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A-320 STUDY NOTES

A-320
Systems Study Notes
.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

IMPORTANT NOTICE

This manual is for training purpose only. It has been developed to assist
new pilots on the A-320 fleet and to act as a refresher for more
experienced type rated pilots.
The information comes from several different sources, and therefore
may differ from standard Airbus documentation. In all cases, the
companys SOPs, and standard Airbus documentation will take precedence.
The manual is not designed to be totally comprehensive, nor does it cover
the level of detail required for type rated pilots, it is exactly what it is
described to be, Study Notes.

NOTICE OF LIABILITY

The information in these study notes is distributed on an as is basis, without warranty. The
author shall have no liability to any person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or
damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by information contained in
these study notes or its application in practice.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ELECTRICS 4 - 12

HYRAULICS 13 - 18

LANDING GEAR 19 - 21

BRAKES 22-25

PNEUMATICS 26 - 30

AIR CONDITIONING 31 -34

VENTILATION 35 - 37

PRESSURIZATION 38 - 41

FIRE PROTECTION 42 - 45

FUEL 46 - 49

FLIGHT CONTROLS 50 - 69

NAVIGATION 70 -118

ICE AND RAIN 119 -122

ENGINES 123 - 126

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

ELECTRICS

The electrical system is divided into two separate and isolated channels;
number 1 and number 2. Electrical power is provided by two engine driven
generators, an APU generator, an emergency generator and two nickel
cadmium batteries. Each engine and APU generator, incorporating its own
constant speed drive and drive oil system as a single unit, is called an
integrated drive generator (IDG). Each IDG ensures a constant output of
90 KVA, 115/200 V 400 HZ, AC power. Should it be necessary to
disconnect an IDG in flight, the disconnect push-button (pb) should be
held for a maximum of 3 secs, and only when the engine is running
otherwise the mechanism will be damaged.
In normal operations, number 1 IDG provides power to AC BUS 1, which
then powers the AC ESS BUS, which powers the AC ESS SHED BUS. TR 1
is also fed by AC BUS 1 which in turn powers DC BUS 1 and the DC
BATTERY BUS. The DC BAT BUS powers the DC ESS BUS via the ESS
DC TIE contactor, which then supplies the DC SHED BUS.
The two aircraft batteries, numbers 1 and 2 are connected directly to
their respective HOT BAT busses. Each battery has its own battery
charge limiter (BCL) that monitors the battery charge level and if
necessary, connects to the DC BATTERY BUS via its respective BATTERY
contactor.
The number 2 IDG normally provides power to AC BUS 2, which powers
DC BUS 2 through TR 2.
The entire electrical network can be powered by only one generator;
either of the engine generators or the APU generator via the AC BUS
TIE contactors. On the ground, external power can also be used to power
the complete network.

The priority of the generators is:

Engine driven-generators
External Power
APU generators

The minimum battery voltage of 25.5v must be checked prior to


departure. The batteries have built in protection to ensure they do not go
below 22.5v, even if the switches are left on with the aircraft un-
powered on the ground overnight. To check the battery voltage and the
capability of the battery chargers on the ground, the batteries must
first be switched off. If the voltage is below 25.5v, then connect

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

external power; turn the batteries on (AUTO) again; check on the ECAM
ELEC page to ensure that the initial charge rate after 10 secs is less than
60 amps and is decreasing. After 20 minutes the batteries should be
sufficiently charged.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

IDG FAILURE

If an IDG fails to power its own channel, the operative IDG will
power both channels automatically through the AC TIE BUS and
the Primary Galley Power will be shed. If the APU generator is
available, it will automatically replace the failed generator via the
AC TIE BUS and subsequently, the galley power can be restored as
the electrical system will be back to normal output.

IDG 1 failure with


IDG 2 feeding
the entire system
Note: Galley shed
indication

IDG 2 failure, with


APU feeding AC
BUS 2 etc.
Note: Galley power
has been restored

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

AC BUS 1 FAILURE

Failure of AC BUS 1 leads to the momentary loss of the AC ESS


BUS; however it can be restored by selecting the AC ESS FEED pb
which will enable AC BUS 2 to feed the AC ESS. The ESSENTIAL
TR will then be powered by the AC ESS BUS which will in turn feed
the DC- ESS BUS. In this configuration the DC BATT BUS will be
fed automatically by DC BUS 2 via the DC TIE contactor and the
DC BUS 1 will be fed by the DC BATT BUS, via the other DC TIE
contactor (the automatic changeover takes approximately 5
seconds).

AC BUS 1
failure with
the ESS TR
feeding the
DC ESS.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

TR1 OR 2 FAILURE

If TR 1 or TR 2 fail, their respective busses will automatically be


fed through the DC BAT BUS by the opposite DC channel via the
DC BUS TIE contactors. In the example below; TR 1 has failed and
DC BUS 2 is feeding the DC BAT BUS which in turn is feeding DC
BUS 1. The DC ESS BUS is being supplied by the ESS TR powered
by the AC ESS BUS.

TR 1 failure
with the ESS
TR feeding
the DC ESS.

The TR contactors will open automatically in case of the following:


TR Overheat
Current below the minimum required

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

BOTH TR1 AND TR2 FAILURES

If both TR 1 and TR 2 fail; DC BUS 1, DC BUS 2 and the DC


BAT BUS will be all lost. The DC ESS BUS will be fed by the
ESS TR powered by the AC ESS BUS.

TR 1 and TR 2 failure
with the loss of DC 1,
DC 2, and DC BAT
busses.
Only DC buses
available are the
HOT BAT and DC
ESS busses.

BOTH AC BUS FAILURES

If you are unlucky enough to lose both main AC busses and, your
Ram Air Turbine (RAT), the good news is that the Static Inverter
will connect to HOT BAT BUS 1 and provide power to the AC ESS
BUS. HOT BAT BUS 2 will supply the DC ESS BUS. Both AC SHED
and DC SHED Busses are also lost in this configuration.
The bad news here is that the batteries will only last for approx.
22 minutes however, if you go through the procedure in QRH 2.03
(Flight on Bat Only), then you can increase your chances by
increasing the battery life to at least 30 minutes. Reference to
QRH 1.01 will let you know what equipment you have left in this
configuration. Below 100 knots the DC BATT BUS is connected and
below 50 knots the Static Inverter will disconnect and you will lose
your AC ESS BUS, leading to a loss of the remaining CRTs.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

RAM AIR TURBINE (RAT)

If both AC BUS 1 and AC BUS 2 are lost and the speed is above
100 knots, the RAT will extend automatically. The RAT powers the
blue hydraulic system which in turn will drive a constant speed
hydraulic motor/generator.
RAT extension and coupling takes approximately 8 seconds, during
which time the aircraft is powered by the batteries only. Like the
previous example, AC ESS is fed by the static inverter which gets
its power from HOT BAT BUS 1 and the DC ESS is powered by
HOT BAT BUS 2. (Both AC and DC SHED busses are un-powered).
The red light on the EMER ELEC PWR panel (the only red fault
light on the overhead panel) remains illuminated during the RAT
extension.
When the RAT is coupled it powers the AC ESS BUS which then
powers the ESS TR and the DC ESS BUS. When the landing gear is
extended the system reverts back to being powered by the
batteries only. Once again, in this configuration the time available
on batteries is approximately 22 minutes. The DC BAT BUS
connects below 100 knots and the AC ESS is lost below 50 knots.
The recommended minimum speed for flight with the RAT powering
the aircraft is 140 knots, which prevents the RAT stalling.
If the AC busses have been lost due to a short circuit, it is unlikely
that the APU generator will couple and therefore, it might be wise
to conserve battery power. Each APU start attempt will drain
approximately 3.5 minutes of battery power. If only the batteries
are powering the aircraft electrical system, the APU will only start
below 100 knots when the DC BAT BUS connects to the system.

See next page for ECAM diagnostic page:

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

EMER ELEC
Configuration

CIRCUIT BREAKERS

The circuit breakers (CBs) are either green or black. The green
ones are monitored and will display C/B TRIPPED ON OVHD PNL or
REAR PNL on the ECAM if one has tripped for more than 1 minute.
The Yellow collared (black) CBs on the overhead panel are for use
if you are unlucky enough to be flying on batteries only (see FLT
ON BAT ONLY checklist, QRH 2.03). There are also red collared
CBs on the rear panel that must never be pulled in flight; these CBs
are for the wing tip brakes. See QRH 2.34 the policy of re-
engaging tripped CBs, either on the ground or in flight. Essentially,
resetting CBs is not recommended except in special circumstances
which are outlined in then policy.

APU

When shutting down the APU on the ground, it is important to wait


for 2 minutes after the green AVAIL light is extinguished to
ensure the APU flap is fully closed and fire protection is still
available, before turning off the batteries.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

SMOKE

If smoke is detected in the Avionics compartment, amber fault


lights will illuminate on the EMER ELEC PWR panel and also the
VENTILATION panel associated with an ECAM warning. The
procedure calls for depressing the GEN 1 LINE pb.; this action
opens the generator line contactor and sheds AC BUS 1
momentarily; AC BUS 2 will then automatically power AC BUS 1
through the BUS TIE contactors. The purpose of using the GEN 1
LINE pb is to isolate one inner tank fuel pump in each main tank
and power them by the number one generator, thereby assuring
positive fuel pressure while the rest of the procedure is carried
out.
The procedure then calls for the RAT to be extended and when the
emergency generator is available, APU GEN and GEN 2 are selected
off; this action will shed approximately 75% of the electrical
network, including the remaining fuel pumps. The aircraft will now
in the emergency electrical configuration.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

HYDRAULICS

Hydraulic power is supplied by three independent hydraulic circuits


called, the Green, Blue and Yellow systems. The normal hydraulic system
pressure is 3000 psi. Each system is supplied by its own pneumatically
pressurized reservoir and it is not possible to transfer fluid from one
system to another.

GREEN SYSTEM
The green system is pressurized by the number 1 engine-driven hydraulic
pump. There is a fire shutoff valve located upstream of the pump which
is operated by the ENG 1 FIRE pb. There are two pressure sensors
located downstream of the pump, one sends the system pressure to the
ECAM and the other to the Power Transfer Unit (PTU). Downstream of
the pressure sensors there is a non-return valve, a system accumulator,
a leak measurement valve, the various user components, a priority valve,
two load alleviation function (LAF) accumulators and the PTU hydraulic
line.

BLUE SYSTEM
The blue system is pressurized by an electric motor-driven hydraulic
pump. There is also a ram air turbine (RAT) that can pressurize the blue
system to approximately 2500 psi in an emergency. There are two
pressure sensors located downstream of the pumps which send system
pressure to the ECAM. Downstream of the pressure sensors there is a
system accumulator, a leak measurement valve, the various user
components and a priority valve.

YELLOW SYSTEM
The yellow system is pressurized by the number 2 engine-driven
hydraulic pump. There is a fire shutoff valve located upstream of the
pump which is operated by the ENG 2 FIRE pb. This system also includes
an electric motor-driven pump and a hand pump for operation of the
cargo doors when electric power is not available. There are two pressure
sensors located downstream of the pumps, one sends the system
pressure to the ECAM and the other to the (PTU). Downstream of the
pressure sensors there is a non-return valve, a system accumulator, a
leak measurement valve, the various user components, a priority valve,
two (LAF) accumulators and the PTU hydraulic line.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

POWER TRANSFER UNIT (PTU)

The PTU is a bi-directional motor pump located between the green and
yellow hydraulic systems. It enables either system to power the other
in case of pump failure. The PTU is automatically activated if there is
a pressure differential of 500 psi or more between systems. On the
ground with the engines not running, the PTU can be used to power the
green system by activating the yellow electric pump.

