Volume II, Issue 3

1502–1539

2008

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ear Friends of Anthony Alive,

Greetings in the Risen Lord! It is my immense delight to welcome you to the third issue of Anthony Alive. It is hard to believe that it has already been one year since its first publication. I and the staff of Anthony Alive hope and pray that this biannual publication on the spirituality of St. Anthony Mary Zaccaria has been in some way helpful to you in your spiritual growth. You are probably aware by now that St. Anthony’s spirituality is very much rooted in St. Paul - the Apostle of the Gentiles. For him, St. Paul was his teacher par excellence, which he nota bene and passed on to his spiritual “children and offspring of Paul” —Barnabites, Angelics, and Laity. As he once told them in his sixth letter: “On the foundation of Paul, you are going to build not structures made of hay or wood but of gold and precious stones....”. Thus, one may assert that to live by the Zaccarian charism unmistakably means to live as a Pauline disciple. To support this argument, let us look at some of St. Anthony Mary’s “pauline” thoughts under the following guiding principles:

This Issue
March 2008 INTRODUCTION by Fr. Robert B. Kosek, CRSP ST. ANTHONY’S DOCTRINE • The Famous Sayings on Penance REFLECTIONS & MEDITATIONS • Pauline Year: A Gift to the Church by His Holiness Benedict XVI • On St. Anthony Zaccaria by His Holiness Benedict XVI • In the Footsteps of St. Paul… by Fr. Giovanni Scalese, CRSP • The Paulism of St. Anthony… by Fr. Mike M. Mancusi,CRSP • Spiritual Writings by Angelica PaolaAntonia OUTSTANDING BARNABITES St. Francis Xavier Bianchi • The Apostle of Naples… by Fr. Felix M. Sala, CRSP • The Ascetical Writings of… Anthony’s Angels • Choices by E. Gambino & T. Marlin Sponsors

(cont.)

Easter Wishes
We are witnesses of all that Jesus did (Act 10:36). In our continuous efforts to bring others to Christ, may we be faithful witnesses to all that Christ does through His Death and Resurrection. On this most joyful occasion of our Lord’s Resurrection, may you be filled with His Peace and Love.

Have a Blessed Easter!
From the Barnabite Fathers and the Staff of Anthony Alive

Introduction St. Anthony’s Doctrine

•Observance of the Lord’s commandments: “…let us first strive to keep God’s commandments, and then we will reach the liberty of the spirit” (Sermon 1). •Gradual growth in Christian fervor: “…spiritual life demands that you never turn back or stop going forward; but rather that, as soon as you taste it, you make progress day by day and, forgetting what lies behind, strain forward to what lies ahead” (Sermon 2). •Acquisition of the “light” and “fire” needed to set out decisively on the journey of reformation: “…I hope to grow in Jesus’ love; and the good Lord crucified will give me back the spiritual light and fervor [lit., fire], which used to keep me spiritually alive” (Letter 12). •Desire for total perfection: “It has always been my desire to see you grow steadily in perfection” (Letter 10); “…I know the summit of perfection Jesus Crucified wants you to reach; the abundant graces He wishes to give you; the fruits He wants to gather in you; and the peak of holiness to which He wants to lead you” (Letter 11). •Seeking God’s pure honor: “The true aim of reform can be recognized in this, namely, if they seek the pure honor of Christ, the pure service of neighbor, and pure self-contempt, which rejoices in being despised” (Constitutions 16); “Let your intention, then, be rightly aimed at the pure glory of God; let it be good so that we care for our neighbor’s welfare, and also steadfast in self-abasement” (Constitutions 18). •Passionately embracing a theology of the cross: “And so from all this progress of yours may I conclude that you have received the teacher of justice, of holiness, and of perfection: the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete. He, of course, will not let you go wrong; rather He will teach you everything. He will not let you lose heart, but will always remain with you. He will not leave you in need, but will provide you with everything. He will grant you, in particular, a continuous spirit of self-abandonment on the ignominious cross, and lead you to a life conformed to Christ’s according to the pattern of the great saints. Consequently, you will be able to say with your Father, ‘be imitators of us as we are of Christ’ (1 Cor 4:16; 11: 1)” (Letter 5); “It is enough and, I would say, more

than enough, that we follow the way of the cross, according to which it is sufficient to know whether it is a virtue or a fault to do something or to omit it” (Letter 4). Clearly, the Zaccarian spirituality possesses timeless qualities. “As in early times, Christ today needs apostles ready to sacrifice themselves. He needs witnesses and martyrs like St Paul. Paul, a former violent persecutor of Christians, when he fell to the ground dazzled by the divine light on the road to Damascus, did not hesitate to change sides to the Crucified One and followed him without a second thought. He lived and worked for Christ, for him he suffered and died. How timely his example is today!” (Benedict XVI, 28 June 2007) From June 28, 2008 to June 29, 2009 Pope Benedict XVI has dedicated a special Jubilee Year to the Apostle Paul, on the occasion of the bimillennium of his birth. Therefore, I am pleased to dedicate the 2008 issues to the Pauline spirituality of St. Anthony M. Zaccaria. Within the present issue there are two scholarly-written articles on the Pauline spirituality of St. Anthony Mary Zaccaria. Namely the articles by Fr. Giovanni M. Scalese, CRSP entitled, “In the Footsteps of Paul the Apostle: The ‘Paulism’ of St. Anthony M. Zaccaria,” and “The Paulism of Saint Anthony Mary Zaccaria” by Fr. Mike M. Mancusi, CRSP. I hope that you will find the present issue of Anthony Alive meaningful and enjoyable. Yours in Christ, Fr. Robert B. Kosek, CRSP Easter Sunday, March 23, 2008 Bethelehem, PA, USA

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St. Anthony’s Doctrine

The Famous Sayings on Penance

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The Famous Sayings on…
Translated by Father Frank Papa, CRSP

enance

1 There are two kinds of penance, interior and ex-

Image by R. Kosek

terior. The first is necessary for all sinners; the second, for some is useful, for others is pernicious. 2 Penance is an agreement made with God to forsake evil and do good. In the same manner, before penance, one has abandoned what was good to do evil. 3 In the soul which judges and condemns itself without despairing, penance is a continuous refusal of any corporal consolation and mental delights. 4 Penance means to abstain from sin; thus he who does not care to give up every defect, but tenaciously lives by it, is not a perfect penitent. 5 Penance is measured more by the proportion of true humility than by the diversity and greatness of corporal afflictions. 6 Penance is the voluntary endurance of pain, affliction, insult, and all kinds of evil. 7 A true penitent has an unquenchable thirst and hunger for justice, derision, and all kinds of suffering. 8 A penitent is one who judges and condemns himself from the heart. He regards himself unworthy of pardon while he begs justice with mercy, and so his merit is being forgiven by God. 9 If you want to obtain pardon as soon as possible, ask God with heartfelt humility, not so much for justice but for mercy. 10 True penance excludes self-love; having no regard of itself, true penance ends in the pure love of God. False penance instead is caused by pain and or fear of death. 11 Penance always finds new ways to punish itself, to restrain gluttony and concupiscence, and thus it always keeps the soul upright.

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St. Anthony’s Doctrine

The Famous Sayings on Penance

12 Just as those who are physi-

cally ill but of sound mind do not seek compassion from the doctor but a remedy to hasten their cure, a true penitent, in an effort to be healed again, provokes God’s meekness towards himself for healing. 13 A true penitent is not satisfied with just being reconciled with God; he seeks to grow more perfectly in virtue so that he might be pleasing to God. 14 A true penitent who is aware of having used illicit things abstains himself even from the licit ones. 15 Do not believe in such a bad thought that says: this is a little defect or that sin is of little importance, because Christ died for each of the sin we commit. 16 A sin which is not cancelled by penance, immediately, as a consequence, draws another sin. Indeed old sin needs greater attention and a persevering penance. 17 Christ’s penance, and that of Mary is different from ours, as light is different from darkness. 18 A penitent immediately rises from a fall caused by his ignorance or frailty. 19 A penitent drags himself too long when he falls out of his own malice and negligence, even though what he did may not be too grave. 20 Do not be distressed by useless misery. If you often fall out

of your ignorance or frailty, do not despair but stand up, remember that the just does fall seven times a day and rises up. 21 The reliance of the one who says, I will do this sin and then I will repent, is not in penance. 22 The true penance which is acceptable to God and fruitful for men is the mortification of the will and of one’s passions. 23 Interior penance, which in spiritual realm is truly difficult, is more fruitful than exterior penance.

The first cover page of The Famous Sayings of St. Anthony, Venice 1583

24 He who bears the lack of

interior consolation from God with a tranquil spirit already practices true penance. 25 Sometimes an overwhelming lack of tenderness will be forced upon the one who uses exterior penance without discretion. 26 Just as he who gives himself to feeble things cannot be spiritually subtle or refined, so an indiscreet penitent cannot sometimes avoid from falling into serious defects. 27 Just as distractions, frequent disorderly movements, and ob-

scurity of the mind accompany immoderation, so integrity of the mind and purity of chastity accompany moderate fasting of the penitent. 28 A penance which comes from God and which is accepted willingly, even if it may be something insignificant, is more pleasing to God, and more useful to man than any virtuous thing done. 29 He who considers exterior penance as his ultimate aim is similar to one who makes no difference between the end and the means, or between an inn and a home.Fasting, vigils, and other corporal disciplines are good when the body is afflicted only to the point that it is not impaired from performing necessary activities. 30 Just as a sound body may lead us to sin, so a moderately afflicted one may lead us back to truth. Just as we fall from the joys of Heaven through gluttony, so through abstinence shall we return to them. 31 Some can endure a fast for two or three days, while others the daily meal is not substantial for them; nevertheless, without a sense of guilt we have to adapt to the age, physique, and habit of an individual. It is important to take care of nature. It would be imprudent not to do so.

Penance
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Reflections and Meditations

“Pauline Year”: A Gift to the Church

our Eminences, Venerable Brothers in the Episcopate and in the Priesthood, Dear Brothers and Sisters,

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“Pauline Year”: A Gift to the Church
by His Holiness Benedict XVI

I address with these sentiments Metropolitan Emmanuel and Metropolitan Gennadios, sent by my beloved Brother Bartholomew I, to whom I express a grateful and cordial thought.

At this First Vespers of the Solemnity of Sts. Peter This Basilica, which has hosted profoundly sigand Paul, let us comnificant ecumenical memorate with gratitude events, reminds us how these two Apostles whose In the Basilica of St. Paul Outside-the- important it is to pray blood with that of so Walls on Thursday, 28 June 2007, His together to implore the many other Gospel witgift of unity, that unity nesses made the Church Holiness Benedict XVI, during the cel- for which St. Peter and of Rome fruitful. ebration of first vespers of the solemni- St. Paul spent their lives, to the point of making On their memorial, I ty of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, the supreme sacrifice of am glad to greet you all, announced officially a special Jubilee their blood. dear brothers and sisters, starting with the Cardinal Year to the Apostle Paul from 28 June A very ancient tradition Archpriest and the other 2008 to 29 June 2009, on the occasion which dates back to apCardinals and Bishops ostolic times claims that present, Father Abbot of the bimillennium birth of St. Paul. their last meeting before and the Benedictine their martyrdom actually Community to which this Basilica is entrusted, the took place not far from here: the two are supposed clerics, the women and men religious and lay faithto have embraced and blessed each other. And on ful gathered here. the main portal of this Basilica they are depicted together, with scenes of both martyrdoms. I address a special greeting to the Delegation of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, which Thus, from the outset, Christian tradition has conis reciprocating the presence of the Holy See’s Delsidered Peter and Paul to have been inseparable, egation in Istanbul for the Feast of St. Andrew. even if each had a different mission to accomplish. As I had an opportunity to say a few days ago, these meetings and initiatives are not merely an Peter professed his faith in Christ first; Paul obexchange of courtesies between Churches but are tained as a gift the ability to deepen its riches. Peter intended to express the common commitment to founded the first community of Christians who do everything possible to hasten the time of full came from the Chosen People; Paul became the communion between the Christian East and West. Apostle to the Gentiles. With different charisms

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Reflections and Meditations

“Pauline Year”: A Gift to the Church

they worked for one and the same cause: the building of Christ’s Church. In the Office of Readings, the liturgy offers us for meditation this well-known text of St. Augustine: “One day is assigned for the celebration of the martyrdom of the two Apostles. But those two were one. Although their martyrdom occurred on different days, they were one. Peter went first, Paul followed. We celebrate this feast day which is made sacred for us by the blood of these Apostles” (Sermon 295, 7, 8). And St. Leo the Great comments: “About their merits and virtues, which surpass all power of speech, we must not make distinctions, because they were equal in their election, alike in their toils, undivided in their death” (In natali apostol., 69, 7). In Rome, since the earliest centuries, the bond that unites Peter and Paul in their mission has acquired a very specific significance. Like Romulus and Remus, the two mythical brothers who are said to have given birth to the City, so Peter and Paul were held to be the founders of the Church of Rome. Speaking to the City on this topic, St. Leo the Great said: “These are your holy Fathers and true shepherds, who gave you claims to be numbered among the heavenly kingdoms, and built you under much better and happier auspices than they, by whose zeal the first foundations of your walls were laid” (Sermon 82, 7). However humanly different they may have been from each other and despite the tensions that existed in their relationship, Peter and Paul appear as the founders of a new City, the expression of a new and authentic way of being brothers which was made possible by the Gospel of Jesus Christ. For this reason, it can be said that the Church of Rome is celebrating her birthday today, since it was these two Apostles who laid her foundations.

Furthermore, Rome in our day perceives with greater awareness both her mission and her greatness. St. John Chrysostom wrote: “Not so bright is the heaven, when the sun sends forth his rays, as is the City of Rome, sending out these two lights (Peter and Paul) into all parts of the world... Therefore, I admire the City... for these pillars of the Church” (Homily on St Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, 32, 24). We will commemorate St. Peter specifically tomorrow, celebrating the Divine Sacrifice in the Vatican Basilica, built on the site of his martyrdom. This evening we turn our gaze to St. Paul, whose relics are preserved with deep veneration in this Basilica. At the beginning of the Letter to the Romans, as we have just heard, St. Paul greeted the community of Rome, introducing himself as “a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle” (1: 1). He uses the term “servant”, in Greek, doulos, to indicate a relationship of total and unconditional belonging to the Lord Jesus; moreover, it is a translation of the Hebrew, ‘ebed, thus alluding to the great servants whom God chose and called for an important and specific mission. Paul knew he was “called to be an apostle”, that is, that he had not presented himself as a candidate, nor was his a human appointment, but solely by a divine call and election. The Apostle to the Gentiles repeats several times in his Letters that his whole life is a fruit of God’s freely given and merciful grace (cf. I Cor 15: 9-10; II Cor 4: 1; Gal 1: 15). He was chosen to proclaim “the Gospel of God” (Rom 1: 1), to disseminate the announcement of divine Grace which in Christ reconciles man with God, himself and others. From his Letters, we know that Paul was far from being a good speaker; on the contrary, he shared with Moses and Jeremiah a lack of oratory skill. “His bodily presence is weak, and his speech of

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Reflections and Meditations

“Pauline Year”: A Gift to the Church

no account” (II Cor 10: 10), his adversaries said of him. The extraordinary apostolic results that he was able to achieve cannot, therefore, be attributed to brilliant rhetoric or refined apologetic and missionary strategies. The success of his apostolate depended above all on his personal involvement in proclaiming the Gospel with total dedication to Christ; a dedication that feared neither risk, difficulty nor persecution. “Neither death, nor life”, he wrote to the Romans, “nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, nor height, nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord” (8: 38-39). From this we can draw a particularly important lesson for every Christian. The Church’s action is credible and effective only to the extent to which those who belong to her are prepared to pay in person for their fidelity to Christ in every circumstance. When this readiness is lacking, the crucial argument of truth on which the Church herself depends is also absent. Dear brothers and sisters, as in early times, today too Christ needs apostles ready to sacrifice themselves. He needs witnesses and martyrs like St. Paul. Paul, a former violent persecutor of Christians, when he fell to the ground dazzled by the divine light on the road to Damascus, did not hesitate to change sides to the Crucified One and followed him without second thoughts. He lived and worked for Christ, for him he suffered and died. How timely his example is today! And for this very reason I am pleased to announce officially that we shall be dedicating a special Jubilee Year to the Apostle Paul from 28 June 2008 to 29 June 2009, on the occasion of the bimillen-

nium of his birth, which historians have placed between the years 7 and 10 A.D. It will be possible to celebrate this “Pauline Year” in a privileged way in Rome where the sarcophagus which, by the unanimous opinion of experts and an undisputed tradition, preserves the remains of the Apostle Paul, has been preserved beneath the Papal Altar of this Basilica for 20 centuries. It will thus be possible to have a series of liturgical, cultural and ecumenical events taking place at the Papal Basilica and at the adjacent Benedictine Abbey, as well as various pastoral and social initiatives, all inspired by Pauline spirituality. In addition, special attention will be given to penitential pilgrimages that will be organized to the Apostle’s tomb to find in it spiritual benefit. Study conventions and special publications on Pauline texts will also be promoted in order to make ever more widely known the immense wealth of the teaching they contain, a true patrimony of humanity redeemed by Christ. Furthermore, in every part of the world, similar initiatives will be implemented in the dioceses, shrines and places of worship, by Religious and by the educational institutions and social-assistance centres which are named after St. Paul or inspired by him and his teaching. Lastly, there is one particular aspect to which special attention must be paid during the celebration of the various moments of the 2,000th Pauline anniversary: I am referring to the ecumenical dimension. The Apostle to the Gentiles, who was especially committed to taking the Good News to all peoples, left no stones unturned for unity and harmony among all Christians. May he deign to guide and protect us in this bimillenial celebration, helping us to progress in the humble and sincere search for the full unity of all the members of Christ’s Mystical Body. Amen.

