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CONTEXT

Abstracti
List of figures...ii
List of
tables.iii

1.HISTORY1
2.INTRODUCTION2
2.1. How electricity is transported
2.2. Basic Principle
3.TransformerConstruction.7
3.1. Core Type Transformer
3.2. Shell Type Transformer
4.TRANSFORMERCORE.12
4.1. IMPORTANT ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CRGO
4.2. CRGO steel processing
4.3. Core building
4.4. Selection of the Core Diameter
5. Winding Wires and Strips.21
5.1. Basic material and their processing
5.2. Paper covering on the conductors
5.3. Insulation paper
5.4. Choice of using chopper or aluminium as winding material
5.5. Selection of winding wires and strips
5.6. Selection of number of turns
5.7. Calculations of size of a high-voltage conductor
5.8. Calculation of size of a low-voltage conductor
5.7. Transposition
5.7. Insulation design
6. Transformer oil..30
6.1. Transformer Oil Testing
7. Various type of cooling..32
7.1. ONAN type cooling
7.2. ONAF type cooling
7.3. OFAF type cooling
7.4. Radiators

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8.Protecting Devices34
8.1. Bushings
8.2. Surge Arresters
8.3. Buchholz Relay
8.4. Breather
9. Step-by-step Manufacturing Process of
Oil-Cooled Transformer..............40
9.1. Coil Winding
9.2. Core Assembly
9.3. Core-Coil Assembly
9.4. Tank-Up
9.5. Transformer Tanks
9.6. Testing Process
9.7. Finishing & Dispatch

CASE-STUDY..47

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DECLARTION

I hereby declare that this project entitled MANUFACTURING

PROCESS OF DISTRIBUTION TRANFORMERS represent the

original work carried out by me during my mini project in department of

Electrical and Electronics Engineering from TRR College of Engineering

under supervision of Internal Guide towards the partial fulfillment of

Bachelor of Technology Degree Electrical and Electronics Engineering

from JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY.

The work has not been for any degree or examination in any other

university. All the assistance taken during the course of this project and

source of literature has been duly acknowledged.

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ABSTRACT

It is a mini project, which involves the study of Manufacturing


Process of Distribution Transformer Absorbers.

The object of this project is to study the Manufacturing process of


Distribution Transformer step by step.
Absorbers core construction and assembly, coil construction, core coil
assembly, de-moistening technique, tanking and testing of distribution
transformer.
And also deals with the working principle of transformer. Materials
used during manufacturing process.

A transformer is essentially consist of magnetic core, build-up of


insulated silicon steel laminations, upon which are wound set of coils
suitably located with respected to each other and termed has primary and
secondary windings. Such a combination may be used to derive a voltage
higher or lower than what is immediately available. In the former case,
the transformer is termed as step-up transformer, while in the latter case,
its known has step-down transformer.

Fast expanding industrialization of the country needs fast


movement of higher safety of men and material.

The study of the Manufacturing process of Distribution


Transformer is essentially as it enhances our chances of improving its
efficiency and quickly solves the problems of its failures.
Hence, study of manufacturing process of Distribution Transformer
absorbers gives us an approximate idea of its life time, the time for its
servicing, causes of its failures.

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Abbreviations

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1. ASTM American Standard for Transformer
2. AC Alternate Current
3. BS British Standard
4. CRGO Cold Rolled Grain Oriented
5. DC Direct Current
6. DVB Delhi Vidyut Board
7. EGIP Electrical Grade Insulation Paper
8. EMF Electro Motive Force
9. ERW Electric Resistance Welding
10 HI-B High Saturation Flux (Brand Name of CRGO)
.
11 HPSEB Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board
.
12 HV High Voltage
.
13 IS Indian Standard
.
14 ISI Indian Standard Institute
.
15 ISO International Organization for Standardization
.
16 ISS Indian Standard Specification
.
17 LV Low Voltage
.
18 PCB Chlorinated Bi Phenyl
.
19 RMS Root Mean Square
.
20 UPPCL Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited
.
21 27 M4 Grade of CRGO Steel-M4, Thickness 0.27 mm
.
22 ZDMH Grade of CRGO Steel-ZDMH, Thickness 0.23 mm
.
23. Diameter, Flux
24 A Ampere
.
25 ASTM Volt
.
26 AC Watt
.
27 BS Ohm
.
28 CRGO Kilo gram
.
29 DC Millimetre
. 6
30 DVB Centimetre
.
List of Figures

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S.No FIGURE NAME PG.No
1. Fig: (2.1) Step-down transformer showing magnetic flux 5
2. Fig: (3.1) Core-type Transformer 7
3. Fig: (3.2) Shell type transformer 8
4. Fig: (3.3) Core type 9
5. Fig: (3.4) Shell type 9
6. Fig: (3.5) Single phase Transformer 10
7. Fig: (3.9) Cross section of a 3-phase Distribution Transformer 11
8. Fig: (4.1) Rectangular cut lamination 17
9. Fig: (5.2) Miter-cut lamination 17
10. Fig: (5.1) Wires & strips 21
11. Fig: (5.2) Paper covered conductors 22
2. Fig: (5.3) Insulating paper 23
13. Fig: (5.4) Rectangle strip of low-voltage winding 26
4. Fig: (5.5) Transposition 28
5. Fig: (7.1) Stamped-plate radiators 33
6. Fig: (7.2) Tubular radiators 33
7. Fig: (8.1) Bushing 34
8. Fig: (9.1) Buchholz relay 38
9. Fig: (10.1) Breather 39
20. Fig: (11.1) Tanking 42
21. Fig: (11.2) Tank 43
22. Fig: (11.3) Painting 43
23. Fig: (11.4) Final assembly 45
24. Fig: (11.4) Transformer after Assembly 45

