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SURFACE MINE DESIGN

AND PRACTICE

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani

Department of Mining Engineering,


Mehran University of Engineering & Technology
Jamshoro, Sindh
SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

GEOMETRICAL CONSIDERATIONS

INTRODUCTION TO OPEN PIT MINING

The ore deposits being mined by open pit techniques today vary considerably in size,
shape, orientation and depth below surface. The initial surface topographies can vary
from mountain tops to valley floor. In spite of this there are a number of geometry based
design and planning considerations fundamental to them all.

The ore body is mined from top to the down in the series of horizontal layers of uniform
thickness called benches and after a sufficient floor area has been exposed, mining to the
next layer can begin. The process continues until the bottom bench elevation is reached
and the final pit outline achieved. To access different bench a road or ramp must be
created. The width and steepness of this road or ramp depends upon the type of
equipment to be accommodated. Stable slopes must be created and maintained during the
creation and operation of the pit.

Slope angle is an important geometrical parameter which has a significant economic


impact. Open pit mining is very highly mechanized. Each piece of mining machinery has
an associated geometry both related to its own physical size, but also with the space it
requires to operate efficiently. There is a complementary set of drilling, loading and
hauling equipment which requires a certain amount of working space. This space
requirement is taken into account when dimensioning the so called working benches.
From both operating and economic view points certain volumes must or should at least be
removed before others. These volumes have a certain minimum size and an optimum size.

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

BASIC BENCH GEOMETRY


The basic extraction component is an open pit mine is the bench. Bench nomenclature
is shown in Figure 1.

Fig.1: Bench Nomenclature

FACE: It is an exposed area from where the overburden or mineral/ore is extracted.

CREST: highest point of the face.

TOE: lowest point the face.

BENCH: the step or floor accommodating the mine machinery.

BENCH HEIGHT: each bench has an upper and lower surface separated by a distance
H equal to the bench height. The bench height is determined by the size of mining
equipment and formation of the area.
The loose/soft rocks allows, bench height up to shovel reach.
In hard and very strong rock, bench height is usually 10-40 meters.

BENCH SLOPE: the bench slope or the bench face angle is the inclined plane of the
bench made an angle with the horizontal. Or the average angle that a face makes with the
horizontal. The exposed sub-vertical surfaces are known as bench faces. The bench faces
are described by the toe. The crest and he bench face angle . The bench face angle
can vary considerably with rock characteristics, face orientation and the blasting
practices. In most hard rock pits it varies from about 55O to 80O. A typical initial design

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

value might be 65O. This should be used with care as the bench face angle can have a
major effect on the overall slope angle.

BENCH FLOOR: The exposed bench lower surface is called as the bench floor.

BENCH WIDTH: The bench width is the distance between the crest and toe measured
along the upper surface.

BANK WIDTH: It is the horizontal projection of the bench face.


There are several types of benches; a working bench is that one which is in process of
being mined. The width being extracted from the working bench is called the cut. The
width of working bench WB is defined as the distance from the crest of the bench floor to
the new toe position after the cut has been extracted as shown in figure 2. After the cut
has been removed, a safety bench or catch bench of width SB remains.
The purpose of leaving safety benches is to:
a) collect the material which slides down from the benches above; and to
b) stop the downward progress of the boulders.
During primary extraction, a safety bench is generally left on every level. The width of
safety bench SB varies with bench height H. Generally the width of the safety bench is
of the order 2 3 of the bench height. At the end of mine life, the safety benches are

sometimes reduced to a width of about 1 3 of the bench height.

In addition to leaving the safety benches berms (piles) of broken materials are often
constructed along the crest. These serve the function of forming a ditch between the berm
and the toe of the slope to catch falling rocks.

A safety berm is also left along the outer edge of the bench to prevent trucks and other
machines from backing over. It serves much the same function as a guard rail on bridges
and elevated highways. Normally the pile has a height greater than or equal to the tire
radius. The berm slope is taken to be about 35O, i.e. also called the angle of repose.
The steps which are followed when considering bench geometry are:

i) Deposit characteristics (total tonnage, grade distribution, value etc) dictate a


certain geometrical approach and production strategy.
ii) The production strategy yields daily ore-waste production rates, selective
mining and blending requirements, numbers of working places.

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

iii) The production requirements leads to a certain equipment set (fleet type and
size).
iv) Each equipment set has a certain optimum associated geometry.
v) Each piece of equipment in the set has an associated operating geometry.
vi) A range of suitable bench geometries results.
vii) Consequences regarding stripping ratios, operating v/s capital costs, slope
stability aspects etc are evaluated.
viii) The best of the various alternatives is selected.
In the past, when the rail bound equipments were being extensively used, great attention
was paid to bench geometry. Today highly mobile rubber tired/crawler mounted
equipments has reduced the detailed evaluation requirements some-what.

Fig. 2: Working Bench

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Fig. 2a: Functions of a catch bench

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

DEVELOPMENT OF ACCESS ROAD: (ORE ACCESS;)


In mining literature, going the initial knowledge about the physical access to the Ore body
is of great importance. For this, the question arises that: How does one actually begin the
process of Mining? Obliviously the approach depends upon the topography of the
surrounding ground. To introduce the topic, it is assumed that the ground surface is flat.
The overlying vegetation has been removed as has the soil/sand/gravel overburden. In this
case it will be assumed that the ore body is 700 feet in diameter, 40feet thick, flat dipping
and is exposed by removing the soil overburden. The ore is hard so that drilling and
blasting is required. The bench mining situation is shown in figure: 3.

