MomentDistribution Method
Distribution Method
2
Objectives:
Definition of stiffness, carry over factor, distribution factor. Analysis of continuous beams without
support yielding Analysis of continuous beams with support yielding Analysis of portal
frames Naylors method of cantilever moment distribution Analysis of inclined frames
Analysis of Gable frames.
2.1 INTRODUCTION
The end moments of a redundant framed structure are determined by using the classical
methods, viz. Clapeyrons theorem of three moments, strain energy method and slope
deflection method. These methods of analysis require a solution of set of simultaneous
equations. Solving equations is a laborious task if the unknown quantities are more
than three in number. In such situations, the moment distribution method developed by
Professor Hardy Cross is useful. This method is essentially balancing the moments at
a joint or junction. It can be described as a method which gives solution by successive
approximations of slope deflection equations.
In the moment distribution method, initially the structure is rigidly fixed at
every joint or support. The fixed end moments are calculated for any loading under
consideration. Subsequently, one joint at a time is then released. When the moment is
released at the joint, the joint moment becomes unbalanced. The equilibrium at this joint
is maintained by distributing the unbalanced moment. This joint is temporarily fixed
again until all other joints have been released and restrained in the new position. This
procedure of fixing the moment and releasing them is repeated several times until the
desired accuracy is obtained. The experience of designers points that about five cycles
of moment distribution lead to satisfactory converging results.
Basically, in the slope deflection method, the end moments are computed using the
slopes and deflection at the ends. Contrarily in the moment distribution method, as
a first step the slopes at the ends are made zero. This is done by fixing the joints.
Then with successive release and balancing the joint moments, the state of equilibrium
is obtained. The releasebalance cycles can be carried out using the following theorems.
130 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
M
A C B
I1 I2
l1 l2
M1 M2
A
M1
2 C B
( )
M2
2
( )
M1 1 M
2 2
A B
+ C
+
( ) 1 M
2 1
M2
l1
3
( )
2l1
3 ( )
2l2
3 ()
l2
3
As the ends A and B are fixed; the slope between A and B is zero. That is, the area
of the bending moment diagram between A and B is zero.
Moment Distribution Method 133
x2
M1
A2
l2
()
M1
2
A1 A3
A B
()
l1
3
()
2l1
3 C M2 x3
x1
FIG. 2.4(c)
The tangent drawn at A passes through C and B. Hence, from the above figure;
Ai xi /EIi = 0
M1 l1
i.e. A1 = (1/2) (l1/3) (M1/2) =
12
2 2 l1 8
x1 = l2 + l1 + ; x1 = l2 + l1
3 3 3 9
2 M1 l1
A2 = ( 1/2) l1 M1 = 
3 3
1 2 l 2
x2 = l2 + 1 ; x1 = l2 + l1
3 3 3 9
M 2 l2
A3 = (1/2) (l2 )M2 =
2
2
x3 = l2
3
M 2 l22  3 M1 l1 l2
=
3EI 2 12 EI 1
l2 M 2 3 M1 l1
=
I2 4 I1
134 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
M2 3 M1
=
k2 4 k1
M2 (3/4 k2 )
i.e., =
k2 k1
If one end of a member is not fixed then the stiffness of that member should be
multiplied by (3/4).
2.2.4 Theorem 4
Consider a fixed beam AB as shown below. End B has settled by a distance . As the
ends are fixed, there must develop a fixing moment M at the each end of the beam.
A1
A B
A2
x1
x2
l2 l2
1 l Ml
A2 = M =
2 2 4
l 2 l 5l
x1 = + =
2 3 2 6
1 l l
x2 = =
3 2 6
Moment Distribution Method 135
1 Ml 5l Ml l
 + = d
EI 4 6 4 6
 5 Ml 2 Ml 2 1
24 + = d
24 EI
(  5 + 1) Ml 2
= d
24 24
6Eld
M=
l2
i.e., when a fixed ended beam settles by an amount at one end, the moment required
to make the ends horizontal = 6EI/l2.
The above four theorems can be summarised as
(1) When the member is fixed at one end and a moment is applied at the other end
which is simply supported or hinged, the moment induced at the fixed end is
one half of the applied moment. The induced moment at the fixed end is in the
same direction as the applied moment.
(2) If a moment is applied in a stiff joint of a structure, the moment is resisted by
various members in proportion to their respective stiffnesses (i.e., moment of
inertia divided by the length). If the stiffness of the member is more; then it
resists more bending moment and it absorbs a greater proportion of the applied
moment.
(3) While distributing the moments in a rigid joint, if one end of the member is not
restrained then its stiffness should be multiplied by (3/4).
(4) In a fixed beam, if the support settles/subsides/sinks by an amount , the
moment required to make the ends horizontal is 6EI/l2.
M
D B
O
FIG. 2.6
Let kOA, kOB, kOC and kOD be the stiffness values of the members OA, OB, OC and
OD respectively; then
MOA = kOA (i)
MOB = kOB (ii)
MOC = kOC (iii)
MOD = kOD (iv)
kOB
dOB = = distribution factor for OB
Sk
kOC
dOC = = distribution factor for OC
Sk
k
dOD = OD = distribution factor for OD
Sk
2.4 SIGN CONVENTION
Clockwise moments are considered positive and anticlockwise moments negative.
100 kN 50 kN/m
2.5 m
A 'I = 2I 3I C'
A B 6m C
5m
Step 1
Determine the distribution factor at each joint A,B and C respectively. The distribution
factor of a member is the ratio of the stiffness of the member divided by the total
stiffness of all the members meeting at that joint.
The distribution factor for the fixed support A is determined by assuming an
imaginary span AA (Fig. 2.8). The flexural rigidity of AA is infinity. Hence, the stiffness
is infinite. The stiffness of AB is 2I/5 = 0.4I. Hence, the total stiffness is infinite. Thus,
the distribution factor for AA is (infinity/infinity) = 1.0 and for AB the distribution
factor kAB = (0.4I/infinity), i.e. zero. In essence dAA = 1.0 and dAB = 0.0
The distribution factor at the support B is determined as follows. The stiffness of
the member BA is (0, 4I). The stiffness of the member BC is taken as threefourths
3 3I
of its stiffness (refer Theorem 3). Hence, kBC = = 0.375I. The sum of the
4 6
stiffness at the joint B is k = (kBA + kBC) = 0.775I. Therefore, the distribution factors are
dBA = kBA/(kBA + kBC), i.e. dBA = 0.4I/(0.4I + 0.375I) = 0.52; similarly dBC = kBC/k, i.e. dBC
= (0.375I/0.775I) = 0.48. The sum of the stiffnesses is (0.52 + 0.48) = 1.0.
The distribution factor for the simple support at C is determined by extending the
span to CC. The rigidity of CC is zero and hence kCC = 0. On the other hand, the
Moment Distribution Method 139
stiffness kCB = 0.375I. The total stiffness at C is kCB + kCC = 0.375I. The distribution factor
dCB = kCB/k = 1.0 and dCC = kCC/k = 0.
The above procedure is summarised in the following table for quick understanding.
2l
BA = 0.4 I 52
5
B 0.775I
BC 3 3I
= 0.3/5I 0.48
4 6
Step 2
Imagine all the three joints A, B and C are rigidly fixed with horizontal tangents. Write
down the fixed end moments for the beam AB as if it were built in at A and B and
also for the beam BC as if it were built in B and C.
100 kN 50 kN/m
2.5 m
62.5
62.5 150
l/m
A B 6m C
5m
100 5
MFAB =  =  62.5 kNm
8
100 5
MFBA = + = + 62.5 kNm
8
50 6 2
MFBC =  =  150.0 kNm
12
50 6 2
MFCB = + = + 150.0 kNm
12
Step 3
Each joint is released in turn and if B is released it will be out of balance. This
unbalanced moment ( 150.0 + 62.5 = 87.5) is shown in Fig. 2.10.