List of Tables

S.No TABLE NAME PG.No


1. Table-1 Important electrical properties of CRGO 13
2. Table-2 Important physical properties of CRGO 14
3. Table-3 Dimensions & Tolerances 14
4. Table-4 Tolerances in Dimensions & Shape - conform to JIS 15
C 2553
5. Table-5 Hi - B CRGO Materials 16
6. Table-6 Core losses 16
7. Table-7 Comparison of space factor of round and rectangle 25
conductors

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8. Table-8 Comparison of a single thick strip with multiple 27
strips in parallel. In respect of surface length

Company Profile
Vishwanath Transformers Limited was incorporated in the year
2004 as Engineering, Design and Manufacturing Company for Power and
distribution transformers. The Company is accredited with ISO 9001-
2008 certificate from TUV India Ltd for its Quality systems and
Procedures, and also accredited with BEE (Bureau of Energy Efficiency)
star rating for transformers.

The Certification of ISO 9001:2008 ensures that establishment


procedures are followed in all areas of operation such as Design,
Marketing, Planning, Purchase, Production, Inspection at all stages till
Dispatch.

Since our establishment in 2004, at Hyderabad, we have been


dedicated to the design, development and manufacturing of a wide range
of transformers. Our extensive variety of Transformers include
Distribution and Power Transformers as per the customer specifications,
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with Six years of dedication and exertion, Vishwanath Transformers Ltd
has introduced a number of pioneer electrical equipments, became sole
agent, distributor and joint-venture business partner of suppliers.

-----Vishwanath Transformers Limited is well known for its


excellent quality products along with high level of commitment to its
customers.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Taking up the execution of project work a rich experience by itself


as it involved more of my efforts. It was the first opportunity for me to
apply my knowledge and Skill to work up on an idea which certainly will
be after stepping into the field work.
My sincere thanks to external project guide S.V. SUBBA REDDY,
Manager (Tech) Vishwanath Transformers Limited, for the guidance and
pertaining to use lab facilities and carry out this project work.
I express my profound gratitude to our guide Prof.Mr.SRIDHER
Of EEE department for his support and encouragement in completing the
project. I thank him for his project guidance and help through the
development of this project by providing me with required information.
Without his guidance cooperation and encouragement, I couldnt have
learned many things during my project venture
I would like to thank Prof.V.H.N.SHARMA, Head of the
department of ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
for his valuable guidance in bringing shape to this dissertation.

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I express my special thanks to principal Dr.K.SRINIVAS on of
our EEE department for his kind co-operation.

P.KIRAN B.Srinivas E.Nirenjen Kumar

(08L01A0245) (08L01A0207) (08L01A0215)

History

Michael Faraday built the first transformer in 1831, although he


used it only to demonstrate the principle of electromagnetic induction and
did not foresee its practical uses. Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov in
1876 invented a lighting system based on a set of induction coils, where
primary windings were connected to a source of alternating current and
secondary windings could be connected to several "electric candles". The
patent claimed the system could "provide separate supply to several
lighting fixtures with different luminous intensities from a single source
of electric power." Evidently, the induction coil in this system operated as
a transformer.

Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs, who first exhibited a device with
an open iron core called a 'secondary generator' in London in 1882 and
then sold the idea to American company Westinghouse. This may have
been the first practical power transformer. They also exhibited the
invention in Turin in 1884, where it was adopted for an electric lighting
system

William Stanley, an engineer for Westinghouse, built the first commercial


device in 1885 after George Westinghouse had bought Gaulard and
Gibbs' patents. The core was made from interlocking E-shaped iron
plates. This design was first used commercially in 1886. Hungarian
engineers Zipernowsky, Blthy and Dri from the Ganz Company in
Budapest created the efficient "ZBD" closed-core model in 1885 based on
the design by Gaulard and Gibbs. Their patent application made the first
use of the word "transformer". Russian engineer Mikhail Dolivo-

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Dobrovolsky developed the first three-phase transformer in 1889. In 1891
Nikolas Tesla invented the Tesla coil, an air-cored, dual-tuned resonant
transformer for generating very high voltages at high frequency.

Audio frequency transformers (at the time called repeating coils) were
used by the earliest experimenters in the development of the telephone.
While new technologies have made transformers in some electronics
applications obsolete, transformers are still found in many electronic
devices. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission,
which makes long distance transmission economically practical. This
advantage was the principal factor in the selection of alternating current
power transmission in the "War of Currents" in the late 1880s. Many
others have patents on transformers.

INTRODUCTION

A TRANSFORMER is a device that transfers electrical energy


from one circuit to another by electromagnetic induction (transformer
action). The electrical energy is always transferred without a change in
frequency, but may involve changes in magnitudes of voltage and current.
Because a transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic
induction, it must be used with an input source voltage that varies in
amplitude. There are many types of power that fit this description; for
ease of explanation and understanding, transformer action will be
explained using an ac voltage as the input source.

You learned that alternating current has certain advantages over direct
current. One important advantage is that when ac is used, the voltage and
current levels can be increased or decreased by means of a transformer.