Figure 3: Geometry of the ore body

A vertical digging face must be established in the ore body before major production can
begin. Further more a ramp must be created to allow truck and loader access. A drop
cut is used to create the vertical breaking face and the ramp access at the same time.

To access the Ore body, the ramp shown in figure: 4 will be driven it has an 8% grade
and a width of 65 feet.

Although not generally the case, the walls will be assumed vertical. To reach the 40ft
desired depth, the ramp in horizontal projection will be 500ft in length.

Figure 4: Ramp access for example ore body

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

The volume of access road or ramp volume is the volume of the waste rock mined in
excavating the ramp.
:. Ramp volume = Ramp width (Rw) Area of abc.
1
Rw horizontal H
2
1 H
Ramp volume (V) = Rw 100 H
2 g
1
Rw H 100 H
2 g

:. Volume of Ramp = V= 50 H2/g Rw; (ft3)

Example # 01:-
Determine the volume of Ore body by waste rock to develop access road at the
slope of 8%. Depth of cylindrical Ore body is 30 feet and diameter 500 ft, width of ramp
is 65 feet.
Data:
Slope = g = 8%
Depth = H = 30 feet
Diameter = d= 500 feet
Width of ramp = Rw = 65 feet

Solution:
as V = Volume of ramp
H2
and V = 50 Rw
g

(30) 2 x 65 2925000
V = 50 =
8 8
V = 365625 ft3 Ans
.
Example # 02:-
Repeat example # 01 for Depth (H) = 40 ft and Ramp width (Rw) = 60 ft.
H2
Solution: - V = 50 Rw
g
(40) 2 x 60
V = 50
8
V = 600000 ft3 Ans

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

DEVELOPMENT OF ACCESS ROAD: (ramps)

i) In waste rock (Fig. 5a)

.
ii) Ramp in ore body (Fig. 5b)

.
iii) Ramp starting in waste and ending in ore (Fig. 5c)

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

THE PIT EXPANSION PROCESS

When the drop cut has reached the desired grade, the cut is expanded laterally. Figure: 6
shows the steps. Initially Fig: 6.A; the operating space is very low/limited; therefore the
trucks must turn and stop at the top of the ramp and then back down the ramp towards the
loader. When the pit bottom has been expanded sufficiently as shown in fig: 6.B; the
truck can turn around on the pit bottom. Latter, as the working area becomes quite larger
as shown in fig. 6.C; several loaders can be used at the same time. The optimum face
length assigned to a machine varies with the size and type. It is of the range 200-500 feet.

Once access has been established the cut is winded until the entire bench/level has been
extended to the bench limits. There are three approaches which will be discussed here;
they are as follows:

1. Frontal Cuts
2. Parallel Cuts Drive by
3. Parallel Cuts Turn & Back

The first two apply where there is a great deal of working area available, for example at
the pit bottom. The mining of the more narrow benches on the sides of the pit is covered
under the third approach.

Figure: 6 A
Step I

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Figure: 6 B
Step II

Figure: 6 C
Step III

Figure 6: Detailed steps in the development of a new production level

FRONTAL CUTS:
The frontal cut is shown diagrammatically in figure 7.

The shovel faces the bench face and begins digging forward straight ahead and to the
side. A niche is cut in the bank wall. For the case shown, double spotting of the trucks is
used. The shovel first loads to the left and when the truck is full he proceeds to the other
truck on the right. The swing angle varies from 1100 (maximum) to an angle of 100
(minimum). The average swing angle is about 600; hence the loading operation is quite
effective. There must be room for trucks to position them around the shovel. The shovel

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

penetrates to the point that the face. It then moves parallel to itself and takes another
frontal cut as shown in fig: 7.1;

With a long face and sufficient bench width, more than one shovel can work the same
face, as shown in fig. 7.2.

1. DRIVE BY CUTS :- (parallel cuts-drive by)


Another possibility when the mine geometry allows is the parallel cut with drive by. This
is diagrammatically shown in figure 8. The shovel moves across and parallel to the
digging face. For this case bench access for the haul units must be available from both the
directions. It is highly efficient for both the trucks and the loader. Although the average
swing angle is greater than for the frontal cut, the trucks do not have to back up to the
shovel and the spotting is simplified.

2. TURN AND BACK:- (Parallel cuts-turn and back)

The expansion of the pit at the upper levels is generally accomplished by using parallel
cuts. Due to space limitations there is only access to the ramp from one side of the shovel.
This means that the trucks approach the shovel from the rear. Then, they stop, turn, and
back into the load position.

Sometimes there is a room for double spotting of the trucks (fig: 9.1) but sometimes for
only single spotting as shown in figure 9.2.

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

DETERMINATION OF THE MINIMUM OPERATING ROOM


REQUIRED FOR PARALLEL CUTS
In determing the width of operating room required for the parallel cut operations; to
accommodate the large trucks and shovels involved in loading, the dimension being
sought is the width of working bench WB. The working bench is that bench mined. The
width of working bench WB is synonymous with the term operating room and is
defined as the distance from the crest of the bench providing the floor for the loading
operations to the bench toe being created as the parallel cut is being advanced. The
minimum amount of operating room varies depending upon whether single or double
spotting of trucks is used with the latter obviously requiring some what more. The
minimum width of the working bench (wb) is equal to the width of the minimum required
safety bench plus the width of the cut.

