# 03

Vo 3 6.25m 3

Vw 3 8.864 1.25 1 1 1.25

2

2

Vw 3 11.86m 3

S.R ins 11.86 S.R ins 1.9

6.25

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Cost of waste 11.86 1 11.86 US dollars

N.V 11.875 - 11.86

N.V 0.015 US dollars

Vo 4 6.25

Vw 4 10.114 1.25 1 1 1.25 2

2

Vw 4 12.6425 0.78125

Vw 4 13.424m 3

Vw 4 13.424

S.R Ins 2.14

Vo 4 6.25

Cost of mining waste 13.424 1 13.424 $

Price/valu e of ore 6.25 1.9 11.875 $

N.V 11.875 - 13.424

N.V -1.55US dollars

As can be seen that the net value changes from (+) to (-) as the pit is expanded, sometimes the N. V

become zero, so that this pit position is termed as Break-even, which is the location of final pit wall.

w

1

9.9 9.9

2

49m 2 thickness 1

overall vol : of waste 49m 3

& overall vol : of ore 9.9 5 1 1 5 5 1

2

49.5 12.5 1m

overall vol : of ore 62m 3

overall strippigratio Vw 49 0.79 0.8

Vo 62

overall value of ore 62 1.9 117.8 US dollars

overall mining cost of waste 49 1 49.00 US dollars

N - value (overall) 117.8 - 49.00

N.V 68.8 US dollars

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example

Copper ore is milled to produce a copper concentrate. This mill concentrate is slipped and

transported to a smatter and the resulting blister copper is eventually refined.

In this example, the following data will be assumed.

Mill recovery rate = 80%

Mill concentrate grade = 20%

Smelting loss = 10 lbs/st of concentrate

Refining loss = 5 lbs/st of blister copper.

The ore is containing 0.55%, All the costs and revenues will be calculated in terms of 1

ton of ore. Note that ore short ton= 2000 lbs.

Solution:-

Step # 01:- Complete the amount of saleable copper (lb/s per st of ore)

0.55

cc 2000lb/st * 11.00lbs

100

b) Copper recovered by mill (RM/st of ore)

80

RM 11lbs 8.8lbs

100

c) Concentration ratio (r):- the ratio of concentration is defined as

lbs of cu/st of concentrate

r

lbs of " cu" recovered/ st of ore

2000 20 100 400

r 45.45

8.8 8.8

r 45.45

As, smelting loss = 10 lbs/st of concentrate.\

The block model representation of ore bodies rather than section representation and the

storage of the information on high speed computers have offered some new possibilities

in open pit mines.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

by the constant distance weighting techniques

The formula to calculate the ore grade by inverse distance technique is :

n

gi

di

i 1

i di

n

i 1

Where,

gi= given grade of ore at a point.

g= estimated grade of ore.

di= distance b/w known point and point of estimation.

Example:

Calculate the estimated grade of ore at point C, using inverse distance technique.

Known grades of an ore at points C1-C6 ore shown in fig: [in brackets]

Sol:

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

First lets estimate the value of distances d1, d2...d6 by using Pythogonas theorem.

d 2 300 2 100 2 100000 d 2 316.23m

d 3 100 2 200 2 50000 d 3 223.6m

d 4 200 2 200 2 80000 d 4 282.84m

d 5 200 2 100 2 50000 d 5 223.6m

d 6 100 2 300 2 100000 d 6 316.23m

As we know that;

g1 g 2 g 6

d d d

1 2 6

g

1 1 6

d d d

1 2 6

282.84 316.23 223.6 282.84 223.6 316.23

g

1282.84

1

316.23

1

223.6

1

282.84

1

223.6

1

316.23

0.0100

g g 4.484 10 1

0.0223

:. The estimated grade of ore =g

g = 0.45 %

Using this technique, the grade of ore is found, by using following equations.

n

gi

di

i 1

2

g n

1

di

i 1

2

Using the data of previous example; calculate the grade of ore by squared weighting

technique.