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Reflections and Meditations

On St. Anthony Zaccaria

he image of this saint [Anthony Mary Zaccaria] is dear to me because he is one of the great figures of Catholic reform in the 1500’s, engaged as he was in the renewal of Christian life in an era of profound crisis in the area of faith and customs. His life coincides with a turbulent period in which Luther, in his own way, attempted to reform the Church, an attempt that, as we well know, ended in the tragic division of Christianity. In dealing with the problems of his personal life and of his times, Luther had disco ered the person of St. Paul, and with the intention of following the apostle’s message, began his journey. Unfortunately, he placed St. Paul in contrast to the hierarchical Church, the law against the Gospel, and in doing so, even though he rediscovered him, he detached the saint from the totality of the Church, from the message of the Sacred Scripture. Anthony Mary Zaccaria also discovered St. Paul; he wanted to follow his evangelical dynamism and he saw him in the totality of the divine message, in the community of the Holy Church. It seems to me that St. Anthony Mary Zaccaria is a saint of great current relevance, an ecumenical and missionary figure, who invites us to display and to live the Pauline message within the Church itself. He shows our sep rated brethren that St. Paul has his true place in the Catholic Church, and it is not necessary to place his message in contrast with the hierarchical Church. Rather, there exists in the Catholic Church plenty of space for evangelical freedom, for missionary dynamism and for the joy of the Gospels. The Catholic Church is not only a Church of law, but it must also concretely prove itself as the Church of the Gospel and of its joy to open the way to unity. Saint Anthony Mary Zaccaria, born exactly five centuries ago, deserves to be rediscovered in his moral greatness and for his appeal to the fundamental values of Christianity

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On St. Anthony Zaccaria
by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger

In His Own Words By…

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Reflections and Meditations Reflections and Meditations

On St. Anthony Zaccaria

and to the perennial lesson of evangelical radicalism. His entire brief existence—first as a young layperson, doctor and catechist, and then as priest and religious—is dominated by what the liturgy of July 5 calls “the over eminent science of Jesus Christ,” and is animated by the “folly of the cross,” as acquired at the school of the “learned Paul,” his model and mentor. In this light shines his extraord nary devotion to the two fundamental mysteries of our faith, the Crucific and the Eucharist, which he considered with genial intuition to be “the living Crucifi x.” It’s not always easy to draw near to the image and the life of a saint—only God has the key to enter into the secret of a soul dedicated to Him. It is even more diffi cult when that man lived in a distant era, among the most complex and troubled in the history of the Church. (...) [St. Anthony Mary Zaccaria] was an authentic man of God and of the Church, a man burning with zeal, a demanding forger of consciences, a true leader able to convert and lead others to good. [His action has been] described as the action of a “bonus miles Christi” (A Good Soldier of Christ) even in persecutions, which, however, did not prevent him from anticipating the times and preparing for the great event that was the Council of Trent. Anthony Mary Zaccaria’s life was a constant struggle against the vice of spiritual “lukewarmness” and mediocrity that so “reigned” among his contemporaries. In his Letters and Sermons, and not the least in his Constitutions, there resonates an incessant call to sainthood. Rome, October 11, 2001

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Reflections and Meditations

In the Footsteps of St. Paul

his theme can be considered a classical one: there there is no convention on St. Anthony M. Zaccaria where there is not a contribution on the “Paulism” of the Saint. It started in 1933 with Cardinal Eugene Pacelli who, at the conclusion of the celebration for the 400th anniversary of the foundation of the Congregation, gave the keynote speech in St. Charles on The Apostolate of Anthony Mary Zaccaria on the footsteps the Apostles of the Gentiles. The same year, a special issue of the magazine, The Messager de St. Paul, published the article by Fr. Achilles Desbuquoit on La parenté d’âme entre Paul et Zaccaria. During the 1950s, the student Giuseppe Motta made a research, entitled Cor Antonii, cor Pauli, under the guidance of Fr. Giuseppe Cagni. This was published at first in Rivivere, and then in the Eco dei Barnabiti, in two parts. The second part was published on the celebration of the19th centennial anniversary of St. Paul’s arrival in Rome. Next came Fr. Antonio Gentili with an article on this subject in his book I Barnabiti. Finally, Fr. Andrew Bonini tried to tackle the same subject during the week of spirituality in La Mendola, on the occasion of the 450th anniversary of the death of the Holy Founder. We also have, as a vital reference, Fr. Franco Ghilardotti’s thesis, TheBarnabite Paulism: ethical-religious aspects or The Lombard Evangelism of the 1500’s, which, unfortunately, was never published, but was presented in the 1961 Eco dei Barnabiti special issue. What could we add, since the sources available have already been widely explored? Fr. Mauro Espen, at the end of his recent thesis on the Zaccarian Sermons, draws the following conclusion: “The Paulism” which is usually attributed to Zaccaria, and which presents as its foundation a large refer-

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In the Footsteps of St. Paul: The “Paulism” of St. Anthony M. Zaccaria
By Fr. Giovanni M. Scalese, CRSP Translated by Fr. Frank M. Papa, CRSP

ence to the corpus paulinum, should be confirmed with a biblical-theological analysis which would be a necessary preamble to establish the limits determining the Pauline character of St. Anthony Mary’s spirituality.” This is a task left to further studies. For now, I have limited myself to take and put in order whatever has already been published, and see if we could give it a new or more profound interpretation. The study is divided into four parts: in the first part, we shall consider the presence of St. Paul in the life of St. Anthony M. Zaccaria; in the second, we will investigate this presence in the writings of our Founder; in the third, we shall try to answer the question from where did Zaccaria draw his paulism; in the fourth, we shall ask which “Paul” was the reference point for Anthony Mary. We shall conclude with some relevant reflections.

Introduction: Most Faithful Follower of His Paul
I believe that in the history of hagiography, Zaccaria is the only saint, or at least the first, who makes reference to another saint who has preceded him. He did this in a wide-reaching manner, almost identifying Paul. A series of observations will confirm this impression. It is a fact that the spiritual family founded by him is the first to be entitled to a saint. Prior to him, all religious orders were without a specific title, except for those dedicated to the Mother of God. It is the first time that with Zaccaria some religious, men and women, and lay people are called children of Paul. It became a very common practice as shown in the latest Pontifical Yearbook, where about forty institutes of men are entitled to a saint, four of them to St. Paul, and six

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Reflections and Meditations

St. Anthony and the Forty Hours

St. Paul caught up to the third heaven Giacinto Calandrucci

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Reflections and Meditations

In the Footsteps of St. Paul

to St. Joseph. Women institutes number about two hundred, of which four are to St. Paul, and fifty to St. Joseph. Another noteworthy fact can be seen in the Roman liturgy where, I believe, Zaccaria is the only saint in whose prayer the name of another saint appears, namely Paul. This means that the Church considers this as a unique case of identification among saints, which is very difficult to trace elsewhere. Another observation is about iconography. Many times our Saint, especially in the oldest paintings, is represented together with St. Paul. In the collection by Fr. Boffito, I could count about fifteen of them. This, too, is a unique more than a rare case. I take the last observation from the first lines of Fr. Motta’s work. It is an impression we cannot avoid: from Paul III to Pius XI, and to Pius XII, the pontif-

ical documents which deal with the Holy Founder keep underlining the intimate relationship which bound the Apostle of the Gentiles with the Apostle of Lombardy during the pre-Trent period. Perhaps the oldest Pauline title attributed to Zaccaria is found in an inscription reported by Giuseppe Bresciani which, to the end of the 700’s, must have been on a plaque or on a column in Cremona. Pauli sui fidelissimus sectator (Most faithful follower of his Paul). That unique relationship between Anthony Mary and the Apostle is underlined in a three-tiered way in this expression. First of all, it says that Zaccaria was a “follower” of Paul. This idea has been picked up in the present title “on the footsteps of Paul.” An attribute has been added to this qualification. Since the simple faithful did not seem enough, the superlative most has

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Reflections and Meditations

In the Footsteps of St. Paul

been used. But what is the most beautiful element in this expression is the word his added to the name Paul, as if the Apostle Paul belonged in a special way to our Founder. I. St. Paul in the Life of St. Anthony M. Zaccaria To be able to reconstruct the Pauline personality of our Founder we must address the witnesses: eyewitnesses (de visu), who had a personal knowledge of Zaccaria, and those by ear (de auditu), who collected· the testimonies by the eyewitnesses. 1. The Witnesses We can start with the synthetic assertion by the Anonymous Angelic: “He was careful to be considered a fool by the world, since he was a true imitator of Christ Crucified and of St. Paul, toward whom he had great devotion” (Barnabite Documents, 44). But the most authoritative source, especially in the well-documented study by Fr. Giuseppe Cagni, for sure is the Attestations by Fr. Battista Soresina. Let us listen to this fresh eyewitness testimony, “He was a great devotee and imitator of St. Paul, the Apostle. He constantly had his Letters in his hands, experiencing great delight in reading them. He used to read them as if he were singing them. In writing his letters he used a style similar to the one of St. Paul. His sermons were based and shaped with the doctrine and sayings of the same Apostle. This is why before his death, as he himself said to Fr. Soresina while lying sick in bed, St. Paul appeared to him and invited him if he wished to go with him, and Father answered that he was willing, and so he died of that illness. He wanted to write about St. Paul, but his many occupations and untimely death did not allow him to do so” (Ibid, 68). This, obviously, is the principal source used by all our ancient historians, first of all Bascapè, “He used to take the fieriest sayings from Paul… When, as an

exhortation, he used to write letters to his confreres or others, these seemed to have a certain Pauline efficacy. He gave great attention to the reading of St. Paul’s epistles. He found great pleasure in them, to the point that the confreres would hear him as if singing the words of Paul, such was his enthusiasm” (De spiritualibus, 7-8). Gabuzio is not different, although with a more elaborated style and rich of quotations “In his sermons to the people, where he seemed to be flooded with ideas, he was so ardent and effective that he seemed to lead the souls wherever he wished, giving rise to extraordinary fruits of piety. Indeed, he did not preach about himself, but Christ (2 Cor 4:5), not with persuasive discourses of wisdom, or with sublime words, but with a language taught by the Spirit (I Cor 2:1,4, 13). He would draw sentences, rich with divine wisdom, especially from the epistles of St. Paul. In fact, he had a most extraordinary interest in these epistles, and he found great delight in them. And so it happened that in writing letters to his confreres or to others, to exhort them, which he did often, he seemed to have some kind of apostolic spirit” (Historia, 78-79). The testimony given by Chiesa is also very beautiful: “In his sermons he had handy the most beautiful and important sentences of St. Paul, whose epistles were for him a continuous lesson, and he pronounced their words with a certain energy and voice modulation, giving, in his mind, the effect which he thought the Apostle had in writing them” (Depositio, 77). Secco stays close to the historians who preceded him, “The way of life of this angelic man was the following: pay great attention to the epistles of the divine Paul, and find an extraordinary delight in them, so that because of his enthusiasm his companions used to hear him sing those words of Paul” (Synopsis, 162). Previously, Secco had said,

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Reflections and Meditations

In the Footsteps of St. Paul

“Having chosen the divine Apostle Paul, not only as patron and guide, but also as model, not only had he started to make recourse to his paternal protection and his friendly help, but he also tried to secure from him inspiration for virtue, examples of honesty, the same words most useful to incite the souls” (Ibid, 21). Tornielli gives us information about the preaching by Zaccaria, “On feast days, Father Anthony Mary would give a lesson on the epistles of St. Paul to the many laypeople who used to come to listen to him” (De Principii, 6-7). An example of the Pauline preaching by our Founder is found in his speech of October 4, 1534, reported by Gabuzio and then by Secco. It is practically a commentary to a Pauline text (I Cor 4:10), made through a series of Scripture quotations, especially from Paul, with references to the living reality. A kind of Lectio Divina on St. Paul. 2. Later Contribution The most recent historical research has ascertained that the Pauline devotion of Zaccaria is ancient, before the foundation of the Barnabites and of the Angelics. Bugati discovered a document drawn by the notary Giuseppe Fellini on September 5, 1543, where there is a reference to the last will made by Zaccaria in 1531, where Anthony Mary had established for the altar built by his family in the church of St. Donato. It was to be dedicated to the Conversion of St. Paul, adding to it a benefit with annual revenue of 75 Imperial lire, and the obligation to celebrate a Mass every Holiday of Obligation and on the feast day of St. Donato and the Conversion of St. Paul. Its first chaplain was the Rev. Gaffuri, who will be followed by one chosen by his cousin Bernard or by the oldest of his descendants or the oldest of the Zaccarians. 3. The ‘Vision of St. Paul’ Before His Death We find St. Paul also at the end of our Founder’s

life. Soresina has told us that, before dying, the Apostle appeared to him, inviting him to go with him, and the Father answered: “Willingly!” The Anonymous Angelic is a simpler form. It reports that “He got very sick. The glorious father and protector St. Paul appeared to him and warned him about the pending death. He received the news with great joy and exultation, and shared it with his spiritual children” (Barnabite Documents, 45). Gabuzio, with his characteristic style, gives us a lengthier description. First of all, he tells us that the Saint predicted his death in the octave of the Apostles Peter and Paul. Then he describes the last moments of life of Anthony Mary: “He recounted to have had at that time, many hard and troubled fights with the enemy of the human race, but that he had overcome them with God’s help. During his sleep, by Divine enlightenment, he had envisioned what would happen to the whole Congregation, and that St. Paul appeared to him in a vision, imploring God not to take him from this life yet, so that he could be of greater benefit to the same Congregation; but that he had to die, prayed the other Apostles to go to heaven with them” (Historia, 72). The Milanese lawyer Giuseppe Vaillati perceives in this apparition an indication of Zaccaria’s holiness, “Let me observe again that, as a proof of Zaccaria’s holiness, since in his life he had chosen as special protector the Apostle Paul, and as a subject of his instructions, homilies, etc., the same Apostle, he had the consolation to have the Apostle appear to him at the moment of his death, as reported by the majority of the writers who have talked about Zaccaria. This is why I deduce that, taking the fact as true, it matches so well with Zaccaria’s whole life, to appear that the fact in itself would be a most evident witness confirming his holiness. It would be, anyway, inconceivable for the Apostle to wish to appear to the dying and seal with the apparition

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In the Footsteps of St. Paul

the rapport of all the ideas which could be given about the history of the Servant of God’s life and virtues” (Depositio, 198). We can, then, consider this apparition as the seal with which the Apostle Paul wanted to sanction a life spent totally at his footsteps and in imitation of his virtues. 4. Although Dead, He Still Speaks (Heb 11:4) Heb 11:4 Even after his death, Zaccaria keeps speaking about Paul. Still Gabuzio reports a gracious episode which happened to Fr. Soresina, “One day, after the death of Anthony Mary, Fr. Soresina, overcome by laziness, or tired from work, postponed the confession of a sick person. The following night, before falling asleep, he clearly heard Zaccaria’s voice: ‘Sir Battista, my good brother, where is the love taught to us by our Paul? Why did you neglect that soul?’ Having said this, he disappeared leaving him astonished and, confused by the shame of the neglected duty, it made him more diligent for the future” (Historia, 76). 5. Similarity of Character The authors have pointed out many similarities of character between St. Paul and Zaccaria. G. Motta noted, “Both energetic and vibrant souls have the same love for God and for souls, aroused by the bloody reality of the Crucified Christ, who en-

lightens and directs the action of them both. They have the same tendency for action as to an irresistible need to expand, to the austerity of life as a control which, while saving them from illusions, would make possible in them the radiation of the spirit; to the same constancy in pain, and to the same humility in the successes, which explains the grandeur of their vast apostolic activity” (Cor Antonii, cor Pauli, Eco, 1959, 39). Fr. Bonini, on his part, lingers over some aspects of the Apostle’s personality, which played a particular attraction on Anthony Mary, “Zaccaria found in Paul some consonance also in the character. He must have been fascinated by the Apostle’s qualities of decisiveness and resoluteness, the opposition to any form of compromise, the fight to lukewarmness, the laying out of his life without reserve, the mixture of tenderness and intransigence towards his own, to have decided once and for all for Christ. And he saw these qualities realized in the marriage between sleepless activity and interior life in Christ, between theology and mysticism, between action and prayer” (Alla Scuola di San Paolo, 71). II. St. Paul in the Writings of St. Anthony M. Zaccaria I have already treated this subject

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in the “Handbook for the Spirit,” published in 1994. As I make reference to that study, I will enlarge the subject, taking into consideration the contributions of other authors. 1. Preamble In his writings, Zaccaria defines himself as “priest of Paul the Apostle” (Letter VII); he calls the Angelics “Daughters of Paul the Apostle” (Lt 5), and the Barnabites “little children of Paul the Apostle” (Letter VII), “little children of Paul the Saint” (Letter X), “little children and stock of Paul” (Letter VII).

father,” “saint father” (Letter VII); “chaste Paul,” “learned Paul” (Letter IX); “true friend of God” (Sermon III); “our most holy leader and patron, most wise doctor of the Gentiles, leader and father” (Sermon VII); “Apostle” par excellence (Passim). We have to note that the title divine, which will cause so many suspicions for the Barnabites and the Angelics, and which was used also in reference to living individuals, is characteristic of Paul. The Oriental tradition ordinarily attributes it to him, calling him “divine apostle.”