This is expressed as; WB = SB + WC

The easiest way of demonstrating the principles involved is by way of an example: For
this, the following assumptions will be made:

Beach height = 40 feet


A safety beam is required.
The minimum clearance b/w the outer truck tire and safety berm = 5 feat.
Single spotting is used.
Bench face angle = 700
Loading is done with a 9yd3 Shovel.
Haulage is done by 85 ton capacity Trucks.
Truck width = 16 feet
Tire Rolling radius = 4 feat.

The general arrangement of working bench (in x-sectional view) is shown in figure 10.

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Figure 10:

.
Figure 10.1: Simplified representation of berm.

kl

The design shows that:-

Working bench width = 102 feet


Cut width = 60 feet
Safety bench width = 42 feet.

The basic calculations (justifications) behind these calculations are presented as follows.

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Step # 01:- Highest of the berm should be at least same as the radius of the
truck tire, i.e.; = 4 feet.

Step # 02:- The distance b/w the crept and centre line of the truck = Tc = 21:
Width of Berm = 8 feet.
Clearance distance b/w safety berm and the wheels of truck = 5 feet
and; the total width of truck = 16 feet.

Step # 03:- The distance b/w the centre line of the Shovel and centre line of the
truck is also called as Dumping radius denoted by B; B = 45.5
feet.

Step # 03b:- The Maximum duping height (A) is more than sufficient to clear
the truck;
A = 28 feet.

Step # 03c:- Distance b/w the centre line of Shovel and toe = G ;
G= 35.5 feet

Step # 04:- The desired working bench dimensions become ;


Total minimum width of working bench = WB = TC +B+G;
:. WB = 21 feet + 45.5 feet + 35.5 feet.
WB = 102 feet

Note: All the parameters and /or dimensions used above, depends upon the size of the
machinery which is used.

WIDTH OF CUT :- (Wc)


The corresponding width of cut is:-
WC = 0.90 2 G = 0.90 2 35.5 feet
WC = 63.9 feet

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Note: This is applied to the width of the pile of broken material. Therefore, to allow for
swell and throw of the material during blasting. The design cut width should be less than
this value. Thus a value of 60 feet has been assumed.

WIDTH OF SAFETY BENCH :- (SB)


Knowing the width of working bench, and width of cut, the resulting safety bench has a
width of; SB = WB WC ;
:. SB = 102-60 = 42 feet.
SB = 42 feet.
Note: This is of the order of the bench height (40ft) which is a rule of thumb, sometimes
employed.

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

CUT SEQUENCINGS:

Let us consider a pit consisting of four benches as shown in fig: 11

Fig. 11: Initial Geometry of the pit:

After the initial geometry of the bench is completed; the mining of first bench is started as
shown in figure: 12.

Fig. 12: Mining of bench # 01

The above figure shows that while performing the cut mining operation of bench # 01, the
overall slope angle was 01.

After the mining of bench # 01, the next bench (i.e.: Bench # 02) is mined, as shown in
fig. 13:
Fig: 13:- Cut mining from bench # 02

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Where
= individual slope angle.
and 01 = overall slope angle (while mining Bench # 01) of pit.
0 2 = overall slope angle of pit (while mining bench # 02)

It is observed that; the overall slope angle 0 always keep varying as we will advance
the mining from the upper to the lower benches.

i.e.:- 01 02

It is essential to consider (know) the value of 0 for slope stability designs.

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

PIT SLOPE GEOMETRY


There are a number of slopes which enter into pit design. Care is taken so that there is
no confusion as to how they are calculated and what they mean. One slope has already
been introduced. That is the bench face angle (shown in figure). It is defined as the
angle made with the horizontal of the line connecting the Toe to the crest this def: will
be maintained through this piece of literature.

Now consider the slope consisting of 5 such benches (shown in figure). The angle made
with the horizontal of the line connecting the lowest most toes to the upper most crests is
defined as the overall pit slope.

5x50 (Y)
overall tan 1 50.4O
4x35 5x50

tan75O
Height of each bench = y = 50 feet.
Horizontal distance = x = 35 feet
Distance under slope = x =?
Bench face angle = 750 =

:. tan y
x'
y 50 50
x' 13.4 '
tan tan75 3.732
Since we have 5 benches,
i.e.: - 5 slopes, X= (4*x) + (5*x).
X = (4 x 35) + (5 x 13.4) = 140 + 67 X = 207
Y = 5 x 50 Y = 250
:. Overall pit slope angle = overall
y 250
overall tan 1 tan 1
x 207
overall 50.4O

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

INTRODUCING RAMP IN PIT SLOPE GEOMETRY


An access ramp with a width of 100 feet; introduced at the half way up bench 3, the
overall pit slope becomes;
y
overall tan 1
x
where, Y = 250
5x50
and X 4x35 O
100'
tan75
:. X = 307 feet.
250
overall tan 1 39.18
O

307
overall 39.2 O

It can be seen that the presence of the ramp n a give section has an enormous impact on
the overall slope angle.

Fig. 15: Overall slope angle with ramp included.