140 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
150 kNm
A B C
Step 4
A moment is applied at B to balance this joint B and it will distribute itself according
to the distribution factors. This is shown in the following figure.
62.5 87.5 150 kNm
1 0 0.52 0.48 1 0
A B C
Step 5
Balance the joint C as its moment is zero (end support C is simple support). By balancing
the moment 150, half of it is carried over to B. By balancing the joint B, half of the
moment is carried over to joint A, i.e. half of 45.50 kNm.
Step 6
Again the joints become out of balance, and the above procedure is repeated until the
moments to be distributed become negligible and can be ignored. This is illustrated
in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2 Moment distribution table
Joint A B C
Members AB BA BC CB
DF 0 0.52 0.48 1
FEMS 62.50 +62.50 150.00 +150.00
Bal +45.50 +42.00 150.00
Co +22.75 75.00
Bal +39.00 +36.00
Co +19.50
Total 20.25 +147.00 147.00 0.00
Nature O
Moment Distribution Method 141
In the above moment distribution table a single vertical line is drawn between
the members. Double lines are drawn at the end of each joint. The pure moment
diagram can be drawn using the end moments in the moment distribution table. The
pure moments are the values just to the left of double line. Thus, MA = 20.25 kNm,
MB = 147.00 kNm, MC = 0.
147.00 kNm
20.25 ve
A B C
The simple beam moment diagram is drawn by considering each span separately.
The simple beam moment diagram is always positive. While the pure moment diagram
is negative. The maximum positive bending moment for span AB is (wl/4) = 100
5/4 = 125 kNm. The maximum bending moment for a simple beam of BC is wl2/8 =
(50 62/8) = 225 kNm.
125
225 kNm
+ +
A D B E C
The net bending moment diagram is drawn by superimposing the pure moment
diagram on the simple beam moment diagram. Thus, the net moment at D and E are
147.00 + 20.25
MD = 125 = +41.38 kNm
2
147.00 + 0.00
ME = 225 = +151.5 kNm
2
151.5 kNm
41.4
+
+
A D B E C
20.25
147
The net bending moment diagrams are preferable in design offices. The elastic curve
is drawn using the net bending moment diagram.
A B C
30 kN/m
10 kN/m
6m 4m
A B C
FIG. 2.17
Solution
Step 1
The distribution factors at joint B are evaluated as follows.
Moment Distribution Method 143
Joint A B C
Members AB BA BC CB
DF 0 0.47 0.53 1
FEMS 30.00 +30.00 40.00 +40.00
Bal 40.00
Co 20.00
Total 30.00 +30.00 60.00 0.00
Bal +14.10 +15.90
Co +7.05
Final 22.95 +44.10 44.10 0.00
44.1 kNm
22.95 kNm
D E
A B C
+ +
11.48 kNm
37.95 kNm
10 6 2 22.95 + 44.1
MD =
8

2 = 11.48 kNm
30 4 2 44.1 + 0
ME =
8

2 = 37.95 kNm
Step 4 Shear Force Diagrams
Equilibrium of span AB
22.95 kNm 10 kN/m 44.1 kNm
6m
A B
FIG. 2.19
Equilibrium of span BC
44.1 kNm 30 kN/m
4m
B C
FIG. 2.20
71 kN
26.5 kN
6 x1
4 x2
x1
x2
49 kN
33.5 kN
FIG. 2.21 Shear force diagram
Moment Distribution Method 145
x1 = 2.65 m
x2 71
=
(4  x2 ) 49
x2 = 2.37 m
Example 2.2 Analyse the continuous beam by moment distribution method. Draw
the shear force diagram and bending moment diagram.
80 kN 80 kN 12 kN/m
3m 3 3
D E 12 m
A B F C
EI = Constant
FIG. 2.22
Solution
Distribution factors
The distribution factors at joint B are obtained as follows.
6
MFBA = +80 3 = +160 kNm
9
12 2
MFBC = 12 = 144 kNm
12
MFCB = +144 kNm
Joint A B C
Members AB BA BC CB
DF 0 0.64 0.36 1
FEMS 160.00 +160.00 144.00 +144.00
Bal 144.00
Co 72.00
Total 160.00 +160.00 216.00 0.00
Bal +35.80 +20.20
Co +17.90
Total 142.10 +195.80 195.80 0.00
Shear forces
Equilibrium of span AB
80 kN 80 kN
142.1 kNm 195.8 kNm
3m 3m 3m
D E
A B
FIG. 2.23
VBA = 86 kN
VAB = 74 kN
Equilibrium of span BC
195.8 kNm
12 kN/m
12 m
B F C
FIG. 2.24
12 2
MB = 0; 195.8 + 12 12
12VCB = 0 (4)
VCB = 55.7 kN
VBC = 88.3 kN
62
MF = 55.7 6 12 = 118.2 kNm
2
195.8 kNm
142.1 kNm
A D E B F C
62.2
80
118.2 kNm
88.3 kN
74
x
6 kN (12 x)
55.7 kN
86
From similar s
x 55.7
=
(12  x ) 88.3
x = 4.64 m
Example 2.3 Analyse the continuous beam by the moment distribution method. Draw
the shear force diagram and bending moment diagram.
30 kN/m 120 kN
4m 4m
8m
A D B E C
FIG. 2.27
Solution
Distribution factors
The distribution factors at joint B are evaluated as follows.
B 0.25I
Moment Distribution
Table 2.8 Moment distribution table
Joint A B C
Members AB BA BC CB
DF 0 0.5 0.5 0
30 82 170 + 140
MD =
8

2 = 85 kNm
8 140 + 110
ME = 120  = 115 kNm
4 2
170 kNm
140 kNm
110 kNm
+ +
A B C
D E
85 115
170 140
30 kN/m
8m
A B
FIG. 2.29
82
MA = 0; 170 + 140 + 30 2
 8VBA = 0 (2)
VBA = 116.3 kN
VAB = 123.7 kN
Equilibrium of span BC
FIG. 2.30
123.7 kN 63.7 kN
+ +
A B
x1 56.3 kN
116.3
x1 = 4.12 m
Example 2.4 Determine the end moments for the continuous beam shown in Fig. 2.32.
EI is constant. Use the moment distribution method.
Moment Distribution Method 151
75 kN/m
25 kN/m 50 kN 50 kN
2m 2 2
6m 4m
A B C D
FIG. 2.32
Solution
Distribution factors
The distribution factors at joints B and C are obtained as follows.
BA I/6 0.50
B 2I/6
BC I/6 0.50
C 0.417
62
MFBA = +25 = + 75 kNm
12
50 2 4
MFBC = =  66.67 kNm
6
4
MFCB = +50 2 = + 66.67 kNm
6
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0
FEMS 75.00 +75.00 66.67 +66.67 40.00 +60.00
Bal 4.17 4.16 10.67 +16.00
Example 2.5 Analyse and sketch the bending moment diagram for the beam shown
in Fig. 2.33. The values of the second moment area of each span are indicated along
the members. Modulus of elasticity is constant.
100 kN 30 kN/m 80 kN 40 kN
2.5 m 2.5 m 1.25 2.5 m 1.25
2I 3I 4I
A 5m B 6m C 5m D
FIG. 2.33
Moment Distribution Method 153
Distribution factors
62
MFBC = 30 =  90.0 kNm
12
62
MFCB = +30 = + 90.0 kNm
12
1.25 80 3.752 3.75 40 1.252
MFCD =   =  65.625 kNm
52 52
135.0 kNm
125
78.0
87.5
84.5
62.5 kNm
54.7
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.44 0.56 0.45 0.55 1
70 kN 10 kN
15 kN/m
4 2
6m 4m 1m
A E B C D
FIG. 2.35
Moment Distribution Method 155
Solution
Distribution factors
BC 3 I
= 0.188I 0.53
4 4
Fixed moments
Due to applied loading
22
MAB = 4(70) = 31.11 kNm
62
42
MBA = +2(70) = +62.22 kNm
62
MBC = 15 42/12 = 20.00 kNm
6EI D B 6 8000 10
MBC = MCB = + = = + 30 kNm
lCB2 1000 4 2
The actual fixed end moment, is the addition of moment due to applied loading
and due to the settlement of supports.