Paul is the foundation for the apostolate of Zaccaria’s children, “You will build, on the foundation of Paul, structures neither of hay nor of wood, but of gold and of precious stones” (Letter VI). Paul is their ideal of life: “Not to busy themselves in denying their will ... it would pull them completely out of the desire and life of Paul” (Letter IX). 2. Pauline Titles He attributes to Paul the following titles: “divine Paul,” “father” (Letter V); “divine father,” “sweet Letter V

3. Pauline Quotations a) Number of the Quotations Up until now, according to the Concordance published by Fr. Giuseppe Cagni in 1960, we could count about ninety Pauline quotations. Now, we have available the thorough study by Fr. John Rizzi, which counts over 834 Pauline references (corpus paulinum + Acts), over 1,371 references to the New Testament, and 1,717 over all references to Holy Scripture. This is how he has classified this material: BIBLE 61 37 133 297 492 351 PAULINUM 82 72 204 424 565 450

• • • • • •

CORPUS New Testament quotations from the Latin Bible 35 quotations in Italian translation 14 paraphrases of the Biblical text 63 more evident references to the biblical text 162 more concealed references to the biblical text 328 possible scriptural parallels 232

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The first impression coming from this data is the net predominance of Pauline references, over the other books of Holy Scripture. With reason, then, Fr. Rizzi can affirm, “The Zaccarian language is first of all Pauline and then evangelical.” For my part, out of curiosity, I have gone over the Pauline quotations in the Zaccarian writing, leaving aside those which, rather than true quotations, appear to be have a similarity and, therefore, the reference to the Apostle could be rather subjective, we can affirm that the Pauline passages (including the letter to the Hebrews) reported by Zaccaria in his writings (excluding the Sermon VII) are a total of 293 in the Letters, 26 in the Sermons, and none in the Constitutions (surprising, considering their particular literary genre). These quotations are clearly recognizable because usua1ly they are introduced by the expression “Paul says” or such 8 are from the Latin text; 11 are in the Italian translation (usually very liberal, especially in paraphrases); 7 the conflatae quotations, where the Latin text, the Italian translation, and some personal addition are mixed together. b) The Way of Quoting In his research, Fr. Motta had made the observation, “The quotation from St. Paul with which especially the Sermons are crammed, are by far from being exact: at least a word must be changed; perhaps, just one, but there must always be a divergence from the canonical text. This shows that this was all material he had assimilated, and so he was quoting by heart. Moreover, in the original text of the Sermons, the Pauline quotations are never reported in full; but, after one or two words, a quick ‘etc.’ ... implies the rest, which supports what was said before that he used to quote by heart, since the familiarity with the sacred text was making the book useless”. In his most recent study, Fr. Rizzi has confirmed these findings. The 59 quotations are given mostly by heart with the beginning or few words from

the original text, followed by a meaningful ‘etc.’ In many cases there is the mingling of two or more biblical texts, with substantial transformations in some cases, and most of the time with style and context adaptations. This is why the quotations as such from the Latin Scripture text can be reduced to very few. c) Source of the Quotations The question has been raised more than once, which Latin version of the Bible was the Founder using? Fr. Rizzi has observed that in the Zaccarian writings the quotations come from the Vulgata and from the Vetus Latina. Most likely, Anthony Mary did not have a single complete text of the Bible. From what we have read in the various ancient reports we can deduce with certainty that he had at his disposal a collection of the Epistles of St. Paul, probably in the Vulgata text. Keeping in mind what has been said by Fr. Motta and Fr. Rizzi, it seems that both for the Corpus Paulinum and the other books of the Bible, the principal direct source of biblical quotations for Anthony Mary was rather his memory, recalling passages read in various biblical texts or in the works of the Fathers and Doctors of the Church used for his formation, and which he continued to consult. d) Purpose of the Quotations As we said, usually the Pauline quotations are introduced by the expression, “Paul said” or the like. This expression, besides being an introduction, gives to the quoted passage a certain solemnity, underlining the fact that Paul is the master who teaches. Fr. G. Motta had already pointed this out, “(Paul) is the ‘master’ par excellence, whose authoritative word is always side by side with the one of the highest master, Jesus.” Equally valid is the other observation: “The apodictic proofs, reported always after the other scriptural proofs, are always obtained from Paul.” In The Handbook for the Spirit, I have pinpointed how Paul is a master not only

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with his teaching, but also with his example. One quotation is enough, “Paul never wanted to tell an untruth, although he could have gained the whole world, and gained for Christ” (Sermon II). 4. Pauline Doctrine Zaccaria takes from St. Paul not only some sentences, but most of the doctrine contained in his writings. Here we cannot exhaust the subject, also because this field still has to be explored. We will just give some indications which will demonstrate how Paul is the source of our Holy Founder’s thought. Fr. Ghilardotti, following the content of his thesis, gives the following summary of the “Gospel Interpreted by Paul,” and announced by Anthony Mary: • Jesus Christ, Incarnate Word; • the symbolism of the two men; • the Pauline metanoia or renewal; • the theory of God’s two books; • man referee of his own destiny; • contrast between the Old and the New Testament; • social sense of charitas and its dynamism. Let us add other elements, always of Pauline origin, or somehow traced back to the Apostle, Zaccaria derives from Paul the theology of the cross, the characteristic of his spirituality. For sure it is the Pauline doctrine of the need for charity developed in Sermon IV, and of the mediation of man IV and of the creatures generally treated in Sermons I and VI, also in Sermon IV. Deduced from Paul is the doctrine of the “Middle Way,” based on the recurring quotation of 2 Cor 6:7-8 “wielding the weapons of righteousness with right hand and left, whether honored or dishonored, spoken of well or ill” (cf. Sermon V, VI, VII). Even the distinction between the precepts and the counsels goes back to St. Paul. Utilized to remove lukewarmness, one starts with the observance of the precepts to pass then, almost insensibly, to follow the counsels (cf. Sermon VI). Even the distinction of the ‘four kinds

of prayer’ has a Pauline origin (cf. Constitutions X). The terminology of the ‘gain’ so widespread in the Zaccarian writings is also of Pauline origin. And we could keep going. A question to ascertain is if these doctrines are taken directly from St. Paul or are they instead filtered through intermediate authors. We shall return to this. 5. Reference to St. Paul’s Life In the Zaccarian writing we find many references not only to the letters of St. Paul, but also to his life. I have found at least six. It would be enough here to remember how Letter IX is drafted on the presentation of Paul to the apostles by Barnabas (cf. Acts 9:26-27). That shows how the Holy Founder was familiar not only with the writings, but also with the life of the Apostle. This confirms that Paul is a master not only with his teaching, but also with his example. 6. Comments to the Letters of St. Paul As we have seen, the historians note that the preaching by Zaccaria was basically Pauline. He drew ideas and words themselves mostly from the Apostle. We have noted that the speech of October 4, 1534, is nothing more but a lectio on a Pauline text. The first part of Sermon IV is nothing more but a commentary, albeit well-done, to the hymn of love by St. Paul. 7. Familiarity with the Apostle The relationship between Zaccaria and Paul, as it emerges from the writings, is an extremely familiar one. Sometimes Anthony Mary addresses the Apostle with the greatest of confidence, “Oh, Paul, if your chains are so good, why do you want Festus to be a Christian without them?” (Sermon VI). Also a text, which up until now has always been referred to Fra Battista, I think instead to be addressed to the Apostle, “O sweet Father, you have sweat and you have been sorrowful, and we shall receive the fruits; yours has been the cross, and ours shall be

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abundant rest; that is, carrying and eating crosses continuously, we shall deliver your fruits as well as ours” (Letter VII). The familiarity between Zaccaria and Paul is also expressed in the, sometimes quite daring, comparisons he makes between his experience and the one of the Apostle. Think, for example, at the beginning of Letter V. Anthony Mary even expresses the desire to cause the envy of Paul for his daughters, the Angelics; or the beautiful dialogue we find in Letter X, “You, Dionisius, and you, Timothy and Titus, how were you acting with your Paul? You were not acting like this, but you, always aware of his presence, had deep love for your Father in your hearts, and you had no other intention but to please him. Alas, it is not the same with me!” (Letter X). The same vital relationship existing between Paul and Zaccaria, must exist between the Apostle and the children of Anthony Mary. “Tell them, then, that this Paul preaches to them a Christ crucified in every way: crucified not only in himself but in them too” (Letter IX). 8. Affinity in the Epistolary Style We have already mentioned how Soresina and, following his example, the ancient historians have noted even an affinity in the epistolary style. To the point, Fr. Premoli affirms, “The letters of St. Anthony Mary testify, on their own, the study he used to make of the Pauline epistles. In the greetings then, used to close, we can almost reread St. Paul” (Cinquecento…, 52). In the introduction to the Sermons of the Bologna edition, Fr. Vittorio Michelini adds, “If the love of children would not be an impediment, we could say that what happened

to St. Paul’s style of life and apostolate happened to Anthony Mary’s style. Both master and disciple are far away from any literary purpose. The writings reveal an impromptu approach for the occasion, using the little free time available to jot down notes, write some letters, as the impelling spirit dictates, and so, at times, the thought becomes disorderly and obscure” (Writings, 64). Even Fr. Bonini faces the question, “In the letters of the Founder even the tone conforms with the one of the letters of Paul, from the initial greeting to the development of the theme, to the exhortative moment, to the final greetings. It is evident in the two Saints the drive which urges them to write, that is, the exclusive desire ‘to gain in themselves and the neighbors,’ either they write to individuals, or to the community. And the assimilation of Paul’s spirit by Anthony Mary has been such that, although with a style which is his own, made of expressive urgency and familiar vocabulary, it is possible to catch echoes and reflections of Pauline expressions, if not a translation of Paul’s phrase.” III. The Origins of the Zaccarian Paulism A question raised by the authors, and which we cannot avoid, is the following: where did Zaccaria acquire his paulism? Fr. Ghilardotti is resolute in his answer, “At this point of our study we are able to say by now from where Zaccaria attained this Pauline imprint: from the Evangelism.” Fr. Bonini shows more caution: “It would be exciting to know which ones were the external impulses which oriented Zaccaria toward the study and the love of St. Paul; but according to our present knowledge, ours could be nothing else but pious desires.” But,

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after this general statement, he follows with the indication of a precise research track, “Although we do not know the modalities, he must have received a strong impulse from Fra Battista Carioni, the Dominican with a leading role in the spiritual life of the first three decades of the Lombard Sixteen Century, spiritual director and inspirer of so many Zaccarian initiatives. The experts on the Dominican, indeed, are in agreement in affirming that among the sacred books he has a very clear preference for St. Paul, as the one whose thought is better in line with his character and ideals: spiritual battle, unrelenting fight against lukewarmness.” On another occasion, I have warned about presenting Zaccaria as “a man of the Renaissance.” I have expressed some reservation about the traditional key used in the reading of our Founder, which interprets it in the light of Christian Humanism, of Evangelism, and of Devotio Moderna. On that occasion, I suggested to interpret Anthony Mary in the light of the patristicscholastic tradition in which he had been formed, and of which he was heavily imbued. Now I would like to propose a hypothesis, which will have to be carefully examined to respond to the present question. I do not believe that Zaccaria’s

interest and love for St. Paul derived from his contacts with the North Europe clubs, contacts which, need to be documented. I rather think that it derived from a “Pauline mainstream” which has always been present in the Christian spirituality. Conditioned as we are by the historiography of the Reformation, we have a tendency to think that Paul, after Augustine had been forgotten and that Luther was needed to rediscover him. We have never worried for clarity how, inside the tradition, the Apostle Paul had continued to be well-present, especially with some authors. Very appropriately Fr. Bonini and, before him, Fr. Colciago have emphasized Fra Battista’s unquestioned influence over Anthony Mary. Now, it was not by chance that Carioni had this Pauline vein: it is part of the Dominican tradition. It is enough to think of the attestation over St. Dominic found in the Libellus de principiis Ordinis Praedicatorum, “He constantly carried with himself the Gospel of St. Matthew and the letters of St. Paul, and meditated at length over these last ones to the point that he knew them by heart.” But, besides the Dominican school of which Zaccaria was an alumnus, I think we can go behind to reach that patristic,

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or better yet, monastic tradition which the Founder had gradually absorbed during his formation. He constantly drew sustenance from this for his spiritual life. Not to make any up in the air affirmations, it would be opportune to make reference to the sources. In the precious Attestations by Fr. Soresina, right after the passage reported above, on the Zaccaria’s devotion toward the Apostle, it says, “Besides the doctrine of St. Paul, he put great emphasis on the Collationes and treatises by John Cassian. Hence, in his own conferences he utilized Cassian’s writings and had his listeners read passages from them which he commented on, so that everyone derived wonderful profit from this kind of exercise” (Documents, 68).

I think this is a field still in need of thorough investigation. Fr. Espen has tried with his thesis a patristic approach to the Sermons. I believe that Zaccaria’s dependence from the Fathers, and especially So, here is my thesis: if in this author, for sure so Cassian, needs further study, reaching out to all the widely used by Zaccaria (as witnessed by Fr. Sorewritings. sina, and by Anthony Mary himself in Constitutions VIII), there is such a “wide spread Paulism,” it seem If, then, we read the works of the one who has been to me a natural conclusion to say that Zaccaria’s indefined as “a disciple in the East, and a master in terest and love for St. Paul, the Apostle could have the West,” we will realize that, although the accusa- derived, to some degree, exactly from reading Castion of semi-plagiarism hung over him, they are full sian. I do not think we are dealing with a useless of Pauline references. In the Coenobite Institutions, I question, because it has notable consequences for have counted 99 quotations of the Apostle over 334 the hermeneutics. It is one thing to say that Zacbiblical quotations (that is, 30%, almost a third, of caria’s Paulism is derived from the Evangelism, and the total); in the Collationes, I have counted 363 so from a movement which, in the Humanistic and Pauline quotations over 1,465 scriptural quota- Renaissance spirit, returns to Paul neglecting the tions (that is, 25 %, almost a quarter, of the total). intermediate tradition with the possible danger of In the Collationes, often there is a reference to Paul’s subjectivism and “rupture.” It is another thing to afvocation; he is considered “the ancient ambidex- firm that Anthony Mary got his Paulism from Castrous doctor of the Gentiles,” “our centurion of sian or from the Fathers and Doctors of the Church the Gospel,” “the most valuable master of the Gen- or from the Dominican teachers, that is, from the tiles,” “the vas of election through whom Christ living tradition of the Church. It means that it is not spoke,” “the architect of spiritual artifacts”; usually a novelty, but an heredity which is transmitted and he is designated as “the blessed Apostle.” In the IX it is constantly been enriched. Which is not little! Collatio he affirms: “One could not believe that the But at this point we have to ask another question.

Holy Spirit has said something through the mouth of St. Paul uselessly or without reason.” In the XVII Collatio, we read the beautiful page describing what today we would call St. Paul’s diplomatic behavior; not to mention the second to the last Collatio, the XXIII, which is totally Pauline from top to bottom. It is not a surprise to find so many Pauline references in Cassian, because, although a follower of Origin and Evagrio Pontico, he was also a disciple of St. John Chrysostom. It is well-known that the great Bishop of Constantinople was a great admirer of the Apostle Paul. So, when Cassian came out of Egypt in 399, where he had been in contact with the desert monks, he went to Constantinople and stayed there until 404, becoming a deacon under St. John Chrysostom, having in this way the opportunity to listen to the teachings of the great orator and to absorb his love for St. Paul.

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IV. Which Paul? It is easy to talk about Paulism. But, when we talk about Paul, which Paul do we mean? The Apostle’s figure is extremely many-sided. We can make reference to him from so many different angles. Which ones are the aspects Anthony Mary has dealt with most? I believe we can answer: just about all of them. 1. The Theologian We have already said that in his writings Anthony Mary looks at Paul as the teacher. Surely, if we look in Zaccaria for the great theological controversies present in Galatians and Romans, we are going to be disappointed. Anthony Mary is not a Luther, and the Paul of our Founder is not the one of the great Reformer. Anyway, although not a professional theologian, Zaccaria shows to posses a discreet theological formation. It would be extremely interesting to deepen the theological presuppositions of the Zaccarian moral-spiritual doctrines. For example, no one has ever taken the time to examine the theological motivations which are the base for our Founder’s fight against lukewarmness. If we should do it, and we would relate them to the motivations of Jesus’ conflict with the Pharisees, or to the ones which inspire Paul’s polemic against those in favor of circumcision, we would discover, with great surprise, that they are ... the same! Another question which should be theologically investigated is the relation between grace and free will. It would be interesting to confront Zaccaria’s position with that of Paul and Augustine on one side, and the one of Cassian and Fra Battista, accused of Pelagianism, on the other. 2. The Apostle Paul was not only a theologian, he was also, and especially an apostle, the Apostle par excellence. And probably this is the reason why Anthony Mary

has chosen him as his inspiring model. He too wanted to be an apostle, and wanted his disciples to be apostles. He said to the Barnabites: “(Our vocation demands) from us who have started to follow, although from far away, on the footsteps of the holy apostles, and of the other disciples of Christ, not to refuse to share in their sufferings, especially those trials which are by far lighter than theirs” (Gabuzio, Historia, 54). Speaking of the Angelics, he affirms, “My (daughters) - not one, but all of them - banishing any personal reputation and human satisfaction ... wish to be apostles to eliminate not only idolatry and other big defects from the souls of people, but to destroy that most deadly and greatest enemy of Christ Crucified, which reigns in our modern times: I mean that incredible lukewarmness” (Letter V). Paul, for Letter V anyone who wants to be an apostle, must be the fundamental point of reference, since he was not only one of the Apostles, but the first among them: “He (Barnabas) presented him (Paul) to all the Christians as a column, and as if he was the prince of the Apostles” (Letter IX). 3. The Martyr Paul is also the one who ended his life shedding his blood for Christ. This was not by chance, but the realization of a desire he had cherished for a long time: “The wise Paul…wanted to be, in actual life and in the opinion of all, a living example of Christ Crucified” (Letter IX). Also in this the Barnabites wanted to imitate their master, and so they were called “Clerics Regular of St. Paul decapitated.” Fr. G. Motta notes that what Fr. Premoli affirms is not true, that is, that the adjective decapitated was added only in 1552, since from January 1545 we find in the Liber capitulorum the “House of St. Paul decapitated” mentioned. Later the cult toward the Apostle-martyr was codified in the Constitutions of 1579. The title “Clerics

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Regular of St. Paul decapitated,” Fr Gabuzio explains almost quoting verbatim the Constitutions, “was kept for a long time, because those ancient Fathers thought to be according to their desires, that is, they tried to care not only for the doctrine of the Apostle, but also to imitate his sufferings” (Historia, 95). 4. The Mystic What seems to be often neglected is another aspect of Paul, which instead is the source for the theologian, the apostle, the martyr, the mystic Paul could be who he was, only because he had a profound experience of God. Our Apostle joins the list of the long tradition of Old Testament Fathers who met God during their earthly existence: Abraham, Moses, Elijah. It is not by chance that Zaccaria refers to Paul with the expression used by Scripture to designate Abraham “that true friend of God, Paul, said about himself and other faithful ministers: ‘God has revealed to us things that no prince of this world, that is, no philosopher nor wise man of the world, has known’”(Sermon II). We find this affirmation in a context which is particularly mystic in the Zaccarian writings: the Sermon III, where Anthony Mary distinguishes between two levels of Christian life: the one which, with a Pauline term, we could call the justification, destined for all, and the perfection, reserved only for the “friends.” “His Bounty gives us, unfaithful and deceitful servants and His enemies, many gifts in spite of our negligence; nevertheless, He does not want to give to anyone but his friends and faithful dis-

ciples the gift of perfection, the taste of God, the knowledge of His secrets” (Sermon III). Model of these “friends,” to whom God reveals his secrets, is precisely Paul, he who encounters Christ on the road to Damascus, the Paul who, ruptured to third sky, hears words which cannot be uttered (II Cor. 12:4).