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

INTER-RAMP SLOPE ANGLES AFTER RAMP INCLUDED


The ramp breaks the overall slope angles overall into 2 portions as shown in following
figure; each of these 2 portions can be described by slope angles. These angles are called
as the Inter ramp (Between the ramps) angles.

IR1 IR 2 tan 1 y
x
Y 50 50 24 Y 124feet
50 25
X 2x35 2
O O
tan75 tan75
X 70 26.8 6.7 103.5
125
IR1 IR 2 tan 1 50.38
O

103.5
IR1 IR 2 50.4 O

Figure 16: Inter ramp slope angles after ramp included

The inter-ramp wall height is 125 ft for each segment. Generally the inter ramp wall
heights and angles for different slope segments would not be the same. From a slope
stability view point each inter-ramp segment would be examined separately.

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

INTRODUCING WORKING BENCHES IN PIT SLOPE


GEOMETRY
While active mining is underway, some working benches are included in the overall
slope. The fig. ; shows a working bench 125ft in width included as bench 2.
The overall slope angle overall now becomes;

overall tan 1 y
x
50
As; Y 250' , X 4x35 ' 5 O
'125'
tan75
X 140' 67' 125' X 332 feet
250
overall tan 1 36.98
O

332

Fig. 17: Overall slope angle with working bench included

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

INTER-RAMP SLOPE ANGLES AFTER WORKING BENCH


INCLUDED

The working bench is treated in the same way as a ramp in terms of interrupting the slope.
Therefore from following figure, two inter-ramp angles are shown:-

IR 2 tan 1 y ; As; Y = 250 50 = 200 feet and


x
50
200 X 3 x 35 4 O
IR 2 tan 1 tan75
158.6'
X 105 53.6 158.6'
IR 2 51.58O or 51.6O

As; for the above inter ramp angles, the inter ramp heights are,
H1= 50 and H2 = 2

Fig. 18: Inter-ramp slope angles after working bench included

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

PLANNAR FAILURE

Fig. 19: Perspective

view of plannar

failure.

Fig. 20: Dimensions and forces in a rock slope with a potential failure plane.

As figure 20 shows the dimensions and forces in a rock slope with potential failure plane.
The Mohr-coulomb failure criterion has been used.

The following definitions apply:

i= average slope angle from horizontal in degrees,


= the angle of discontinuity from the horizontal (degrees),
W = block weight;

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

R = resisting force;
C = cohesion,
= friction angle.
Wcos= normal force
Wsin= driving force
A= Area of the failure plane.

The factor of safety F is defined by the following equation:


Total force available to resist sliding
F
Force tending to induce sliding
For the case shown in Fig:20
cA Wcos tan
F
Wsin
If there is water present then;
cA Wcos - U tant
F
Wsin V
where,
U= water pressure along potential failure surface,
a = friction angle (affected by water),
V= force along potential sliding plane.

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example # 01:-
The average planned slope angle i = 700, the orientation of the potential failure plane =
500 and the friction angle = 300. The thickness of he plane is 1ft; the cohesion is 1600
lb/ft3. The unit weight of the rock is 160 lb/ft3, and height of the wall is 100ft.
Sol:-
frictional force
S.F
Sliding force
Frictional force cA Wcos tan

Fig. 21 (a)

i 70, 50
A 70 0 50 0 A 20 0
C 50 0
B 180 0 A C 180 0 70 0
B 110 0

Fig. 21 (b)
1 2 sin A sin C
b
2 sin B (a)
1 2 sin B sin C
a
2 sin A (b)
1 2 sin A sin C
c
2 sin C (c)

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

H 100
sin B
as, b b
100 100
b 0
130.54feet
or sin50 0.766

Putting the above value in eqn (a).

130.542 sin 20 sin0 50


0 0
1

2 sin 110
1 0.262
17040.692
2 0.9396
0.279
2375.62 ft 2

(V) Volume of (triangle ABC) sliding block = thickness of sliding block


2375.62 1ft
V 2375.62 1ft 3
(W) Weight of sliding block is = volume unit weight
W V 2375.62 160lb/ft 3
W 380099.2lbs
As
cA Wcoscos
F
Wsin
A= Area of the failure plane, and
A= length of failure plane thickness
A= b 1ft= 130.54ft 1ft
A= 130.54ft2
Wcos 380099.2 cos50 0 244323.05lb
Wsin 380099.2 sin50 291172.88lb
c 1600lb/ft 2
Tan Tan30 0 0.577

F
1600 130.54 244323.05 0.577
291172.88
349838.4
F
291172.88
F 1.2

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

By using graphical simplification of the S.F;

X 2 i 2 70 5050 30
X Slope angle function 2 400
or X 40
Y slope height function H/
Y 160 100 /1600
Y 10

Now by using slope design chart for plane


failure the safety factor for X= 40 and Y= 10
is;

S.F = 1.6

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example 02:
Determine the limiting pit slope angle (i) using the following data:

Inclination of failure plane 50


0
i.

Angle of internal friction 35


0
ii.