MFAB = 31.11 13.33 = 44.44 kNm
MFBA = +62.22 13.33 = +48.89 kNm
Joint A B C
Members AB BA BC CB CD
DF 0 0.47 0.53 1
Co 13.84 20.00
Bal +9.40 +10.60
Co +4.70
Final 53.58 +30.62 30.62 +10.00 10.00
93.33 kNm
53.58 30 kNm
30.62
10
A E B C D
Shear forces
Equilibrium of span AB
70 kN
53.58 kNm 4 2 30.62 kNm
A B
FIG. 2.37
VBA = 42.84 kN
VAB = 27.16 kN
Moment Distribution Method 157
B 4m C
FIG. 2.38
VCB = 24.85 kN
VBC = 35.15 kN
35.15
27.16
10 kN
x
A B (4 x) C D
42.84 kN 24.85 kN
240 kN 40 kN/m
2m 2m
4m
6m
A D B C
E
FIG. 2.40
158 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
Solution
Distribution factors
B C
A 1 = 8 mm C ' 2 = 4 mm
1 2
A = + B =
lAB B' lBC
4m 6m
 6EI D 1 8 1
M = MBA = 2
=  6 3000 2 =  90 kNm
AB
l1 1000 4
 6EI (  D 2 ) 4 1
MBC = MCB = = + 6 3000 = + 20 kNm
l22 1000 6 2
Moment Distribution Method 159
Joint A B C
Members AB BA BC CB
DF 0 0.67 0.33 1
Co +23.45 70.00
Bal +46.90 +23.10
Co +23.45
Total 163.10 123.8 123.80 0.00
Equilibrium of span AB
240 kN
2m 2m
4m 123.8 kNm
163.10
VAB D VBA
FIG. 2.42
VBA = 110.2 kN
VAB = 129.8 kN
Equilibrium of span BC
6m
VBC E VCB
FIG. 2.43
VCB = 99.4 kN
VBC = 140.6 kN
32
ME = 123.8 + 140.6 3 40 = 118 kNm
2
118 kNm
96.5
A B
D E C
163.10 123.80
The reader can locate the point of contraflexure and the maximum positive bending
moment using basics.
129.8 kN 140.6
x1
A D (6 x1)
110.2 kN 99.4 kN
FIG. 2.45
Moment Distribution Method 161
The location of zero shear force can be obtained from similar triangles,
x1 99.4
=
(6  x1 ) 140.6
Example 2.8 Analyse the continuous beam by the moment distribution method. Sketch
the shear force and bending moment diagrams. Relative to the support A, the support
B sinks by 1 mm and the support C raises by 1/2 mm, EI = 30000 kNm2.
80 kN
20 kN/m
4m 4m
2 EI EI
A D B C
6m
FIG. 2.46
Distribution factors
3 I I
BC = 0.33
4 6 8
 6E(2 I )D 1 6 30000 1
MAB = 2
= 2 =  5.63 kNm
l1 1000 82
 6E(2 I )D 1
MBA = =  5.63 kNm
l12
 6EI (  D 2 ) 6 30000 1.5
MBC = 2
=+ = 7.5 kNm
l2 1000 6 2
It should be noted that the support B settles by 1 mm. In span AB, B settles and
hence AB rotates in the clockwise direction. Therefore, (1/l1) is positive. In span BC,
the support C raises by 1/2 mm from the original level AC. The total displacement is
1(1/2) mm with respect to the displaced position B. BC displaces to BC. Hence, the
rotation angle (2/l2 ) is negative since the span BC rotates in the anticlockwise direction
with respect to B. The fixed end moment is the sum of the moments due to applied
loading and due to the settlement of supports.
MFAB = 80 5.63 = 85.63 kNm
MFBA = + 80 5.63 = + 74.37 kNm
MFBC = 60 + 7.50 = 52.50 kNm
MFCB = + 60 + 7.50 = + 67.50 kNm
Joint A B C
Members AB BA BC CB
DF 0 0.67 0.33 1
FEMS 85.63 +74.37 52.50 +67.50
Bal 14.65 7.22 67.50
Co 7.33 33.75
Bal +22.61 +11.14
Co +11.31
Final 81.65 +82.33 82.33 0.00
Moment Distribution Method 163
80 kN
81.65 kNm 82.33 kNm
4 4m
A D B
FIG. 2.48
VBA = 40.1 kN
VAB = 39.9 kN
Equilibrium of span BC
82.33
20 kN/m
6m
B C
FIG. 2.49
62
MB = 0; 82.33 + 20
2
 6VCB = 0
VCB = 46.3 kN
VBC = 73.7 kN
73.7 kN
39.9 kN
x
A D B C
40.1
46.3 kN
2.32 2
Absolute maximum BM is 46.3 2.32 20 = 53.6 kNm
2
88.33 kNm
81.65 kNm
D 2.32 m C
+
A B +
77.95 kNm
53.6 kNm
Example 2.9 A continuous beam is loaded as shown in Fig. 2.52. During loading the
support B sinks by 10 mm. Determine the bending moments at the supports. Sketch
the BMD. Given that I = 1600(10)4 mm4; E = 200 kN/mm2. Use moment distribution
method. Draw SFD also.