As you know, the amount of power used by the load of an electrical


circuit is equal to the current in the load times the voltage across the load,
or P = EI. If, for example, the load in an electrical circuit requires an
input of 2 amperes at 10 volts (20 watts) and the source is capable of
delivering only 1 ampere at 20 volts, the circuit could not normally be
used with this particular source. However, if a transformer is connected
between the source and the load, the voltage can be decreased (stepped
down) to 10 volts and the current increased (stepped up) to 2 amperes.
Notice in the above case that the power remains the same. That is, 20
volts times 1 ampere equals the same power as 10 volts times 2 amperes.

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How electricity is transported
The actual transmission of that power isnt straightforward at all.
To begin with, the wires used in power lines are less than perfect
conductors of electricity. Along any given length of wire there are all
sorts of imperfections in the metal, and these tend to resist the flow of
electrical current. These imperfections will always exist to some extent,
even with the best manufacturing techniques and quality control, and the
longer the power line, the more resistance the power flow will meet. The
result is loss of electrical power.

To address the problem of power loss electric utilities use step-up


transformers, similar to the one in Figure 1. This enables voltage
produced by the generator at the plant to be raised to a higher voltage, in
turn enabling it to travel longer distances and remain effective.

Figure 1 Electricity Leaving the Power Plant Goes Through a Step-


Up Transformer

For example, lets say that an electric generator puts out 12,000 volts,
and a step-up transformer raises that to 765,000 volts (for example),
enabling transmission to customers far away. With electrical
transformers, there is an inverse relationship between voltage and
current. So, when a step-up transformer increases input voltage, it
actually results in a lowering of electrical current. So how does this
phenomenon aid in power transmission? Simply put, when there is less
current flowing through the wires, there is an accompanying reduction in
power loss over the long length of the transmission line.

Lets take a look at what happens when the power reaches our homes.
Figure 2 shows a simplified distribution route from the power plant.
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Figure 2 A Step-Down Transformer is Used to Supply Electric
Utility Customers

First, the higher voltage originating from the step-up transformer at the
power plant is decreased by the use of a step-down transformer located in
a substation many miles away at the other end of the transmission line.
The use of this intermediary step-down transformer effectively lowers the
voltage and at the same time raises the current at the other end of the line,
the end where customers are waiting to use. The path that the power
follows is somewhat circuitous, but well planned out, with numerous
strategically positioned distribution lines acting as the final leg of
delivery. These distribution lines do what their name implies; they weave
their way along streets and alleys, finally distributing electricity to
customers.

A step-down transformer located in a substation along the power


transmission route allows this all to happen. It can readily convert the
765,000 volts being sent by the power plant to the 25,000 volts needed to
feed distribution power lines. These, in turn, power individual homes,
hospitals, etc. Now you obviously cant plug a television into a 25,000
volt wall outlet located in your house, so another step-down transformer
is required to temper it into power thats both usable and safe. The one in
our diagram is mounted on a nearby utility pole, and its job is to lower the
25,000 volts which it receives into a more manageable 240 and 120 volts,
which is then fed into your home.

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BASIC PRINCIPLE
An ideal step-down transformer showing magnetic flux in the core.
The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a
hypothetical ideal transformer consisting of two windings of zero
resistance around a core of negligible reluctance. A voltage applied to the
primary winding causes a current, which develops a magneto motive
force (MMF) in the core. The current required to create the MMF is
termed the magnetizing current; in the ideal transformer it is considered
to be negligible. The MMF drives flux around the magnetic circuit of the
core.

Fig: (2.1) Step-down transformer showing magnetic flux

An electromotive force (EMF) is induced across each winding, an effect


known as mutual inductance. The windings in the ideal transformer have
no resistance and so the EMFs are equal in magnitude to the measured

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terminal voltages. In accordance with Faraday's law of induction, they are
proportional to the rate of change of flux:

and

where:

and are the induced EMFs across primary and secondary


windings,
and are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary
windings,
and are the time derivatives of the flux linking the primary
and secondary windings.

In the ideal transformer, all flux produced by the primary winding also
links the secondary and so , from which the well-known
transformer equation follows:

The ratio of primary to secondary voltage is therefore the same as the


ratio of the number of turns alternatively, that the volts-per-turn is the
same in both windings.

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Transformer Construction

There are two general types of transformers


1. Core type transformer
2. Shell type transformer
These two differ by the manner in which the windings are wound around
the magnetic core.
The magnetic core is a stack of thin silicon-steel laminations about
0.27 mm(or as specified before) thick for 50 Hz transformer. In order to
reduce the eddy current losses, these laminations are insulated from one
another by thin layers of varnish. In order to reduce the core losses,
transformers have their magnetic core made from cold-rolled grain-
oriented sheet steel (C.R.G.O). This material, when magnetized in the
rolling direction, has low core loss and high permeability.

Core Type Transformer:

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Fig: (3.1) Core-type Transformer

In the core-type, the windings surround a considerable part of steel


core as shown in fig (a). The core type transformers require more
conductor material and less iron when compared to shell-type. The
vertical portions of the core are usually called limbs or legs and the top
and bottom portions are called the yoke. For single phase transformers,
core-type has two legged core. In order to reduce leakage flux, half of the
L.V. winding is placed over one leg and other half over other leg. For
H.V. winding also, half of the winding is placed over one leg and the
other half over the other leg. L.V. winding is placed adjacent to the steel
core and H.V. winding outside, in order to minimize the amount of
insulation required.