The PTU is automatically inhibited:

During the first engine start


When the cargo doors are operating
When the parking brake is on and only one engine is running
When the PTU switch is off

The PTU is automatically tested during second engine start. If the


second engine is started within 40 seconds of the cargo doors
closing, a HYD PTU FAULT will be triggered. To reset the warning,
switch the yellow electric pump ON and then OFF. (3.02.29 P16)
The PTU does not transfer fluid.

PTU in operation
GREEN system being
powered by YELLOW
system

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

ELECTRIC PUMPS

The blue electric pump will operate and pressurize the blue system on the
ground if the switch is in AUTO, at least one engine is running and AC
power is available. The pump can also be operated on the ground by
pressing the BLUE PUMP OVRD switch on the overhead maintenance
panel. The pump runs continuously in flight, unless the ELEC PUMP switch
is OFF.
The yellow electric pump will start automatically, regardless of switch
position, when the cargo doors are operated. If there is a power
interruption during cargo door operations, the pump is de-energized until
its switch is cycled. During cargo door operations, all other yellow system
users are inhibited except, number 2 reverser and the brake accumulator.
A yellow system hand pump can be used to operate the cargo doors if
there is no electrical power available.

YELLOW ELEC
pump powering
YELLOW system,
on the ground

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

RAM AIR TURBINE (RAT)

The RAT can be deployed in an emergency to pressurize the blue


hydraulic system, by pressing the RAT MAN ON switch on the Hydraulic
overhead panel. In the event of a loss of both AC BUS 1 and AC BUS 2,
and the speed above 100 knots, the RAT will automatically extend to
power both the hydraulic motor that pressurizes the blue system and the
emergency generator via a hydraulic motor. The RAT can also be manually
extended for these purposes by pressing the EMER ELEC PWR MAN ON
switch on the EMER ELEC PWR PANEL located on the overhead panel.

The RAT can only be stowed on the ground.


If the aircraft is powered, so are the RAT circuits, so dont press
the switch unless you intend to deploy the RAT; on the ground,
someone might have a nasty surprise!
The minimum speed for RAT operation is 140 knots

- RAT pressurizing
the BLUE system.
- ENG 1 pump
switch is off
- PTU switch is off

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

LOAD ALLEVIATION ACCUMULATORS (LAF)

During turbulence, the ailerons and spoilers 4 and 5 deflect rapidly to


alleviate some of the wing structural loads; the LAF accumulators assist
the hydraulic system with this function.

PRIORITY VALVES

The priority valves shut off hydraulic power to the flaps, slats, landing
gear, nose wheel steering and the emergency generator if system
pressure falls below a certain predetermined value. The reason for this is
to ensure sufficient hydraulic pressure is available for the flight
controls, brakes, spoilers, and thrust reversers.

SYSTEM ACCUMULATORS

The accumulators help maintain constant hydraulic pressure to the


users during normal operations or heavy demands.

LEAK MEASUREMENT VALVES

These are used by maintenance.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

LANDING GEAR

The green hydraulic system provides power for landing gear extension and
retraction. In case of hydraulic, electrical or mechanical failure the gear
can be extended by gravity using a hand crank that physically disengages
the up-locks, opens the gear doors, depressurizes the system and allows
the gear to free-fall. The hand crank, located aft on cockpit pedestal,
must be rotated three full turns to enable the gravity extension. The nose
wheel steering, normally powered by the green hydraulic system, will be lost
after gravity extension and the doors will remain open.

LANDING GEAR CONTROL AND INTERFACE UNITS (LGCIU)

Electrical signals are provided for gear and door actuation by two LGCIUs.
The LGCIUs receive information from the landing gear, cargo door and flap
systems. They then process gear and door position, sequencing, control and
gear lever selection. The LGCIUs also send information and signals to the
ECAM and other aircraft systems regarding the ground or flight mode; for
example the active LGCIU will signal that the aircraft is on the ground and
landing gear retraction will be inhibited; another example would be the
inhibition of flap extension during cargo door operations on the ground. In
the air, examples would be the inhibition of reverser operation or the
closure of the hydraulic safety valve above 260 knots, preventing the gear
being extended above this speed. There are at least 37 LGCIU outputs
which are obviously beyond the scope of these notes; for more information
see FCOM 1.32.10. p8.
LGCIU 1 provides landing gear position information to the landing
gear indicator panel (next to the gear lever) and the ECAM. LGCIU 2
only provides this information to the ECAM, so if you lose LGCIU 1,
you will loose the landing gear position information on the indicator
panel. On the SD (WHEEL page) each landing gear position is
indicated by two triangles. Each triangle is controlled by one LGCIU.
A green triangle indicates that its respective LGCIU detects a
landing gear downlocked.
A red triangle indicates that a landing gear is in transit
No triangle indicates that a landing gear is uplocked
Amber crosses indicate an LGCIU failure
See next page

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

- Two red triangles


indicate that both - The amber L/G
LGCIUs detect that the CTL indicates
gear is in transit. that the landing
- The amber STEERING gear lever and
indicates that either landing gear
the nose wheel steering position disagree
has failed or the anti-
skid feature has failed

The DOWN arrow illuminates red with an ECAM warning


if the landing gear is not downlocked with any of the
following:

Radio altimeter reading less than 750 and both


engines N1 below 75% or N! below 97% with one
engine
Radio altimeter less than 750 and flap 3 or FULL

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

NOSE WHEEL STEERING

The nose wheel steering is electrically controlled by the Brake and


Steering Control Unit (BSCU) and hydraulically operated by the green
hydraulic system. The BSCU receives inputs from the rudder pedals and
the Captains or First Officers steering hand wheels.
The rudder pedals deflect the nosewheel a maximum of 6 until 40
knots, and then progressively reducing to 0 at 130 knots.
The hand-wheels deflect the nosewheel a maximum of 75 until 20
knots, and then progressively reducing to 0 at 70 knots.

The nose wheel steering can be deactivated by turning off the A/SKID
NW STRG switch or by operating the towing lever on the nose wheel
(used for pushing back or pulling the aircraft on the ground). Indeed,
until the system is modified by Airbus, it is SOP to turn the A/SKID NW
STRG switch OFF prior to push back, and turn it back on after push back
is complete, thereby ensuring that the nose wheel steering is de-
activated during the process. A green NW STRG DISC message appears
on the ECAM after de-activation and this message turns amber after the
second engine start.
Green Hydraulic pressure will be applied to the nose wheel when all of the
following conditions are met:
A/SKID NW STRG SWITCH is ON
At least one engine running
Towing control lever in normal position
Main landing gear are compressed
ADIRU 1 or 3 operative

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

BRAKES

The brakes are carbon multi-discs. The normal braking system includes
antiskid and autobrakes and is powered by the green hydraulic system.
The alternate braking system is powered by the yellow system and has a
brake accumulator. The alternate brakes may or may not have antiskid
depending on the level of redundancy. A dual channel Brake and Steering
Control Unit (BSCU) controls all brake functions including normal and
alternate brakes, antiskid, autobrakes and temperature indications.
Normal brake pressure is between 2000 psi and 2700 psi with full pedal
deflection.

Normal brakes are available when:


The A/SKID NW STRG switch is ON
The green hydraulic pressure is available
The parking brake is OFF

ANTISKID

The antiskid system ensures maximum braking capability by keeping the


wheels at the limit of an impending skid. If a skid is detected by the
BSCU, it will send a release signal to the normal and alternate servo
valves and the ECAM. When a skid is no longer detected, the system
returns to normal protection and detection. The antiskid is deactivated
below 20 knots or when the A/SKID NW STRG is selected OFF.

ALTERNATE BRAKES

If the green system loses pressure, the alternate system with antiskid,
takes over automatically, with the same capabilities as the normal system
except, the autobrakes are not available (nose wheel steering will also be
lost with a green system failure).

Antiskid will be lost with alternate braking if:

There is an electrical failure affecting the system


The BSCU fails
The A/SKID NW STRG switch is OFF
The yellow system fails, forcing the accumulator to take over

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

The maximum brake pressure to be applied without antiskid is 1000 psi,


read on the brake triple indicator (top of the green band for left and
right brakes).

With normal brakes there will be no pressure indication. Alternate


braking will show the actual braking pressure and the parking brake will
also show the actual brake pressure. The accumulator pressure will always
be shown and it should maintain its pressure for least 12 hours on the
ground with no power on aircraft. Operation of the yellow pump for cargo
door operations will charge the accumulator.
If the yellow system fails and the accumulator takes over, the system is
designed to allow 7 full braking applications.

BRAKE TEMPERATURE LIMITATIONS

The maximum brake temperature allowed for take-off is 300 C. Brake


temperatures are shown on the ECAM wheel page; they will indicate HOT
when any brake temperature exceed 300 C. The hottest brake will show
a green arc over its temperature indication, turning amber above 300 C.
After landing delay using the bake fans for approximately five minutes or
until you get to the gate, however they must be turned on whenever brake
temperatures exceed 500 C. The reason for this is that carbon brakes
actually perform better when they are warm and using the brake fans
increase wear due to possible oxidation.

See next page

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

Maintenance action is due if:

The temperature difference between two brakes on the same gear


exceeds 150 C and the temperature of either one of the brakes
exceeds 600 C, or
The temperature difference between two brakes on the same gear
is greater than 150 C and the temperature of the lower brake is
below 60 C, or
The difference between the LH and RH brakes average
temperature is higher than or equal to 200 C, or
A fuse plug has melted, or
Any one brake temperature exceeds 900 C.

Avoid using the parking brake if the brake temperature exceeds 500 C.

AUTOBRAKES

Autobrakes are available with normal braking (green system) only. LO and
Med can be used for landing and MAX is for take-off only. To arm the
autobrakes, depress the switch for at least 1 second. During take-off the
autobrakes will not activate below 72 knots (ground spoiler extension).
During landing, with LO selected the autobrakes will activate 4 seconds
after touchdown and in MED, 2 seconds after touch down. A green DECEL
light in the autobrakes pb comes on to indicate that the actual
deceleration is within 80% of the selected rate. (it does not indicate that
the autobrake is activated)
The autobrakes can be armed with the parking brake on.

The autobrake will be disarmed under the following conditions:

De-selection of the AUTO/BRK switch


Ground spoiler retraction
10 seconds after landing gear retraction
By applying sufficient brake pedal force during auto brake
operation:
In Max mode, when both pedals are depressed
In LO/MED mode, when one pedal is depressed

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

PNEUMATICS

The pneumatic system provides high pressure air for the following:

Air conditioning
Pressurization
Engine starting
Wing anti-icing
Potable water tank pressurization
Hydraulic reservoir pressurization
Aft cargo heating

The high pressure air is supplied by the engine bleeds, APU bleed and
external ground air units. Each source can be connected to the cross-
bleed duct where a cross-bleed valve enables interconnection. The
pneumatic system is controlled and monitored by two Bleed Monitor
Computers (BMCs). Basically, BMC 1 controls the left side engine and APU
bleed systems and BMC 2, the right side engine bleed system. If BMC 1
fails, BMC 2 takes over all monitoring functions except engine 1 and APU
leak detection. If BMC 2 fails, BMC 1 takes over all monitoring functions
except for engine 2 leak detection.

ENGINE BLEED SELECTION

Bleed air is normally taken from the intermediate pressure (IP) stage of
the high pressure compressor. If IP stage pressure is too low, then the
high pressure (HP) stage automatically supplies bleed air through the HP
valve. In flight, if the pressure is still too low, the BMC will signal the
FADEC to increase engine RPM as required (usually might happen at idle
thrust).