3 kN/m 8 kN
B
A 2 2 C
2I I
8m 4m
FIG. 2.52
Moment Distribution Method 165
Solution
Distribution factors
2I
BA = 0.25 I 0.57
8
B 0.438I
3 I
BC = 0.188 I 0.43
4 4
8m 2m
A C
10 mm
B
6EI D 1 10 1
MFAB =  =  6 2 3200 ( D 1 /l1 is positive)
l12 1000 82
MFAB = 6 kNm
MFBA = +6 kNm
6EI D 2 6 3200 (  10)
MFBA =  2
= = + 12 kNm ( D 2 /l2 is negative)
l2 1000 4 2
MFCB = + 12 kNm
Joint A B C
Members AB BA BC CB
DF 0 0.57 0.43 1
FEMS 22.00 +10.00 +8.00 +16.00
Bal 16.00
Co 8.00
Total 22.00 +10.00 0.00 0.00
Bal 5.70 4.30
Co 2.85
Final 24.85 +4.30 4.30 0.00
Shear forces
Free body diagram
3 kN/m
24.85 8m 4.30
A B
FIG. 2.54(a)
VBA = 9.4 kN
VAB = 14.6 kN
Moment Distribution Method 167
3 42
MD = 24.85 + 14.6 4 = 9.55 kNm
2
8 kN
4.3 kNm
2m 2m
B E C
FIG. 2.54(b)
V = 0; VBC + VCB = 8
VCB = 2.9 kN
VBC = 5.1 kN
14.6 kN
5.1 kN
D
A B E C
2.9 kN
9.4
24.85 kNm
4.30 kNm
+ +
5.8 kNm
9.55
500 kN
1.5 m 1.5 m
I
2I
A
C B
FIG. 2.57
Solution
A B
6EI
1.52 6E(2I)
1.52
6EI 6E(2I)
1.52 C' 1.52
FIG. 2.58
C 2I
CB 2I/1.5 0.67
Joint A C B
Members AC CA CB BC
DF 1 0.33 0.67 1
Co 16.5 33.5
Equilibrium of span AC
1.5 m C
A
VAC VCA
FIG. 2.59
MC = 0;
116.5 133 + 1.5VAC = 0
VAC = 166.33 kN
Equilibrium of span CB
1.5 m B
C
VCB VBC
FIG. 2.60
VBC = 200.33 kN
Resolving the forces vertically
= 166.33 + 200.33 = 366.66 kN
170 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
i.e., if the concentrated load applied at the centre is 366.66 kN then this will yield the
moments given in the table. But the applied load is 500 kN. Hence, the moments at
A and B are obtained as
500
MA = 116.5 =  158.9 kNm
366.66
500
MB = +167.5 = + 228.4 kNm
366.66
2m 50 kN
0.2 m
C
6m
FIG. 2.61
CA I/6 0.25
C 0.667I
CB I/2 0.75
Moment Distribution Method 173
Y = 21.33 kN
6m
RA
A 8.00
FIG. 2.64
5
M = 8 = 1.88 kNm
AC 21.33
5
M = 12 = 2.81 kNm
CA 21.33
5
MCB =  12 =  2.81 kNm
21.33
5
MBC =  24 =  5.63 kNm
21.33
Then the final moments is the sum of sway and nonsway moments as
MAC = MAC + MAC = 1.25 + 1.88 = 3.13 kNm
20 kN/m
C
B
2m 1m
2EI
2m
EI
FIG. 2.65
Solution
Distribution factors
3 2I
BC = I /2 0.5
4 3
Joint A B C
Members AB BA BC CB
DF 0 0.5 0.5 1.0
FEMS 13.33 +8.89
Bal +6.66 +6.67 8.89
Co +3.33 4.44
Bal +2.22 +2.22
Co +1.11
+4.44 +8.88 8.88 0.00
176 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
3.53 20 kN/m
B
C
D
2m 1m
FIG. 2.67
MB = 0
20 2 2
3VC + 3.53 =
2
VC = 12.157 kN
V = 0
VB + VC = 2(20)
VB = 40 12.157 = 27.843 kN
x = 1.392 m
20(1.392)2
Maximum +ve BM = 27.843(1.392)  3.53
2
ME = 15.851 kNm
3.585 kNm
3.585 B E D C
1.392 m +ve
12.157 kNm
15.851 kNm
3.585 A
FIG. 2.68 Bending moment diagram
Moment Distribution Method 177
Example 2.13 Analyse the frame shown in Fig. 2.69 by the moment distribution
method. Draw the bending moment diagram.
10 kN 10 kN/m 40 kN
B 3m 3m C
1m I G 2I
E A
2m
3m
F
25 kN
3 m 2I
FIG. 2.69
Solution
Distribution factors
3 I I
BA = 0.26
4 3 4
B BD (2I/5) 0.98 0.41
BC 2I/6 0.33
6
MFCB = + 40 = + 30.0 kNm
8
2 2
MFBD = +2 25 3 /5 = +18.0 kNm
2 2
MFBE = 3 25 2 /5 = 12.0 kNm
Joint A B C D
Members AE AB BA BD BC CB DB
Co 0.21
10.00 60
7.75
20.36
A B G C
F
31.25
11.07 D
Example 2.14 Analyse the frame by the moment distribution method. Draw the
bending moment diagram.
100 kN B 20 kN/m
2 3 C
2I I
A E I 3m
3m
FIG. 2.71
Solution
Distribution factors
3
BC ( I /3) = 0.25 I 0.25
4
22
MFBA = +3 100 = + 48 kNm
52
32
MFBC = 20 =  15 kNm
12
32
MFCB = +20 = + 15 kNm
12
180 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BD BC CB DB
DF 0 0.41 0.34 0.25 1 0
FEMS 72.00 +48.00 15.00 +15.00
Bal 13.53 11.22 8.25 15.00
Co 6.77 7.50 5.61
Bal +3.08 +2.55 +1.88
Co +1.54 +1.28
Total 77.23 +37.55 8.67 28.87 0.00 4.33
Example 2.15 Analyse the frame by the moment distribution method. Draw the
bending moment diagram.
8 kN
1 kN/m C 71 m
2
B
I I
D
15 m I I 15 m
15 m 15 m
A E
FIG. 2.73
Moment Distribution Method 181
Solution
Distribution factors
CB I/15 0.33
C CE I/15 3I/15 0.33
CD I/15 0.33
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CE CD DC EC
Distribution
Factors 0 0.5 0.5 0.33 0.33 0.33 0 0
FEMS 18.75 +18.75 15.00 +15.00
Balance +9.38 +9.37 1.25 1.25 1.25
Co +4.69 0.63 +4.69 0.63 0.63
Bal +0.32 +0.31 1.56 1.57 1.56
Co +0.16 0.78 +0.16 0.78 0.79
Bal +0.39 +0.39 0.05 0.05 0.06
I
BA 0.8
5
B 0.25I
BC 1 I
= 0.05 I 0.2
2 10
Joint A B
Members AB BA BC
DF 0 0.8 0.2
FEM 1.25W
Bal +1.00W +0.25W
Co +0.5W
Final +0.5W +1.00W 1.00W
B C
300 300
450
Elastic Curve
150 150
A D
Joint A B
Members AB BA BC
FEMS 30.00
Balance +15.00 +15.00
Co +7.50
15 kNm 15 kNm
+
30
+ +
7.5 kNm 7.5 kNm
Example 2.18 The culvert shown in Fig. 2.81 is of constant section throughout and the
top beam is subjected to a central concentrated load of 25 kN. Assume the base pressure
is uniform throughout and analyse the box culvert. Draw the bending moment diagram.
25 kN
B 5m 5m C
10 m
A D
2.5 kN/m
FIG. 2.81
186 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
Solution: The above frame is symmetrical and symmetrically loaded. This can be
analysed using moment distribution in a straightforward and in a simpler manner by
taking advantage of symmetry. The distribution factors are worked out by taking the
central member BC as half of its value of stiffness. The process of moment distribution
is carried out by considering only half of the frame.
Distribution factors
Table 2.37
I
BA = 0.1I 0.67
10
B 0.15I
1 I
BC = 0.05 I 0.33
2 10
I
AB = 0.1I 0.67
10
A 0.15I
1 I
AD = 0.05 I 0.33
2 10
wl 2 10 2
MFAD = + = + 2.5 = + 20.83 kNm
12 12
Moment Distribution
Due to symmetry analyse half of the frame. The joints A, B, C and D are rigid. This
frame is recognised as a continuous frame. It implies that when joint moments are
balanced, it is being carried over to the neighbouring joints. This carry over moment
is again balanced, the process is continued and all the joints are balanced.
Hence, the joint moments are
MA = MD = 9.06 kNm
MB = MC = 16.95 kNm
Moment Distribution Method 187
Joint A B
Members AD AB BA BC
DF 0.33 0.67 0.67 0.33
FEMS +20.83 31.25
Bal 6.94 13.89 +20.83 +10.42
Co +10.42 6.95
Bal 3.47 6.95 +4.63 +2.32
Co +2.32 3.48
Bal 0.77 1.55 +2.32 +1.16
Co +1.16 0.78
Bal 0.38 0.78 +0.52 +0.26
Co +0.26 0.39
Bal 0.17 0.08 +0.26 +0.13
Co +0.13 0.04
Bal 0.04 0.09 +0.03 +.01
Final 9.06 9.06 16.95 16.95
B 16.95 kNm
16.95 C
+
45.55
22.19
+ D
9.06 A
9.06 kNm
In reality, the frames are unsymmetrical and the loading could also be unsymmetrical.
In such frames, there will be rotation of joints as well as the lateral displacement joints.