Shell Type Transformer:


In the core-type, the steel core surrounds a considerable part of the
windings as shown in fig (b). Shell-type transformer has three legged
core. The L.V. and H.V. windings are wound on the central limb. In order
to reduce leakage flux, the windings are interleaved or sandwiched. The
shell type transformers require more iron and less conductor material
when compared to core-type.
There are two types of windings employed for transformers.
1. Concentric coils.
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2. Interleaved coils.
The concentric coils are used for core-type transformers and interleaved
coils for shell type transformers.

Fig: (3.2) Shell type transformer

Construction in which the iron circuit is surrounded by windings


and forms a low reluctance path for the magnetic flux set up by the
voltage impressed on the primary. Fig (1), Fig. (6) and Fig. (7) Shows the
core type

Fig: (3.3) Core type

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The core of shell type is shown Fig.(2), Fig.(3), Fig.(4), and Fig.
(5), in which The winding is surrounded by the iron Circuit Consisting
of two or more paths through which the flux divides. This arrangement
affords somewhat Better protection to coils under short circuit conditions.

In actual construction there are Variations from This simple


construction but these can be designed

With such proportions as to give similar electrical characteristics.

Fig: (3.4) shell type

Fig: (3.5) Single phase Transformer

Fig: (3.6) Single phase Transformer.

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Fig: (3.7) 3- phase Transformer Shell type

Fig: (3.8) 3- phase Transformer core type

Fig: (3.9) Cross section of a three-phase Distribution Transformer (Core Type)

Three-phase Transformers usually employ three-leg core. Where


Transformers to be transported by rail are large capacity, five-leg core is
used to curtail them to within the height limitation for transport.

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Before going into depth of Manufactring Process, we shall now
discuss on the processing of three major raw materials which constitute
about 70 percent of cost of transformer. They are:
a) CRGO (Cold Rolled Grain-Oriented) silicon steel
b) Winding wires and strips
c) Oil
The purpose of discussing these raw materials is to know how the
qualities of raw materials influence the performance of the transformer.
The right choices of materials also improve the performance.

TRANSFORMER CORE

Grain oriented Electrical Steel CRGO is undoubtedly the most


important soft magnetic material in use today. Whether in small
transformer, distribution transformer or in large transformer & generator,
grain oriented electrical steel CRGO is a must for the production of
energy saving electrical machines.
Grain oriented Electrical Steels are iron-silicon alloys that
provide low core loss and high permeability needed for more efficient
and economical electrical transformers. CRGO Grain oriented grades of
electrical steel are typically used for transformer cores and large
generators

The magnetic core is built up of laminations of high-grade silicon


sheet steel, which are insulated from each other by a special coating of
varnish. The usual thickness of laminations is 0.18mm, 0.23mm, 0.27mm,
0.30mm and 0.35mm. The two losses, due to varing flux, occur in the
core: the eddy current and the histeresis losses. The silicon content of the
iron and the nature of annealing are very important I determining the
histeresis loss. Silicon makes the material very brittle, thus making it
difficult to process.

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Distribution transformers can achieve low no-load losses by using
cores made with low-loss high-permeability silicon steel or amorphous
(non-crystalline) metal alloy. The higher initial cost of the core material is
offset over the life of the transformer by its lower losses at light load.

NOTE: - In India distribution transformers are mainly manufactured with


0.27 mm materials (0.27-M-4). But in order to minimise losses, the
following changes in grades may be conceived:
To reduce losses, 27-M4 may be replaced by HI-B-0.27, affecting a
reduction of 16%. Similarly, losses may be further reduced by 8% by
replacing HI-B-0.27 with HI-B-0.23. Nowadays laser grade ZDMH-0.23
is available which has a superior property of 14% over HI-B-0.23.
It can be seen from the above that by using a better grade of materials, the
losses can be reduced to (16+ 8+ 14) =38% than that of conventional core
transformers, being designed previously with 27-M4 grade CRGO.
The reduction of losses not only minimises the running cost, it also helps
to reduce the core frame size, thereby reducing the cost of winding as
well as the oil. One can design a more cost-effective, low-loss, energy
efficient transformer by incorporating the above grade of materials.

TECHNICAL DETAILS:

CRGO or Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Steel is available in various


grades (generally called M3, M4, M5& M6). Major international
standards such as Japanese (JIS), American (ASTM), German (DIN) and
British Standards are given in table 1 which specify grade, thickness,
Watt Losses and Magnetic Flux density.

IMPORTANT ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CRGO


Table 1 - Grain Oriented Electrical Steel strips

Japanese
JIS C 2553 (1986)
Classification Iron Loss
Density Magnetic
Thickness (kg/dm) (W/kg)
Symbol Flux Density (T) B
mm W17/50
27 P 100 7.65 1.00 max.
1.85
27 P 100 1.00 max.
27 G 120 0.27 1.20 max.
1.78
27 G 130 1.30 max.
27 G 140 1.40 max. 1.75
30 P 110 0.30 1.10 max.
1.85
30 P 120 1.20 max.
30 G 130 1.30 max. 1.78

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30 G 140 1.40 max.
30 G 150 1.50 max. 1.75
35 P 125 1.25 max.
1.85
35 P 135 1.35 max.
35 G 145 0.35 1.45 max.
1.78
35 G 155 1.55 max.
35 G 165 1.655 max. 1.75

British
BS 601 Part 2 (1973)
Maximum specific total loss at a peak magnetic flux density of 1.5T and a frequency of
50 Hz.
Grade Maximum specific total loss W/kg
35M6 1.11
30M6 1.07
30M5 0.97
28M5 0.95
28M4 0.89