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE REGULATION

The bleed air temperature is controlled by a pre-cooler that uses fan air.
The bleed air pressure is regulated by the bleed valves, which are down-
stream of the IP and HP valves. The bleed valves are electrically
controlled and pneumatically operated valves act as pressure regulators
as well as shutoff valves.
There is an overpressure valve downstream of the bleed valves which will
close to protect the system if the bleed valve fails to regulate high
pressure.

A bleed valve will close pneumatically if:

The upstream pressure falls below 8 psi


There is reverse flow

A bleed valves will close electrically if:

The bleed pb is switched off


An engine fire pb is pressed

The BMC will close the engine bleed valves for the following:

APU bleed switch is ON


Engine start valve not closed
Over-temperature
System leakage
Over-pressure

APU

When the APU bleed valve is opened, the BMC sends a signal to the cross-
bleed valve to open and the engine bleed valves to close. The cross-bleed
valve has two electric motors; one is controlled automatically by the BMC
and one manually.
During normal operations with the APU bleed valve closed, the cross-
bleed will also close to isolate the two systems. The cross-bleed is opened
manually during a cross-bleed engine start.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

PNEUMATIC SYSTEM
Note: engine 2 bleed system omitted for clarity

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

OVERHEAT AND LEAK DETECTION

The system detects overheat conditions near the hot air ducts in the
fuselage, pylons and wings. There are double loops in the wings and the
fuselage back as far as the APU check valve and single loops for the
pylons and APU.

The following occur for an APU leak:

The APU bleed valve closes


The APU BLEED FAULT light illuminates
The cross-bleed valve closes

For a wing leak:

The bleed valve closes on the related side


The associated ENG BLEED FAULT light illuminates
If open, the cross-bleed valve closes (except during engine start)
If open, the APU bleed valve closes for a left wing overheat
(except during engine start)

For a pylon leak:

The related bleed valve closes


The associated ENG BLEED FAULT light illuminates

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

OVERHEAT AND LEAK DETECTION

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

AIR CONDITIONING

Pneumatic air from the cross-bleed duct passes through two electrically
controlled, and pneumatically operated, pack flow control valves, which
regulate the air flow in accordance with commands from the two pack
controllers. The pack flow control valves or pack valves will close
automatically for the following reasons:
Low air pressure
Pack overheat
Engine starting
Ditching (when ditching pb is pressed)
Engine fire switch pressed

The hot air is then either ducted towards hot air pressure regulating
valve and then to the trim air valves, or to the primary heat exchangers
and the two packs. The cooled air from the packs then passes to the
mixing unit where it mixes with recirculated cabin air and is ducted to one
of the three zones: Cockpit, FWD cabin and AFT cabin. The hot trim air
is mixed with the conditioned air after it leaves the mixing unit.
The pack controllers regulate the temperature according to the demands
of the zone controllers by modulating the pack valves, the pack turbine
bypass valves as well as the ram air inlet and outlet flaps. During take-off
the ram air inlet and outlet flaps close when TO power is set. During
landing, they close as soon as the gear struts are compressed and re-open
20 seconds after reaching 70 knots.
The zone controller modulates the airflow through the trim air valves to
optimize the temperature regulation. The cabin zone commanding the
coldest temperature will drive both packs to that temperature. Trim air
is then added to the other zones to optimize their temperatures.

EMERGENCY RAM AIR INLET

If both packs fail, and for smoke removal, the ram air inlet can be opened
to ventilate the cockpit and cabin. Do not confuse the emergency ram air
inlet with the ram air inlet and outlet flaps operated by the pack
controller. (Yes, I totally agree, they really could have come up with
different names here!)
Anyway, this one, the emergency ram air inlet opens when the RAM AIR
switch on the overhead panel is selected ON provided the differential
pressure is less than 1 psi and the DITCHING switch is not selected ON.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

When the inlet opens, ram air is supplied to the mixing unit and the
outflow valve opens 50%, if the CABIN PRESS MODE SEL is in AUTO.

PACK CONTROLLER FAILURES

Each pack controller has two channels known as the primary and
secondary channels. If the primary channel fails, the secondary
channel automatically takes over and the pack flow is fixed at the
pre-failure setting.
If the secondary channel fails the primary channel automatically
takes over with no effect on the optimization however the ECAM
signals are lost.
If both controllers fail, the pack outlet temperature is then
controlled by the pack anti-ice valve to a temperature between 5C
and 30C in a maximum of 6 minutes. ECAM signals to
corresponding pack are also lost.

ZONE CONTROLLER FAILURES

Each zone controller has two channels, known as the primary and
secondary channels. If the primary channel fails, the secondary channel
takes over and:
The hot air and trim air valves close.
The zones are controlled to 24C.
Pack one controls the cockpit temperature and pack two, the FWD
and AFT cabin temperatures
ALTN MODE appears in the ECAM COND page

If the secondary channel fails, there is no effect on zone temperature


regulation, however the backup is lost.

If both channels fail, optimized temperature regulation is lost and:


The packs deliver a fixed temperature: 20C for pack 1 and 10C
for pack 2.
The failure removes all information from the ECAM COND page
and PACK REG is displayed

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

HOT AIR PRESSURE REGULATION FAILURE

Fails open no effect


Fails closed Optimization is lost
Trim air valves close
Pack 1 controls the cockpit to selected temperature
Pack 2 controls FWD and AFT zones to the mean of the
selected temperatures.

AIR CYCLE MACHINE FAILURE

If an air cycle machine fails (compressor or turbine seizure), the


affected pack may be operated in heat exchanger cooling mode with
reduced flow.

NOTE: Do not connect an external LP air unit when the packs are running,
its either one or the other, never both!

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- 33 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

AIR CONDITIONING SCHEMATIC

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

VENTILATION

The fully automatic ventilation system cools the avionics compartment,


the flight deck instruments and the circuit breaker panels. The system
uses two continuously running electric fans to force the circulation of
cooling air. There are two valves located in the aircraft skin on either
side of the aircraft that facilitate the intake of cooling air, and the
extraction of warm air overboard. The valve on the left side of the
aircraft is called the skin air inlet valve and the one on the right side, the
extract valve.
Cooling air is sucked in through the inlet valve where it passes through a
filter, through the blower fan, then through the avionics equipment. The
warm air enters the extract duct where together with air from the
cockpit panel ventilation system, is passed through the extract fan where
it is extracted overboard, directed under the cargo compartment or re-
circulated through a skin air heat exchanger.

VENTILATION SCHEMATIC
(Open circuit configuration)

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

The system has three normal configurations, determined by the


ground/flight modes and aircraft skin temperature:

Open configuration
Closed configuration
Intermediate configuration (in flight only)

OPEN CONFIGURATION

The open configuration occurs on the ground only. Both inlet and extract
valves are open, and air is extracted overboard. During heavy rain, it is
recommended to select the EXTRACT pb to OVRD, which will close both
the inlet and extract valves and prevent water entering the avionics bay.
(both packs should be ON if this procedure is attempted).

CLOSED CONFIGURATION

This occurs on the ground and in flight. If the outside skin air
temperature is below a certain threshold, both inlet and extract valves
close automatically, and the air is circulated past the skin air heat
exchanger, and exhausted below the cargo compartment. This
configuration is the same as the abovementioned rain procedure, except
the BLOWER and EXTRACT pb are in the AUTO position.

INTERMEDIATE CONFIGURATION

This occurs only in flight if the skin air temperature is above a certain
threshold. This configuration is the same as the closed circuit, except
that the extract valve opens partially to allow the exhaust of hot air
overboard.

ABNORMAL CONFIGURATION

This occurs when either the BLOWER or EXTRACT pb are in the OVRD
position. The system reverts to the closed circuit configuration except
the cooling air is supplied by the air conditioning system.
When the BLOWER switch is in OVRD, the blower fan stops and the
extract fan keeps running. When the EXTRACT switch is in the OVRD
position, both fans continue to run. Either a BLOWER FAULT or
EXTRACT FAULT, ECAM warning will be displayed.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

SMOKE CONFIGURATION

If an AVIONICS SMOKE warning is triggered by the sensor beside the


extract fan, the BLOWER and EXTRACT lights will illuminate on the
VENTILATION panel. Both are switched to OVRD during the ECAM
procedure which leads to the blower fan stopping and the extract fan
continuing to run. The cooling air is provided by the air conditioning
system and all ventilation air is extracted overboard in an attempt to
clear the smoke.

BATTERY VENTILATION

A venture in the skin of the aircraft draws air from the space around the
batteries and vents it overboard, thereby ventilating the batteries.

LAVATORY AND GALLEY

An extraction fan draws air from the galleys and lavatories and exhausts
it overboard.

CARGO VENTILATION

The cargo compartments are ventilated with cabin air. An extraction fan
draws air from the cargo compartments and exhausts it overboard. The
system can add hot bleed air to the cabin air entering the cargo
compartments, thus heating them.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

PRESSURIZATION

The pressurization system is made up of two identical, independent,


automatic systems (system 1 or system 2) that control the cabin altitude.
The overall system consists of two cabin pressure controllers (CPCs), one
outflow valve, two safety valves and a control panel. The outflow valve
actuator incorporates three electric motors; two for automatic control
and one for manual control.
In normal operation the system is operated in automatic control, however
it can also be operated in semi-automatic or manual control. The CPCs
receive the landing elevation, QNH and pressure schedule from the
FMGS, and the pressure altitude from the ADIRS. The engine Interface
Unit (EIU) supplies the throttle lever position and the LGCIU sends the
flight/ground signal.
In case of FMGC failure, the crew sets the landing elevation manually by
pulling the LDG ELEV knob out of the auto detent, rotating it to the
desired landing elevation and the system then uses its own internal
pressure schedule (semi-automatic control). In this case, the controller
uses the Captains Baro reference from the ADIRS.
In manual mode the crew controls the cabin altitude by use of the switch
control on the CABIN PRESS panel, which in turn operates the manually
controlled electric motor on the outflow valve actuator.
The safety valves prevent cabin pressure from exceeding 8.6 psi or going
below 1 psi below ambient pressure.

AUTOMATIC PRESSURE CONTROL SEQUENCE

Ground
Before takeoff and 55 seconds after landing, the outflow valve fully
opens to ensure that there is no residual cabin pressure. At touchdown,
any remaining cabin pressure is released at a cabin vertical speed of 500
ft/min. An automatic transfer of systems occurs after each landing.

Takeoff
To avoid a pressure surge or bump at rotation, the cabin is pre-
pressurized when the thrust levers are advanced, at a rate of 400 ft/min
until P reaches 0.1 psi. At lift off the CPC initiates the climb phase.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

Climb
During the climb phase, the cabin altitude varies according to a fixed pre-
programmed law that takes into account the aircrafts actual rate of
climb.
Cruise
The CPC maintains cabin altitude at the level-off value or the landing
elevation, whichever is higher.

Descent
During descent the controller maintains a cabin rate of descent so that
the cabin pressure equals the landing field pressure, just before landing.
The maximum rate of descent is 750 ft/min.

Abort
If the aircraft does not climb after takeoff or aborts the mission, the
abort mode prevents the cabin altitude from climbing. Cabin pressure is
set to the takeoff altitude + 1 psi

System transfer
During normal operations one system is in active mode and one is in
standby. If one fails the other will automatically take over. If the crew
suspect a system to be malfunctioning, they can transfer over to the
other one, by selecting the MODE SEL pb to MAN for 10 seconds and
then returning to AUTO.

MANUAL PRESSURE CONTROL

If both systems fail, the crew can control the pressurization manually by
the following procedure:
Press the MODE SEL pb on the CABIN PRESS panel.
Push the MAN V/S CTL switch UP or DN to increase or decrease
cabin altitude.