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

d 1 282.84m - - - - - - - - - - d 1 79998.4656m 2

2

d 2 316.23m - - - - - - - - - - d 2 100001.4129m 2

2

d 3 223.6m - - - - - - - - - - d 3 49996.96m 2

2

d 4 282.84m - - - - - - - - - - d 4 79998.4656m 2

2

d 5 223.6m - - - - - - - - - - d 5 49996.96m 2

2

d 6 316.23m - - - - - - - - - - d 6 100001.4129m 2

2

g1 g2

g 5 2 g 6 2

d 2 d d d

5 6

2

1 2

g

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

d 1 d 2 d d

5 6

3.5885 10 5

g

8.5003 10 5

g 0.422%

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

by Triangular Method

x 3 x 1 y 2 y 3

A1

1

x 2 x 1 y 2 y1

Area of 2

A 2

1

x 3 x 2 y 2 y 3

Area of 2

A 3

1

x 3 x 1 y1 y 3

Area of 2

Area of A Area of abcd - A1 A 2 A 3

x 3 x 1 y 2 y1

x 3 x 1 y 2 y 3 x 3 x 2 y 2 y 3 1

1

2

x 3 x 1 y1 y 3

Example:

Calculate the above of A by using ore reserve estimation:

1100 1200

1500 1200

1100 800

Solution:-

Let

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

x 1 1100m, y1 1200m

x 2 1500m, y 2 1200m

x 3 1100m, y 3 800m From given table.

And we know that;

1 x 3 x 1 y 2 y 3 x 3 x 2

A x 3 x 1 y 2 y 3

2 y 2 y 3 x 3 x 1 y1 y 3

A 1100 11001200 800

2 1200 8001100 1100 1200 800

0

1

0 16000 0

2

1

160000

2

A 80,000m 2

OR

1

A bh

2

1

400 400

2

1 160000

2

A 80,000m 2

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example:

Calculate the ore reserves in area, as shown in following figure. Density of the ore is

given as 2.5 tons/m3

Solution:-

As we know that:

A Area of abcd - A1 A 2 A 3

500 700 1 700 200 1 400 300 1 500 300

2 2 2

350000 205000

A 145000m 2

C1 C 2 C 3

Average thickness of ore = 3

3 5 4 12

t av: 4m

2 3

t av: 4m

A t av:

Vol: of ore in Triangular area=

Vol. of ore = 1450004m

Vol. of ore = 580000m3.

;. Ore reserves = 5800002.5

Ore reserves = 1450000

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Length of t Grade (%) Length grade

ore body (m) g (tg)

t 1 0.6 g 1 0.59 t 1g 1

t 2 1.4 g 2 0.48 t 2g 2

t 3 1.4 g 3 0.6 t 3g 3

t 4 1.4 g 4 0.56 t 4g 4

t 5 1.3 g 5 0.32 t 5g 5

tigi

i 1

n

- - - - - - - (1)

ti

i 1

t av:

0.6 0.59 1.4 0.48 1.4 0.6 1.4 0.56 1.3 0.32

0.6 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3

3.066

t av:

6.1

t av: 0.503m

Thickness:

Calculate the reserves of ore shown in above fig: having a density of 1.35 tons/m3 by

using the weight age average thickness, when; t1=40m, t2=60m, t3=50m

Solution: the weight age average thickness is calculated as:

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

t 1 1 t 2 2 t 3 3

tw 60 (1)

3

from above fig :

800 300

tan 1 tan 2.5

1

400 200

68.2 0

500 300

1 tan 1 tan 0.5

1

600 400

1 26.56 0

800 500

2 tan 1 tan 1.5

1

600 400

2 56.31 0

3 1 2 26.56 0 56.310 82.87 0

2 180 0 1 3 180 0 41.64 0 82.87 0

1 55.49 0

(40 x 41.64) (60 x 55.49) (50 x 82.87)

tw 60

3

9138.5

tw 60

3

152.3

tw

3

tw = 50.77 m

A = (400 x 500) [ ( x 500 x 200) + ( x 300 x 200) + ( x 400 x 200) ]

A = 200000 120000

A = 80000 m2

Volume of A = A x tw = 80000 x 50.77

:. Volume of A = 4061600 m3

:. Ore reserves = Volume x density

= 4061600 m3 x 1.35 t/m3

= 5483160 tons

SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example:

In a level terrain, determine the max height of high wall that dragline can strip without re-

handling, using the following data:

Dumping radius =(Rd)= 47m,

Outside diameter of tub = (Et) = 11m,

Spoil angle of repose ( ) =370

High wall angle = ( ) = 8740

Pit width =(w) = 15m

Sean thickness = (T) = 1.22 m

Swelling factor = (Ps) = 30 %

Solution:

As we know that

Rd = Re + So

.: Re = Rd So -------> 1 and So = 0.75 Et.

Re = 47 (0.75 Et)

Re = 47 (0.75 11)

Re = 47 8.25

Re = 38.75 m

Ps W

Re Hcot cot H1 tan T

100 4

30 15 0

38.75 Hcot740 cot37 0 H1 tan37 1.22

100 4

0.287H 1.3271.3H 2.825 1.22

0.287H 1.7251H 3.748 1.619

38.75 2.0121H 2.13

2.012H 38.75 2.13

36.62

H

2.012

H 18.2

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