USA
AISI ( 1983 )
MAXIMUM CORE LOSSES - Electrical Steels Grain Oriented Full Processed ASTM
A665
ASTM Former Maximum Core Loss at 15 kg (1.5 T)
Thickness
Type AISI W / lb W /kg
Type Inch mm 60Hz 50Hz 60Hz 50Hz
27G053 M-4 0.0106 0.27 0.53 0.40 1.17 0.89
30G058 M-5 0.0118 0.30 0.58 0.44 1.28 0.97
35G066 M-6 0.0138 0.35 0.66 0.50 1.46 1.11

IMPORTANT PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CRGO

Density gm/c3 7.65


Silicon content % 3.10
Resistivity micro Ohm-centimeter 48.00
Ultimate Tensile Strength 0 to Rolling Direction Kg/mm2 32.60
Ultimate Tensile Strength 90 to Rolling Direction Kg/mm2 38.20
Stacking factor % M4 (.27 mm) 96.00
Stacking factor % M5 (.30 mm) 96.50
Stacking factor % M6 (.35 mm) 97.00
CRGO materials come either in the form of coils or sheets. Table 2 gives details of
dimensions and tolerances as per JIS C 3553.

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DIMENSIONS & TOLERANCES

0.18 mm (0.0071 in. )


0.20 mm (0.0079 in.), 0.23 mm (0.0091 in. )
Thickness
0.27 mm (0.0106 in.), 0.30 mm (0.0118 in. )
COILS 0.35 mm (0.0138 in.)
Width 914 mm (36 in.), and 1000 mm (39 in. )
(Standard width available with
range) from 50 mm(2 in.), to 1.050mm (41 in. )
Inside Coil Diameter 508 mm (20 in. )
Thickness 0.30 mm (0.0118 in.), 0.35 mm (0.0138 in. )
Width 914 mm (36 in.), and 1000 mm (39 in. )
Sheets
Length will be available according to
Length
negotiation

Tolerances in Dimensions & Shape - conform to JIS C 2553.

TOLERANCE
Camber in
Deviation of
Width Thickness any 2
thickness in
mm mm Thickness Width metres
transverse Shear Burr mm
mm mm (Slit
direction
Products)
mm
mm
0.18 +0.02
0.20 +0.02
150
0.23 +0.02
or 0.02 or under +0.20
0.27 +0.03
under
0.30 +0.03
0.35 +0.03
0.18 +0.02
0.20 +0.02
over
0.23 +0.02 0.02
150 +0.30
0.27 +0.03 or under
to 400
0.30 +0.03
0.35 +0.03 1.0 or 0.05
0.18 +0.02 under or unde
0.20 +0.02
over
0.23 +0.02 0.03
400 +0.50
0.27 +0.03 or under
to 750
0.30 +0.03
0.35 +0.03
0.18 +0.02
0.20 +0.02
over 0.23 +0.02 0.03 +0.6
750 0.27 +0.03 or under 0
0.30 +0.03
0.35 +0.03

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Besides the Watt Losses at specific flux densities of 1.5 T and 1.7 T
CRGO manufacturers also give curves of indicating Watt Losses ad A.C.
Magnetization at various flux densities. These curves are of immense
help to Transformer designers, and available on request.

Conventional CRGO materials (M4, M5, M6) are used regularly


for cores in Transformers. However recently due to environmental
protection, energy savings are becoming a very important factor and
minimizing care loss in Transformers is becoming a must. Nippon Steel
Corporation has come out with low loss Hi-B materials, which guarantee
low Watt Losses at 1.5 Tesla flux density. Such materials are called Hi-B
materials. Table 3 gives magnetic properties of Hi-B material. Popular
Hi-B grades used in India are 23 MOH & 27 MOH Watt.

Hi - B CRGO MATERIALS:

Core Loss Lamination Factor


Thickness
Max. Typical Typical Typical
Grade
W W W W W
mm mil B (T) %
(W/Kg) (W/Kg) (W/Kg) (W/Kg) (W/Kg)
23ZDKH85 0.85 0.57 0.78 0.34 0.46 1.91
97.5
23ZDKH90 0.90 0.58 0.80 0.35 0.48 1.91
23ZDMH85 0.85 0.57 0.78 0.34 0.46 1.91
97.4
0.23 9 23ZDMH90 0.90 0.59 0.81 0.35 0.48 1.91
23ZH90 0.90 0.63 0.87 0.37 0.51 1.92
23ZH95 0.95 0.64 0.90 0.38 0.53 1.92 97.7
23M-OH 1.00 0.66 0.93 0.39 0.54 1.92
27ZDKH90 0.90 0.62 0.84 0.38 0.53 1.92
98.0
27ZDKH95 0.95 0.65 0.88 0.39 0.52 1.91
27ZDMH90 0.90 0.62 0.84 0.38 0.53 1.91
97.9
0.27 11 27ZDMH95 0.95 0.65 0.88 0.39 0.53 1.91
27ZH95 0.95 0.69 0.93 0.41 0.55 1.91
27M-OH 1.03 0.72 0.99 0.43 0.59 1.91 98.1
27M-1H 1.09 0.74 1.03 0.44 0.61 1.91
30ZH100 1.00 0.73 0.98 0.44 0.58 1.92
0.30 12 98.3
30M-OH 1.05 0.74 1.01 0.44 0.60 1.91
35M-1H 1.16 0.85 1.13 0.52 0.68 1.92
0.35 11 98.5
35M-2H 1.22 0.90 1.19 0.54 0.73 1.92

26
A. K. Steel Corp. of USA ( formally ARMCO) has also come out with
their own brand of low loss CRGO called Trancor H-0 and Trancor H-1.
The Watt Losses are as follows :