Conclusion: Anthony Alter Paul
From what we have been saying up until now, we can conclude that Zaccaria somehow must be considered as an alter Paul. We can truly say that in the 16th century, Anthony Mary incarnated, if not the person, for sure the spirit of the Apostle. A vision which does not go against our Catholic faith. The book of Wisdom says, “ And she, who is one, can do all things, and renews everything while herself perduring; And passing into holy souls from age to age, she produces friends of God and prophets” (Wis 7:27). It is the same divine Wisdom, the same Holy Spirit, who age by age, enters in the Saints, often with the same characteristics. It is possible that the spirit of Paul, which was nothing else by the Spirit of God possessed by Paul, could relive 1500 years later in Anthony Mary. I believe that this answers a need inherent in the economy of salvation: the apostolic charisms, somehow, must perpetuate themselves in the Church throughout its history. Therefore, as Peter’s charism is perpetuated in the Church especially through the ministry of the Roman Pontiff, so the Pauline charism somehow must continue to be present in the Church through the centuries. This

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happens through some saints who have lived St. Paul’s spirit during their time. Among them our Founder, who in a particular way has identified himself with the Apostle. Zaccaria too is not anymore on this earth, and therefore he cannot make Paul present in the Church and in the contemporary society. Anthony Mary, differing from other “Pauline souls” always present in the history of the Church, has founded a religious family which has inherited his charism. We are the ones to render present in the world the spirit of the Apostle; his Paul, the Paul of Anthony Mary, becomes then our Paul. Are we up to this vocation? Are we really ready to be the carriers of Paul’s charism in the world of today? If this question refers to the presence in us of the spirit of the Apostle, then, I believe we have to answer in the affirmative. When we think of the number of apostolic activities carried on by the meager number of religious, when I think of the untiring work done by Barnabites and Angelics of today, when I think of their continuous availability, I cannot help but think that it is the spirit of Paul that drives them; Caritas Christi urget nos (II Cor 5:14). If we, then, think of the missionary spirit which has always animated our Congregation, how can we not think that she continues to imitate her “divine Father,” made all to all to save some at any cost? But if we look at the exterior forms of our Paulism, perhaps, some reflection is needed. Fr. Bonini in a

communication at the week of spirituality in Lodi 1980, made this observation. In a certain period of our history (as acknowledged by our historians) the ideal of Paul has become weaker in favor of the Holy Founder. Now, besides the good tradition of dedicating some of our churches to St. Paul, and some of the things expressed in the Constitutions, whatever happened to the Paulism of the origins? In reading Fr. Boffito, I have realized the outstanding accomplishments of many scholarly confreres in many fields of knowledge, but on St. Paul there is very little. In Rome we have, thanks be to God, a well equipped library on St. Paul, but our Congregation, the first to be dedicated to St. Paul, does have produced as yet a scholar on St. Paul.” ... I think today we have reached a balance between acknowledging the leading role of the Holy Founder, and the natural position of Paul in a Congregation dedicated to him. Anyway, the Zaccarian studies should lead us to this. Anthony Mary is by nature a son and disciple of Paul; to say Zaccaria, it means to made a reference to Paul … For Anthony Mary, the following of Christ had passed through the Apostle: we follow Christ, following Paul; we imitate Christ, imitating Paul. Still today, we can describe the relationship between Zaccaria and Paul with the phrase: “Cor Antonii, cor Pauli.” We can add to it, “cor autem Pauli, cor Christi,” a phrase which, then, would summarize our spirituality. As we turn to our Founder, we find Paul. Once we find Paul, we will have found Christ.

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fruits of righteousness that come through Jesus Christ for the glory and praise of God. (Cf. Philippians 1:9-10). April: That the Son of God, born of a woman and under the law, to ransom those under the law, so that we might receive adoption as children of God – will make us aware that his Spirit, who cries out “Abba! Father,” constitutes us brothers and sisters and coheirs with him. (Cf. Galatians 4:4-7). May: That the God of perseverance and encouragement grant us to live in harmony with one another, following the example of Christ Jesus – so that with one accord we may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. (Cf. Romans 15:5-6). June: That our conversation be always sincere and unequivocal – as was Christ’s faithfulness to the promises of God. (Cf. 2 Corinthians 1:19-20). July: That, having crucified our flesh with its passions and desires, we may live by the Spirit – bearing fruits of love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. (Cf. Galatians 5:16-25).

August: That, as we are being rooted and grounded in love, we may have the power to comprehend the love of Christ that surpasses all knowledge – so that we may be filled with all the fullness of God. (Cf. Ephesians 3: 17-19). September: That, we do not allow our difficulties and limitations crush us, confident that the Lord – can use even our every adversity to advance the gospel. (Cf. Philippians 1:12-18). October: That, following the example of Christ, who though he was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor – we may seek no other wealth except Christ himself and his poverty. (Cf. 2 Corinthians 8:9). November: That, as men of God we pursue righteousness, devotion, faith, love, patience, gentleness – and fight the good fight of the faith to take hold of the eternal life, to which we were called. (Cf. 1 Timothy 6:11-12). December: That, the Lord Jesus, new Adam, source of justification and life for all people – grant us the grace to imitate his obedience that destroys the deadly dynamic of sin. (Cf. Romans 5: 12-21).

January: That stripped of the old self with its practices and clothed with the new self, we may be renewed in the image of our Creator – and live in communion with persons of every culture and standing so that Christ may be all in all. (Cf. Colossians 3: 9-11). February: That the word of Christ dwell in us abundantly in all its richness – and that all we do, in words and deeds, be done in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him. (Cf. Colossians 3: 16-17). March: That our love may abound more and more with knowledge and full insight – that we may always discern what is best and be pure and blameless for the day of Christ, filled with the

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The Paulism of St. Anthony Mary Zaccaria

nthony Mary Zaccaria, the founder of the Clerics Regular of St. Paul, the Angelic Sisters of St. Paul, and a third order of laity called the “Laity of St. Paul,” was proclaimed a saint by Pope Leo XIII, on May 27, 1897. In a speech the Pope proclaimed that St. Paul the Apostle was a master from whom Anthony Mary had developed his thought, his activity, his life. “He enjoyed the letters of St. Paul so much that he took them as the model, both in doctrine and behavior, and invoked him as an intercessor to Our Lord Jesus Christ. And Paul was always there ... Paul was always before Anthony’s eyes; he had Paul, his patron, stirring in his heart and always prayed to Christ Crucified with Paul’s name on his lips.” In stating that Paul was his master, and he a servant of Paul, we are stating that Anthony Mary derived his identity from the Apostle Paul. We can say this on the premise that “a servant compared with someone who simply performs services, identifies with the master, deriving a sense of personal identity from him.” However, it is not only that we say that Anthony Mary lives through Paul, but also that Paul continues to live and function through Anthony Mary. “The Holy Founder of the Barnabites, with an ardent heart as that of Paul, took as a model to his children the Apostle of the Gentiles.” Hopefully, the Pauline spirituality as presented through this work will enlighten the mind of the reader to the dynamism and modern application of this unfamiliar saint. It is this Pauline spirituality which we wish to present, this Pauline spirituality of Anthony Mary Zaccaria that affected the Church of the Reformation era, and still today affects the Church through those who follow in his footsteps.

A

The Paulism of St. Anthony Mary Zaccaria
by Fr. Mike M. Mancusi, CRSP

Our purpose is to examine the Pauline thought of St. Anthony M. Zaccaria, from its origins to its final form in the interior and exterior manifestations of our Holy Founder

2. Paul is Chosen as Anthony’s Patron and Model
Most religious congregations have some patron saint other than the founder associated with their congregation. Anthony Mary chose for his followers St. Paul, as he had already chosen him as his personal patron and model. 2.1 Similarity in their Characters Anthony M. Zaccaria found in St. Paul a great deal of himself, as his entire being captured the strength and temperament of the Apostle Paul, “Paul was the one most suiting to his temperament and ideals of reform, proclaiming the need of a radical renewal.” Many aspects of their characters were similar. It was the Christ-event of the Cross that stirred their souls to preach a reform aimed to the love of neighbor and the glory of God, “they both had strong and quivering souls, roused by the bloody reality of the Crucified Lord which enlightened and guided their work.” Using today’s terminology, we can say that both souls were open to the Spirit, letting it blow where He wished. They listened to the movement of the Spirit within their souls for they both had the same tenderness that links them together and “allows the Spirit to enlighten their souls” We can say that in reading the works of St. Anthony Mary, we seem to be reading St. Paul. When we meditate on the epistles of Paul we unknowingly

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find ourselves meditating on the letters of Anthony Mary. That which moved Paul also moved Anthony Mary. The two saints, who preached a metanoia for theirs times, “were of one heart and mind” (Acts 4:32). “It certainly can be said of Anthony Mary that he was the most faithful imitator of his Paul. Thus, the Zaccarian Paulism can be summarized in the formula familiar to every Barnabite, “Cor Antonii, Cor Pauli” (the heart of Anthony, the heart of Paul). There was a certain character about their lives that kept them in touch with the reality in which they lived, spiritually and temporally. This enabled their apostolates to grow, not only in size, but in the depth of their love for God and neighbor. “They both felt their work as an irresistible urge to expand; they considered the austerity of their life as a control against illusions and, therefore, a guide for their steps.” Paul boasted of nothing other than the Cross of Jesus. It is in this same Cross of Jesus that Anthony Mary found a source of grace in his work. Because of their openness to the movement of the Spirit in their lives, they realized that their work could not be measured as their own but only in their personal ongoing conversion to allow the Spirit to work through every aspect of their character. “For they were both humble when experiencing success.” Because they lived in the newness of life in the Spirit, with the Cross always before their eyes, they both experienced a foretaste of the life of glory through the fruits of the Spirit (Gal 5:16-25). In times of persecution they were so united with Jesus, they allowed themselves figuratively to be crucified with Him. They both spoke of themselves suffering for and with Christ (I Cor 4:8-13). As Paul accepted his persecution in a Christian manner, so

Anthony Mary Zaccaria learns from the Apostle Paul the sublime wisdom of the Cross G. Mercoro, 1763

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did Anthony Mary. (This is exemplified in St. Anthony Mary’s “Magna Carta” of his Pauline and Christocentric spirituality: his speech of October 4, 1534). For as Jesus was forced to suffer and die on the cross and then be vindicated in the new life of the Resurrection, so will those who suffer in Jesus be vindicated for they, too, live in the newness of the divine life of the Resurrection (Rom 6:1-11). Therefore, both Paul and Anthony “were steady in times of sorrow and persecution.” Both Paul and Anthony can say together with one heart, “I have preached faith in Our Lord Jesus Christ, and now I fear no danger. I do not count my life more precious than my work, to finish my course, of preaching and proclaiming the good news of God’s grace. I am not ashamed of the Gospel.” Thus, these two saints continued their lifestyles and preaching. St. Anthony Mary was vindicated not only by being acquitted in the courts, but also by Pope Paul III himself who “ratified the method of life of the Saint and his sons, and with the name of the Clerics of St. Paul, convoked them immediately under the jurisdiction of the Holy See.” It is obvious that St. Anthony M. Zaccaria found his character in St. Paul, his master and guide. The times needed a man with the Pauline thought of a meta-

noia and who would bring to it the spiritual vitality of Paul. It was through Anthony Mary’s reception of the gifts of the Holy Spirit that he was able to capitalize on the actual graces that God offered him.
“God poured into Anthony Mary’s heart all the elements of character, of a cast made to resound to any urge of Saint Paul’s spirit. He also enriched Anthony Mary’s will with the resolution and decision as well as generous undauntedness, thus allowing him to gather and absorb all common elements and make them spring up and bring forth fruit.”

2.2 The Attraction Found in St. Paul Since the Church’s very beginning, especially with the Fathers of the Church, there has been a great attraction toward the Apostle Paul who has always had a great influence on all. Anthony Mary is no exception. Through the knowledge of Paul’s personality, by means of his studies, and especially through Paul’s epistles, Anthony M. Zaccaria was also taken into the attraction for Paul as he opened his heart to him. Anthony Mary grew with a deep and ardent love for the Apostle beyond that of the ordinary Christian. He developed an “inspiring love and a passionate study of the Apostle, peculiar

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to the Dominican tradition, recalling that of John Chrysostom.” This was alluded to earlier in the speech of Pope Leo XIII when he said that “Paul was always before Anthony’s eyes.” This speech of St. John Chrysostom (to which various authors refer) opens his first homily on the letter to the Romans:
As I keep having the Epistles of the Blessed Paul read, and that twice every week, and often three or four times, whenever we are celebrating the memorials of the holy martyrs, gladly do I enjoy the spiritual trumpet, and voice so dear to me, and seem to fancy him all but present to my sight, and to behold him conversing with me. But I grieve and I am pained that all people do not know this man as much as they ought to know him, as not even to know for certain the number of his epistles. And this comes not of incapacity, but of their own not having the will to be continually conversing with this blessed man. For it is not through any natural readiness and sharpness of wit that even I am acquainted with as much as I do know, if I do know anything, but owing to a continual cleaving to the man, and an earnest affection towards him.

wards Paul’s footsteps to lead them to their Lord. We only have to look at the names of a few: The Missionary Society of St. Paul founded by Isaac Hecker; The Society of St. Paul founded in Malta; the Company of St. Paul founded by Cardinal Ferrari; the Society and the Daughters of St. Paul founded by Don Alberione, etc. What must be noted is that Anthony Mary and his followers were the very first religious to call upon the name of Paul. “That the Barnabites and the Angelics were the first two religious orders that took their name and their program from Paul is a fact.” The preoccupation that St. Anthony Mary had for the Apostle Paul and how this influenced his second foundation, the Angelic Sisters of St. Paul, can be found in a manuscript of the Angelic Sfondrati:
His desire to honor God and save souls was so upright and burning that it suggested the Angelics of St. Paul to choose this particular name, making the Apostle stand out amidst all others as a furnace of love for God, and made by God himself an object of choice and grace -being so alert in his charity to neighbor and so perfect in this virtue (as all saints can testify) - the Angelics thought that they should never give up imitating him; neither should they ever waiver from his doctrine and example.

These words can easily be placed into the mouth of our Holy Founder for he constantly studied, meditated on, and preached the Apostle. It was the Apostle Paul and his thoughts that filled Anthony Mary’s soul with a deep and ardent love for God through Christ Crucified and the Eucharist. His love for Paul brought him closer and closer to the glory of Crucified Lord. From Pope Paul III who ratified his Pauline mode of life, to Leo III who proclaimed him a saint, and recent Pontiffs, all have emphasized the deep and binding relationship between the Apostle Paul and St. Anthony Mary. Not only have Anthony Mary and the Barnabites been attracted to Paul the Apostle, but many other founders and their congregations have looked to-

We see that the attraction with the personality and the writings of Paul the Apostle has grown since the birth of the Church. It was St. Anthony M. Zaccaria who was attracted by the Apostle Paul and it was the Apostle Paul who instilled in him an ardent love for Christ Crucified and gave him the strength needed to carry out his spiritual mission.

3. Development of the Devotion to St. Paul
Anthony Mary’s development of the devotion to St. Paul is an interesting and important factor in discussing his Pauline thought.

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3.1 Origins “It is certain that Anthony Mary had, since the very first years, a particular veneration for St. Paul, and as soon as he could enjoy his scripts, he found spiritual benefit in reading the epistles and fondly meditating over them.” The previous statement by the learned Father Moltedo can easily be accepted. However, there remains one problem. What significance do the words ‘since the very first years’ have? It could easily be applied to his childhood as it is taken for general knowledge that he often meditated on those things that he had learned in the church. However, there are no valid documents that can testify definitively to this. Another possibility is that he became devoted to St. Paul through his friendship with Serafino Aceti da Fermo, a Lateran Canon, while at the University of Padua. This possibility is much more credible than the former since our young Founder often preached in the small church of San Vitale after leaving Padua. Again, however, there are no existing documents that would validate such a possibility. It is most plausible, though, that this holy friendship with Serafino Aceti did develop some Pauline thought within Anthony Mary. Nevertheless, the only other possibility is through the abiding advice of his spiritual director, although not much is known about him. More than likely, through the openings from his studies and friendships at Padua, it was this Dominican spiritual director who was the one to spark the flame of Anthony Mary’s burning love for the Apostle Paul. “It will be this holy friar (Fra Marcello) to initiate the Founder to the studies of theology and thusly, to the studies of the Fathers of Scripture, and Thomas Aquinas. The Scriptures, especially the letters of St. Paul, can be found in the spirit of his thought.” As the Holy Founder was preaching and gathering groups to catechize at San Vitale, Fra Marcello propelled him to the aforementioned studies to deepen his understanding of the truths

of faith. To any student who studies the Fathers or Thomas Aquinas, an understanding of the theology of the epistles must come to light. “The Apostle Paul emerges at the very start to whoever wants to penetrate Catholic theology and leads him throughout the study giving him as research material his luminous inspired epistles.” As a side note it is also very possible that Anthony Mary’s veneration and imitation of Christ Crucified could have been nurtured by Paul with some help from the works of Thomas Aquinas. His studies of Thomas Aquinas, which could most likely have led him to an ardent love for the Apostle, is well-attested to. It is St. Thomas who says that “The Cross exemplifies every virtue.” We also know that Anthony Mary’s mother formed him in the virtuous life. All this may have had an impact on him, causing him to delve deeper into the meaning of the cross and thus St. Paul, to whom the cross-event of Christ is a central aspect of theology. “It was from Fra Marcello, perhaps, that young Zaccaria arrived at the certainty of Catholic doctrine, acquired the zest for the Word of God, especially the letters of St. Paul, and the ardor for preaching the revealed truth.” However, it must be noted that it was under the direction of Fra Battista da Crema that Anthony Mary embraced the priesthood. It was under the Dominican’s direction that he more seriously “dedicated himself to the study of the Bible and Thomistic theology, particularly the letters of St. Paul and the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas,” and often frequented the monastery of the Dominicans. “He availed himself of the study of the Bible from Fra Marcello and more particularly from Fra Battista da Crema, a man of vast cultural theology and a profound knowledge of Sacred Scripture, especially of St. Paul as was typical to the Dominicans.”

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While he was preparing for the priesthood, under the guidance of the Preaching Friars, Anthony Mary was not only a student of the works of St. Thomas Aquinas, but soon found that it was Paul who was the central figure in the study of any aspect of Catholic theology because, “to the student of theology, that is to the one preparing for the priesthood ... St. Paul appears as the great Master, the Doctor par excellence.” We can see that, beginning with the influence of his maternal schooling towards the virtuous life, under the direction of Fra Marcello and more intensely under Fra Battista da Crema, it was Paul the Apostle and his writings that were to be planted and nurtured into the soul of Anthony Mary Zaccaria. Through his studies for the priesthood, Paul was to enflame and enrich his heart through the sacred theology of the Apostle’s epistles, through the stud-

3.2 Master and Teacher of Truth As we said at the start of this paper, a servant finds his identity from that of his master. The Holy Founder sought to find his identity in St. Paul, the one upon whom he grew to consider the Master of Truth. The young priest tends to be dogmatic and theoretically systematic. The same applies to Anthony Mary for “like every newly-ordained priest, Anthony Mary often sounded theoretic (systematic), his emphatic style showing traces of the teachings of Dominican theologians.” This is verified in the first few Sermons of the newly ordained priest. Anthony Mary had a “clear and synthetic mind ... for his writing of the youthful sermons manifested an orderly logic and an inclination to the precision of concepts.” Thus, like every young student of St. Thomas, Anthony Mary sought the truths of

ies of the Fathers of the Church, and through his study of the works of Thomas Aquinas. Thus, we can basically state that it was under the guidance of the Order of Preachers that Anthony Mary was to be nourished into the devotion of the Apostle Paul for the “experience on university life and the first apostolic years enriched Anthony Mary. Undoubtedly, conferring to his thought the constant desire for a concrete life. Overall, the meeting with the person and the doctrine of St. Paul will give a distinctive mark to the spirituality of Anthony Mary.”

the faith in Scripture and systematic logic. It was in the writing of St. Paul that he was able to find the truths of Christianity and for the desperately needed reform of the times. He, therefore, confessed the words, thoughts, and actions of Paul as representative, or rather as an explanation, of the one and only Truth, Jesus Christ. “When writing them (the Sermons), Zaccaria considered Paul as the Master of Truth, as an object of study, admiration, and contemplation. He is the

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master of excellence,” for his very thought is based upon the Truth of Jesus. Throughout Anthony Mary’s sermons we can find scattered such statements as “Paul says that…,” “It is by the Apostle that ... ,” “The Apostle Paul testifies that. .. “
Paul says that the love of money is the cause and root of every evil (I Tim 6:10) and avarice which is ‘in effect an idolater’ (Eph 5:5) And our Savior said that avarice is the cause of the extinction of charity, saying. ‘Because the iniquity of many will be overwhelming, charity will be extinguished’ (Mt 24: 1). And Paul says that in these last times men who are self-centered, grasping, boastful, arrogant, and rude, and followers of their own opinions, will dominate (I Tim 3:1-3)” (Sermon I).