Note: Due to the slow operation of the outflow valve in manual mode, and
the limited resolution of the outflow valves position on the ECAM, the
visual ECAM indication of an outflow valve position change, can take up to
5 seconds. It is therefore prudent to make small adjustments.
DITCHING

Pressing the DITCHING pb on the CABIN PRESS panel ends a closure


signal to the outflow valve (if in automatic operation), the emergency ram

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- 39 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

air inlet, the avionics ventilation inlet and extract valves and pack flow
control valves.
If the system is manual control, the outflow valve will not close manually.

Note: On the ground, with the doors closed and the low pressure cart
connected, the aircraft will pressurize if the DITCHING pb is pressed.

DEPRESSURIZATION

If the cabin altitude exceeds 11,300 the emergency lights, EXIT signs
and cabin signs illuminate automatically. The passenger masks will deploy
automatically at 14,000 cabin altitude

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- 40 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

PRESSURIZATION SCHEMATIC

TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY


- 41 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

FIRE PROTECTION

Fire protection and detection is provided for the engines and APU. Each
engine and the APU have dual fire and overheat detection loops installed.
The engine loops have overheat sensors located in the pylons, engine
cores, nacelles and fan sections. The APU has an overheat sensing
element in its compartment. There are two extinguishing agents for each
engine and the one for the APU.
Smoke detectors are installed in the lavatories, cargo compartment and
avionics compartments. The lavatory waste bins are provided with
automatic extinguishers and the cargo compartments have fire
extinguishing capability.

DETECTION LOOPS

If an overheat sensing element detects an overheat, a signal is sent via


the loops to the FIRE DETECTION UNIT (FDU) and a fire warning is
triggered. If a fault or break occurs in one loop, the system is not
affected as fire detection is still available by the unaffected loop.
Engine or APU fire warning appear under the following conditions:

Both loops detect a fire


One loop detects a fire when the other loop is faulty
A break or fault in both loops occurs within 5 seconds of each
other
A fire test is performed

ENGINE AND APU FIRE WARNING

An engine fire warning is indicated by the following:

A continuous repetitive chime (CRC)


Illumination of the ENG FIRE light on the overhead panel
Illumination of the MASTER WARNING light on the glare shield
Illumination of the FIRE light on the ENG start and ignition panel
ECAM warning and activation

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- 42 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

An APU fire is indicated by:

A continuous repetitive chime (CRC)


Illumination of the MASTER WARNING light on the glare shield
Illumination of the APU FIRE light on the overhead panel
ECAM warning and activation

If the APU fire occurs on the ground, a warning horn will sound in the
nose wheel well and a APU FIRE light will illuminate in the external
service interphone panel.

ENGINE AND APU FIRE PROTECTION

Each engine is provided with two fire extinguishing agents and the APU
with one. The agent DISCH pbs are located on the overhead panel. If the
APU fire occurs on the ground, the APU will auto-shutdown and the agent
will discharge automatically. In flight the APU must be manually shut
down and the agent discharged manually.
The APU will autoshutdown in flight for a number of other reasons: for
example low oil pressure, high oil temperature etc., for further details
refer to the APU chapter.
Each agent has an electrically operated squib which is armed when the
FIRE switch is pressed; pressing the SQUIB/DISCH pb will discharge
the agent if required.

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- 43 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

Engine fire switch (guarded)

When an engine fire switch is pressed the following occurs:

Cancels the aural warning


Arms the squibs
Deactivates the generator
Closes the fuel LP valve
Closes the hydraulic fire shutoff valve
Closes the engine bleed
Closes the pack flow control valve

APU fire switch (guarded)

When an APU fire switch is pressed the following occurs:

Cancels the aural warning


Shuts down the APU
Arms the squib
Closes the fuel LP valve
APU fuel pump is turned off
APU bleed and crossbleed valves close

LAVATORY PROTECTION AND DETECTION

A smoke detector is installed in each lavatory ventilation extract duct. If


smoke is detected in a lavatory by the Smoke Detection Control Unit
(SDCU), a signal is sent to the flight warning computer and ECAM in the
cockpit and a LAV SMOKE warning appears on the forward flight
attendant panel.
If sufficient heat is detected in or around the lavatory waste bin, the
Halon extinguisher will automatically discharge through one of the heat
activated nozzles.

CARGO PROTECTION AND DETECTION

The forward cargo hold has 2 smoke detectors and the aft cargo hold, 4.
One detector in the forward hold is connected to one of the two
detection loops and the other to the remaining one. In the aft cargo,
there are two detectors connected to each loop. The SDCU receives a

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- 44 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

signals from the loops and transmits them to the ECAM, which displays a
smoke warning.
A smoke warning is signal is sent if both loops detect it or one loop
detects it and the other one is inoperative. The cargo isolation valves
close automatically if a smoke warning is detected.
There is one extinguisher bottle that serves both the FWD and AFT
cargo compartments. The bottle has two discharge heads that serve
three nozzles; one in the FWD and two in the AFT.
If smoke is detected the following occurs:

A continuous repetitive chime (CRC)


Illumination of the MASTER WARNING light on the glare shield
Illumination of the SMOKE light on CARGO SMOKE panel
ECAM warning and activation

When a crewmember presses the appropriate DISCH pb switch on the


CARGO SMOKE panel, the action ignites the relevant squib and the agent
is discharged to the appropriate compartment.
The SMOKE light may remain on after the agent is discharged because of
the effect of the smoke and agent on the smoke detectors.
The DISCH light illuminates within 60 seconds of being activated.

TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY


- 45 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

FUEL

There are seven fuel tanks; three in each wing and one in the fuselage.
The main wing tanks are divided into two cells, inners and outers. Each
wing also has a vent surge tank, that is located outboard of the outer
wing tanks to compensate for expanding fuel. When the aircraft has been
refueled to maximum capacity, the vent surge tanks allow for 2%
expansion or a 20C rise in fuel temperature. Fuel from the vent tanks
drains into the outer cells when capacity is available. The tank in the
fuselage is called the centre tank. Fuel cannot be transferred from tank
to tank except on the ground during refueling operations.

FUEL PUMPS

In normal operation, each engine is fed either one pump in the centre
tank or two pumps from an inner wing tank. The wing tanks are fitted with
sequence valves to ensure that when all pumps are running, the centre
tank will supply fuel preferentially.

CROSSFEED VALVE

The cross feed valve has two electric motors and can be used to balance
the fuel load by feeding two engines from one tank or one engine from
two tanks.

TRANSFER VALVES

Two transfer valves are installed to transfer fuel from the outer tanks to
the inner tanks. The transfer takes place when the inner tanks are
depleted to 750 KGS. When open, the valves remain open until the next
refueling, when they close. During steep descents or
accelerations/decelerations, the valves may open before the 750 KG
threshold.

SUCTION VALVES

The suction valves are closed when there is normal fuel pressure from
the boost pumps. The valves open to allow gravity feed from the wing
tanks, in case of electrical failure. The centre tank pumps are not fitted
with suction pumps, so gravity feed is not possible from the centre tank.

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- 46 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

ENGINE LP VALVES

The LP valves allow the fuel to be cut off form the engines; the valves can
be closed by the engine master switches or ENG FIRE pbs.

APU FEED

The APU has its own fuel pump, used for APU start when fuel pressure is
low (due to a loss of AC power). The APU fuel supply is from the left side
of the fuel manifold.

NORMAL FUEL FEED SEQUENCE

All pumps are switched on prior to start up and the MODE SEL is checked
to be in AUTO. After both engines are started, if there is fuel in centre
tank, the pumps will run for a 2 minute test sequence, and then shutoff
until the slats are retracted when airborne or re-selected down; this
prevents take-off and landing using the centre tank. The centre tank
pumps will then run until 5 minutes after the centre tank is empty. The
wing tank pumps run continuously.
An ECAM warning will be given during AUTO operation, if the centre tank
has more than 250 KGS of fuel and either inner tank has less 5000 KGS.

IDG RECIRCULATION COOLING SYSTEM

Fuel is directed through the IDG heat exchanger and then back through
the fuel return valve to the outer tanks. The fuel return valve is
controlled by the FADEC. If the outer tanks are already full, the
recirculated fuel spills into the inner tanks though a spill pipe. If the
inner tanks are already full, then the centre tank pumps are automatically
turned off to allow fuel to burnt from the inner tanks. The inner tanks
will supply the engines until approximately 500 KGS of fuel has been used,
and then the centre tanks will resume operation.

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- 47 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

IDG Recirculating System

USABLE FUEL QUANTITIES


(SG 0.785 kg/l)

USABLE FUEL
OUTER INNER CENTRE TK TOTAL
TKS TKS
VOLUME LITRES 880 x 2 6924 x 2 8250 23,858
WEIGHT (KG) 691 x 2 5435 x 2 6467 18,728

TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY


- 48 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

FUEL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

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- 49 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

FLIGHT CONTROLS

All flight control surfaces are electrically controlled, and hydraulically


actuated. Additionally, the stabilizer and rudder can if necessary, be
mechanically controlled and hydraulically actuated.
The flight control system consists of two sidesticks, two autopilots, two
elevator aileron computers (ELACS), three spoiler elevator computers
(SECS), two slat flap control computers (SFCC) and two flight
augmentation computers (FACS).
The basic principle of the fly-by-wire system is shown below:

Commands Digital Electro/hydraulic


computers actuators
Autopilot
ELACS (2)

SECs (3)
Sidestick
Electrical
orders Elevator
Stabilizer
FACs (2)
Hyd. Ailerons
jacks Spoilers
Rudder
Slats/flaps SFCCs (2)
Slats
Flaps
Rudder
pedals
Mechanical
back up

In normal operations, ELAC 2 commands the operation of the elevators


and horizontal stabilizer, ELAC 1 commands the operation of the ailerons,
and SECs 1, 2, and 3 command the spoiler operations. The FACs control
the rudder and yaw damper functions, make flight envelope and speed
computations and assist with windshear protection. FAC 1 is primary and
FAC 2 standby. The SFCCs command the operation of the flaps and slats.

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- 50 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

A320 flight controls surfaces

Rudder

Elevator
Slats

Aileron

Flaps

Trimmable horizontal
stabilizer (THS)

Speed brakes
Roll spoilers
Ground spoilers

Load alleviation function


(LAF)

Sidesticks
The two sidesticks are not interconnected and provide no feedback,
however they do have artificial feel and are spring loaded to neutral. The
sidesticks essentially send electric roll and pitch signals to the flight
control computers.
If both sidesticks are operated simultaneously, the signals are
algebraically added, up to a maximum of a single stick deflection. It is
therefore very important that only one stick is used at a time. In other
words, if one pilot commands a pitch up and the other a pitch down, then
there is a possibility of canceling each other out and likewise if both
pitch up, the added signals will probably lead to overcontrol; the same
goes for roll control. There is a priority pushbutton on either sidestick to
help avoid this problem, and an aural warning generated that announces
DUAL INPUT. In addition, the priority pushbutton is used to disconnect a
failed sidestick or take over control. In this case, the switch must be
held down for 30 seconds to disconnect the failed stick.
If a pilot presses the priority pushbutton to take over control, the
system annunciates this on the glareshield SIDE STICK PRIORITY panel
and there is an audio warning, PRIORTIY LEFT or PRIORITY RIGHT. To

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- 51 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

re-instate the failed or deactivated stick, the priority pushbutton on


either stick must be pressed. The last person to switch has priority.
If a stick fails or is deactivated on the ground prior to take-off, a
CONFIG R (L) SIDESTICK FAULT warning is activated.

ROLL CONTROL

Roll control is achieved by one aileron and four spoilers per wing.

Ailerons
The green and blue hydraulic systems power two servojacks on each
aileron. One servojack is active while the other is in damping mode. If the
active jack fails then the other one takes over. Both jacks operate when
the load alleviation function (LAF) is active during turbulence. The system
automatically selects dual damping mode in the case of a dual ELAC
failure, or for loss of both green and blue hydraulics. The ailerons droop
5 when the flaps are extended.