Cohesion = C 7800 kg m
3
iii.

iv. 2.5 tons m 3


v. Height of slope = 150m

Solution:
H 2.5 150 375
Y
c 7800 7.8
Y 48.07
From the slope design chart, at Y=48 and S.F = 1.0, X=18
X 2 i
:. We know that
18 2 i 5050 35 2 13i 750
Now, squaring both sides

182 22 15i 750


324 4 15i 750
324 60i 3000
60i 324 3000 3324
3324
i 55.4 0
60
i 55.4 0

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Slope design chart for plane failure including various safety


factors (Hoek, 1970a)

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example 03:
Determine the height of slope using the following data.

Slope angle i 65
0
i.

Inclination of failure plane 50


0
ii.

Angle of internal friction 35


0
iii.

Cohesion c 7800 kg m
2
iv.

Unit wt: of rock 2.5t m ;


3
v.
vi. Safety factor = S.F = 1.4;

Sol:
X 2 i 2 65 5050 35
2
15 15 2 255 2 15
X 30 0

By using the graph of slope design chart for plane failure including various safety
factors

At X 30 and S.F 1.4


0

The value of Y=16


H
Y ,
:. As c

Y c 16 7800
H 49.92m
2.5
H 49.92m

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

CIRCULAR FAILURE

Fig. 22 (a):

Plane failure in rock with highly

ordered structure, such as state

Fig. 22 (b): Free body diagram

As we know that;
M 0
Mw Mc 0.; Mw w d

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

length of Arc AB in fig:22(b); R


Area of Arc AB= length thickness
[For simplicity, here we have considered the value of thickness of Arc as Unit]
Area of Arc AB = R 1
Mc = (Area of Arc) (cohesion) (R)
R C R
Mc CR 2
as, Mw+Mc= 0
wd CR 2 0
wd CR 2
CR 2
or S.F
wd
If the portion is in equilibrium state,
it is stable, and will not slip down.

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example:
A cutting in saturated clay inclined at a slope of 1 vertical and 1.5 horizontal and has a
vertical height of 10.0 m. the bulk unit weight of soil is 18.5 KN/m3 and its un-drained
cohesion is 40 KN/m2. Determine the safety factor against immediate shear failure along
the slip circle as shown in figure.
Soln:
1 vertical Slope
1.5 horizontal Slope
18.5 KN m 3
C 40 KN m 2

From fig: 23, consider afo to find out 1

Figure 23

5m
1 Tan 1
16.7m
1 16.7 0
According to Pythagoras theorem,

Hyp perp Base


2 2 2

R 2 5 16.7 25 278.9 303.0


2 2

R 303.9
R 17.43m
1 ?; since given slope of cutting plane ad is 1 vertical and 1.5 horizontal;

1
1 Tan 1
1.5
Thus, 1 33,7
0

from figure 23; it is clear that:

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SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

90 0 1 1

90 0 33.7 0 16.7 0 39.6 0
39.6 0

Now we consider right angled oec

6.7
cos 2
17.43
2 cos 1 0.384
2 67.4 0

3 180 0 90 0 67.4
3 22.6

From obe we get 2 , as follows,


6.7
2 sin 1 2 22.6
0

17.43

3 180 1 2 180 0 33.7 0 22.6 0
0

0

3 180 56.3 3 123.71
0
0

as 90 1 1 90 0 33.7 0 16.7 0
0

84.10
180 0 180 0 84.10 39.6
180 0 123.7 0
56.3 0
1 sin sin
aod 1 R2
Area of 2 sin

1
1
17.43
2
sin 84.10 sin 39.6 0
2 sin 56.3 0
1 115.85m 2
In order to find the area of bcd , we must know any one side of bcd . Lets find DB
for sake of ease.
OD R
DB R OD and
sin sin

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 36 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

OD
Rsin 17.43 sin 39.6 0


13.36m

sin sin 56.3 0
DB 17.43 13.36 DB 4.07m
sin 2 sin 3
4.07
1
2
2

2 sin 1
2 4.77m 2
Now area of polygon oabc=Ap
Ap 120.62m 2
1
aoc R 2
180
0
(as) Area of sector 2

As
1

17.43 84.10
180
0
2
As 222.86m 2

Now, Area of slip mass (A)= As-Ap


A 222.86 120.62
A 102.24m 2
Volume of slip mass= V A t 102.24 1
V 102.24m 3

Weight of slip mass= W V


W 102.24 18.5
W 1891.44KN
CR 2
S.F
Wd

S.F

40 17.43 80.10
2
180
0

1891.44 6.54
S.F 1.44

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 37 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

STRIPPING RATIO

Figure 24 (a)

Vm = Vol. of mining
Vc = Vol. of cone
VT = Vol. of truncated portion
:. Vm = Vc- VT

Fig. 24 (b)

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 38 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

As we know that;
1 2
r h
Vol: of cone= 3

And Vol: of cylinder = r h


2

:. Volume of circular ore body; Vo

Vo= r h (1)
2

Volume of (small) truncated tip of cone; VT


1
VT r 2 h
3 (2) (:.) Height of small cone is h). and h tan
as height of big cone, is Hc;
and Hc h h
or Hc h tan

:. Vol: of bigger cone, Vc

Vc R 2 Hc r 2 h h
1 1
3 3
or Vc R 2 h tan
1
(3)
3

:. Mined Vol: Vm VC VT
1 1
Vm r 2 H c r 2 h (4)
3 3

Vol: of waste:
Vw Vm V0
2
Where, Vol: of Ore V0 r h

:. Vol: of waste
Vw Vm V0 (5)