What is most interesting is the manner in which the Holy Founder writes this section of the Sermon. He first quotes Jesus speaking to the Apostles from John 15:15. Having referred to Jesus as the Incarnate Truth, he then turns to Paul, calling him the true friend of this Truth, by quoting I Cor 2:6, and continues the thought by quoting Jesus both in Matthew 11:25 and Luke 21: 15. (Note that all these quotes are associated with wisdom, prudence, or revelation.) In being at the summit of spiritual life, that is friendship with God, Paul can easily be considered an object of contemplation. However, considering the fact that Anthony Mary calls Paul “the true friend of God,” and having placed this statement among quotes on the wisdom of God revealed to men as spoken by the “Incarnate Truth,” we can easily assume that Paul is not to be just ‘considered as’ but, for Anthony Mary, ‘definitely is’ an object of contemplation as the Master and Teacher of Truth. It is from here that we must treat the insights of Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII) into that mentioned above: “To the school of Paul, the future founder took that richness and depth of doctrine which would make Anthony Mary a very good teacher, enabling him to teach others: St. Paul can say to Anthony Mary, ‘Now you are the executor of my doctrine.’ Which doctrines do his listeners hear? That out of which the Apostle judged there is none greater, namely Jesus and Jesus Crucified as the power and wisdom of God. To the school of Paul, Anthony Mary

As most seminarians have learned in an homiletics class, the one who preaches should leave his congregation with a conclusion to contemplate and study, to put forward into their lives Anthony Mary again is no exception. Concluding the section on the necessity of the virtue of charity in his Sermon IV, IV the Holy Founder uses the thoughts and words of Paul as the source of contemplation, because Paul has captured the essence of Truth and, therefore, is the Master of Truth to be studied and devoured. Fr. Ghilardotti says that to Anthony Mary, “the Apostle Paul himself is considered as an object of contemplation.” We can, therefore, presume that it is not only the writings of St. Paul that must be contemplated but also the person of Paul himself who assimilated the Truth into his very being. “In fact, after establishing that spiritual life reaches his highest in the friendship with God, Zaccaria adds that Paul is a Master and Model of such a perfect condition.” Fr. Ghilardotti is alluding to the section of Anthony Mary’s Sermon III where he says, “that true friend of God; Paul...” (p. 97).

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knew that the foolishness of God is better than the foolishness of man, such as the weakness of God is stronger than the weakness of man. Here is the great mystery hidden in our redemption, in the healing of our misery. Cardinal Pacelli perceives that it is in Paul that Anthony Mary was able to deduce the truths and the Truth of our faith. This deduction could only occur after much study, meditation, and contemplation in order that the hidden mystery be revealed. It is only through the wisdom of Paul that Anthony Mary could perceive this r evelation of the hidden truths of the faith. Due to the climate of the times, these truths and Paul had been hidden. It was Anthony Mary who again found them by seeking and developing his devotion to St. Paul as the Doctor par excellence and a true friend of Truth itself. St. Anthony Mary found that the truth and doctrine that Paul rallied upon was that of Christ Crucified. It became the same rallying call for Anthony Mary. Most of his writings are based upon the Christevent of the cross. It is to this that he constantly referred in his sermons, speeches, advice, and letters while referring to the Apostle at the same time. Thus, Cardinal Pacelli is correct in stating that Anthony Mary has become the executor of the doctrine of Paul. It is in this doctrine of Paul, the rallying call of Anthony Mary, that we find the culmination of the teachings of Truth itself. It is because of this development in his devotion to St. Paul that we find that “the letters of St. Paul have always been an object of study and meditation on the part of the children of St. Anthony M. Zaccaria. In the first Constitutions, written by Anthony Mary himself, he suggested for study the words of Scripture, especially the works of Paul: “The Brothers ought to study Sacred Scripture, and avidly take delight in understanding and comprehending it so as to uncover and bring to light its hidden meanings” (Chapter VIII). Thus it must have been, as stated by Fr. Moltedo, that Anthony Mary “was always studious of Paul’s epistles and delighted in them all.”

From the above, as detected by various biographers and postulators for the canonization cause, Anthony Mary grew steadily in his development of devotion to St. Paul It was through this devout study and ardent contemplation of this true friend of God that our Holy Founder was able to discover the hidden mystery of the truths of the faith. It was by studying and contemplating Paul as the Master and Teacher of Truth that Anthony Mary was able to preach the central doctrine of St. Paul, namely, Jesus and Jesus Crucified. 3.3 Master and Teacher of Life Jesus said, “I am the way, the truth, and the life” (Jn 14:6). It was through his cradling devotion to Paul that Anthony Mary was ensured that Jesus is the Way. In the development of this devotion Anthony Mary looked upon St. Paul as the Master of Truth and thus called upon Jesus as Incarnate Truth. It is in seeking out Paul as the Master and Teacher of Life that Anthony Mary looked upon Jesus as Life. As Anthony Mary saw the truths of the faith in Jesus through Paul as the Master of Truth, so too “with the doctrine of Paul, Anthony Mary also followed the form of his (Paul’s) life, for he made himself an illuminated likeness of his life, for it says: ‘Be imitators of me brothers ... according to the model that you see’ (Phil 3:17).” The model that Anthony Mary saw was not only Paul but Jesus Himself, for the Apostle tells us that “it is not I who live but Christ who lives in me” (Gal 2:20). When St. Paul said to be his imitators that is exactly what Anthony Mary did, even to the point of his style of writing. It can be said that “the figure of St. Anthony Mary emulated the Apostle Paul.” In every aspect of his life, Anthony Mary was illuminated by the doctrines and the life of St. Paul. Anthony Mary grasped one of the principal themes of St. Paul and preached it with the vigor of Paul. “He preached life with a potency of the figure of

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Paul and his spirit, a life that arrived and placed itself in Jesus Christ.” In the spirit of Paul, he preached Paul’s metanoia from death to life. “For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus Our Lord” (Rom 6:23). “The concept of the life of Christ continued and extended in the Church to each of its individual members is one of the great Pauline themes and one of his most original insight.” Anthony Mary was able to totally grasp Paul’s insight and, thus, his devotion to the Apostle grew to call upon him as Master of Life. Where is this life to be found that Anthony Mary preached? It is to be found in Jesus Our Lord, particularly through his death and resurrection. Therefore, like Paul, Anthony was to preach a new life in the Spirit of the Risen Lord by the power of the cross. Theologically it is very sound, but also very sacramental. Thus, part of the reform of life that Anthony Mary preached was a return to the life-giving sacraments, especially the Eucharist and devotion to the Eucharist in order to nourish the life within us. Thus it is “from St. Paul that Anthony Mary apprehended two strong ideas: the central position of Christ in the Christian life and the impetus of reform.” St. Paul had become the Master to learn from in every aspect of

Anthony Mary’s life. The Holy Founder was the one to see the truths of the doctrines of Paul and learn to live in them and place his life as such. It is in living the life that Paul called forth from him that Anthony Mary lived the life of Jesus Christ. “The hero (Anthony Mary), illuminated in his mind by Paul’s doctrine and enriched in the operations of his will from his love of Paul, was vehemently yearning of following the Apostle’s thought: ‘Now you are the executor of my doctrine, institution, and thoughts. You have learned which is my sincere and entire teaching; which is my way of life, ministry of reconciliation and peace between God and Man. Learn now which is my thought, that I look for in the office and in the fatigue of my apostolate, not personal advantages but the glory of God through Christ, not just what is useful to the multitude, but rather to make yourself all things to all for the salvation of all. “And so it is this that is the rallying call behind Anthony Mary, that is, the goal for which he aims at with thought, with will, with work.” From the above quote of Cardinal Pacelli, we see that Anthony Mary was not only to preach the doctrine of Paul but to live it. It became his everything: ‘to become all things to all’ ‘for the glory of God through Christ.’

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However, this is not just the outside we see but the very life that caused Anthony Mary to breathe. It was the apostolate of dying to oneself in order to have life eternal in Jesus Christ. Fr. Confalonieri tells us that “his (Paul’s) thought was constantly compared to his (Anthony’s) action; it was his apostolate’s mainspring, the aim of all his endeavors.” Here we first see that the thought and doctrine of Paul acted somewhat as a guiding line. This would lead Anthony Mary to his Crucified Lord in glory and steer him correctly and directly. The writings of Paul became the ten commandments to live rightly for God and neighbor. Secondly, we see that it was Paul who became the stimulus of all of Anthony’s work. The thought of Paul acted as both the starting and finishing line in which the race of life was lived. Anthony Mary also speaks of running a race like Paul, for the Founder says: “Let us rush like madmen not only to God, but also to our neighbor” (Letter II), through whom we reach God. It was in Paul that Anthony Mary found the means to render glory to God, and love of neighbor as the way of loving God. “Furthermore, so necessary is this love that Paul wished to be an anathema for his brethren” (Rom 9:3). “Throughout the whole Scripture, my friend, you find that God sets up our neighbor as an instrument to reach His Majesty” (Sermon IV). Sermon IV From what has been said we can see then that “the thought of Paul became the point of comparison, the way of evaluating his every action, the force to raise his apostolate, and the loving physiognomy for the sons and daughters of his personal paternity.” Thus it was that Anthony Mary showed the Barnabites, the Angelics, and the Laity their moral code in Paul: “He showed them their leader and model” in living the life in which they were called: first as Christians and then as religious. This he spoke of in the October 4 speech. “Because we have chosen as our Guide and Father such an

Apostle, and we are proud to be his followers, let us make the effort to follow his teaching and example in our life.” St. Anthony M. Zaccaria is most known for his love and example of Christ Crucified. He was to receive this also from St. Paul as the pivotal point of all his thought. “The wise Paul, who wanted to be, in actual life and in the opinion of all, a living example of Christ Crucified” (Letter IX) became for Anthony Mary the master, the teacher, and the model of life which was constantly burning with the ardor of Christ Crucified. We can deduce then that Paul was the logical choice as the Master and Teacher of a life grounded in Jesus. However, St. Paul was not only the teacher of that life, but through his own example and writings, we can say that “St. Paul was the standard of living” for Anthony Mary.

4. Assimilation of Pauline Spirituality
In examining the Pauline thought of St. Anthony M. Zaccaria, it is only logical that we examine the assimilation of Pauline spirituality. 4.1 Spiritual Influence of Paul upon the Interior Working of St. Anthony Mary On the 400th anniversary of the approval of the Order of the Clerics Regular of St. Paul (February 18, 1533, by Pope Clement VII), the Superior General at that time, Fr. Ferdinando Napoli, received a letter from Pope Pius XI attesting to the Paulism of our Founder. “Your Founder has chosen as patron and model the Apostle St. Paul, faithfully embracing his doctrine interiorly, especially those of Christ Crucified.” Various authors have cited that Anthony Mary was the perfect and most faithful imitator of St. Paul, emphasizing upon the Barnabites, saying that their hearts had become one.

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As a scholar of literature captures within his entire being the works of his most cherished author or poet, his words are so often on his lips that they become his own. The same applies to Anthony Mary and his most cherished guide and model. Fr. Giuseppe Motta has found all interesting fact in his studies on this aspect. He states that, “Fr. Gabuzio and Fr. Secchi often repeated that the Founder always had at hand and on his lips Paul’s teachings; they used two very peculiar verbs: ‘dictitabat’ and ‘lectitabit.’” Thus, like the learned professor of a university, Paul was embedded into the very essence of Anthony Mary’s being. It is here that it would be most fitting that we should quote the scholarly Fr. Angelo Confalonieri:
He mastered St. Paul’s deepest thoughts, and assimilated them so that they became his own. His thought was constantly compared to his action; it was his apostolate’s mainspring, the aim of all his endeavors; the countenance he hoped for his spiritual children to attain. It even suggested the name for his religious families: Clerics Regular of St. Paul, and the Angelic Sisters of St. Paul.

most effectiveness and spontaneity. In his constant attempt to resemble Paul, there are the deep and strong concepts, which always refer to the content or spirit of Paul’s writings. His quotations from St. Paul appear quite frequently, especially in his sermons. However, they are not always exact quotations. At least one word is changed or there is a slight difference from the original text. Thus, the Holy Founder was quoting from and by heart having had fully assimilated Paul’s writings in both his mind and heart. Another point that must be brought to light here is that Anthony Mary, in the original version of the sermons, never completed a citation of St. Paul. After some writing, he would complete the phrase with “etc.” This also demonstrates that he often quoted by heart the writings of the Apostle Paul. There are some who consider the original text of the sermons a “scriptural hodgepodge.” However, this does not reveal so much a jumbling of Pauline writings as an interiorization of Pauline thought. The saintly Anthony Mary had thought so much within his soul that, although we cannot understand where the “etc.” will lead, we are more than certain that a few quotes from Paul would enable the Founder to continue his quoting by simply only writing the note “etc.” Pope Paul V spoke of our Holy Founder as “a great figure…in the spirit of St. Paul.” Before Cardinal Pacelli was elected Pope Pius XII, he too spoke of St. Paul as being found in Anthony Mary: “in doctrine, in temperament, and intention of his aim.” The doctrine that Cardinal Pacelli was concerned

Let us take just one line from the above quote: “his thought was constantly compared to his action.” As mentioned previously, Anthony Mary considered the Apostle Paul to be the Teacher of Life. It was Paul who had become his moral code of living. One’s personal morality is considered one’s second nature. Thus, with Anthony Mary, Paul became so second nature to him that these two saintly men were one. A most impressive fact is that the “Magna Carta” of Anthony Mary’s Paulism (the famous speech of October 4, 1534), had been uttered with the ut-

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about is not just one but the entire thought of Paul. The temperament of soul was their common humility and steadfastness in the Lord, while the intention of his aim was the ongoing Pauline metanoia within himself, his followers, and within those to whom he preached. Cardinal Pacelli probably could have come to this above statement on Anthony Mary from the decree of canonization written by Pope Leo XIII, who says that Anthony Mary “saw himself in St. Paul, as the important author handed down, recreated ...” Anthony Mary often called upon St. Paul as his father. He could be likened to a child who listens to his parents and follows the norms set by them.
Should anyone ask me which was, besides the Lord’s grace, the secret of perfection which raised Anthony Mary above all mean (temporal) things that surrounded him, which was the star guiding him safely to the one and only Infinite Beauty, I should reply that it was his filial and operating love to the Apostle Paul. This operating love is certainly the most evident and tangible characteristic of the Founder.

4.2 Exterior Manifestations Within this area we wish to examine three aspects: a) the preaching of Anthony Mary, b) the spiritual direction offered by Anthony, c) an overall view of his writings in general. a) Preaching There are some who preach by their words and there are some who preach by their example. St. Anthony Mary was a man who did both. As an adolescent, after the Sunday Mass he “would gather the servants and others in the house into the little chapel... and from his heart, burning with love of God, he would repeat the truths he heard in the church and had meditated on himself. He not only taught, but he lived St. Paul’s words on charity by his disposition and heart full of compassion for the needy, both spiritually and temporally. It was during his first two years as a priest that he preached in the small church of San Vitale. It was here that he spoke of the truths of the faith, being filled with the spirit of Paul the Apostle, in order to bring others into a refining union with Christ. “Every ardent word, incisive and profound, inspired by Paul, nurtured intense love to Christ.” The subject of the preaching was not always the actual text of Paul’s epistles. When this was the case, the various subjects were preached in light of Paul’s teachings. “His speeches were based on and included a large number of Paul’s sayings and teachings.” However, “during feasts, Anthony Mary held lectures on St. Paul’s epistles to a vast laity that came to hear him.” “He preached with the intense force of Paul, whom he had diligently studied and communicated his thoughts of reforming one’s life to Jesus Christ.” In this way he delighted the populace, not in the words of human wisdom, but in the divine words of his Master and Guide, Paul the Apostle, for he

It was Anthony Mary who placed the filial admiration into his functioning form, therefore, allowing to flow through his faith “the illuminating quality of the Apostle of the Gentiles, which transforms the light and ardor of his children.” Therefore, this filial love and imitation became an operating force within Anthony Mary not only to imitate St. Paul but, rather, to live in St. Paul by having St. Paul to continue to live through him. We can, therefore, state clearly that the spiritual influence St. Paul had upon Anthony Mary’s interior workings had gone beyond just an influence but had become a lived reality. St. Anthony Mary could most probably have paraphrased St. Paul, saying that “it is no longer I who live but rather Paul who lives in and through me.”

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preached the metanoia of Paul. Thus, “St. Paul appears as the great Master, the Doctor par excellence for this is presented in his preaching.” The Sermons of Anthony Mary were filled with citations from Paul. “His listeners often heard, with an ardent spirit from Anthony Mary, the words of Paul as if sung a song.” It was not just the citations but the thought of Paul that prevailed in his preaching. The best example is the Speech of October 4, 1534, to his followers. It is so Pauline that it does not seem to be as much Anthony speaking with Pauline thoughts, but rather Paul speaking using the mouth of Anthony. Mary Many times we can see that Anthony Mary insists that “Paul preaches to them” (Letter IX). b) Spiritual Direction St. Anthony M. Zaccaria, as the Founder of three distinctive Institutes, was the director of many souls. Even before the foundation of the Angelic Sisters of St. Paul, Anthony Mary was the spiritual director of Countess Ludovica Torelli of Guastalla, and those young girls placed under his charge it was through St. Paul that he directed the souls coming to him: “Delighted in his patron, guide, and model, St. Paul was the stimulus to virtue and Anthony Mary derived the majority of his direction of souls from Paul’s words.” In his direction to the Angelics, our Founder says, “It is this that Paul preaches to them (the novices) a Christ Crucified in every way: Crucified not only in Himself but in them, too; and you beg them to chew well this one word” (Letter IX). It is in this that Anthony directed his daughters and Paul’s, not to devour their needs, but rather Christ Crucified.