Spoilers
The four outboard of the five spoilers on each wing, assist with roll
control, all five act as ground spoilers, the two outboard panels are used
for the LAF and the three middle panels serve as speedbrakes. The five
panels are controlled by the three SECs and operated by either the
green, blue or yellow hydraulic systems.
If a spoiler fails on one wing, the symmetrically opposite panel on the
other wing is automatically deactivated. If a SEC fails or there is an
electrical failure, then the affected spoilers automatically retract,
however if there is a hydraulic failure, then the affected spoiler will
remain extended or retract due to aerodynamic force.

Ground spoilers
Ground spoilers extend automatically during a rejected takeoff when the
wheel speed is above 72kts. and either:
Both thrust levers are at forward idle and the ground spoilers are
ARMED, or
Reverse thrust is selected on at least one engine with the other
thrust lever at idle and the spoilers are not ARMED.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

Ground spoilers extend automatically on landing if both main gear touch


down and:
Both thrust levers are at forward idle and the ground spoilers are
ARMED, or
Reverse thrust is selected on at least one engine with the other
thrust lever at idle and the ground spoilers are not ARMED

Ground spoilers will extend partially after landing on one wheel if:
Reverse thrust is selected on at least one engine with the other
thrust lever at idle
This eases compression of the second landing gear strut when it touches
down, and makes for a smoother landing in this situation than otherwise.
The spoilers will extend fully on the second wheel touchdown.

During a touch and go landing, the spoilers will retract when the thrust
levers are advanced beyond 20 TLA (thrust lever angle).
After a bounced landing, the spoilers remain extended if the thrust
levers remain at idle.

Speed brakes
A green SPEED BRAKE memo appears on the ECAM when speedbrakes are
in use. The memo flashes amber if the speedbrakes are extended and the
thrust levers are not at idle.
The speedbrakes are inhibited if:
SEC 1 and 3 fail
The L(R) elevator has a fault (spoilers 3,4 only inhibited)
Angle of attack protection is active
Flaps in configuration FULL
Thrust levers are above MCT
Alpha floor is activated
If an inhibition occurs with the speed brakes extended, they will retract
and stay retracted until the inhibition disappears or the speed brake
lever is returned to the RET position for 10 seconds or more.

When the aircraft is flying above .75 Mach or 315kts with the autopilot
engaged and the speed brake extended, it may take up to approximately
50 seconds for them to retract. This is to avoid activation of the high
angle of attack protection.
Speed brakes should not be extended beyond halfway when below .75
Mach and above FL 310, again, to avoid activation of high angle of attack
protection.

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- 53 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

PITCH CONTROL

Pitch control is achieved with the elevators and the trimmable horizontal
stabilizer (THS). They are both electrically controlled by the ELACs or
SECs, and are hydraulically actuated. If both ELACs fail the SECs take
over. The stabilizer can be controlled mechanically through cables
attached to the cockpit pitch trim wheels, provided there is hydraulic
power available. Mechanical pitch trim has priority over electric trim.

Elevators
The blue and green hydraulic systems power two servojacks on the left
elevator and the yellow and blue, two on the right. One jack is active while
the other is in damping mode. If the active jack fails then the other one
takes over. If electrical control is lost to the jacks, they both go into
centering or streamlined mode. If hydraulic control is lost to the jacks,
they both go into damping mode. If one elevator is lost, the other will
operate at reduced deflection to avoid excessive asymmetric loads on the
tail.

Trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS)


The stabilizer is electrically controlled by one of three electric motors or
mechanically controlled via the trim wheels. A screwjack is hydraulically
driven by the green and yellow hydraulic systems to drive the THS. After
touchdown the trim returns to 0 automatically.

YAW CONTROL

Yaw control is achieved by the rudder. Yaw orders for turn coordination
and yaw damping are computed by the ELACs and transmitted to the
FACs.

Rudder
The rudder is electrically controlled by the trim motors or mechanically
by the rudder pedals. In mechanical control hydraulic pressure is still
required to move the surface. Three independent servojacks, operating in
parallel, operate the rudder. In automatic operation (turn coordination
and yaw damping) a green hydraulic servo actuator drives all three
servojacks. A yellow system actuator is always synchronized and takes
over if there is a failure.

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- 54 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

Rudder travel is limited as a function of speed. If both FACs fail,


maximum rudder deflection will be obtained when the slats are extended.
The rudder trim is operated by the number one electric motor, controlled
by FAC 1, number 2 motor is in synchronized in backup with FAC 2.
Electric trim with the autopilot engaged operates at 5/second up to a
maximum of 20. Engine failure compensation is calculated by the FACs
and FMGC as a function of speed, engine power available, bank angle and
yaw.
Manual rudder trim operates at 1/second up to 20. Manual trim is not
available when the autopilot is engaged.

Yaw damper
The yaw damper receives inputs form the ELACs and FACs. The
information is sent to the yaw damper servo for damping and turn
coordination. There is no feedback from the rudder pedals during these
functions.

TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY


- 55 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

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- 56 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

FLAPS AND SLATS

The five slats and two flaps on each wing are electrically controlled and
hydraulically actuated via inputs form the flap lever. Signals from the
flap lever are transmitted to the two flap slat control computers (SFCC).
The slats are operated by the green and blue hydraulic systems and the
flaps by the green and yellow systems. If one hydraulic system fails its
associated surfaces will operate at half speed. If one SFCC fails, all the
slats and flaps will operate at half speed.
There four hydraulically operated wing tip brakes (WTB)to stop the slats
or flaps moving in case of asymmetry, overspeed, uncommanded movement
and symmetrical runaway. The wing tip brakes cannot be rest in flight,
and furthermore, their circuit breakers (red collared) must never be
pulled in flight. If the slats are locked out by the wingtip brakes, it is still
permissible to operate the flaps and vice versa.
There is also a flap disconnect system, that operates if there is
excessive differential movement detected, between the inner and outer
flap on each wing; this might occur if one of the surfaces attachments
fail and the system is therefore designed to stop further damage. If the
slats are locked out by the wingtip brakes, it is still permissible to
operate the flaps and vice versa.
There is an alpha lock system that stops the flaps from being retracted
at excessive angles of attack or low airspeed. The inhibition is removed
when the angle of attack is decreased or the speed is increased.

Flaps 1 + F
When flaps are selected to position 1 or CONFIG 1 on the ground, they
will extend to position 1+F, which is Slats 18 and Flaps 10. After
takeoff, if the airspeed goes above 210kts, with the aircraft still in
CONFIG 1, the Flaps will automatically retract to 0 and the Slats will
remain extended until they are retracted, by physically moving the flap
lever to position 0.
During flight, when the flap lever is selected to CONFIG 1, only the Slats
will extend to 18. The first Flap movement will be at CONFIG 2, where
the flaps will extend to 15.
After flap retraction, CONFIG 1 + F is not available until the speed is
below 100kts, unless flaps 2 or more has been selected

and the flaps are retracted again i.e. during a go-around.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

POSITION SLATS FLAPS MAX REMARKS


SPEED
1 18 O 230 Initial App.
1+F 18 10 215 Takeoff
2 22 15 200 Takeoff/App.
3 22 20 185 Takeoff/App./ Ldg.
FULL 27 40 177 Landing

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

FLIGHT CONTROL LAWS

NORMAL LAW

In normal law there are three modes:


Ground mode
Flight mode
Flare mode

Ground mode

In the ground mode, the aircrafts flight control characteristics are very
similar to those of a conventional aircraft, where there is a direct
relationship between sidestick deflection and control surface deflection.

Pitch
Pitch trim is set manually prior to takeoff and there is no autotrim until
airborne, however after landing the pitch trim automatically resets to 0.
During takeoff, and above 70kts, the maximum elevator deflection is
reduced from 30 to 20. Once airborne, the flight mode is progressively
blended in.

Flight mode

The flight mode is active from lift off until the flare mode engages at
50 AGL.

Pitch
The normal law flight mode is a load factor demand law, with autotrim and
full flight envelope protection. The aircraft maintains 1g in pitch
(corrected for pitch attitude) with the sidestick in neutral and wings
level. Once a turn is established the pilot does not have to make any trim
corrections in pitch because there is autotrim, both in manual and
automatic flight up to 33 of bank.
Essentially, forward or aft movement of the sidestick commands the
elevators and stabilizer trim to achieve a load factor proportional to the
amount of stick deflection. The same amount of stick movement produces
the same load factor regardless of the speed, assuming the same bank
angle.

TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY


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A-320 STUDY NOTES

Automatic pitch trim is inhibited in the following circumstances:

Radio altitude below 50 (100 with the autopilot engaged


Load factor less the 0.5g
Load factor greater than 1.25g (nose-up trim is inhibited)
High speed/Mach protection is active
33 of bank is exceeded
When angle of attack protection is active (nose-up trim is
inhibited)
Manual trim being used (inhibited until trim wheel is released)

PROTECTIONS

Load factor limitation


The load factor is automatically limited to:
+2.5g to -1.0g flaps retracted
+2.0g to 0.0g flaps extended

Pitch attitude protection


Pitch attitude is limited to:
30 nose up with flaps 0-3 (progressively reduced to 25 at low
speed)
25 nose up with flaps full (progressively reduced to 20 at low
speed)
15 nose down

The flight director bars are removed when pitch attitude exceeds 25 up
or 13 down.

High angle of attack protection

Consists of three angle of attack functions; alpha floor ( floor), alpha


protection ( prot) and alpha maximum ( max). The associated speeds
vary with the weight and configuration and are referred to as V floor,
V prot and V max.
The elevator changes from normal mode to protection mode when the
angle of attack exceeds V prot. When the aircraft speed reduces, and
as a result the angle of attack increases into the prot range, the
autopilot trips off, the speedbrakes retract, and the sidestick directly
controls angle of attack. If the speed further decays to max., the
system will not allow a higher angle of attack, even with full back-stick. If
the sidestick is released in this condition, the aircraft will automatically

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

fly to prot and maintain that speed until corrective action is taken; the
sidestick must be pushed forward to re-enter normal mode. This function
provides protection against stall and windshear and will override any
other protection. On takeoff, V prot = V max for 5 seconds.
Alpha floor occurs between V prot and V max. At the predetermined
speed, the autothrust engages automatically and TOGA thrust is
provided, regardless of thrust lever position.

floor protection is not available below 100 RA altitude.


floor protection is only available in Normal Law
If the autothrust disconnect pb is pressed for more than 15
seconds, autothrust and its associated functions are lost, including
floor, for the remainder of the flight.

PFD speed-tape
indications

SPEED SPEED SPEED


The low energy warning is activated and repeated aurally 5 times, when
the speed is decreasing and approaching floor. Thrust must be added to
recover to a safe angle of attack. The FACs compute the warning
threshold based on the configuration (flaps 2, 3 or full), the rate of
deceleration and angle of attack.
The warning is inhibited when:
TOGA is selected
Below 100 RA and above 2000
When floor or GPWS is triggered
In alternate or direct law
If both RAs fail
Flaps 1

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

High speed protection


If the speed exceeds VMO + 6kts or Mmo + .01, the high speed
protection is triggered and a pitch up command is sent to the elevator to
prevent a further increase in speed. After activation the pitch trim is
frozen, and the autopilot disconnects; additionally, positive spiral static
stability is introduced so that if the sidestick is released the aircraft will
roll, wing level to 0 bank angle instead of the normal law, 33 (see bank
angle protection).
If the sidestick is held fully forward in this regime, the speed will
increase to a maximum of VMO + 30 kts or Mmo + .07, but will then
reduce automatically to VMO + 16 kts or Mmo + .04. The speed will return
to VMO when the stick is released and the protection is deactivated.