SR Vol : of waste m3
3

:. Stripping Ratio
Vol : of ore. m

Vw Ww
SR (6) SR
V0 or W0

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 39 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example:
A cylindrical ore body with radius of 50m and Depth of 250m is to be excavated by
developing a cone. Slopes of the sides of the cone with the horizontal are 550. Unit
weight of the ore is 3.1 tons/m3 and that of the waste rock is 2.6 tons/m3.determine the
stripping ratio (SR).
Data: h tan
50m h 50tan55
h 250m h 71.4m
ore 3.1 tons m 3 H C h h 250 71.4
H C 321.4m
wast 2.6tons/m3
H C RTan
Solution
HC
R
1 Tan55 0
VC R 2 H c
3 R 321.4
Tan55 0
VC 17044879.24m 3
R 225.04m
1
VT 2 h
3
VT 186924.76m 3

Vm VC VT 17044879.24 186924.76
Vm 16857954.48m 3

Vore 2 h 50 2 250 VO 1963495.4m 3
VW Vm VO 16857954.48 1963495.4
VW 14894459.08m 3

W waste Vw w 14894459.08 2.6


S.R
W ore Vo o 1963495.4 3.1
38725593.61
S.R
6086835.74
S.R 6.36

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 40 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

DETERMINATION OF SR BY AREA METHOD

Ao =Area of sections (i), (ii) and (iii)


1
50 50 1250ft 2
Area of Sec: (i) = 2

Area of Sec: (ii) = 100 50 5000ft 2

Area of Sec: (iii) = 100 150 15000ft 2

A O 21250 25000 15000


A O 27500ft 2
1
Aw1 100 100 5000ft 2
2
since Aw 1 Aw 2
Aw Aw1 Aw 2 5000 5000
Aw 10000ft 2
Aw 10000
S.R 0.36
Ao 275000
S.R 0.36

Now consider the bench of 25ft thickness.

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 41 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Ao1 100 25 2500ft 2


Ao 2 50 2

50 2 25 70.71 25
Ao 2 1767.75ft 2
Ao Ao1 2Ao 2 2500 21767.75
Ao 6035.5ft 2
Aw 2Aw 1 2Aw 2
Aw 1 100 2

100 2 25.10000 25 150000ft
1
Aw 2 25 25 312.5ft 2
2
Aw 2 250000 2 312.5
500000 625
Aw 500625ft 2
A = (b1 + b1) h = b1h

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 42 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

PIT LIMITS
The minable material becomes that lying
within the pit boundaries. A vertical section
taken through such a pit is shown in figure
A:

The size and shape of the pit depends upon


economic factors and design/production
constraints.

With an increase in price, the pit would expand in size assuming all other factors
remained constant.

The pit existing at the end of mining is called the final pit or the ultimate pit. In b/w
the birth and death of an open pit mine, there are a series of intermediate pits. This
includes a series of procedures based upon:
Hand Methods,
Computer Methods, and
Computer assisted hand methods

The above mentioned methods are used for developing the pit limits. Within the pit
materials of differing values are found. Economics criteria are applied to assign
destination for these materials based on their value (i.e. mill, waste dump, loach dump,
stock pile etc). Once the pit limits have been determined and rules established for
classifying the in pit materials, then the ore reserves (tonnage and grade) can be
calculated.

The Net Value Calculation:-


The term cut-off grade refers to the grades for which the destination of pit material
changes. It should be noted that grades were used rather than grade since there may
be several possible destinations. The simplest case is that in which there are two
destinations: the mill or the waste dump. One cut of grade is needed for many operations
today; there are many possible destinations: the mill or leach dump and the waste dump.

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 43 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Each of the decisions:-


Mill or leach?
Leach or waste?
requires a cut-off grade.

Cut-off Grade:-
The grade at which the mineral resources cant longer be processed at a profit.

Break-even cut-off grade:-


The grade at which the net value is zero; is called Break-even cut-off grade.

Determination of pit limits, on the basis of net value:

Example:
Determine the pit limits of an open pit mine as shown in figure: setting price of 1m3 of
Ore is US$ 1.9 and mining cost of 1m3 of waste is US$ 1.0.
Sol:
For Strip # 01:-
Vo 1 5 1.25 1

Vol: of ore (Strip 1) Vo 1 6.25m


3

1
Vw 1 6.364 1.25 1 1.25 1.25
2
Vol: of waste (Strip 1) Vw 1 8.74m
3

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 44 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Vw 1
Ins (S.R) S.R 1.4
Vo 1 Ins

Value of ore = Vo1* Selling price of 1/m3 of ore


6.25 1.9
= Value of ore 11.875US dollars
Cost of mining of waste =
Vw 1 Mining cost of 1m 3 waste
8.74 1.0
Cost of mining of waste = 8.74 US dollars
Net value = value cost
= 11.875 8.74
N.V = 3.14 US $. for strip # 01
Calculate for strip, 2, 3 and 4.