He was preparing them for the constant battle between the Flesh and the Spirit (Rom 8:1-8). Thus, St. Anthony said that “It is not appropriate for them to babble ... Similarly not to deny themselves but to go after their desires, (which) would lead them to death, because their desires are of the flesh ... it would pull them completely out of the desire and life of Paul” (Letter IX). For Paul, the renewed man is no longer subjected to the law of the flesh but is under the grace of the Spirit. Anthony Mary saw that for Paul it was at the Resurrection that the Spirit-filled body of Jesus became the life source of all who believed and lived in Him (l Cor 15:45-49) and not in their own selfish desires. However, since man, although baptized, still lives in the flesh, there is a constant struggle between the old and the new man. For Anthony Mary, since man is coexisting in both the Spirit and the flesh, he must learn to walk by the Spirit (Gal 5:16-25) by listening to the law of the Spirit (Rom 7:6; .8:9-17) and nourishing himself with the Eucharist (I Cor 10:1-4). Thus, for Anthony Mary and Paul, man may now be in the flesh but it is not totally under the flesh, but under the Spirit since with the Christ-event of the cross we have been initiated into the new mankind of the Spirit. When Fr. Bartholomew Ferrari was living and preaching in Venice to spread the reform in that city, he believed his mission to be a failure. Anthony Mary’s words to the dejected Ferrari were the following, “Be sure, then, that you will build, on the foundations of Paul, structures neither of hay nor of wood, but of gold and precious stones

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(I Cor 3:12)” (Letter VI). Supporting him with the cross of Christ, Anthony Mary reminded him that we are always victorious in Jesus (Rom 8:37-39). Thus, Anthony Mary reassured Ferrari that the limit of his success to reform was only limited to the extent to which the Crucified Lord, and therefore the thoughts of Paul, preceded him. A basic point of Anthony Mary’s spirituality and his direction especially to the Angelic Sisters is the typology of the old man of Adam and the new man of Jesus Christ. From Paul, Anthony Mary sees that through the Christ-event of the cross and the Resurrection, we are now partaking of a new mankind in a new creation (2 Cor 5:17; Gal 6:15). The old has passed away and the new has dawned for those who believe and live in Jesus and put on Christ. Thus, for Anthony Mary, Paul was telling us that to live for one’s own self is to live in the old man of Adam to live in the flesh; yet, to live in the new man of Jesus is to live and walk in the freedom of the Spirit (Rom 6:15-19). “Look, they are absent from meditation, or they are always busy with exterior activities, or sleep in late, or they are just lazy” (Letter IX). This direction to Angelic Negri was saying that these Sisters nullify the new life found in Christ and His cross by their lukewarmness (a disease that Anthony Mary considers the greatest enemy of the cross). He continues by comparing these poor souls to the old man of Adam by calling it “Saul’s face.” Thus Paul is referred to the old man in the time of his conversion. Therefore, we hear again the entire call of Anthony for a Pauline metanoia, a conversion, a turning about. To partake of the divine life in the Spirit, man must live in Jesus or die by his relationship to Adam (I Cor 15:20-22). As stated, Anthony Mary’s apostolate was to preach a Pauline reform, a metanoia. Preaching can be given through example. Therefore, Anthony Mary said to the Angelic Negri in the same letter, “look

and see if when she talks she does not raven without noticing you, touching every aspect of your life ... look and see, if when she leaves you she always edifies you with a word” (Letter IX, 47-48). Based upon Galatians 5:22-26, Anthony Mary saw that in living in the Spirit, in walking in the Spirit (and not in the flesh of the old man), the Church is to be built up. Thus, in giving good example and building up one another, the fruits of the Spirit will flow forth abundantly. It is through these lived-out fruits that the community preaches and, at the same times, lives an ongoing Pauline metanoia. Therefore, deriving his direction from Pauline thought, Anthony Mary directed those who sought him, and those who were under his charge to live as one walking in the newness of the Spirit. However, because of the constant struggle between the flesh and the Spirit, there is need for constant conversion. Basically, this is a summation of the Pauline thought to be devoured by those who sought the direction of Anthony M. Zaccaria, a priest of the Apostle Paul (as he signed his name). c) Writings in General There are few existing writings of St. Anthony M. Zaccaria. Perhaps it is that he only wrote down a few things. However, those writings we do have give us the spiritual orientation and doctrine of the Holy Founder namely, they are Pauline in nature. We can state this clearly for, as Fr. Colciago says, “his discourses, as well his letters, were grounded in and weaved with the doctrine and sayings of the Apostle. In his letters he held a similar style to that of Paul and these took on a Pauline spirit.” Anthony Mary’s Sermon of October 4, 1534 to the fellow members of his congregations, given in the face of persecution, can be considered the saint’s “Magna Carta”. It is in this that we have “more than enough to prove that Paul represented the principal source of the whole Zaccarian thought.” Our Saint used the thoughts of St. Paul from 1Cor 4: 10-13; 2 Cor

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6:4’8; Rom 5:2-5; and 2 Tim 3:12 to build up the morale of his followers in the face of this persecution. Like Paul, Anthony Mary exhorted his followers not to think evil of their persecutors, for evil can only be overcome by goodness (Rom 12: 14-21). The Founder called Paul the guide, patron, and father of his followers throughout the sermon and cited, directly or indirectly, various quotes from the Apostle’s letters. At the conclusion of this discourse, Anthony called his followers to fidelity as children of Paul: “It would not be proper that in the ranks of such a commander there would be soldiers who are cowards or traitors, and it would not be proper that the sons of such a glorious Father would be degenerate” (Sermon VII). Throughout this sermon, and the Saint’s other writings, there is a strong emphasis on Christ Crucified. This is a central theme to both Paul and Anthony Mary. It was in the cross of Christ that we find the Christocentric Paulism of Anthony Mary. It was the understanding of the Crucified Christ, derived from Paul that he constantly set before his spiritual children. This cross was the perfect cause for the consummation of union with God and must be recognized as the charism peculiar to St. Anthony Mary. Excluding his thoughts on Christ Crucified, six principal points of Anthony Mary’s spirituality are derived from his writings. These have been deduced from Saint Paul, for “the most used and best expounded concepts are those taken from Paul’s epistles.” The first concept of Anthony Mary’s spirituality is that of the Incarnation. It is Jesus Incarnate who is the only one to restore man to the supernatural order. It is through the Incarnation that Jesus becomes the Mediator between God and man. Anthony Mary affirms this from Paul’s letters to the

Philippians (2:7) and to the Romans (8:22,32), and from the letter to the Hebrews (7:25) - which at that time was attributed to Paul. This is especially reflected in the Sermons that often quote these passages (Sermons I, IV, V, and VI). The second area to be considered in the spirituality of St. Anthony Mary is that of St. Paul’s typology of the dead in the old man of Adam and the living of the new man of Jesus Christ. In his second sermon Anthony Mary said, “Sanctification means to put off the old man - that is, the things of the past and the vices - and to put on the new man,” (Sermon III) for it is Paul who states directly that life is to be rooted in Jesus (1 Cor 15:20-22). Anthony Mary used this typology in his letter to Paola Antonia Negri concerning the Angelic Sisters, “‘Behold Saul,’ that is the face of our first man?” (Letter IX). Here Anthony Mary applied the typology to Paul before and after his conversion. From Paul’s letters we also learn of a need of a renewal or metanoia. Alluding to the aforementioned typology of the two men, Anthony sought this metanoia, this change of heart or conversion of ways of his followers. This metanoia that Saint Anthony Mary sought not only of his own but of all, could be easily seen in his Letter VII (using Rom 13:14 and 1 Tim 3:15) and in his second sermon, in which Paul was often quoted. A fundamental idea of Saint Anthony Mary was that of the theory of the two books of God. From Romans 1:20 the Founder saw that the cosmic revelation and biblical revelations are moments, or rather movements, of God’s revealing love for man. Creation (the first book), having been obscured by sin, can only be reoriented to its supernatural splendor through the redemption won for us in Christ (the second book).

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Another aspect of the Pauline spirituality seen in the writings of Anthony M. Zaccaria is the contrast of the slavery in the Old Testament to the law as compared to the freedom found in the New Testament. St. Anthony Mary said in his Sermon I that, “Especially to us Christians ... He has given a law of love, not of fear; of freedom of the spirit, not of slavery; and an inborn law in our hearts” (Sermon I, p. 70). He assumed this especially from the letter to the Romans (2:5), from Galatians (3:19-29; 4:1-7, 21-31) and the first letter to the Corinthians (3:18). It is in this that we are able to see a true profession of faith in the redemptive work of Jesus Christ. Of all the thoughts given to us from Paul, the most popular one is that on charity taken from his first letter to the Corinthians. St. Anthony Mary, by no means, was exempted from the effect of this thirteenth chapter of Paul’s letter upon him. It is the dynamism of his apostolate. In Anthony Mary’s Letter V, he asked V the Angelic Sisters of St. Paul to give “a proof of noble dedication to Christ Crucified ... longing to lead our neighbor to the attainment of perfection” (Letter V). Letter V However, it was in Sermon IV that Anthony M. Zaccaria summarized his though on charity:

Throughout the whole Scripture, my friend, you will find that God sets up your neighbor as an instrument to reach His Majesty. Therefore, do you want to climb to perfection? Do you want to gain some souls? Do you want to love God, be dear to Him and be a good child of His? Then, love your neighbor, orient yourself toward your neighbor, acquire a benevolent disposition toward your neighbor, excluding all malevolence (Sermon IV). Sermon IV Charity, therefore, was one of the most concrete aspects of Zaccaria’s metanoia. One no longer lives for oneself, but for God manifested in living for one’s neighbor. It is exactly in this point that we unite ourselves to Jesus and put on the new man living in the freedom of the Spirit. One fact must be pointed out that is definitely seen in Letter VII. The Barnabites and the Angelics are called the sons and daughters of Paul, stock of Paul. It is also here that Anthony Mary signs his name to this letter as “Anthony Mary Zaccaria, Priest of Paul the Apostle.” Pope Pius XI attests that our Holy Founder “has chosen as patron and model the Apostle Paul, faithfully embracing his doctrines interiorly, especially those to Christ Crucified.” We

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can affirm what the Holy Father and others have said for we have seen the manifestation of such in the writings of St. Anthony M. Zaccaria. 4.3 Christ Crucified and the Cross In our study of the Paulism of Anthony M. Zaccaria we must conclude with a point central to both saints; namely, Christ Crucified. We have been saying, directly or indirectly, that “the spirit of St. Anthony M. Zaccaria is taken from St. Paul and Jesus Crucified.” We must perceive that “the understanding of the Cross that St. Anthony Mary had taken from St. Paul, the great master, and that which he considered the perfect cause for the consummation of union with God ... must be recognized as the charism peculiar to St. Anthony Mary.” It is from this point of view that we wish to devote this last section of our study to that of the spirit of Christ Crucified found in Anthony Mary. Just prior to and following the time of the Vatican Council II, the emphasis had been placed on the Resurrection of Jesus Christ, and rightly so. The

Cross of Jesus has not been down-played; rather, the two have somehow meshed together into one, for the flower cannot bloom unless the seed dies. “Paul lives in Jesus, the pioneer and the perfecter of our faith, who for the joy set before Him, endured the cross. (Heb 12:1-2).” One must willingly accept the cross of Christ before one can enjoy the new life of the Resurrection. However, one can surely taste it in the victory of the cross. This is the doctrine as derived from Paul which Anthony Mary preached (Rom 6:1-8). We can find the concept and the exact words of “Christ Crucified on almost every page of Anthony Mary’s writings. There are many writings and sermons that Anthony Mary gave in the streets of Cremona and Milan that are not available to us today. Nevertheless, as a good follower of the Apostle Paul, Anthony Mary preached Christ and Christ Crucified,” for no follower of Paul can boast anything other than Christ and His Cross. With the works we do possess, we can see that “within every

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sermon of Anthony M. Zaccaria, he announced to all Christ Crucified.” As it has been stated earlier, preaching is not restricted to oratory skills. It was Anthony Mary to initiate the tolling of the church bells on Fridays to remind the people that it was of the hour that their Crucified Lord had died and won for them salvation. Fra Bono would toll the bells of the church “at three in the afternoon on Fridays to commemorate the Lord’s death, at which time Anthony Mary’s men and Ludovica’s girls would gather in the cathedral to meditate with heads bowed and arms outstretched. “ Thus, in this sermon of activity, Anthony Mary was to preach the Paulism of Christ Crucified without saying a single word yet saying so much. If we wish to give a summation of Anthony Mary we could say that “To love the Cross and to imitate the Cross was the work of Anthony M. Zaccaria” This was the work given to Anthony Mary by Paul - to be an imitator of Christ Crucified. Thus, in the speech of October 4, 1534, “Anthony Mary underlined the Crucified Lord by exhorting the fourth chapter of St. Paul to the Corinthians ... exhorting to give principally to the imitation of Christ by embracing the evangelical vows and the virtues together which is given to us in the Cross.” Thus, it was in the cross of Christ that we find the Christocentric Paulism of Anthony Mary. It was the understanding of the Crucified Christ, derived from Paul that he constantly set before his spiritual children The Christian aim is perfection. It is for this state of perfection that Anthony Mary set the cross before the eyes of his followers. “I promise you that Christ Crucified will give you such a high degree of perfection” (Letter X). The cross is the sign of the most perfect charity. “There is no greater love than this: to lay down one’s life for one’s friend” (Jn 15: 13). Therefore, “with the cross in their heart, and

with an ardent desire for perfect identification with Christ, the Angelics are able to run in the direction of perfect charity.” Here we see that the Angelic Sisters took to heart Anthony Mary’s sermon on charity and the words of his Letter II, which speak of the love of neighbor, “Let us rush like mad men not only to God (towards the cross), but also to our neighbor, for he is the one who receives what we cannot give to God” (Letter II). Anthony Mary sees the cross as the mode of perfect love, for he looks upon the Lord running to the cross, heedless of its shame, out of His love for man (Heb 12:2). In introducing a quote from a telegram to Father General received from Pope Paul VI, which speaks of Anthony Mary as “a restorer of the spiritual life and apostolate in the spirit of St. Paul,” Fr. Andrea Erba states “the message of the Gospel and of the cross of Christ was incarnated into the life of Anthony Mary.” Here the learned Barnabite historian combines the message of the cross with the spiritual renewal proposed through Paul. The constant spiritual metanoia of Paul is of an on-going dying to sin leading to the development of a virtuous life in Christ. Therefore, “the love for, and the imitation of Jesus Crucified was the principal intention and constant end which he proposed to the children in the practice of virtue.” Through Anthony Mary’s combined studies of Paul and Thomas Aquinas, he came to look upon the cross “as an example of how to act...for the cross exemplifies every virtue.” It was “in the cross and Christ Crucified that he indicated, to his sons and his Angelic daughters, the glory to which they had to strive.” Thus in seeking the virtuous life for his followers, “Zaccaria wanted in the Barnabites the imitation of Christ Crucified, the image of which is precisely the means for attaining the engraving of the cross into one’s heart.” We can, therefore, understand why

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the Holy Founder would wish to have the image of the cross before the minds of his children prior to every act. This also enhances the meditative action of kneeling with arms outstretched as mentioned earlier. It is from meditation and viewing the cross that Anthony Mary and his children were able to preach and live Christ Crucified for the purpose of the spiritual reform of the times. For Anthony Mary, like Paul, the cross became the school from which to learn how to live the virtuous life and the spiritual life. Anthony Mary could say, “the cross will become an illumination and guide for often he will say that Calvary is a great and sublime school.” It is from the cross that we learn the fundamental message of the Gospel and it is from the cross that we learn how to live. When difficulty

or an occasion arises in our life to which we do not know how to respond, Anthony Mary tells us to “talk and chat in a familiar way - as you do with me - with Christ Crucified, and ask him for advice” (Letter III). In seeking this advice from the Christ of the cross we respond virtuously to life; yet, at the same time, it is the virtuous life that leads us to the cross. “If you observe these things ... very easily you will become close to the Crucified Lord and the Cross” (ibid.). At the time of Paul, the cross represented to the Gentiles folly and foolishness The cross meant to them that human wisdom and knowledge were powerless to save (1 Cor 1:18-25). It was difficult Letter for them to see in the mystery of the cross that man needs God’s help which He gave in Jesus Crucified (1 Cor 2:1-2). “With a profound love for Christ Crucified, derived from the

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school of the Apostle Paul,” Anthony Mary was to preach the Pauline metanoia to the people of his times and to come upon the same difficult Letter. It was the “mystery of the cross as it penetrated St. Anthony M. Zaccaria” that gave him the strength of Paul to run the race of reforming the people of his times. Notice must be made of the habit of Anthony Mary of printing a cross on every piece of his works. “The sign of the cross was a habit of Zaccaria. In the original texts, in the upper margins of every page as inclusive to the title, the author traced the Greek initials of Christ Crucified, followed by a small cross” (IC.XC.+). Anthony Mary included Christ Crucified in all his works, not only in words but in design, and set it before him prior to each work as

a reminder to his audience, as well as to himself, of what awaited them and the style of life that should be led. This insignia also became a form of meditation for Anthony Mary and it is “in following the Apostle Paul which explains the banner of Christ Crucified.” “The Crucified Lord was for St. Anthony Mary an object of assiduous meditation, but more of a living affection.” This affection was lived out in his apostolic activity, likened to that of Paul. “Both of their energetic and vibrant souls have a love for God, excited by the crucial reality of the Crucified Lord ... that explains the majesty of their vast apostolic activity.” The apostolic activity of both St. Paul and St. Anthony Mary would carry them and their followers far from whom to preach Christ

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Reflections and Meditations

The Paulism of St. Anthony Mary Zaccaria

Crucified. Thus, Anthony Mary was able to say to his spiritual children that “Christ Crucified soon will send you to proclaim everywhere an energetic spirituality and zealous spirit” (Letter V). Letter V In living daily with Christ Crucified, Anthony Mary identifies each of his followers with Christ Crucified. In so doing, Christ becomes again victorious over sin in them. “A Christ Crucified in every way: Crucified not only in himself but in them, too” (Letter IX). This he addressed to the young novices of the Angelic Sisters. “Therefore, for every vocation it is necessary to participate in the sufferings of Christ.” Anthony Mary often writes about one disease that not only affected the people of his age but also that of today; namely, apathy or lukewarmness. Anthony Mary abhors any form of tepidity within anyone. “If by any chance you let lukewarmness get hold of you, you will not become spiritual but, sooner than you think, you will become carnal, and, to use a more appropriate term, very fast you will become like a Pharisee, rather than Christian and spiritual” (Letter XI), (Gal 5:16-25). Thus, for Anthony Mary “lukewarmness is the pestilence and major enemy of Christ Crucified.” It is Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli who truly captures the connection between Anthony Mary’s devotion to Paul and the devotion to Christ Crucified. “I can sense in him, in his soul, the abounding adora tion of Paul for Jesus, and Jesus Crucified.” We can verify this through the writings of the Saint himself. “Remember this: the one and the other Blessed father (St. Paul and Fra Battista) ... have given such a proof of noble dedication to Christ Crucified ... that if we ourselves would not have such an infinite desire for these things, we would not consider ourselves his sons and daughters” (Letter V). Again it is Cardinal Pacelli who tells us Letter V that Anthony Mary executed the doctrine of Paul. It is the doctrine “which the Apostle judged there

is none greater; namely, Jesus and Jesus Crucified as the power and wisdom of God.” Thus, it is Paul who stands before Anthony Mary and the two have Christ Crucified preceding them. “Before and during your talk, Christ Crucified (and thus Paul) will inspire and sustain you not only in every word but also in every holy intention of yours” (Letter VI). It is only in presenting the cross that the spiritual reform of Paul can be preached in word and action and, therefore, that Anthony Mary truly be an imitator of Paul, “for presenting to all without distinction the way of the cross is as imitating the divine model” found in Paul.