CORE LOSSES

TYPICAL
ARMCO WATTS WATTS
WATTS PER
TRAN. THICKNESS PER KG 60 PER KG 50
KG
CORE INCHES (mm) Hz Hz
@ 1.7 T/50 Hz
(TC) 1.7 T 1.7 T
T
TC H0 .009 ( .23 ) 1.32 0.90 0.80
TC H1 .011 ( .27 ) 1.46 1.00 0.90
TC H2 .012 ( .30 ) 1.05 0.95

CRGO steel processing:

After slitting the next operation in CRGO processing is Mitring and


subsequently, knotching. Earlier of laminations in shape where flux had
to travel from strip to other by right (90 angle). As has been indicated.
The flux generated in the limb travels along the direction of rolling.
When it enters the top lamination. It faces a cross grain till flux rotates by
90 and thereby produces high reluctance, causing high magnetic loss.

These days, with the availability of improved processing equipments and


modern technology, the laminations are being cut at an angle of 45,
causing a rotation of flux by only 45. The reduction in angle of rotation
of flux from 90 to 45 causes an achievement of less reluctance. With
an effect of a reduction in the magnetic loss.

27
The rotation of flux and the cutting angle have been shown in figure

Fig: (4.1) rectangular cut lamination Fig: (4.2) Miter-cut lamination

This particular procedure of cutting the CRGO laminations is commonly


known as Miter-cut. The top and bottom laminations are cut as v at the
center, thereby creating a knotch to receive the centre leg laminations as
shown figure.

Since the continuous operation of cutting the steel sheet is required


while processing CRGO laminations, one has to remain very vigilant on
the sharpness of cutting tools; otherwise, it will produce a good amount
of burr on the cutting edges.
The acceptable limit of burr on the cutting edges should be limited
to 30 to 40 microns. More of burr would add more air-gaps in the core
assembly, causing more no-load-losses, despite using good quality CRGO
material.

Core building
Slitting - For building the transformer cores, laminations sheets of
different widths and packet heights are needed. The manufacturing
schedule may include cores of different diameters and different types of
constructions necessitating slitting laminations in many widths and
lengths. CRGOS rolls cannot be ordered in so many different widths and
quantities.
Various types of core stackings for three-phase transformers have
commonly been adopted during manufacturing. Some core building
schemes have been show in fig. which are, however, only representative
examples.

28
Each scheme has its own advantages and limitations. The designer
should look into the applicability of the scheme before going for the final
design of core laminations.
Core building from the finished lamination sheet is done in
horizontal position on specially raised platforms. The lamination sheets
are susceptible to mechanical stresses of bending, twisting, and impact. A
lot of care is taken while handling and normally two persons are needed
to hold the two ends of laminations at the time of laying. Steel bands are
used for tightening the lamination is only a temporary arrangement and
are later removed. To hold the leg laminations resiglass tapes, are tightly
wound around the legs at specified pitch and cured by heating, this tape
shrinks after heating and provides a firm grip.

Step-lap
Apart from the models of core building schemes shown above,
there is one more scheme of construction, commonly known as step-lap
construction.

The construction of step-lap may be of cross-step or longitudinal


step. This type of core building scheme has a specific advantage over
other schemes, especially towards magnetic properties.

Step-lap core assembly emits less no-load loss than conventional


assembly. But in India, step-lap core construction is very popular, since
the cost of the processing equipment is huge and it is beyond the reach of
small scale units. The equipment is known as automatic cut-it length
line, CNC control.

Selection of the Core Diameter:

29
Based on the requirement of no-load loss and no-load current, a
suitable working flux density. In India, PSEB, HPSEB, DVB etc. have
restricted the choice of flux density at rated voltage and frequency to 1.6
tesla(maximum), where RSEB and UPPCL have restricted the same to
1.69 tesla (maximum)

Once the number of turns and flux density are known, the gross
core area may be calculated by using the formula:
Et=phase voltage turns =4.44fBmAg0.9710-4

Where, f is the rated frequency which is 50 Hz (known)


Bm is the maximum flux density in tesla(known)
Ag is the gross core area in sqcm (to be calculated)
0.97 is the stacking factor (assumed)

From the above equation, the gross core area can easily be calculated.
Once the gross area Ag is known, the approximate core diameter can be
calculated by using the following formula:
Ag=K1d2/4
Where,K1 is a factor to be selected on the basis of the number of
core steps and d is the required core diameter we are looking for.

The approximate value of K1 may be assumed as follows:


For 6 steps, the approximate value of K1=0.92
For 7 steps, the approximate value of K1=0.925
For 8 steps, the approximate value of K1=0.93
For 9 steps, the approximate value of K1=0.935
For 10 steps, the approximate value of K1=0.94
For steps 11 steps, the approximate value of K1=0.945

Core Assembly:
The basic raw-material is COLD ROLLED GRAIN ORIENTED
(CRGO) Silicon Steel
It is in the form of thin sheets & cut to size as per design, as it is
shown in the design specification sheet. (refer case-study for
design sheet so that you can understand)
Generally three different shapes of core laminations are used in one
assembly.
Notching is performed to increase the magnetic path.
The laminations are put through annealing process.
These laminations are assembled in such a manner that there is no
air gap between the joints of two consecutive sheets.
30
The entire assembly is done on a frame commonly known as core
channel. These frames being used as a clamping support of the core
assembly.