For Strip #02:-


Vol. of ore, Vo 2 5 1.25 1
Vo 2 6.25m 3


Vol. of waste, Vw 2 6.614 1.25 1 1 1.25 2
2

Vw 2 10.3m 3

Vol. of ore Vo 2 1.9 6.25 1.9


Vol. of ore 11.875US $
Cost of mining waste 10.3 1 10.3US $
Vw 2 10.3
SR (ins) 1.65
Vo 2 6.25
N.V Value cost 11.875 10.3
N.V 1.58US dollars

For Strip# 03
Vo 3 6.25m 3

Vw 3 8.864 1.25 1 1 1.25
2
2

Vw 3 11.86m 3
S.R ins 11.86 S.R ins 1.9
6.25

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 45 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Value of ore 6.25 1.9 11.875 US dollars


Cost of waste 11.86 1 11.86 US dollars
N.V 11.875 - 11.86
N.V 0.015 US dollars

For Strip # 04:-


Vo 4 6.25

Vw 4 10.114 1.25 1 1 1.25 2
2

Vw 4 12.6425 0.78125
Vw 4 13.424m 3
Vw 4 13.424
S.R Ins 2.14
Vo 4 6.25
Cost of mining waste 13.424 1 13.424 $
Price/valu e of ore 6.25 1.9 11.875 $
N.V 11.875 - 13.424
N.V -1.55US dollars

As can be seen that the net value changes from (+) to (-) as the pit is expanded, sometimes the N. V
become zero, so that this pit position is termed as Break-even, which is the location of final pit wall.

Now for overall volume of waste we have;

w
1
9.9 9.9
2
49m 2 thickness 1
overall vol : of waste 49m 3

& overall vol : of ore 9.9 5 1 1 5 5 1
2

49.5 12.5 1m
overall vol : of ore 62m 3
overall strippigratio Vw 49 0.79 0.8
Vo 62
overall value of ore 62 1.9 117.8 US dollars
overall mining cost of waste 49 1 49.00 US dollars
N - value (overall) 117.8 - 49.00
N.V 68.8 US dollars

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 46 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example
Copper ore is milled to produce a copper concentrate. This mill concentrate is slipped and
transported to a smatter and the resulting blister copper is eventually refined.
In this example, the following data will be assumed.
Mill recovery rate = 80%
Mill concentrate grade = 20%
Smelting loss = 10 lbs/st of concentrate
Refining loss = 5 lbs/st of blister copper.

The ore is containing 0.55%, All the costs and revenues will be calculated in terms of 1
ton of ore. Note that ore short ton= 2000 lbs.

Solution:-

Step # 01:- Complete the amount of saleable copper (lb/s per st of ore)

a) Contained copper (cc) is :-


0.55
cc 2000lb/st * 11.00lbs
100
b) Copper recovered by mill (RM/st of ore)
80
RM 11lbs 8.8lbs
100
c) Concentration ratio (r):- the ratio of concentration is defined as
lbs of cu/st of concentrate
r
lbs of " cu" recovered/ st of ore
2000 20 100 400
r 45.45
8.8 8.8
r 45.45

d) Copper recovered by smelter :- (R.S)


As, smelting loss = 10 lbs/st of concentrate.\

Economic Block Models:-


The block model representation of ore bodies rather than section representation and the
storage of the information on high speed computers have offered some new possibilities
in open pit mines.

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 47 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

ORE GRADE ESTIMATION


by the constant distance weighting techniques

a) Inverse Distance Techniques:-


The formula to calculate the ore grade by inverse distance technique is :


n
gi
di
i 1

i di
n

i 1

Where,
gi= given grade of ore at a point.
g= estimated grade of ore.
di= distance b/w known point and point of estimation.

Example:
Calculate the estimated grade of ore at point C, using inverse distance technique.
Known grades of an ore at points C1-C6 ore shown in fig: [in brackets]

Sol:

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 48 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

First lets estimate the value of distances d1, d2...d6 by using Pythogonas theorem.

d 1 200 2 200 2 8000 d 1 282.84m


d 2 300 2 100 2 100000 d 2 316.23m
d 3 100 2 200 2 50000 d 3 223.6m
d 4 200 2 200 2 80000 d 4 282.84m
d 5 200 2 100 2 50000 d 5 223.6m
d 6 100 2 300 2 100000 d 6 316.23m

As we know that;
g1 g 2 g 6
d d d
1 2 6
g
1 1 6
d d d
1 2 6

0.409 0.165 0.258 1.365 0.023 0.644



282.84 316.23 223.6 282.84 223.6 316.23
g
1282.84
1
316.23
1
223.6

1
282.84

1
223.6

1
316.23

0.0100
g g 4.484 10 1
0.0223
:. The estimated grade of ore =g
g = 0.45 %

b) Inverse Distance Squared weighting Technique:-

Using this technique, the grade of ore is found, by using following equations.

n
gi
di
i 1
2
g n
1
di
i 1
2

Using the data of previous example; calculate the grade of ore by squared weighting
technique.