Bank angle protection


The aircraft maintains positive static spiral stability up to 33 of bank.
The aircraft will maintain its bank angle up to this threshold with the side
stick in neutral. For bank angles up to and including 67, the aircraft rolls
back to 33 when the stick is released. Full lateral control in normal law is
limited to 67 which equates to the normal 2.5g limit. If the angle of
attack protection or high speed protection is active, then the bank angle
is limited to 45, and the aircraft rolls wings level if the stick is released
to neutral. Auto trim will also be frozen in this condition.
In flight, if the bank exceeds 45, the FD bars disappear and the
autopilot disengages; the FDs return again when the bank angle is reduced
to 40. Auto trim is inoperative when bank angle protection is operating
i.e. beyond 33 bank angle.

Load alleviation function (LAF)


The LAF relieves wing structural loading in turbulent conditions. The
ELACs and SECs monitor the total load factor and deflect the ailerons
and spoilers 4 and 5 symmetrically upwards to compensate if necessary.

The LAF is inhibited in the following conditions:


Flap lever not in 0
Airspeed below 200 kts or above VMO + 10
Slats or flaps wing tip brakes engaged
Pitch in alternate law, without static stability protection
Pitch in direct law

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

Flare mode

The flight mode changes to flare mode at 50 RA. The system memorizes
the pitch attitude at 50 as a reference and at 30, gradually feeds in a
nose down pitch; reducing it to 2 nose down over 8 seconds. The pilot is
therefore required to feed in nose-up authority to flare the aircraft.

ALTERNATE LAW

If multiple failures occur the flight control system might revert to


Alternate or Direct Law. There is no alternate law for roll control; it
reverts to direct law always. In addition, when the aircraft is in alternate
law, pitch control will always revert to direct law when the gear is
extended; this is because alternate law does not have a flare mode,
therefore the pilot must flare the aircraft conventionally like any other
non - fly by wire aircraft.
When the aircraft goes onto alternate law, the ECAM failure message will
be:
F/CTL ALTN LAW (PROT LOST)

Ground mode

The ground mode is exactly the same as in normal law

Flight mode
The flight mode differs to normal law in that some of the flight envelope
protections are lost or degraded.

Pitch
In alternate law, all pitch protections are lost except for load factor
maneuvering limits. VMO is reduced to 320 kts due to reduced high speed
protection.

Low speed stability


This replaces the angle of attack protections of normal law. The low
speed stability protection is activated if the speed approaches 510 kts
above the stall warning. A gentle nose down pitch command is initiated
which attempts to keep the speed from reducing further. This command

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- 63 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

can be overridden by the pilots and the aircraft can be stalled in


alternate law.
The stall warning consists of a cricket audio warning signal and a STALL
STALL synthesized voice warning.
In alternate law the PFD speed scale is modified, where alpha prot and
alpha max are replaced with a red and black barber pole; the top of which
is the stall warning speed (Vsw).

High speed stability


If the aircraft exceeds Vmo/Mmo in alternate law, a gentle nose up
command is initiated to keep the speed from increasing any further. This
command can also be overridden by the pilots.

Flare mode
There is no flare mode in alternate law.

Roll

Roll control always degrades to direct law; there is no roll alternate law.

Yaw

In alternate law turn coordination is lost but yaw damping is available.

ALTERNATE LAW WITHOUT SPEED STABILITY

After certain failures, the flight control capabilities will be degraded to


alternate law, without speed stability, which means that both the low and
high speed stability functions are lost. Only load factor functions and yaw
damping is available, however yaw damping is lost in the case of a triple
ADR failure.

DIRECT LAW

If the aircraft is in alternate law, then it will revert to direct law when
the landing gear is lowered. It is also possible for the aircraft to go
straight to direct law from normal law for example, with a triple IRS
failure. There are no protections available in direct law, except for
the aural stall warning and overspeed warning.

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- 64 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

Both roll and pitch control in direct law give a direct stick to control
relationship, where the input is directly proportional to the surface
movement. An amber USE MAN PITCH MESSAGE appears on the PFD
when the aircraft is in direct law.

ABNORMAL ATTITUDE LAW

This law is activated if the aircraft enters an unusual or extreme


attitude, for example a bank angle of 125 or more, airspeed greater than
400 kts or less than 60 kts, a pitch attitude of 50 nose up or 30 nose
down.

When the aircraft is in abnormal attitude law, the following will occur:

Pitch in alternate law without speed stability


Roll in direct law
Yaw in alternate law without yaw damping

MECHANICAL BACK-UP

In the event of a complete loss of electrical signals to the flight control


systems, the aircraft will enter the mechanical back-up mode, where
pitch is controlled through the manual stabilizer trim wheel and lateral
control provided by the rudder pedals. There must be hydraulic power
available to utilize this capability.
A red MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY appears on the PFD in this situation.

TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY


- 65 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY


- 66 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

FLIGHT CONTROL LAWS SUMMARY


NORMAL LAW

Active when aircraft is on the ground.


Direct relationship between the sidestick deflection and deflection of the flight control
Ground surfaces.
Mode Is active until shortly after liftoff.
After touchdown, ground mode is reactivated and resets the stabilizer trim to zero

Becomes active shortly after takeoff and remains active until shortly after touchdown.
Sidestick deflection and load factor imposed on the aircraft are directly proportional,
regardless of airspeed.
With sidestick neutral and wings level, system maintains a 1 g load in pitch.
No requirement to change pitch trim for changes in airspeed, configuration, or bank up to 33.
Flight
Sidestick roll input commands a roll rate request.
Mode
Roll rate is independent of airspeed.
A given sidestick deflection always results in the same roll rate response.
Turn coordination and yaw damping are computed by the ELACs and sent to the FACs.
No rudder pedal feedback for the yaw damping and turn coordination functions.

Transition to flare mode occurs at 50' RA during landing.


System memorizes pitch attitude at 50' and begins to progressively reduce target pitch to -
Flare
2, forcing pilot to flare the aircraft
Mode
In the event of a go-around, transition to flight mode occurs again at 50' RA.

Load factor Limitation


Prevents pilot from overstressing the aircraft even if full sidestick deflections are applied.

Attitude Protection
Pitch limited to 30 up, 15 down, and 67 of bank. Pitch limits change as a function of
configuration and speed
These limits are indicated by green = signs on the PFD.
Bank angles in excess of 33 require constant sidestick input.
If input is released the aircraft returns to and maintains 33 of bank.
FD command bars disappear at 45 of bank, re-appear at 40.

High Angle of Attack Protection (alpha):


When alpha exceeds alpha prot, elevator control switches to alpha protection mode in which
Protections
angle of attack is proportional to sidestick deflection.
Alpha max will not be exceeded even if the pilot applies full aft deflection

High Speed Protection:


Prevents overspeed. Adds a pitch up load factor demand at VMO + 6 kts M MMO + .07.
The pilot cannot override the pitch up command.
Pitch trim is frozen, autopilot disconnects, positive static spiral stability is introduced

Low Energy Warning:


Available in CONF 2, 3, or FULL between 100' and 2,000' RA when TOGA not selected.
Produces aural "SPEED SPEED SPEED" when change in flight path alone is insufficient to
regain a positive flight path (Thrust must be increased).

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- 67 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

ALTERNATE LAW
If Multiple Failures occur, the flight controls revert to Alternate Law.
The ECAM displays the message: ALTN LAW: PROT LOST
Ground
The ground mode is identical to Normal Law.
Mode

In pitch alternate law the flight mode is a load factor demand law similar to the Normal Law flight
mode, with reduced protections.
Pitch alternate law degrades to pitch direct law when the landing gear is extended to provide feel
for flare and landing, since there is no flare mode when pitch normal law is lost.
Flight
Automatic pitch trim and yaw damping (with limited authority) is available.
Mode
Turn coordination is lost.
When pitch law degrades from normal law, roll degrades to Direct Law - roll rate depends on
airspeed.

All protections except for load factor maneuvering protection are lost.
The load factor limitation is similar to that under Normal Law.
Amber XX's replace the green = attitude limits on the PFD.
A low speed stability function replaces the normal angle-of-attack protection
o System introduces a progressive nose down command which attempts to prevent the speed
from decaying further.
o This command CAN be overridden by sidestick input.
o The airplane CAN be stalled in Alternate Law.
o An audio stall warning consisting of "crickets" and a "STALL" aural message is activated.
o The Alpha Floor function is inoperative.
The PFD airspeed scale is modified:
Protections
o V LS remains displayed
o V ALPHA PROT and V ALPHA MAX are removed
o They are replaced by a red and black barber pole, the top indicating the stall warning
speed V SW
A nose up command is introduced any time the airplane exceeds V MO /M MO to keep the speed from
increasing further, which CAN be overridden by the sidestick.
Bank angle protection is lost.
Certain failures cause the system to revert to Alternate Law without speed stability.
Yaw damping is lost if the fault is a triple ADR failure.

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- 68 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

ABNORMAL ALTERNATE LAW


Abnormal Alternate Law is activated if the airplane enters an unusual or extreme attitude

Pitch law becomes Alternate (without autotrim or protection other than Load Factor protection).
Roll law becomes Direct law with mechanical yaw control.
After recovery from the unusual attitude, the following laws are active for the remainder of the flight:
o Pitch: Alternate law without protections and with autotrim.
o Roll: Direct law
o Yaw: Alternate law
There is no reversion to Direct law when the landing gear is extended.

DIRECT LAW
Direct law is the lowest level of computer flight control and occurs with certain multiple failures.

Pilot control inputs are transmitted unmodified to the control surfaces, providing a direct relationship between
sidestick and control surface.
Control sensitivity depends on airspeed and NO autotrimming is available.
An amber message USE MAN PITCH TRIM appears on the PFD.
If the flight controls degrade to Alternate Law, Direct Law automatically becomes active when the landing gear is
extended if no autopilots are engaged. If an autopilot is engaged, the airplane will remain in Alternate Law until
the autopilot is disconnected.
There are no protections provided in Direct Law, however overspeed and stall aural warnings are provided.
The PFD airspeed scale remains the same as in Alternate Law.

MECHANICAL BACKUP
In case of a complete loss of electrical flight control signals, the aircraft can be temporarily controlled in
mechanical mode.

Pitch control is achieved through the horizontal stabilizer by using the manual trim wheel.
Lateral control is accomplished using the rudder pedals.
Both controls require hydraulic power.
A red MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY warning appears on the PFD.

TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY


- 69 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

NAVIGATION

FLIGHT MANAGEMENT AND GUIDANCE SYSTEM (FMGS)

The FMGS provides automatic navigation and flight guidance, map


displays, autothrust management and thrust limits, and performance
optimization. On the ground, a flight plan is entered into the FMGS along
with certain required performance criteria to compute the optimum flight
profile from departure to arrival. The system provides automatic aircraft
guidance and computes the current and predicated progress along the
flight plan.

Flight Management and Guidance Computers (FMGC)


The A-320 has two FMGCs; each has three functions:
Flight management (FM): This function computes the aircraft
position, provided map display, selects and auto tunes navigation
radios, and calculates performance.
Flight guidance (FG): this function provides commands to the
autopilots, flight directors, and for autothrust.
Flight augmentation: This function provides rudder and yaw
damping inputs, flight envelope and speed computations and
windshear protection.

Multifunction Control and Display Units (MCDU)


The MCDU is the interface unit between the pilot and the FMGC. The
MCDU supports insertion of the navigation and performance information,
and also provides an interface with ACARS and AIDS (aircraft integrated
data system) for maintenance purposes.