The lateral displacement causes the frame to sway either to the right or to the left with
respect to the centre line of the frame. The sway (side sway) is caused by
(i) Portal frames with unequal columns (Fig. 2.83a)
(ii) Portal frames whose columns are of different moment of inertia (Fig. 2.83b)
(iii) Unsymmetrical loading on the beams (Fig. 2.83c)
(iv) Lateral loading (Fig. 2.83d)
I2 I2
I1 I3
I1 I3
(a) (b)
W
P
2I I2
I I I1 I3
(c) (d)
(5) Calculate the displacement force (Y) from the sway moment distribution.
(6) The correction factor/sway factor k = X/Y. The correction factor gives the
direction of sway of the frame. If the value of k is positive, then the frame sways
in the direction of the sway solution. If the value of k is negative, then the frame
sways in the direction opposite to that of assumed sway.
(7) The final end moments are obtained as
Final end moments = Nonsway moments +Correction factor
Sway moments
Expressing mathematically;
MAB = MAB + k MAB
where MAB is the end moment of the member AB, MAB is the moment obtained
from nonsway moment distribution, MAB is the computed moment obtained from
sway moment distribution k is the correction factor.
H1
I1 I2 H2
FIG. 2.84(a)
B C
D
FIG. 2.84(b)
190 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
6EI 1 D
MAB = MBA = 
H 12
6EI 2 D
and MCD = MDC = 
H 22
M AB I H2
= 1 22
MDC I2 H1
B C
I3
H1
I1 I2 H2
A
D
L
FIG. 2.85(a)
C
B
D
FIG. 2.85(b)
MAB = 0 ( Hinged)
3EI 1 D
MBA = 
H 12
6EI 2 D
MDC = MCD = 
H 22
Moment Distribution Method 193
Nonsway Analysis
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.45 0.55 0.55 0.45 0
FEMS 28.80 +19.20
Bal +12.96 15.84 10.56 8.64
Co 6.48 5.28 +7.92 4.32
Bal +2.38 +2.90 4.36 3.56
Co 1.19 2.18 +1.45 1.78
Bal +0.98 +1.20 0.80 0.65
Co 0.49 0.40 +0.60 0.33
Bal +0.18 +0.22 0.33 0.27
Co 0.09 0.17 +0.11 0.14
Bal +0.08 +0.09 0.06 0.05
Co 0.04 0.03 +0.05 0.03
Bal +0.01 +0.02 0.03 0.02
Total 8.29 16.59 16.59 13.19 13.19 6.60
Sway Analysis
The assumed sway moments are in the joint ratio
M BA  6EI D /32
=
MCD  6EI D /32
32.89
15.50
14.29 kNm
B C
B C
A D
Example 2.20 Analyse the given frame and draw the bending moment diagram
100 kN
B 3 6m C
I
4
50 kN 2I
2I
4
A D
FIG. 2.90
196 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
Solution
Distribution factors
Table 2.42
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.70 0.30 0.30 0.70 0
FEMS 50.00 +50.00 133.33 +66.67
Bal +58.33 +25.00 20.00 46.67
Co +29.20 10.00 +12.50 23.34
Bal +7.00 +3.00 3.75 8.75
Co +3.50 1.88 +1.50 4.38
Bal +1.32 +0.56 0.45 1.05
Co +0.66 0.23 +0.28 0.53
Bal +0.16 +0.07 0.08 0.20
Co +0.08 0.04 +0.04 0.10
Bal +0.03 +0.01 0.01 0.03
16.56 +116.84 116.84 56.70 56.70 28.35
M
AB
MBA M
BC
MCB MCD MDC
Moment Distribution Method 197
Sway Analysis
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
The final moments are the addition of nonsway moments and a constant times sway
moments; for example, MAB = MAB + k MAB. Therefore,
End moments
MAB = 16.56 + 69.58 k
23.096 27.18 k = 50
k = 0.99
Hence,
Final moments
MAB = 16.56 + 69.58( 0.99) = 85.4 kNm
MBA = +116.84 + 39.13( 0.99) = +78.1 kNm
MBC = 116.84 39.13( 0.99) = 78.1 kNm
MCB = +56.70 39.13( 0.99) = +95.4 kNm
MCD = 56.70 + 39.13( 0.99) = 95.4 kNm
MDC = 28.35 + 69.58( 0.99) = 97.2 kNm
+ 95.4 kNm
200
78.1
+ B C
100
85.4 A 97.2 D
Example 2.21 Analyse the portal frame shown in Fig. 2.94 by the moment distribution
method. Sketch the bending moment diagram.
60 kN/m
B C
I
2I I 4m
A 3m D
FIG. 2.94
200 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
Solution
Distribution factors
Table 2.45
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.60 0.40 0.57 0.33 0
FEMS 45.00 +45.00
Bal +27.00 +18.00 25.65 19.35
Co +13.50 12.83 +9.00 9.68
Bal +7.70 +5.13 5.13 3.87
Co +3.85 2.56 +2.56 1.94
Bal +1.54 +1.02 1.43 1.13
Co +0.77 0.72 +0.51 0.57
Bal +0.43 +0.29 0.29 0.22
Co +0.22 0.15 +0.15 0.11
Bal +0.09 +0.06 0.08 0.06
Co +0.05 0.04 +0.03 0.03
Bal +0.02 +0.02 0.02 0.01
Final +18.39 +36.78 36.78 +24.65 24.65 12.33
MAB MBA MBC MCB MCD MDC
202 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
k = 0.46
37.2
28.0 kNm
32.6
B C
A 11.7 16.3 D
B C
A D
FIG. 2.96 Elastic curve
Example 2.22 Analyse the portal frame shown in Fig. 2.97 by the moment distribution
method. Draw the bending moment diagram.
60 kN 60 kN
B 6 3 3m C
E F
2EI
6m
EI EI
A D
FIG. 2.97
Solution: The frame is subjected to asymmetrical loading. Hence, nonsway and sway
analyses were carried out separately and the results are summed up.
Distribution factors
Table 2.48
Joint Members Relative Stiff Values (k) k DF
BA I/6 0.5
B I/3
BC 2I/12 = I/6 0.5
CB 2I/12 = I/6 0.5
C I/3
CD I/6 0.5
204 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
Wl Wa 2 b 12 60 3 9 2
MFCB = + + = 60 + =  191.25 kNm
8 l2 8 12 2
Nonsway Analysis
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0
FEMS 123.75 +191.25
Bal +61.88 +61.87 95.63 95.62
Co +30.94 47.82 +30.94 47.81
Bal +23.91 +23.91 15.47 15.47
Co +11.96 7.74 +11.96 7.74
Bal +3.87 +3.87 5.98 5.98
Co +1.94 2.99 +1.94 2.99
Bal +1.50 +1.50 0.97 0.97
Co +0.75 0.49 +0.75 0.49
Bal +0.24 +0.25 0.37 0.38
Co +0.12 0.19 +0.13 0.19
Bal +0.10 +0.09 0.06 0.07
Final 45.71 91.50 91.50 118.49 118.49 59.22
Sway moments
The sway moments are assumed in the joint ratio of
M BA  6EI D /6 2 1
= =
MDC  6EI D /6 2 1
Example 2.23 Analyse the given frame by the moment distribution method. Draw
the bending moment diagram and shear force diagram.