5. Conclusion
St. Anthony M. Zaccaria may have lived only 37 years. He may have left us few writings. However, the depth of those years and those writings have enriched and renewed numerous generations in the spirit of St. Paul. In identifying himself with the Apostle Paul, he was able to perceive the mystery of Christ Crucified and the message of the Gospel. It is this that he has left us by presenting Paul. Through his understanding of Paul, he was able to found two religious congregations and a third order for the laity. Through his understanding and devotion to Paul, he was to grow with him in bringing about a desperately  needed ongoing metanoia. It is through Paul that Anthony Mary found his breath and his identity. It is in his grasp of Paul that Anthony Mary has been able to run towards the cross of Christ and to live in its victory.

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Spiritual Writings

o you who have been risen through grace, Reverend Fathers, Sons and Daughters of St. Paul: “Surrexit Dominus vere. Alleluia! Surrexit Alleluia!” Peace to you, O Fathers, and my sweetest sons and daughters, Let us sing a new canticle to the Lord, because He manifested Himself gloriously. Lo and behold today, glorious and risen, He who slept and he who with death have been relegated, He who was placed in the inferior lake, in the dark place and the shadow of death, Has returned to life! It is true, do not doubt!

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Spiritual Writings
By Angelica Paola Antonia Negri Translated by Sr. Rorivic P. Israel, ASP

pierced by the sword of sorrow, but now being transformed in an incomprehensible happiness, in a celestial joy, and raised in the presence of the ineffable divinity, rendering infinite thanks to the eternal Father?

Now, don’t you feel, or take delight in the contentment of those happy women, to whom He appeared, telling them: “God saves you”? Don’t you hear the voice of the Angels, who announced His resurrection and said: “Come and see the place where they laid Him”? Don’t you feel within you a new change, a new being? On the occasion of the Now, have you not heard of the Don’t you feel being free from evth news that has reached us proery turmoil 500 Anniversary of the nounced by faithful voices? and make yourselves unleavened birth of Angelica Paola And has your own conscience not bread, Antonia Negri testified to it, kneaded with the water of true sincerWhich comes clear and bright as a reviity? talizing, splendid Sun? Don’t you feel new desires, new ideas, Don’t you feel the testimony of renewal and more joyful thoughts, more love for the cross to change in your whole being and in all? the point of suffering, … through which you see our Lord had been greatly Now, should this not be an occasion for us to sing exalted? and celebrate? … Don’t you feel, each of you, O chaste hearts, Don’t you feel your hearts being lifted from the The joy, the contentment, the sweetness, the rejoicearth and drawn straight to God (…), who is in ing, the satisfaction that he is risen within you? heaven and who lives in high places? Will you not participate in the joy of the holy, Don’t you feel in your heart overwhelming charity blessed, happy, but a short while ago, mournful that makes each burden light? Mother? Don’t you seem to see, and to be present in that So then, my sweetest sons and daughters, very holy soul, because He is risen, and this is certain (…),

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should we not have an occasion to sing the new canticle and rejoice like the disciples of our just and risen Lord? Let’s render ourselves worthy of the sweet greetings of peace which He gives us, and having fed yourselves of the true Lamb, (…) I send you to Him… so that in every action Christ may make you His true sheep whom He sends among wolves, with all those gifts and grace, and with the charity and generosity and the desire to win over your neighbor, so that you may no longer be in the tomb of your will and imperfections and little desire to help in the works of the Blessed Christ, with whom I leave you, desirous of hearing your own resurrection, and that you have been risen from the tomb. Now…nothing more: consider the mystery and confirm it each of you in your heart. Greet each other in my name. He is risen indeed! Alleuia! Your servant in Christ Jesus, A.P.A (Angelica Paola Antonia)

Biographical Notes: Virginia Negri, an Angelic Sister of St. Paul, was born in Castellanza, then a province of Milan, Italy in 1508. (No precise date is available.) In February 27, 1536, she received the veil from the hands of the Holy Founder, St. Anthony Mary Zaccaria, who was also then her confessor and spiritual director, and took the name Paola Antonia for her great devotion to the Apostle Paul and in honor to St. Anthony Abbot. Angelica Paola Antonia Negri, a strong-willed woman, revered as the “Divina Maestra” by all her spiritual sons and daughters, and considered a saint, even by those who would later become her adversaries, guided the three families of the Barnabites, the Angelic Sisters, and the Laity of St. Paul especially after the death of their founder, St. Anthony Mary Zaccaria. She died in Milan, Italy on April 4, 1555.

Sr. Donna Sr. Rorivic Sr. Teresa Sr. Lilia

Taken from one of her spiritual writings addressed to the Barnabites, the Angelic Sisters, and the Laity of St. Paul.

Angelic Sisters

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Saint Francis Xavier M. Bianchi

was born in Arpino, Italy (1743-1815). He joined the Congregation of the Barnabites, his teachers. After his ordination he taught at the University of Naples; then he zealously ministered to the people by preaching and through the Sacrament of Reconciliation, works of mercy and spiritual direction of the clergy, religious and laity. Because of his apostolic zeal he was called another “Philip Neri” and “Apostle of Naples.” He was gifted with outstanding charismatic gifts: he predicted Napoleon’s defeat in Russia and the return of Pope Pius VII to Rome; he stopped the flow of lava when Vesuvius erupted; for years he endured “fire and thorns” in his legs. Tirelessly he ministered with fatherly care to the penitents lining up at his door. He died in Naples on January 31, 1815. His memorial is on January 30, not to interfere with the one of St. John Bosco.

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Written by Fr. Felix M. Sala, CRSP Translated by Fr. Frank Papa, CRSP

Saint Francis Xavier M. Bianchi

AINT FRANCIS XAVIER M. BIANCHI.

The Apostle of Naples
Preface
If our love for St. Francis Bianchi does not impair our judgment, we can affirm that all the requisites desirable in a saint for our modern days are to be found in him. His life of union with Christ reveals his ascetic soul. Besides possessing the gift of miracles, he also experienced the torment of excruciating suffering and the joy of exhilarating ecstasy. Being a positive and efficient individual, endowed with the admirable faculty of easy adjustment to given situations, he knew how to pass with ease

from contemplation to action. Even in the final years of his life, he preserved intact the perennial youth of his heart, reflected in his particular fondness for the youth. He manifested an inspiring kindness toward the poor; still, he did not disdain the rich whom he guided and directed in the ways of God. He befriended the simple and, at the same time, kept a close contact with the nobility. With his intelligence and perception, being accepted in both the academic and simple circles, he was keenly aware of all the problems which agitated his century.

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He underwent the mortifications of an anchorite, that is, the mortifications of one who has withdrawn from the world for the sake of religious seclusion. At all times, however, he radiated a joy which, even during the martyrdom of his illness, knew no shadow. He possessed the heart and sensitivity of a true artist. He might have carved a lasting niche for himself in this field had not the thirst of his soul induced him to embrace the road of the apostolate. The historical vicissitudes of his tempestuous times, found an attentive and watchful spectator in him. With the eye of a prophet, he followed the rapid ascent of Napoleon, and predicted his defeat and decline right up to that eventful year 1815 which saw the disappearance of the Napoleonic greatness. Agonizing in spirit, he accompanied the sorrowful Way of the Cross of Pius VII, and foretold the great sorrows the Pope was to endure, as well as the peaceful triumphs which were to follow. King Charles Emmanuel IV and the Venerable Clotilde of Savoy, during the humiliating time of their exile, were to find a consoling angel in him. He raised his hand in benediction against the fury of Vesuvius and amazingly stopped the flow of the devastating lava. During a century highlighted with anger and vengeance, and ravished with hatred, he preached by his own example the word of love which gives light and life to the world. Not one event of his day found him either uninterested or indifferent. He had his eyes keenly fixed upon all the questions of his day and he evaluated each individual with the care and prudence befitting a man of God. In an historical period which was defined barren, superficial and anti-mystic, he renewed the vigor-

ous ardor and fervent impetus of the greatest lovers of Christ. By renouncing the world, he dominated it with humility mixed with the wonder of a living love for sacrifices. He was a man of his times but, above all, he was a saint. Thus, truly a complete man; a saint who still today generates a strong, kind, and irresistible fascination among his devotees wishing to be close to him just as those who were fortunate enough to experience the joy of his nearness on those streets of Naples which were the site of his sleepless apostolate.

I. A BEAUTIFUL DAWN
St. Francis Xavier M. Bianchi was born in Arpino on December 2, 1743. The child was baptized on the following day. His parents, Carlo and Faustina Morelli, gave him the names of Francis, Xavier, Philip, and Justinian. . Very little has been preserved of his childhood. He grew up in an environment which was warm with faith and resplendent with his father’s honesty and his mother unusual virtues, from whom he was to St. Francis Xavier M. Bianchi Studied in Naples, Italy. Barnabite at age 14 over the objections of his family. Ordained in 1767. Served as the president of two colleges. Noted for his endless ministry to the poor and neglected, his work to prevent girls from turning to prostitution, for his personal austerities, his gift of prophecy, and as a miracle worker. Reported to have stopped the flow of lava from Mount Vesuvius in Naples, Italy in 1805. His health destroyed by overwork; late in life he lost the use of his legs, but continued to work with those who felt were worse off than himself. When the Barnabites were expelled from Naples, he had to be left behind due to his poor health, and he died separated from his brothers.

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learn tender love for God and neighbor, which was to make him so amiable to all. It was from her example that he developed a special love for the sick and the poor. His mother transformed a section of their home into a small hospital where several beds were always prepared for the sick who lacked assistance. If any of them died in her home, she provided for the funeral and burial with care and generosity.

tion by his family. They agreed to his being a priest but not to be a Religious. It was for this reason that in order to dissuade him they sent Francis to the diocesan seminary in Nola (outside Naples). Francis obediently bowed his head in assent. God, however, was to guide his elect in a manner very different from that envisioned by humans.

II. THE DIVINE CALL
When he was twelve years old, he was entrusted to the Barnabites who, in Arpino, directed the school of Sts. Charles and Philip. He was barely thirteen years of age when, among the students of theology and philosophy, he was chosen to compose and deliver a short sermon on the Patronage of the Virgin Mary. The brief but well-placed pauses punctuating his discourse surprised his listeners. There was vigor and enthusiasm in all he was saying. Above all there was his great love for the sorrowful and good Mother Mary. His companions nicknamed him Panciotto (chubby) because of his rosy and plump features. “Here comes Panciotto!” they would be heard whispering in the places where groups gathered. With this, the vulgar conversations in which they might have been engaged came to an abrupt end. Meanwhile, a mysterious and irresistible voice was drawing the young man toward the Sanctuary. God had placed his hand upon him and was saying to him, “You are mine!” On March 26, 1757, the Bishop, who eight years before had made him soldier of Christ in Confirmation, cut his hair and traced the Tonsure upon his head. It was the young man’s desire, however, to serve God in a Religious Family. Although he was a disciple of the Barnabites, he gave his preference for the Society of Jesus. He was directed in this choice by his devotion to St. Francis Xavier, whose name he bore. He made his plans known and there was opposi-

III. IN THE SHADOW OF THE SANCTUARY
God’s will manifested itself more clearly at Nola. It was here that Francis met St. Alphonsus Liguori who had come to preach the Spiritual Retreat to the Seminarians. It was this saintly man who, very decisively, induced the wavering Francis to embrace Religious Life. His parents insisted he put aside his clerical habit and go to Naples to enroll in the University law school. Through friends, who had been ill-informed, he was directed to a certain renting house which continually resounded with disorderly shouts, loud singing, and vulgar words. The meek and saintly young man clearly and simply described the director of the renting house as a “fine deceitful fellow.” He was so uneasy here that he became ill. Things went even so far that the money his family had given him to buy books was stolen. “It was then,” the young man wrote to his uncle, a priest, “that I became visibly disturbed.” It was his uncle who induced Francis’ parents to permit him to return home. Confronted with his firm and decisive determination, all opposition fell. A short while later he was able to leave for the Novitiate of the Barnabites in Zagarolo. He had a letter from the Superior of the Barnabites in Arpino, who wrote of him, “He is healthy and has a good complexion. He is of sanguine nature and has a happy disposition. He presents a fine appearance and is of good stature. He gives every indication of being skillful and prudent. He has excellent natural talents. He writes well. He is not scrupulous; is humble, decisive, and frequents the Sacraments.”

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The year of his Novitiate passed quickly, and the Fathers were able to testify that he was “a young man of the highest saintly habits, very devout, and humble, and possessing the greatest talents. He gives clear indication of becoming a learned religious who will be a credit to the Congregation and a great asset to his fellow men.” On December 28, 1763, Francis swore fidelity to his God in the perpetual observance of poverty, chastity, and obedience. The voice of obedience decreed he immediately leave for Macerata where he was to study philosophy and science. He remained there from January, 1764 until October of the following year, at which time he experienced difficulty with his lungs. In the spring of 1766, he journeyed first to Arpino and then to Naples where he began his theology and where he fully recovered. He completed his sacred studies in Naples at St. Charles alle Mortelle. On January 25, 1767, he was ordained a priest. Four days later the newly ordained ascended the altar to offer his first Eucharistic Sacrifice.

Barnabite seminarians. Because of the unfair laws in the Kingdom of Naples, the Barnabites had been compelled to concentrate both Novices and Scholastics within the same dwelling. On the evening of September 18, 1771, St. Francis was in his cell with Domenico Ceraso, one of two novices. Together, they were very devoutly alternating the recitation of the Psalms. The other novice, Francis M. Castelli, was in agony at his father’s house in St. Anastasia, where the Superiors had sent him in the hope he might regain his health. Unexpectedly God had manifested to St. Francis what was happening at St. Anastasia. In spirit he saw the suffering Castelli giving his last breath. Interrupting the recitation of the Psalms, he said to Domenico, “Let us kneel and recite a De Profundis. At this very moment Francis has passed away.” The news which arrived the following day confirmed the truthfulness of the Saint’s vision.

V. THE SUPERIOR
God was already beginning to manifest His marvels in the newly-ordained priest who, with youthful dedication, had committed himself to his twofold ministry in the Church and in the school. In April 1773, Fr. Bianchi was elected Superior of St. Mary in Cosmedin at Portanova. He got there at a critical moment: the civil authorities were arbitrarily interfering in the election of his predecessor. He had much to suffer and was compelled to face great difficulties. With kindness and gentleness, however, he was able to win the people to himself. There were abuses which had to be removed. With prudence and long-suffering patience, he was successful in eradicating them, making some concessions in form so as to obtain results in substance. There were times when the work was oppressing. In his correspondence dating to this period, frequent reference to this fact can be found. “I must get out

IV. A PRIEST AND A TEACHER
In September 1767, he was assigned as a professor of Humanities at the Barnabite school in Arpino. Even from his teaching desk, in commenting upon Latin and Italian authors, he knew how to radiate Christ. He was more intent in educating than in instructing, in forming hearts than in informing minds. He knew how to enrich the teaching of the usual subjects with a personal touch. Above all, he never forgot he was a priest, and consequently he alternated his ministry with his teaching, especially by preaching the Word of God. In the autumn of 1769 he was sent by his Superiors to the college of St. Charles in Naples as a professor of philosophy and mathematics to the

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of the maze of business ... “ “I am extremely busy,” “I am filled to the brim with bothersome matters ...,” “It is very hot and there is always something to be done ... “ At all times, however, one could see how practical this man (who had always lived among books) was given the assurance with which he handled the thorniest matters.

VI. JOURNEYING THROUGHOUT ITALY
The General Chapter of the Order assembled in Milan in April 1779. St. Francis, together with the Superior of St. Charles alle Mortelle was appointed to represent the Neapolitan Province. Before starting off, he visited Sister Mary Frances of the Five Wounds, the Neapolitan saintly mystic. His spiritual daughter gave him words of wisdom and suggested he record daily in detail what happened during the trip. This would have kept him from the dangers of dissipation.

He left Naples on March 25, and reached Milan on April 23. The fame of his doctrine and sanctity had preceded him, and the aristocratic intelligentsia gathered around this religious man who was barely thirty-five at that time. He was elected secretary of the Chapter. The new Superior General, Fr. Scipione Peruzzini, wanted him as companion during his visits to the communities in Lombardy, Piedmont, Liguria, and Romagna. He thus traveled from Turin to Genoa, from Pavia to Mantua, proceeding as far as Venice. From there he arrived in Bologna where the Barnabites had four houses. Finally, after seven months absence, he returned to Naples to take up once more the administration of the Portanova community. Thoughts of Sister Mary Frances of the Five Wounds had accompanied him throughout his itinerary and the protection of this saintly woman had been a great help to him in some moments of danger. There was, for instance, the time when he was traveling in a public carriage with Father General and others. Twilight had vanished. The coachman, who was tired and sleepy, did not realize he was dangerously close to the edge of a precipice. Suddenly the earth which had become soft owing to recent rains, gave way. The carriage over-turned and the occupants fell headlong into the deep hollow. While cries of fear rose from the travelers, the Saint invoked Sister Mary Frances. Truly it was an act of Providence that all were unhurt. Yet how could they find their way to the road again in that darkness? And above all, how could they ever recover the carriage and horses? Francis invoked once more Sister Mary Frances’ help, and suddenly a young man on a horse appeared. Descending into the hole himself, he guided their way with a beaming torch, thus making their climbing out easier. With his strong arms he helped the horses out too, and recovered the carriage. He then guided the travelers to a nearby lodging-house. It just so happened at

St. Francis Bianchi stopping the flow of lava from Mount Vesuvius

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that moment young missionaries were departing, thus leaving the rooms free for the newly-arrived. Francis was to learn later from Sister Mary Frances that the Archangel Rafael had once again visibly exerted his mission as Patron of Pilgrims.