Flight Control Unit (FCU)


Located on the glareshield, this unit provided the capability of short term
interface between the pilot and the FMGC. It is used to modify flight
parameters and enable the selection of operation modes for the autopilot,
flight directors and autothrust. Confirmation of engaged modes is
through the FMA display on the PFDs.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

Thrust Levers
The thrust levers activate the flight directors during takeoff and go-
around by their selected position. The selection of FLEX or TOGA
positions on takeoff will activate the flight directors and the SRS
system; they will also trigger the updating of the FMGC position at the
beginning of the take off roll. The go-around mode of the flight directors
is triggered when the thrust levers go to the TOGA position during this
maneuver.

FMGS Operation
Each FMGC is linked to its own MCDU, radio management panel (RMP) and
electronic flight instrument system (EFIS). There are three possible
modes of operation: dual, independent and single.
The normal mode of operation is the dual mode, where each FMGC makes
its own computations and exchange of data via the cross-talk bus. One
FMGC is always the master and one the slave.
If one autopilot is selected on, the related FMGC is the master
I f two autopilots are selected on, FMGC 1 is the master
If neither is selected on:
o FMGC 1 is the is the master for autothrust operation when
both FDs are turned off
o FMGC 1 is the master whenever the Captains FD is switched
on.

If a significant discrepancy occurs between FMGCs, they will go into


independent operation with no cross-talk. Raw data must then be used to
confirm navigation accuracy.
Single mode is automatically activated if one FMGC fails; both MCDU are
available and data is transferred to the operating system. In this mode,
the NDs must be set to the same mode and range to access the map on
either side. A message: SET OFFSIDE RNG/MODE will appear on the ND,
if the offside mode and range are different to the onside or working
side.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

FMGS Position Computation


Each FMGC receives position information from the three IRS units. They
then compute the average position, called the MIX IRS position. In flight,
the FMGC computes a radio position based on information sourced from,
DME/DME, VOR/DME or ILS/DME. This radio positon is used to update
the IRS MIX position. The system keeps track of the difference
between the two positions or bias. If radio positioning is lost, the FMGC
constantly computes the present position, taking into account the last
know bias along with IRS MIX position until radio updating is available
again.

Navigation Accuracy
If there difference between the FMGC computed position and the radio-
position exceeds certain pre-determined limits, the navigation accuracy
changes from HIGH ACCURACY to LOW ACCURACY; Raw data must then
be used for navigation. The tolerances vary according to the phase of
flight; for example: enroute accuracy should be less than approximately 3
nm, whereas for approach, this changes to approximately 0.4 nm.

Flight Guidance
The flight guidance part of the FMGS utilizes the autopilots, the flight
directors, and the autothrust system to provide flight guidance. There
are two basic modes of flight guidance: Selected and Managed. The
selected modes are engaged by pulling the appropriate knob on the FCU.
The managed modes are armed or engaged by pushing the appropriate
knob. The only exception is that NAV mode engages automatically if the
DIR TO is selected on the MCDU.
Managed modes are used for vertical, lateral and speed profiles, as
determined by the FMGS. These modes are considered long term modes
and are modified by action on the MCDU.
Selected modes are used for vertical, lateral and speed profiles, as
determined by the crews actions on the FCU. These modes are
considered short term commands and will override the managed modes.

TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY


- 72 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY


- 73 -
A-320 STUDY NOTES

AUTOPILOT

The autopilot modes are selected on the FCU and MCDU. Engagement is
confirmed by the FMA (top of Primary Flight Display, PFD). The
autopilots utilize the ailerons, elevators, horizontal stabilizer and spoilers
to achieve the desired flight profile. Rudder inputs, yaw damping and
rudder trim are computed by the FACs and are automatic with the
autopilot engaged. The autopilot also provides inputs to the nose wheel
steering during the ROLLOUT phase of an automatic landing.

Autopilot engagement criteria:

The aircraft must be airborne for 5 seconds before an autopilot can


be engaged
Only one autopilot can be engaged in flight except when ILS mode is
armed or engaged; the second autopilot will remain engaged during a
go-around until completion of the phase.
When two autopilots are engaged, number 1 is always active and
number two in standby
If an autopilot is engaged with at least one FD ON, the autopilot will
engage in the active FD mode.
If an autopilot is engaged when both flight directors are OFF, the
autopilot will engage in either HDG/VS or TRK/FPA depending on the
mode selected on the FCU
An autopilot can be engaged on the ground; however it will disengage
on second engine start.

Autopilot disengagement criteria:

If the autopilot disconnect pb is pressed


If a sidestick is moved beyond a certain point
Engagement of the other autopilot except when in the LOCG/S modes
are armed or engaged, or ROLL OUT and GA modes are engaged
Both throttles set to TOGA on the ground (prevents takeoff with
autopilots engaged during a touch and go or balked landing)
At MDA with APPR engaged and a non precision approach selected
Take-over pb is pressed
If high speed protection is activated
If bank angle exceeds 45
If alpha protection is activated

Rudder pedal deflection > 10 out of trim

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

Flight Directors (FDs)


The flight directors display the FMGS and FCU commands on the PFD.
The basic mode is HDG/VS, which will engage if no other modes or armed
or if certain reversions take place. A TRK/FPA mode is also available; it
displays the aircraft horizontal track and vertical trajectory. If the FDs
are on and the TRK/FPA pb is pressed, the Flight Path Director (FPD)
appears in place of the cross-bars.

Navigational radios
Navaids are normally auto-tuned by the FMGC, but may be manually
selected through the MCDU or radio management panels (RMPs).

VOR
Two VOR receivers are installed. They can be displayed on both NDs and
the DDRMI. Since DME/DME is the preferred method of radio updating
the FMGS, the VORs displayed on the NDs are not necessarily the
navaids being used by the FMGS for radio updating.

ILS
Two ILS receivers are installed. Number 1 ILS is usually displayed on the
CAPT PFD and FO ND and number 2 on the FO PFD and CAPT ND.

DME
Two, five channel DMEs are installed. Channels 1 and 2 are for normal
VOR/DME tuning. Channels 3 and 4 are used for radio updating of the
FMGC and channel 5 is for the ILS DME. VOR DME is displayed on the
NDs and DDRMI. Once again, the DME stations that are being used for
radio updating, are not necessarily those being used for display.

NDB

Two NDBs are installed. Information is displayed on the NDs and DDRMI.
NDBs are only autotuned if an NDB approach has been selected in the
FMGS.

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

Windshear alerting system


The FACs provide windshear detection during take-off and approach.
Detection is provided from liftoff till 1300 when the flaps are at CONF 1
or greater, and from 1300 to 50 on approach.
A red WINDSHEAR message appears on the PFDs and an aural
WINDSHEAR, WIDSHEAR, WINDSHEAR is repeated. The FDs provide
guidance for escape maneuvering. The autopilot if engaged will fly the
escape maneuver if required.

ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM (EFIS)

The EFIS has six display units (DUs); two are the primary flight displays
(PFDs), two are the navigation displays (DUs) and two are the electronic
centralized aircraft monitoring (ECAM). The ECAM DUs consist of an,
engine/warning display (E/WD) and a system display (SD). Three identical
display management computers (DMCs), process the inputs from the
various aircraft sensors and computers to generate the display images. In
the case of a DU failure, either automatic or manual switching allows the
display to be transferred to another DU.

Primary flight displays


The PFD indications are:
Attitude indication
Flight director commands
Glide slope, localizer
Airspeed scale
Vertical speed scale
Barometric altitude scale
Radio Altitude
Heading/track information
FMGS modes on the flight mode annunciator (FMA)
Altimeter setting
ILS identifier
Marker beacons
TCAS and windshear recovery commands

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A-320 STUDY NOTES

Navigation displays
The navigational displays show navigational information in one of five
modes:
ARC (map mode)
Rose NAV (compass rose map mode)
Rose VOR (compass rose VOR mode)
Rose ILS (compass rose ILS)
Plan

Air data/inertial reference system (ADIRS)


Three identical air data/inertial reference units (ADIRU) are installed.
Each ADIRS combines an air data reference (ADR) system with a laser
gyro inertial reference system (IRS) in a single unit. Failure of one
system will not affect the other.
The ADR provides airspeed, Mach number, barometric altitude, angle of
attack, temperature and overspeed warnings.
The IRS provides attitude reference, flight path vector, heading , track,
acceleration, deceleration, groundspeed and aircraft position. The IRS
essentially provides position input to the FMGCs for navigation
computation.

ADIRS control panel


The ADIRS control panel is located on the overhead panel. The present
position (PPOS) must be entered in during the alignment process before
use; this can be done through the MCDU or on the ADIRS control panel.
Normal full alignment takes 10 minutes, however a quick align can be
performed by selecting the ADIRU 1, 2, and 3 OFF for less than five
seconds and then back to ON, assuming of course that the system had
been previously aligned. This facility is useful on short ground intervals.
After a quick alignment, the system is ready to navigate after 3 minutes.

GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM (GPWS)

The GPWS monitors the flight path for dangerous or potentially


hazardous conditions. The system provides both aural and visual alerts if
the flight path enters certain predetermined conditions.

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There are seven basic modes of operation:

Mode 1 Excessive Descent Rate


In this mode, the GPWS monitors for excessive descent rate,
irrespective of configuration and will initially give a repeated voice
warning of SINK RATE, along with the amber GND/PROX/G/S inhibit
light switch. If the descent rate continues, a voice alert of WHOOP,
WHOOP, PULL UP, sounds in conjunction with the red master warning
lights illuminating and a red PULL UP message on the PFDs.

Mode 2 Excessive terrain closure


This mode monitors for excessive terrain closure rate with gear and flaps
not in the landing configuration (mode 2A), or with flaps in the landing
configuration (mode 2B)
Mode 2A provides a voice warning of TERRAIN, TERRAIN and the
GND/PROX/G/S inhibit light illuminates. If the closure rate continues,
the aural warning changes to WOOP, WOOP, PULL UP in conjunction with
the red master warning lights illuminating and a red PULL UP message on
the PFDs.
Mode 2B provides a repeated TERRAIN, TERRAIN the GND/PROX/G/S
inhibit light illuminates. If the closure rate continues below 700 RA and
the landing gear is not down, the aural warning changes to WOOP, WOOP,
PULL UP in conjunction with the red master warning lights illuminating and
a red PULL UP message on the PFDs.

Mode 3 Altitude loss after takeoff or go-around


If the aircraft descends after takeoff or go-around, when it is below
700 RA, a repeated DONT SINK alert occurs along with the amber
GND/PROX/G/S light illuminating.

Mode 4 Unsafe terrain clearance


This mode monitors for unsafe terrain clearance with the gear not down
(mode 4A) or the flaps not in landing configuration (mode 4B).
Mode 4A provides a repeated voice alert, TOO LOW GEAR, or TOO LOW
TERRAIN, depending on the speed and altitude.
Mode 4B provides a repeated voice alert, TOO LOW FLAPS or a TOO
LOW TERRAIN, depending on the speed and altitude.
Sub-modes 4A and 4B can be inhibited by the crew for approaches in non-
normal configurations.

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Mode 5 - Deviation below glide slope


If the aircraft deviates more than 1.3 dots below the glide slope, a voice
alert of GLIDE SLOPE is provided; initially the warning is a low volume,
increasing in intensity as the deviation increases.
This mode can be inhibited for intentional deviations by pressing the
GPWS G/S pb on the overhead panel. All other GPWS modes can preempt
this mode as appropriate.
Mode 6 Altitude advisories
This mode provides voice callouts or radio altitude at 2500, 500 (only
when an ILS is tuned and the aircraft is not within 2 dots of the glide
slope), 50, 30, and 10 feet. This function may be customized by the
airline.
Mode 7 - Windshear
This mode monitors flight conditions for excessive downdrafts or
tailwinds. If an excessive condition is detected, there is a voice alert
WINDSHEAR, WINDSHEAR, and red WINDSHEAR message appears on
the PFD.
When the windshear warning is active, all other GPWS modes are
inhibited until the condition ceases or the escape maneuver is initiated.
The FMGS provides windshear guidance by means of the normal TOGA,
pitch and roll modes.