80 kN
20 kN B 2m 3m C
2I
3m
1.5I I
6m
D
10 kN/m
FIG. 2.100
Distribution factors
Table 2.51
1.5 I
BA = 0.25 I 0.38
6
B 0.65I
2I
BC = 0.4 I 0.62
5
2I
CB = 0.4 I 0.55
5
C 0.73I
I
CD = 0.33 I 0.45
3
62
MFBA = +10 = + 30 kNm
12
2(90)32
MFBC =  =  64.8 kNm
52
208 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
32
MFCB = +3(90) = + 43.2 kNm
52
Nonsway Analysis
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.38 0.62 0.55 0.45 0
FEMS 30.00 +30.00 64.80 +43.20
Bal +13.22 +21.58 23.76 19.44
Co +6.61 11.88 +10.79 9.72
Bal +4.51 +7.37 5.93 4.86
Co +2.26 2.97 3.69 2.43
Bal +1.13 +1.84 2.03 1.66
Co +0.57 1.02 +0.92 0.83
Bal +0.39 +0.63 0.51 0.41
Co +0.20 0.26 0.34 0.21
Bal +0.10 +0.16 0.19 0.15
Co +0.05 0.10 +0.08 0.08
Bal +0.04 +0.06 0.04 0.04
Final 20.31 +49.39 49.39 +26.56 26.56 12.44
MAB MBA MBC MCB MCD MDC
Sway Analysis
D D
MBA : MCD = 6E(1.5I) 2
:  6E( I ) 2
6 3
MBA : MCD = 15.00 : 40.00 kNm
Correction factor
MAB = 20.31 14.15 k
MBA = +49.39 13.34 k
MBC = 49.39 + 13.34 k
MCB = +26.56 + 22.63 k
MCD = 26.56 22.63 k
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.38 0.62 0.55 0.45 0
HA
MAB
VA
FIG. 2.101
210 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
MCD MC = 0
C
MCD + MDC + 3HD = 0
( MCD + MDC )
HD = 
3
3m
HD
MDC
VD
FIG. 2.102
HA + HD = 6(10) + 20
( M AB + M BA ) ( MCD + MDC )
30   = 80
6 3
Substituting the values of MAB, MBA, MCD and MDC from the above equations; and
solving
k = 1.843
Final moments
MAB = 20.31 14.15(1.843) = 46.4
68.3 kNm
24.8 kNm 69.8
108
B C
9.4
D 70.1 kNm
46.4 A
FIG. 2.103 Bending moment diagram
45.3 kN
46.4 kN
56.4
44.7
46.4 kN
33.6
FIG. 2.104 Shear force diagram
Example 2.24 Analyse the rigid portal frame by moment distribution method and
hence draw the bending moment diagram (Fig. 2.105).
Solution
Distribution factors
Table 2.54
MBA MB = 0
B
52
MAB + MBA + 5HA 20 = 0
2
HA = 50 0.2(MAB + MBA)
20 kN/m
5m
A HA
MAB
FIG. 2.106
VC MCD MC = 0
C
HC MCD + 3HD = 0
HD = 0.33MCD
3m
D HD
VD
FIG. 2.107
H = 0; HA + HD = 20(5)
The end moments are obtained using the sway and nonsway moment distribution
table as
MAB = 45.49 86.00 k
MBA = +34.05 64.09 k
MBC = 34.05 + 64.09 k
MCB = 6.50 + 44.11 k
MCD = 6.50 44.11 k
MDC = 0.00
Substituting the above end moments in Eq. (1);
k = 1.022
40
51.6 kNm
62.5
133.4 kNm
Example 2.25 The frame shown in Fig. 2.109 is hinged at A. The end D is fixed and
the joints B and C are rigid. Column CD is subjected to horizontal loading of 30 kN/m.
A concentrated load of 90 kN acts on BC at 1 m from B. Analyse the frame and sketch
the BMD?
216 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
90 kN
B 1m 1m C
I
3 1.5I I 4m
A 30 kN/m
FIG. 2.109
Solution
Distribution factors
Table 2.57
3 1.5l
BA = 0.375 I 0.43
4 3
B 0.875I
BC I/2 = 0.5I 0.57
CB I/2 = 0.5I 0.67
C 0.75I
CD I/4 = 0.25I 0.33
42
MFDC = +30 = + 40 kNm
12
Moment Distribution Method 217
Nonsway Analysis
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 1 0.43 0.57 0.67 0.33 0
FEMS 22.50 +22.50 40.00 +40.00
Bal +9.68 +12.82 +11.73 +5.77
Co +5.87 +6.41 +2.89
Bal 2.52 3.35 4.30 2.11
Co 2.15 1.68 1.06
Bal +0.92 +1.23 +1.12 +0.56
Co +0.56 +0.62 +0.28
Bal 0.24 0.32 0.42 0.20
Co 0.21 0.16 0.10
Bal +0.09 +0.12 +0.11 +0.05
Co +0.06 +0.06 +0.03
Bal 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.02
Final 0 +7.90 7.90 +35.95 35.95 +42.04
Members MAB MBA MBC MCB MCD MDC
Sway Analysis
The sway moments are assumed in the following ratios
M BA 3E(1.5 I )D /32
=
MCD 6E( I )D /4 2
M BA 4
=
MCD 3
Final moments
MAB = 0
MBA = 7.90 + 25.80 k
MBC = 7.90 25.80 k
MCB = +35.95 23.22 k
MCD = 35.95 + 23.22 k
MDC = +42.04 + 26.58 k
Moment Distribution Method 219
Equilibrium of column CD
MCD MC = 0;
C HC 42
MCD + MDC + 30  4HD = 0
2
1
HD = 60 + ( MCD + MDC )
4
4m 30 kN/m
D HD
MDC
FIG. 2.111
M BA ( MCD + MDC )
i.e. + 60 + = 120
3 4
Substituting the values of the moments from the final moment equations;
k = 2.65
The end moments were calculated as
MAB = 0
MBA = 7.90 + 25.80 2.65 = 76.3 kNm
MBC = 7.90 25.80 2.65 = 76.3 kNm
MCB = +35.95 23.22 2.65 = 25.6 kNm
MCD = 35.95 + 23.22 2.65 = +25.6 kNm
MDC = +42.04 + 26.58 2.65 = +112.5 kNm
222 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
Sway Analysis
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0
FEMS 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Bal +50.00 +50.00 +50.00 +50.00
Co +25.00 +25.00 +25.00 +25.00
Bal 12.50 12.50 12.50 12.50
Co 6.25 6.25 6.25 6.25
Bal +3.12 +3.13 +3.13 +3.12
Co +1.56 +1.56 +1.57 +1.56
Bal 0.78 0.78 0.79 0.78
Co 0.39 0.40 0.39 0.69
Bal +0.20 +0.20 +0.20 +0.20
Co +0.10 +0.10 +0.10 +0.10
Bal 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Final 79.98 60.01 +60.01 60.02 60.02 79.98
1m
A HA
MAB
FIG. 2.114
Moment Distribution Method 223
MC = 0;
MCD + MDC + 4HD = 0
 ( MCD + MDC )
HD =
4
FIG. 2.115
26.8 kNm
18.3
66.6 A 38.5 D
FIG. 2.116 Bending moment diagram
224 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
Example 2.27 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig. 2.117 by the moment distribution
method. Draw the bending moment diagram.
100 kN B C
1.5EI
4m EI
EI 5m
D
6m
FIG. 2.117
Solution: In the above problem, a lack of symmetry makes the frame to sway to the
right. In the sway analysis, it is assumed that the joints B and C have no movement
of rotation but there is only lateral translation.
In the first instant, an external force necessary to prevent the lateral translation is
assumed. The moments at the supports and joints are computed for the above external
force. This is followed by a redistribution of moments allowing for the side sway by
removing the assumed external force.
The frame is analysed by considering the sway moments only.