VII. ST. MARY FRANCES OF THE FIVE WOUNDS
It is time to say a few words about Sister Mary Frances of the Five Wounds and her relationship with St. Francis. Francis used to say that God had bestowed three graces upon him: baptism, religious vocation, and his acquaintance with Sister Mary Frances. This saintly woman exerted a tremendous and decisive influence in Francis’ life. The friendship between these two great souls dates from 1777: Francis was 34 then, and St. Mary Frances was already 62. Their spiritual relationship which was to last uninterrupted for 14 years, soon became a true exercise of perfection. In this kind of friendship often the function and roles of teacher and disciple blend together. From Francis Xavier’s very first visit God spoke to Sr. Mary Frances’ heart and revealed to her what was Francis’ way toward holiness. Fr. Bianchi never was her confessor, yet he was always told of all the gifts God had enriched her soul with. On the Fridays she would relive the pains of Christ’s Passion, and often Francis was allowed to witness the wondrous repetition of the pains of the suffering Christ. He experienced then a saintly jealousy of that soul that was allowed to suffer because she was united with Christ in a most perfect love. At times the saintly Sister, who had a prophetic gift, predicted things that were to happen. She laid her hand on his knee once and said, “Oh, how these legs will suffer!” Another time she foretold him the unjust Napoleonic suppression of Religious Orders.

While celebrating Mass, St. Francis noticed more than once that the wine he had poured in the chalice had visibly diminished and that the small particle of the Sacred Host which he had allowed to rest in the chalice according to rite had disappeared. At first he ascribed these facts to distraction or even to imagination. But he had to convince himself the fact was true, having a mysterious explanation: Sister Mary Frances, who was ill, was nevertheless present in spirit when he celebrated the Divine Sacrifice and received Holy Communion from angelic hands. From that time on, Francis often placed besides the large host a small particle which would disappear wondrously after Consecration to satisfy the saint’s hunger for Jesus. It often happened that while the two were engaged in a sacred conversation, Sr. Mary Frances would suddenly fall in ecstasy. The Archangel Rafael appeared visibly to her and invisibly to St. Francis who could perceive a heavenly fragrance. It also happened that while Francis was speaking of the miseries he was hoping to alleviate and of the little money he had to do this, rolls of golden coins wondrously appeared at the feet of the Crucifix. One day the Saint dared ask his privileged friend to obtain permission from God to contemplate the temporary sufferings of Purgatory. St. Mary Frances started praying and shortly afterwards Francis could see the purging souls. While he was still alive, God revealed to Francis the future glory of his faithful servant, and allowed him to see her soul ascending to heaven in a radiant beauty beyond human imagining. Such friendship between two great souls is not unusual. We just need remember St. Jerome and St. Paul; St. Francis of Assisi and St. Claire; St. Therese and St. John of the Cross; St. Frances de Chantal and St. Francis de Sales. St. Francis Xavier M. Bianchi owes his ascent to the summit of perfection to his encounter with St. Frances of the Five Wounds.

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St. Francis Xavier M. Bianchi’s Ascetical Writings

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St. Francis Xavier M. Bianchi’s Ascetical Writings
Translated by Fr. Frank Papa, CRSP

EFLECTIONS

Our Hope
King David placed all the trust of his salvation in his future Redeemer and said, “Into your hands I commend my spirit; you will redeem me, LORD, faithful God” (Ps 31:60). Now, how much more should you put your trust in Jesus Christ, since He has already come and has brought Redemption to its completion? Therefore, with greater trust each one of us must say and always repeat, “Into your hands I commend my spirit; you will redeem me, LORD, faithful God.” If we have serious reasons to fear the eternal death because of the offenses against God, we have, on the other hand, much greater reasons to hope for eternal life in the merits of Jesus Christ, which have an infinitely superior value for our salvation than the value would our sins make us lose. We have sinned and we have merited hell; but our Redeemer has come to load on himself all our faults to satisfy with his suffering, “It was our infirmities that He bore, our sufferings that He endured” (Is 53:4). Saved by the Blood of Christ In the very unhappy moment when we sinned, the eternal death penalty was written by God against us; but what did our merciful Redeemer do? “Obliterating the bond against us ..., He also removed it from our midst, nailing it to the cross” (Col 2:14). With His blood he canceled the decree of our conviction and then nailed it to the cross, so that we, looking at the sentence of our damnation because of the sins committed, would look at the same time at the cross where Jesus Christ, dying, has canceled it with his blood, and so we would regain the hope of pardon and of the eternal salvation.

The Great Confidence We Should Have In The Love Shown Us By Jesus Christ In All That He Has Done For Us
Oh! How much better spokesman is for us, as it obtains for us the divine mercy, the blood of Jesus Christ than what was the blood of Abel against Cain, “And Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and the sprinkled blood that speaks more eloquently than that of Abel” (Heb 12:24). As if the Apostle would say: Oh! Happy you sinners who, after the sin, have made recourse to Jesus Crucified, who has shed all His blood to become a mediator of peace between the sinners and God, and obtain pardon for them. Your iniquities cry aloud against you, but the blood of the Redeemer pleads in your behalf, and at the voice of this blood the divine justice cannot stand placated. Christ Is Our Judge It is true that the account of our sins we have to give to the eternal judge is very rigorous. But who will be our judge? “The Father… has given all judgment to his Son” (Jn 5:22). Let us be consoled: the eternal Father has entrusted our judgment to the same Redeemer. Hence, St. Paul encourages us saying, “Who will condemn? It is Christ (Jesus) who died...., who indeed intercedes for us” (Rom 8: 34). Who is the judge who should condemn us? It is that same Savior who, not to condemn us to eternal death, wanted to condemn himself and has died; and not satisfied with it, now in heaven He continues to procure our salvation in front of His Father. Hence, St. Thomas of Villanova writes, “What do you fear, o sinner, if you abhor your sin? How could He condemn you the one who dies not

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to condemn you? How could He chase you away, if you return at His feet, the one who has come from heaven to search for you, when you were running away from Him?” Confidence in Christ Crucified If we are afraid because of our weakness to fall at the assaults by our enemies against whom we have to fight, this is what we have to do. As the Apostle warns us, “Let us rid ourselves of every burden and sin that clings to us and persevere in running the race that lies before us while keeping our eyes fixed on Jesus, the leader and perfecter of faith. For the sake of the joy that lay before Him, He endured the cross, despising its shame” (Heb 12:1-2). With high spirit let us go to the fight, gazing on Jesus Crucified who from His cross offers us His help, the victory, and the crown. In the past, we have fallen because we have omitted to gaze on the wounds and outrages suffered by our Redeemer. We have not made recourse to Him to receive His help. But, in the future we will keep in front of our eyes what He has suffered for love of us and how He is ready to come to our aid, and to Him we make recourse, for sure we are not going to be overcome by our enemies. St. Teresa, with her very generous heart, used to say, “It is not my intention to tremble to the devil; where we can say ‘God, God’ and make him tremble.” Instead, the Saint used to say, if we do not put all our trust in God, all our shrewdness will be good for nothing. “All our shrewdness,” these are her words, “are of little help if, taken all confidence completely away from us, we do not put it in God.” The Passion of Christ and the Sacrament of the Altar Oh! What great mysteries of hope and love are for us the passion of Jesus Christ and the sacrament of the altar! They are mysteries which, if not assured by faith, who could believe them? An omnipotent

God wanting to become man, shed all His blood and died out of pain on a cross; and why? To pay for our sins and save us, rebel worms! And then wanting to give us that very body of His as food, one day sacrificed for us on the cross, so that He could be totally united with us! Oh God! These two mysteries should turn to ashes out of love all the hearts of men. And which sinner, as dissolute as he might be, could despair of pardon if he repents of the evil done as he sees a God in love with men and inclined to do them good? So everything with trust, St. Bonaventure used to say, “How could the one who has done and suffered so much to save me deny me the graces needed for salvation?” “So let us confidently approach the throne of grace to receive mercy and to find grace for timely help” (Heb 4:16), the Apostle exhorts us. The throne of grace is the cross where Jesus sits as if on His throne to dispense graces and mercy to whoever makes recourse to Him. But we have to make this recourse often, now that we can find the right help for our salvation. Perhaps there will be a time when we could not find it anymore. Let us go, then, in haste to embrace the cross of Jesus Christ, and let us go to it with great confidence. Let us not lose heart because of our miseries. In Jesus Crucified we will find every richness and grace for us. “In Him you were enriched in every way, ... so that you are not lacking in any spiritual gift” (1 Cor 1:5-7). The merits of Jesus Christ have enriched us with the divine treasures and have made us capable of any grace we might desire. In Jesus We Are Given All Graces St. Leo says that Jesus with His death has brought us greater good than the damage brought by the devil with sin. And this affirms what St. Paul had said before, that the gift of Redemption has been greater than the sin. Grace has surpassed the crime. “The gift is not like the transgression ... where sin increased grace overflowed all the more” (Rom 5:

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15-20). Hence, the Savior encouraged us to hope for any favor and any grace out of His merits. And this is how He taught us the way to obtain whatever we want from His eternal Father, “Amen, amen, I say to you, whatever you ask the Father in my name He will give you” (In 16:23), “When,” He says, “you desire something, ask my Father in my name, and I promise you it will be granted to you.” But how could the Father deny us any grace if He has been the one to give us His only Son, whom He loves as himself? “He who did not spare His own Son but handed Him over for us all, how will He not also give us everything else along with Him?” (Rom 8:32). The Apostle says “all”; so no grace is emphasized, nor the pardon, nor perseverance, nor the holy love, nor perfection, nor paradise: gave us everything. But we have to pray to Him. God is infinitely merciful with those who pray to Him. “Enriching all who call upon Him” (Rom 10:12). Here the Saint adds a note, “I would like to add here many other beautiful thoughts written by the Venerable. John of Avila in his letters, about the confidence we should have in the merits of Jesus Christ.” The Blood of Christ Repairs Our Faults Do not forget that between the eternal Father and us there is Jesus Christ as mediator. Therefore, we are loved and we are bound by ties of love so strong that no fault could untie them, if man does not break them through some mortal fault. The blood of Christ screams, asking mercy for us and screams so that the noise of our sins is not heard. The death of Jesus Christ has made our faults die. “O death! Where is your sting?” (Hos 13:14). Those who get lost, are lost not because of lack of satisfaction, but because they do not want to take advantage, through the sacraments, of the satisfaction given by Jesus Christ. Jesus remedied for us as if He had to do for himself, so that our sins, although He did not commit any, He has claimed them as His own, and has asked pardon for them, as if praying for himself, so that all those who wanted to come clos-

er to Him would be loved. And as He has asked for it, so He has obtained it, because God has disposed for Jesus and us to be so intimately united in one, that both He and us would be loved, and He and us would be hated. Since Jesus is not hated and cannot be hated, in the same way, if we are bound to Jesus through love we, too, are loved. Since He is loved by God we, too, are loved. It is more valuable for Jesus Christ to make sure that we are loved, than be hated, while the eternal Father loves the Son more than He hates the sinners. The Greater Love Overcomes the Minor Hate Jesus says to the Father, “Father, I wish that where I am, they also may be with me” (In 17:24). The greater love overcame the minor hate, and so we have been forgiven and loved, sure of never being abandoned, since there is such a strong bound of love. The Lord says through the Prophet Isaiah, “Can a mother forget her infant ... ? Even should she forget, I will never forget you. See, upon the palms of my hands I have written your name” (Is 49: 15-16). He has written us on His hands with His blood. Therefore, we should not be upset for any reason, while everything is disposed by those hands which have been nailed to the cross as a testimony of the love He has for us. Jesus Is Our Advocate Nothing can terrify us as much as Jesus Christ can give us trust. May I be surrounded by all the sins I have committed, by the fears of the future, the demons may accuse me and try to ensnare me, begging mercy from a whole gracious Jesus Christ, my lover until death. I cannot but trust, as I see myself valued so much that a God has given himself up for me. O my Jesus, safe refuge for those who, in the midst of the storm, make recourse to you! O watchful shepherd, will be deceived the one who does not trust you, although he wants to amend. This is why you said, “It is I! Don’t be afraid. I am the one to suffer and to console. Sometimes I give

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desolation to some, so that it seems they are in hell, but then I free them and lift them up. I am your advocate who has taken up your cause as my own. I am your guarantor who has come to pay your debts. I am your Lord who has redeemed you with my blood, not to abandon you, but to enrich you, having ransomed you at a great price. How could I flee from those who are looking for me, as I have gone towards those who were looking for me to insult me? I did not turn my face away from those who were hitting me; would I turn it from the one who wants to adore me? How could my children doubt that I love them, as they see me in the hands of my enemies out of love for them? Who in the world have I despised, and he has loved me? Whom did I ever abandon who has asked for my help? I am even looking for those who do not look for me.” If you believe that the eternal Father has donated his Son, then believe that He will even donate to you everything else since it is all much less than the Son. Don’t you ever think that Jesus Christ has forgotten you while, in memory of His love, He has left you the greatest pledge He could have: He himself in the Sacrament of the altar. FEELINGS OF LOVE AND PRAYERS Oh! My Jesus, I Love You Oh! My Jesus, my love, what beautiful hopes your passion gives me. How could I be afraid not to receive the forgiveness of my sins, paradise, and all the needed graces from an omnipotent God who has given me the whole of His blood? Oh! My Jesus, my hope and my love! Not to lose me you have wanted to lose your life. I love you above every good, my Redeemer and my God, you have given the whole of yourself to me, and I give you the whole of my will, and with this I repeat that I love you, I love you, I love you; and I want to repeat it all the time: I love you, I love you. I want to say so my whole life long and I want to die giving my last breath with these dear words on my lips,

“My God, I love you,” to start at that moment a continuous act of love to last in eternity without ever stopping loving you. I love you, then, and because I love you, I repent for having offended you so much. Wretch me! Not to lose a brief satisfaction, I have wanted so many times to lose you, my infinite goodness! This thought torments me more than any penalty; but I am comforted by the thought that I am dealing with an infinite bounty which does not know how to despise a heart who loves Him. Oh, could I die for you who have died for me! My dear Redeemer, I surely hope from you eternal salvation in the other life, and in this one I hope for holy perseverance in your love. This is why I propose to keep asking you for it all the time. And you, through the merits of your death, grant me the perseverance to keep praying to you. This I ask and I hope from you, Mary, my Queen. Virgin Mary, My Mother, Mother of My Lord Virgin Mary, my mother, to you, the mother of my Lord, sovereign of the world and Virgin of paradise, the advocate, hope, refuge of sinners, I, the most miserable of all, make recourse to you today. I honor you, my queen, and I thank you for all the graces granted me so far, especially for freeing me so many times from the hell I had deserved. I love you, my most lovable Lady, and because of the love I have for you I promise to want to serve you, to live and die at your feet; after Jesus, my sweet Savior, I entrust my hope and firm trust of salvation in you, my dear mother. Accept me now as your servant and son; receive me under the mantle of your sure protection. I desire nothing else from you but a solid, constant, and tender love for Jesus Christ. Obtain for me a great purity of mind and body, hate for the world, horror for any evil, love for holy virtues. I beg to obtain for me the strength to resist any temptation by my enemies; allow me to lead a life as a true servant of yours, humble, chaste, and patient, detached from this world, and from all creatures. My dear mother, I am your son,

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do not leave me until you see me already safe in heaven. Meantime, give me your maternal blessing to confirm it for all eternity in paradise, where you reign. Amen. Three Glory Be, with: Blessed be the most holy and purest Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Virgin and Mother of God, always immaculate and most merciful Mary, my mother, with your powerful intercession secure that I and all creatures may know and always love Jesus Christ, your most beloved Son. Salve Regina

Saint Francis Xavier M. Bianchi

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Anthony’s Angels

Choices

Elizabeth Gambino

Anthony’s Angels
Choices
Theresa Marlin
Love for the Eucharisrt

Choices are very important. Some are not so important, such as what to wear or eat, but others can affect our future. Here are some examples of good and better choices..

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Anthony’s Angels

Choices

Clueless Clare’s Choices

Here is an example of a girl who struggles to figure out what is best for her. What do you think of her choices?

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Anthony’s Angels

Choices

C

ice Now, it’s time to find out how much you’ve ho
learned. Try our quiz to see if you’re a smart choice maker.
4. You watch your best friend steal a yoyo. Then, an announcement comes over the intercom asking if anyone know the whereabouts of the yoyo. You: a. Send a cryptic message saying you know about it. b. Say that you saw your friend took it, and give a detailed description of your friend, then tell your friend how bad stealing is. c. Ignore it- friendship is better than doing good- good is for sissies! 5. You have a feeling that you have a calling to be a priest or a sister. You: a. Make a little effort to find about it, but it doesn’t really matter to you. b. Speak to a priest or sister about getting into seminaries and convents. c. Ignore it and read about other careers hoping that you aren’t supposed be a priest or sister. SCORE
Mostly A’s- You could still use a little work, though you’re definitely on the way! Mostly B’s- You’re a very good choice maker! Keep up the good work! Mostly C’s- You could still use a lot of work. Try to really figure out what would be best.

uiz q

1. You go to a store. You see a candy bar lying at the entrance. A little boy is crying for his candy bar because he can’t find it. You: a. Leave it where it is- You’re too lazy to give it to him. b. Give him his candy bar. c. Keep it- finders, keepers, losers, weepers! 2. The new kid at school is getting bullied. You: a. Stand on the sidelines and watch. b. Go stand up for him. You know what it feels like to be bullied! c. Join in! It’s been a long time since you’ve gotten to bully someone! 3. Your mom is away for the night. You’ve just woken up and you’re really hungry. Your mom always tells you to feed your cat first, but you really don’t want too, because you’re REALLY hungry. You: a. Put toast in the toaster, get some eggs frying, and feed your cat. b. Feed him right away. c. Take time to eat a leisurely breakfast, email a friend, then go feed your cat.

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Each man should give what he has decided in his heart to give,

not reluctantly or under compulsion,

for GOD loves a cheerful giver.
(2 Corinthians 9:7)

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