Winding Wires and Strips

Like CRGO laminations, winding wires and strips are also a vital
raw materials used in transformers, the basic material available in the
market are in form of rods having a varying diameter from 8mm to
16mm. the rod is drawn to the required designed sizes and then insulated
with paper or other insulating materials. Annealing or heat treatment is
also done on drawn materials for softening and stress relieving.

31
Fig: (5.1) Wires & strips

Basic material and their processing:


Because of its low conductivity and higher resistivity, an
aluminium conductor occupies almost double the volume than that of
copper winding and hence, an aluminium-wound transformer always
looks bigger in size than a copper-wound transformer of same KVA
rating.
Aluminium-wound transformer came into service in early 1970s
after REC formulated a revised specification for transformer up-to, and
including, 100KVA ratings. Even after long use of almost 30years, we are
yet to come with a conclusion about the superiority of copper-wound
transformer over Aluminium-wound transformer will give equal , if not
better, service than a copper-wound transformer.

Paper covering on the conductors:


Paper-insulated wires and strips are used in oil-filled transformers
and other allied electrical machines.

Fig: (5.2) Paper covered conductors


In the case of double paper covered conductors, tow slitted papers
are used, wrapped in opposite directions. However, if more than two
papers are used, than all the papers shell be overlapped and wound in the
same direction, unless otherwise specified.

32
Test on paper covered conductor
(a) Bare size - Physical check.
(b) Covered size - Physical check.
(c) Resistance - Electrical check.
(d) Tensile strength - Mechanical check.
(e) Overlap - Physical check.
(f) Oil absorption test - Mechanical check.
(g) Corner radius of strip - Mechanical check
(h) Electric strength proof test - Electrical check.

Reference ISS for Wires and Strips


(a) Insulated aluminium wire - IS-6162 (Part-1).
(b) Insulated aluminium strip - IS-6160 and IS-6162
(Part-2).
(c) Insulated copper wires and strip - IS-7404 (Part-1 and
-2).
(d) Insulated copper strips - IS-6160 and IS-7404
(Part-2).
(e) Test method - IS-10452 (Part-1).

Insulation paper:
Electrical Grade insulation papers (EGIP) are generally used for
covering the bar conductors. EGIP has certain technical superiority
pertaining to their usability as insulation in electrical requirements.
These have:
(a) Flexibility;
(b) Easy to use;
(c) Higher insulation with lesser thickness;
(d) Higher resistance to oil;
(e) Reasonable heat resistance;
(f) Lower chloride impurities.

Because of the above properties, the EGIP finds wide-range usage


in insulated wires and strips for oil-immersed transformers and certain
other electrical equipments.

33
Fig: (5.3) Insulating paper

The EGIP are available in various widths, the jumbo roll is further
slitted to various sizes in shape of small discs. The paper is slitted into
various widths, depending upon the number of coverings required on the
conductors. The width of slit also depends on the factor of over-lapping.

Choice of using chopper or aluminium as winding material:


The choice of using copper or aluminium as winding material
generally depends upon the end-users. Most of our power utilities in India
desire transformers up to 250 KVA/11 KV with aluminium windings,
because of its wide availability and economy in cost. But owing to some
limitation in its inherent properties, higher rating transformers are made
with copper winding. However, 22KV and 33KV distribution
transformers are always made with copper windings only.

Selection of winding wires and strips:


Winding wires and strips are selected on the basis of the
requirement of the current for which they have been designed. While
selecting the size of a conductor, a design must keep in mind the winding
material as well as the current density. To start with the preliminary
design, the current density may be based on the following values:
For aluminium windings: 1.5 A/sq mm (maximum).
For copper winding: 3.0 A/sq mm (maximum).
The selection of current density is sometimes restricted by the buyers
also.
For instance, in the case of aluminium-wound transformer, PSEB,
UPPCL, HPSEB etc. restricted the current density to 1.5 A/sq mm.
similarly, for a copper-wound transformer, the DVB has restricted the
current density to 2.5A/sq mm, UPPCL to 2.8 A/sq mm and so on.

34
The rated current may be calculated on the basis of its KVA, number of
phase and the rated voltage.

KVA= VI (for three-phase transformer)


Or I=

For a 100kva transformer having voltage ratio 11000/433 V with


delta/star connection, the secondary current per phase (being star
connected)is:
I=

Similarly, the primary line current = = 5.25A .


Since the primary winding is delta connected, the phase current is
= =3.03A
Once the current is known, the conductor area may be calculated
on the basis of assumed current density:
Conductor area =

Selection of number of turns:


The number of turns of a transformer is directly related to its KVA
rating and is approximately calculated by the formula:
=KQ

Where, is the voltage per turn.


Q is the rated KVA.
K is the factor to be decided.

For instance, k for aluminium-wound transformer may be taken


in the range of 0.32 to 0.35, where as, it is between 0.37 and 0.45 for
copper-wound transformer. The value of k has been shown as reference
only. However, any other value beyond this limit may also be selected for
working out a preliminary design.

Based on any assumed value of k, a preliminary design is worked


out. All performance figures like losses, impedance, resistance etc. are
calculated and compared with the guaranteed values. In case of any

35
difference between the calculated values and the guaranteed values, a
separate re-run is done with a revised value of k.

Calculations of size of a high-voltage conductor:


For distribution transformer of medium capacity, the conductors
being chosen for primary winding are mostly round in shape and the
diameter of round conductors may be calculated from the available
conductor area.

Conductor area =

Where, d is the bare diameter of a high voltage conductor.