Distribution factors
Table 2.63
Joint B C
Members BA BC CB CD
3 I 1.5 I 1.5 I I
k = 0.188 I = 0.25 I = 0.25 I = 0.20 I
4 4 6 6 5
k 0.438I 0.45I
DF = k/k 0.43 0.57 0.56 0.44
Sway moments
The sway moments are assumed in the following ratio
M BA  3EI D /4 2
=
MCD  6EI D /52
MBA : MCD = 25.00 : 32.00 kNm
Moment Distribution Method 225
Table 2.64
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.43 0.57 0.56 0.44 1
FEMS 0 25.00 32.00 32.00
Bal +10.75 +14.25 +17.92 +14.08
Co +8.96 +7.13 +7.04
Bal 3.85 5.11 4.00 3.13
Co 2.00 2.56 1.57
Bal +0.86 +1.14 +1.43 +1.13
Co +0.72 +0.72 +0.57
Bal 0.31 0.41 0.40 0.32
Co 0.20 0.21 0.16
Bal +0.08 +0.12 +0.12 +0.09
Co +0.06 +0.06 +0.05
Bal 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
Final 17.50 +17.50 +20.18 20.18 26.07
Moment 0
MB = 0 MC =0
 M BA  ( MCD + MDC )
HA = HD =
4 5
B 128.5
148.1 kNm
C
128.5
+
+
A 191.4 D
FIG. 2.120 Bending moment diagram
B
C
A
D
FIG. 2.121 Elastic curve
Moment Distribution Method 227
Example 2.28 Analyse the frame by moment distribution method and draw the shear
force diagram and bending moment diagram.
FIG. 2.122
Solution
Distribution factors
Table 2.65
BA I/4 0.33
B 3I/4
BC 2I/4 0.67
CB 2I/4 0.73
C 0.688I
3 I
CD = 0.188 I 0.27
4 4
Sway moments
The sway moments are assumed in the following ratio:
M BA  6EI D/4 2 2
= 2
=
MCD  3EI D/4 1
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 1 0.33 0.67 0.73 0.27 0
FEMS 20.00 20.00 10.00
Bal +6.60 +13.40 +7.30 +2.70
Co +3.30 +3.65 +6.70
Bal 1.21 2.44 4.89 1.81
Co 0.61 2.45 1.22
Bal +0.81 +1.64 +0.89 +0.33
Co +0.41 +0.45 +0.82
Bal 0.15 0.30 0.60 0.22
Co 0.08 0.30 0.15
Bal +0.10 +0.20 +0.11 +0.04
Co +0.05 +0.06 +0.10
Bal 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.03
16.93 13.87 +13.87 8.99 8.99 0.00
MBA VC
B MCD
HB C
HC
MB =0 MC = 0
MAB + MBA + 4HA = 0 MCD + 4HD = 0
4m 4m
1 MCD
HA =  ( M AB + M BA ) HD =
4 4
A HA D HD
MAB
VA VD
Example 2.29 Analyse the frame shown in Fig. 2.127 by the moment distribution
method. Draw the bending moment diagram.
50 kN/m
20 kN B C
3I
4m
40 kN
I I
4
A D
5m
FIG. 2.127
Solution
Distribution factors
Table 2.67
BA 3 1
= .094 0.14
4 8
B 0.694I
3I
BC = 0.6 I 0.86
5
CB 3I 0.86
= 0.6 I
C 5 0.694I
3 I
CD = .094 I 0.14
4 8
End moments
MAB = 0
MDC = 0
Nonsway Analysis
Table 2.68
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
Co 11.87 +10.66
Bal +1.66 +10.21 9.16 1.50
Co 0 4.58 +5.11 0
Bal +0.64 +3.94 4.40 0.71
Co 2.20 +1.97
Bal +0.31 +1.89 1.69 0.28
Co 0.85 +0.95
Bal +0.12 +0.73 0.82 0.13
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
Co +43.00 +43.00
Bal 6.02 36.98 36.98 6.02
Co 18.49 18.49
Bal +2.59 +15.90 +15.90 +2.59
Co +7.95 +7.95
Bal 1.11 6.84 6.84 1.11
Co 3.42 3.42
Bal +0.48 +2.94 +2.94 +0.48
Co +1.47 +1.47
Bal 0.21 1.26 1.26 0.21
20 0.125MBA 0.125MCD = 60
FIG. 2.133
3
MFBC = 20 2 =  24 kNm
5
3
MFCB = +20 2 = + 24 kNm
5
Table 2.71 Moment distribution for symmetric case
Joint A B
Members AB BA BC
DF 0 0.62 0.38
FEM 24.00
Bal +14.88 +9.12
Co 7.44
Final 7.44 14.88 14.88
Skewsymmetric case
The cantilever stiffness for the column AB is taken as (I/3). While the skew stiffness
of the beam BC is taken as 6(2I/5). The derivation of the cantilever stiffness and skew
stiffness are available in standard references.
Moment Distribution Method 237
20 kN 20 kN
B 2m B 2m
1
2 ( )
2I
5
Axis
6 ( )
2I
5
Axis
of of
I symmetry I symmetry
3 3
A A
Joint A B
Members AB BA BC
0 0.12 0.88
FEMS 4.80
Bal +0.58 +4.22
Co 0.58
Final 0.58 +0.5 0.58
240
60 60 60 30 30 30 30 kN
B 6 3 3 C 6 6m 3 6 3 3 6m 3
2EI 2EI 2EI 2EI
= + +
EI EI EI EI EI EI EI EI
A D
Table 2.76
Joint A B
Members AB BA BC
DF 0.0 0.67 0.33
FEMS 67.5
Bal +45.0 +22.5
CO +22.5
Total 22.5 45.0 45.0
Table 2.77
Joint A B
Members AB BA BC
DF 0 0.14 0.86
FEMS +33.75
Bal 4.72 29.03
CO +4.72
Total +4.72 4.72 +4.72
The above moments tally with the moments obtained by classical moment distribution
(Ref. Ex. 2.22). The Naylors method is very much useful if the reader identifies the
application of the same to specific problems.
Moment Distribution Method 243
BA BC
I I
k 4
4
k
I
k 2
DF =
Sk
0.5 0.5
The analysis for antisymmetrical distribution is carried out using cantilever moment
distribution. The stiffness for the column is taken as (EI/4) and for the beam it is taken
as six times the original stiffness. Hence, 6E(2I)/4 = EI. The fixed end moments for the
columns are taken as
wl 2 wl l wl 2 42
MFAB =   =  =  20 =  106.67 kNm
12 2 2 3 3
wl 2 wl l wl 2 20 4 2
MFBA = +  =  =  =  53.33 kNm
12 2 2 6 6
Joint BA BC
Member I 6(2I)
k 4 4
k 1 12
k
k
Sk
13
0.077 0.923
Members AB BA BC
DF 0 0.77 0.923
The end moments of the members were obtained by adding the moments due to
symmetric loading and antisymmetric loading.
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
C 18.47
18.47 kNm
18.47
66.07
B 54.56
11.53 54.56 kNm
E
66.07
A F
65.44 kNm 65.44
10 kN B C
2I
4m I 2I
O
A D
6m 3m
FIG. 2.143
Solution
Determination of sway () of members
248 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
C'
C C1
FIG. 2.145
3 1 3
MFBA : MFBC : MFCD =  : :
16 4 5
15 : +20 : 48
Relative Stiffness k Values and Distribution Factors
3 I 3
BA = I 0.36
4 4 16
B = 0.1875I = 0.5175I
2I
BC = 0.33 I 0.64
6
2I
CB = 0.33 I 0.45
6
C 0.73I
2I
CD = 0.4 I 0.55
5
C'
3m
10 kN
B C C1
D
A
Example 2.35 Determine the end moments and draw the bending moment diagram.