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ELECTRONIC CENTRALIZED AIRCRAFT MONITORING (ECAM)

The ECAM presents aircraft engine and system data on two of the six
identical CRTs on the forward instrument panel. The two central displays
are for the ECAM. The upper display is the engine/warning display
(E/WD) and the lower, the system display (SD).

Engine/warning display
The E/WD is divided into four section:
The primary engine instruments and fuel quantity indications
Flap/slat position information
Warning and caution information
Memo messages concerning aircraft system status

System display
The system display has 12 different system pages that can be displayed
either automatically by flight phase or system degradation, or manually
by the pilots.

E/WD switching
The E/WD has priority over the SD, so if the upper display fails, the
E/WD is automatically transferred to the lower display. If this occurs,
the crew can manually select a system screen by pressing and holding the
required key on the ECAM control panel (this leads to, hot fingers!) The
SD can also be transferred to the Captains or First Officers navigational
display (ND) by using the ECAM/ND XFER switching facility.

ECAM colour code


The system uses the following colour coding:

Red requires immediate action


Amber requires awareness but not immediate action
Green normal long-term operation
White titles and remarks
Blue actions to be carried out
Magenta special messages (i.e. TO INHIBIT AND LDG INHIBIT)

If a system parameter requires monitoring by the crew, the ECAM will


automatically call up the relevant page, and the affected parameter will
pulse green to direct the pilots attention.

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ECAM warning and caution classification

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ECAM memo display


The E/WD memo section (lower left display) lists systems that are being
temporally used (e.g. LDG LT). The memos are displayed in green, amber
or magenta.
Durong the takeoff and landing phases; TO INHIBIT and LDG INHIBIT
are displayed in magenta to alert the crew that most warnings are
suppressed below 1500 for TO and 750 for landing. This is provided to
avoid distraction of the crew. However, the following warnings are not
inhibited:

ENGINE FIRE
APU FIRE
ENG OIL LO PR
L + R ELEV FAULT
A/P OFF
CONFIG
FWC 1 + 2 FAULT (amber caution with no aural warning)

A (T.O) memo appears 2 minutes after the second engine start or with
one engine running, when the CONFIG TEST pb is pressed. The memo
disappears when FLEX or TOGA power is set. The landing memo appears
below 1500 RA if the gear is down or below 800 if the gear is up.

T.O. CONFIG warnings/cautions


The following warnings or cautions will appear after the T.O CONFIG pb
is pressed, and the aircraft is not properly configured for takeoff:

SLATS/FLAPS NOT IN TO RANGE (red)


PITCH TRIM NOT IN TO RANGE (red)
SPEED BRAKES NOT RETRACTED (red)
SIDESTICK FAULT (BY TAKE OVER) (red)
HOT BRAKES (amber)
DOOR NOT CLOSED (amber)

The following occur only when takeoff power is applied:

PARK BRAKE ON (red)


FLEX TEMP NOT SET (amber) (not displayed if thrust levers are in
TOGA detent).

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ECAM E/WD and SD sequence

The following items occur when the ECAM detects a failure:

E/WD shows the warning or caution message


MASTER WARN or MASTER CAUT lights illuminate (except for level
1 cautions)
Audio warning is triggered (except for level 1 cautions)
SD presents the affected system page
CLR key illuminates on ECAM control panel
The lower left portion of the E/WD (memo section) is replaced with
the primary or independent failure information, including the required
action steps. The lower right side of the ECAM shows memos and
secondary failure information.
A warning light may appear on the affected systems control panel,
depending on the failure.

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ECAM SD SYSTEMS SYNOPTIC PAGES

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ECAM SD SYSTEMS SYNOPTIC PAGES

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ICE AND RAIN

The ice and rain system allows the aircraft to be operated in heavy rain
and icing conditions. Hot bleed air is used for wing and engine anti-icing
and, electrical heating is used for the windshields, sensors, pitot probes,
static ports and drain masts. The windshields also have windshield wipers
and rain repellent.

Wing anti-ice
The three outboard slats are anti-iced with hot air form the pneumatic
system. The wing anti-ice pb on the ANTI ICE panel controls the opening
and closing of the pneumatic valves in each wing. On the ground, the
valves will open for testing purposes but will close again after 30 seconds.
The valves close automatically if a leak is detected, after landing and if
there is an electrical failure.

Engine anti-ice
The engine anti-ice valves are electrically controlled and pneumatically
operated. Each engine nacelle is anti-iced by an independent air bleed
from the high pressure compressor. The engine anti-ice valves are
operated by their respective switches on the ANTI ICE panel. The
engines must be running for the system to work, and in the event of an
electrical failure, the valves will open and remain open until electrical
power is restored.
When either anti-ice valve is opened the following occurs:

Maximum N1 is limited
Continuous ignition is applied
Minimum idle RPM is increased to provide adequate bleed air
pressure

Window heat
Electrical heating is used for anti-icing each windshield and for de-
misting the cockpit side windows. Two window heat computers (WHC); one
on each side, automatically regulate the temperature and provide
overheat protection.
Window heat automatically comes on when:

At least one engine is running or the aircraft is in flight


Manually before engine start, if the PROBE/WINDOW HEAT pb is
pressed.

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Low heat is provided on the ground and normal power in the air. The
windows have a constant heat output with no changeover.

Probe Heat
The pitot probes, static ports, angle of attack sensors, total air
temperature (TAT) are all electrically heated. Three independent probe
heat computers (PHC) automatically control and monitor the:
Captain probes
F/O probes
STBY probes

The probes are heated automatically when:


At least one engine is running or the aircraft is in flight
Manually before engine start, if the PROBE/WINDOW HEAT pb is
pressed.

On the ground the TAT probes are not heated, and the pitot heating
operates in low heat until the aircraft is airborne.

Drain masts
The drain masts are electrically heated whenever there is electrical
power on the aircraft. On the ground they operate at low heat and normal
levels in flight.

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ENGINES

The A-320 has two CFM 56-5A engines. Each engine is equipped with a
full authority digital engine control (FADEC) system that provided full
engine management. The FMGC calculates N1 values for all operating
conditions and computes the maximum N1 limits in the case of FADEC
failure. The engine interface unit (EIU) transmits to the FADECs the
data it uses for engine management.

FADEC
The FADEC performs the following functions:
Fuel metering
Engine limits
Engine parameter transmission and monitoring for cockpit
indications
Automatic and manual starting sequences
Thrust reversers
Fuel circulation
Detection, isolation and recording of failures
Self cooling

The FADECs have two channel redundancy, with one channel active and
one in standby. They are powered by their own magnetic alternator when
the N2 increases above 10% or by the aircraft electrical system when N2
decreases below 15%.

Start sequence
During an automatic start sequence, the ENG page is displayed on the SD
when the ENG MODE selector is positioned to IGN/START, and the pack
flow control valves close. When the ENG MASTER switch is selected to
ON, the FADEC will control the start in the following sequence:

LP fuel valve opens


Start valve opens
If used, APU speed increases
Ignition starts at 16% N2 (in flight, immediately)
HP valve opens at 22% N2 (in flight, 15%)
Start valve closes at 50% N2 and:
o Ignition off (on the ground only)
o Pack valves will re-open 30 seconds after start
o APU speed returns to normal

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Note:
If the ENG MASTER switch has not been selected ON within 30 seconds
of selecting the ENG MODE selector to the IGN/ START, the pack
valves will re-open.
On the ground with the N2 below 50%, the FADEC monitors engine
starting parameters and if necessary, aborts the start. The FADEC will
then automatically crank the engine to clear out fuel vapors.
The FADEC will abort a start for the following:
Hot start
Hung start
Engine stall
No light up

The flight crew can interrupt the start sequence at any time by turning
off the MASTER switch.
The manual start sequence is partially under the control of the FADEC; it
will open the start valve when the ENG MAN START switch is selected
ON, and will open the HP fuel valve when the ENG MASTER switch is
selected ON as well activating both igniters. Additionally it will close the
start valve at 50% N2, however it will not automatically abort starts.

Ignition system
The ignition system is provided for engine start on the ground and engine
restart in flight. It also provides flame-out protection during icing
conditions, turbulence etc. The system consists of two identical and
independent circuits, channels A and B. During normal automatic starts,
one igniter is used for each engine; the FADEC will alternate channels
between starts. During in-flight or manual ground starts, two igniters are
used on each engine.
When the ENG MODE selector is in NORM and the engines are running,
continuous ignition is automatically provided during the following:

FLEX or TOGA thrust is selected on the ground


TOGA is selected in flight
ANG ANTI ICE switch is ON
Engine surge or stall occurs in flight
FLAPS lever position is other than 0 in flight

Continuous ignition can be selected at anytime by manually by selecting


the ENG MODE selector to IGN/START.

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Thrust levers
The thrust levers can only be moved manually. There are five detented
positions: reverse idle (REV IDLE), forward idle (FWD IDLE), climb (CL),
FLX/MCT and TOGA. The thrust lever position is transmitted to the
FADEC which then computes the thrust rating limit and required N1. If
the thrust lever is in detent the FADEC sets the limit according to the
position; if the levers are between detents, the FADEC sets the higher
limit.
Autothrust
The autothrust A/THR system, receiving inputs from the FMGC, controls
the thrust dependent on the speed, altitude and configuration. The
autothrust system does not move the thrust levers, instead if the
autothrust is armed, the levers are moved manually to obtain the required
thrust. If the autothrust is engaged, and the thrust lever is in a detent,
then the system will control the thrust or speed depending on the
autopilot/FD inputs.

Autothrust is armed on the ground by:


Setting the thrust levers to either FLEX or TOGA with at least
one FD on. (will not arm with both FDs OFF)
Pushing the A/THR pb on the FCU when the engines are not
running, however the autothrust will disconnect after start.

Autothrust is armed in flight by:


Pressing the A/THR pb on the FCU when the thrust levers are not
in the engagement range (see note below)
Setting the thrust levers above the climb detent with two engines
running
Setting the thrust levers above the MCT detent with one engine
running

Autothrust is engaged in flight by:


Setting the thrust levers in the engagement range when A/THR is
armed
Pressing the A/THR pb on the FCU when the thrust levers are in the
engagement range
Activation of alpha floor, regardless of the thrust lever position or
arming status.

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Note:
The thrust levers are in the engagement range when:
Both thrust levers are above IDLE but not above CL detent when both
engines are running
The thrust lever of the operating engine is above IDLE, but not above
MCT detent, when only one engine is running

Autothrust can be disengaged by:


Pressing the disconnect switches on the thrust levers
Moving both thrust levers to the IDLE detent
Pressing the A/THR pb on the FCU, when the autothrust is engaged
Loss of arming signals
Setting both thrust levers above MCT detent when both FDs and
autopilots are off and if below 100 RA.

Warning
The autothrust system does not need to be armed or engaged for the
alpha floor function to engage, however if the autothrust disconnect
switch is pressed and held for more than 15 seconds, the system is
disconnected for the remainder of the flight; this would then preclude
alpha floor protection.

Notes:
The correct method of autothrust engagement in flight is to manually
move the thrust levers until the white donuts line up with the actual
N1, and then press the instinctive disconnect pb on the thrust levers.
After an alpha floor engagement, the thrust is locked in TOGA (TOGA
LK) Thrust control is regained by pressing the instinctive disconnect
push-buttons on the thrust levers or by selecting idle thrust.

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