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 49 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

d 1 282.84m - - - - - - - - - - d 1 79998.4656m 2
2

d 2 316.23m - - - - - - - - - - d 2 100001.4129m 2
2

d 3 223.6m - - - - - - - - - - d 3 49996.96m 2
2

d 4 282.84m - - - - - - - - - - d 4 79998.4656m 2
2

d 5 223.6m - - - - - - - - - - d 5 49996.96m 2
2

d 6 316.23m - - - - - - - - - - d 6 100001.4129m 2
2

g1 g2
g 5 2 g 6 2
d 2 d d d
5 6
2
1 2
g

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
d 1 d 2 d d
5 6

3.5885 10 5
g
8.5003 10 5
g 0.422%

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 50 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

ORE RESERVE ESTIMATION


by Triangular Method

From above figure:

Area of rectangle abcd=


x 3 x 1 y 2 y 3

A1
1
x 2 x 1 y 2 y1
Area of 2

A 2
1
x 3 x 2 y 2 y 3
Area of 2

A 3
1
x 3 x 1 y1 y 3
Area of 2


Area of A Area of abcd - A1 A 2 A 3

x 3 x 1 y 2 y1
x 3 x 1 y 2 y 3 x 3 x 2 y 2 y 3 1
1
2
x 3 x 1 y1 y 3

Example:
Calculate the above of A by using ore reserve estimation:

Easting (x)m Northing (y)m


1100 1200
1500 1200
1100 800
Solution:-

Let

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 51 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

x 1 1100m, y1 1200m
x 2 1500m, y 2 1200m
x 3 1100m, y 3 800m From given table.
And we know that;

1 x 3 x 1 y 2 y 3 x 3 x 2
A x 3 x 1 y 2 y 3
2 y 2 y 3 x 3 x 1 y1 y 3

1 1100 11001200 1200 1100 1500


A 1100 11001200 800
2 1200 8001100 1100 1200 800

0
1
0 16000 0
2
1
160000
2
A 80,000m 2

OR

1
A bh
2
1
400 400
2
1 160000
2
A 80,000m 2

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 52 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example:
Calculate the ore reserves in area, as shown in following figure. Density of the ore is
given as 2.5 tons/m3

Solution:-
As we know that:
A Area of abcd - A1 A 2 A 3

500 700 1 700 200 1 400 300 1 500 300
2 2 2

350000 205000
A 145000m 2
C1 C 2 C 3
Average thickness of ore = 3
3 5 4 12
t av: 4m
2 3
t av: 4m
A t av:
Vol: of ore in Triangular area=
Vol. of ore = 1450004m
Vol. of ore = 580000m3.
;. Ore reserves = 5800002.5
Ore reserves = 1450000

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 53 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Calculation Of Thickness Of Ore In A Drill Hole


Length of t Grade (%) Length grade
ore body (m) g (tg)
t 1 0.6 g 1 0.59 t 1g 1
t 2 1.4 g 2 0.48 t 2g 2
t 3 1.4 g 3 0.6 t 3g 3
t 4 1.4 g 4 0.56 t 4g 4
t 5 1.3 g 5 0.32 t 5g 5

tigi
i 1
n
- - - - - - - (1)

:. Average thickness = (tav:)


ti
i 1

t av:
0.6 0.59 1.4 0.48 1.4 0.6 1.4 0.56 1.3 0.32
0.6 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3
3.066
t av:
6.1
t av: 0.503m

Calculation Of Reserves Using Weight Age Average


Thickness:

Calculate the reserves of ore shown in above fig: having a density of 1.35 tons/m3 by
using the weight age average thickness, when; t1=40m, t2=60m, t3=50m
Solution: the weight age average thickness is calculated as:

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 54 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

t 1 1 t 2 2 t 3 3

tw 60 (1)
3
from above fig :
800 300
tan 1 tan 2.5
1

400 200
68.2 0

500 300
1 tan 1 tan 0.5
1

600 400
1 26.56 0
800 500
2 tan 1 tan 1.5
1

600 400
2 56.31 0

1 1 68.2 0 26.56 0 41.64 0


3 1 2 26.56 0 56.310 82.87 0
2 180 0 1 3 180 0 41.64 0 82.87 0
1 55.49 0

Substitute the values of t1, t2, t3, 1, 2, 3 in equation 1


(40 x 41.64) (60 x 55.49) (50 x 82.87)

tw 60
3
9138.5

tw 60
3
152.3
tw
3
tw = 50.77 m

A = Area of abcd [A1, A2, A3]


A = (400 x 500) [ ( x 500 x 200) + ( x 300 x 200) + ( x 400 x 200) ]
A = 200000 120000
A = 80000 m2
Volume of A = A x tw = 80000 x 50.77
:. Volume of A = 4061600 m3
:. Ore reserves = Volume x density
= 4061600 m3 x 1.35 t/m3
= 5483160 tons

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 55 -


SURFACE MINE DESIGN AND PRACTICE

Example:
In a level terrain, determine the max height of high wall that dragline can strip without re-
handling, using the following data:
Dumping radius =(Rd)= 47m,
Outside diameter of tub = (Et) = 11m,
Spoil angle of repose ( ) =370
High wall angle = ( ) = 8740
Pit width =(w) = 15m
Sean thickness = (T) = 1.22 m
Swelling factor = (Ps) = 30 %

Solution:
As we know that
Rd = Re + So
.: Re = Rd So -------> 1 and So = 0.75 Et.
Re = 47 (0.75 Et)
Re = 47 (0.75 11)
Re = 47 8.25
Re = 38.75 m
Ps W
Re Hcot cot H1 tan T
100 4
30 15 0
38.75 Hcot740 cot37 0 H1 tan37 1.22
100 4
0.287H 1.3271.3H 2.825 1.22
0.287H 1.7251H 3.748 1.619
38.75 2.0121H 2.13
2.012H 38.75 2.13
36.62
H
2.012
H 18.2

Engr. Izhar Mithal Jiskani - 56 -