6 kN/m
B C
1.5 m
12 kN
1.5 m
A D
3m 2m
FIG. 2.149
C'
B' 6 kN/m
B
C C1
RAB
RCD
A D
C'
C C1
FIG. 2.151
C 1C
From CC1C; cot =
D
C1C = cot
CC
cosec =
D
CC = cosec
6EI 1 6EI D
MFAB = MFBA =  =  2 =  0.667 EI D
l12 3
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
Distribution factors
Table 2.85
Joint A B C D
Members AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.5 0.5 0.55 0.45 0
FEMS 4.50 +4.50 4.50 +4.50 0 0
Bal 0 0 2.48 2.02
CO 0 1.24 0 1.01
Bal +0.62 +0.62 0 0
CO +0.31 0 +0.31 0
Bal 0 0 0.17 0.14
CO 0 0.09 0 0.07
Bal +0.05 +0.04 0 0
CO +0.03 0 +0.02 0
Bal 0 0 0.01 0.01
Total 4.16 +5.17 5.17 2.17 2.17 108
MAB MBA MBC MCB MCD MDC
61.58 56.47 +56.47 52.88 52.88 54.13
MAB MBA MBC MCB MCD MDC
End moments
The end moments are the sum of the moments of the nonsway and sway moments.
MAB = 4.16 61.58 k
MBA = +5.17 56.47 k
MBC = 5.17 + 56.47 k
MCB = +2.17 + 52.88 k
256 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
FIG. 2.152(a)
NB
MBA
B SBA
1.5 m
12 kN
1.5 m
A SAB
MAB
NA
FIG. 2.156
B1 B
cot =
D
B1B = cot
BB
cosec =
BB1
BB = BB1 cosec
BB = 1.25
CC = 1.25
Sway of BC = BC = 1.5
Nonsway Analysis
8
MFBC = 100 =  100 kNm
8
8
MFCB = +100 = + 100 kNm
8
260 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
D
NB NB MC
SCD
25 kN
MBA
C
B SBA
5m
m
5 4m
SDC
A D MDC
3m
AB
NA ND
S
MAB
(a) (b)
FIG. 2.157
MB = 0;
MAB + MBA + 5 SAB = 0
( M AB + M BA )
i.e. SAB =  (1)
5
MC = 0;
MCD + MDC 5 SDC = 0
( MCD + MDC )
SDC =  (2)
5
On simplifying
The values of the moments are obtained from the above nonsway moment
distribution and sway moment distribution case as
{(38.27 26.39 k) (38.27 + 24.78 k)} + 1.75{(76.55 22.74 k) + ( 76.55 24.78 k)} + 100 = 0
Moment Distribution Method 263
k = 0.74
Final moments
MAB = 38.27 26.39 k(0.74) = 18.74 kNm
A D
18.74 kNm 58.7
8 1
ME = 100  (59.72 + 94.88) = 122.7 kNm
4 2
C 200 kN
1.5I 1.5I 3m
D
B
I
I 8m
A E
4m 4m
FIG. 2.161
Solution
Sway () values of the members
The Gable frame sways equally on both sides (either side) at B and D by virtue of
symmetry on the frame and the loading on YY axis.
Sway of AB = AB = BB = (negative sign because AB sways in the
anticlockwise direction with respect to AB)
Sway of BC = BC = +C1C = + cosec
5
BC = + D
3
Sway of CD = CD = C2C = cosec
5
CD =  D
3
Sway of DE = DE = DD
DE = +
Moment Distribution Method 265
100 kN MBA
200 kN MCB
B C HCB
HBA VCB
8m 3m
HAB B
A HBC 4m
MAB MBC
100 kN VBC
Column AB Member BC
In Fig. 2.164(b);
MB = 0;
8HAB + MBA + MAB = 0
( M AB + M BA )
HAB =
8
k = 4.55
Moment Distribution Method 269
Solution: The Gable frame sways equally on either side B and D by virtue of symmetry
of the frame and loading.
C1 C C2
C
B B D D
A Sway Diagram E
FIG. 2.168
25 kN/m
C
3m
6m
B
FIG. 2.169
62
MFBC = 25 =  75 kNm = MFCD
12
62
MFCB = +25 = + 75 kNm = MFDC
12
EI 1 1 6E(2 I )( D ) 12 EI
MFAB = MFBA =  2
=  2
=
6 36
MFAB + 15
=
MFBC  40.27
Distribution factors
Due to symmetry, consider joints B and C only.
272 Indeterminate Structural Analysis
25 kN/m
C
HCB
3m
MCB
B
HBC
6m
MBC VBC = 150 kN
FIG. 2.171
MC = 0
62
150(6) + MBC + MCB 3HBC 25 = 0
2
As HBC = HBA = HAB and replacing in terms of moments as above.
3
150 6 + MBC + MCB ( M AB + M BA )  450 = 0
6
489.94 82.09 k = 0
k = 5.97
End moments
The end moments are obtained by substituting the value of k in the above equations as
M AB + M BA
HAB = = 54.13 kN
6
C 101.0
25 kN/m
54.13 kN
6m
.39
48 1.0
10
.2
24
54.13
.2 SFD
)
x 24
6.71
150 kN (
1.0
186.7 9 10
.44 109.
5
11 86.
7
x
1
186.67
FIG. 2.172 Bending moment diagram (BMD)
54.13 kN
186.7 kNm
186.67
B 54.13
6m
A 54.13 kN
+
138.11 kNm
54.13 kN 138.1 kNm
SFD BMD
6EI 2 D 2 6EI D 3
MFCD = MFDC =  =  2 = EI D
l22 4 8
6EI 3 D 3 6EI D 6EI D
MEF = MFE =  2
=  2 =
l3 3 9
MFBC = MFCB = 0
MFCE = MFEC = 0
12 EI D 3EI D 6EI D
MFBA : MFCD : MFEF =  :  : 
25 8 9
MFAB : MFCD : MFEF = 0.48 : 0.375 : 0.67
Hence,
MFAB : MFCD : MFEF = 48.00 : 37.50 : 66.7 kNm
C E
B
2I I
I 3 I
4
5 2I
F
FIG. 2.177
Distribution factors
Table 2.93
A HA
MAB
VA
FIG. 2.178
VC MC = 0
MCD
C MCD + MDC + 4HD = 0
HC
HD = 0.25(MCD + MDC)
4m
D HD
MDC
VD
FIG. 2.179
MEF ME = 0
E MEF + MFE + 3HF = 0
3m HF = 0.33(MEF + MFE)
F HF
MFE
FIG. 2.180
35.4 kNm
B C
42.7 kNm
36.5 E
69.4 F
51.5 D
52.79 A
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Remembrance
2.1. Who has developed the moment distribution method?
2.2. Is the moment distribution a stiffness method or flexibility method?
2.3. List the advantages of the moment distribution method?
2.4. List the important steps in the moment distribution method?
2.5. Does the axial deformation considered in the development of the moment
distribution method?
2.6. Define rotational stiffness?
2.7. Explain distribution factor?
2.8. Define carry over factor?
2.9. Which moment distribution is preferable for symmetric frames subjected to lateral
loads as storey heights?
Moment Distribution Method 279
2.10. What are the other names for cantilever moment distribution method?
2.11. What are the advantages of Naylors method?
2.12. What is the rotational stiffness of a cantilever?
2.13. What is the magnitude of a stiffness of a member under antisymmetric bending
in Naylors method?
2.14. List the values of symmetric stiffness factor, skew symmetric stiffness factor and
cantilever stiffness factor?
Understanding
2.1. In a member AB, if a moment of 10 kNm is applied at A, what is the moment
carried over to the fixed end B?
2.2. What is sinking of supports? What is its effect on the end moments of the
member?
2.3. Calculate the MFBA and MFBC for the beam shown in figure below due to sinking
of support by 2 mm. E = 6000 N/mm2 and I = 1.6(10)8 mm4.
2m 4m
A EI B 2EI C
11
2.4. Calculate the MFBC and MFCB for the beam shown in figure below EI = 10 10 Nmm2.
Support B and C sinks by 2 mm and 3 mm respectively.
B C D
A
3m 3m 4m