The diameter of winding wire as has been calculated above may be
further revised from the standard table available in IS-6162. In case the
diameter of equipment area may be selected instead of a round conductor.
Obviously, an equipment rectangular strip will show better results than a
thick, round conductor. While selecting the conductor, one has to take
care of the available conductor surface area as well as the space factor. A
thick round conductor has poor surface area as well be as poor space
factor. This can very well be illustrated by way of the following
examples:

Comparison of space factor of round and rectangle conductors

Round conductor of Equivalent strip


diameter: 3.6 mm 61.7 mm
Cross-sectional area d/4=10.18sqmm 10.2 sq mm
surface length d=11.3mm LB2=15.4 mm
space factor 1.27 1.0

From the above, we may conclude that the equipment rectangular


strip has a better surface length and 27 percent more space factor that of a
round conductor.

Calculation of size of a low-voltage conductor:

In case of low-conductor since the current


is generally high; a rectangular conductor is commonly used. Multiple
strips in parallel are also selected for a higher rating transformer. The
selection of the size of strips plays a very vital role on the performance of

36
a transformer. Current has a tendency to flow through the surface of the
conductor. This is commonly known as a skin effect. One has to be very
selective while making the final choice of the strip. The mode of selection
of a strip may be well justified with the following calculations.
For example , if we are looking for a strip having a cross-sectional
area of 54 sq mm, an equivalent size of the strip may be taken as 96 as
shown in figure

Fig: (5.4) Rectangle strip of low-voltage winding

The total surface length of this strip=29+6=30mm.

As an alternative of the above strip, two parallel strips may be taken, each
having a size of 93mm as shown in the figure.
The equivalent cross-section area of the alternative conductor =2
(93) =54 sq mm, which is the same as that of the original strip. But this
alternative strip is definitely better than the single strip in respect of
surface length.
The surface length of the alternative strip: 29+3=48mm, which is
about 1.6 times more than the first choice? This is one of the reasons for
using more rectangular strip in parallel rather than thick, single strip.
The use of two parallel strips is definitely a better option than a single
thick strip in respect of skin effect. This can be tabulated too.

Table: Comparison of a single thick strip with multiple strips in parallel. In


respect of surface length

Description Strip size Alternative Remarks


96mm Strip size 2 nos.
(93)mm
Cross-section area 54 sq mm 54 sq mm Both are equal.

37
Surface length 30 mm 48 mm The alternative
Strip has a better surface
length.
Ratio of surface _ 48/30=1.6 Skin effort on the
length times alternative strip will be
reduced.
Yielding less stray loss.

Maximum depth of a strip


In general, the depth of a strip should not be more than half of the
strip width, which means, if the width of a strip is 9mm, its depth should
not be more than 4.5 mm in any case.
Therefore, we may write width/depth 2

Minimum depth of strip


However, there is a limitation of minimum depth with respect to
the width of the strip as 1:6. But for all practical purposes, we should
narrow down the ratio further to 1:4, which means the minimum depth
should be 9/4=2.25mm or more. This restriction is mainly because of the
limitation of drawing of strips during processing.
Therefore, we may write width/depth 4

Transposition:
In case of coil has been designed with more then one strip and if
the strips are placed one above the other, then the transposition is must.
In the case of a non-transposed coil, the strip placed below (no: 2)
will have a comparatively lower mean length than that of the upper stripe
(no: 1). In such case, since the lengths of the two strips are different, the
resistance will be different too. When two such strips of unequal
38
resistance are placed in parallel, the strip placed below will have greater
share of the current because of its low resistance, while the strip placed
above will share less current due to its high resistance.
The purpose of transposing the strips is to make the length of the
strips almost similar, there by making the resistances of both the strips
equal. Distribution of current among the parallel strips of a properly
transposed coil will be equal, making it advantageous over the non-
transposed coil. Moreover, transposition is almost done to minimize the
leakage reactance. A non-transposed coil is one of the reasons to yield
more reactance than the calculated design value.
As the following figure shows the nature of transposition.

Fig: (5.5) Transposition

Insulation design:
Transformer winding have insulation with in the winding, between
windings and windings to earth. Insulation with in winding is generally
paper insulation, however helical and disc type of winding has ducts
between turns or discs. Paper thickness should be such that it should be
able to withstand various voltage stresses appearing during normal and
transient condition. Some times paper thickness is increased on pre-
transposed cable of large cross sectional area, to increase the paper
strength of paper insulation. Electrical clearances between windings of
various voltage class and winding to earth dependent upon their BIL and
insulation arrangement adopted. Various clearances and disposition of
solid insulation should be such that adequate cooling ducts are available
to have effective cooling of windings. Also voltage stresses are controlled
with in limits.

Tap-changer
Voltage variation in electrical system is a normal phenomenon, because
of rapid growth of industries and distribution network. It is very essential
to maintain the system voltage with in prescisabed limit for better health
of electrical equipments. Voltage of the system can be varied by changing
the turns ratio of transformer. The device tapchanger is used for adding

39
or cutting out turns of primary or secondary winding of the transformer.
Generally tapchanging equipments are of two forms:
Off-circuit tapchanger,
On-load tap changer.

Off-circuit tapchanger is the cheapest method of changing the turn


ratio. For this it is essential to de-energize the transformer before
tapchanging.
On-load tapchanger are employed to change turn ratio of
transformer to regulate system voltage while the transformer is delivering
normal load. With the introduction of on-load tapchanger, the operating
efficiency of electrical system has considerably improved. Now-a-days
almost all the large transformers are fitted with on-load tapchanger.

Transformer oil

Transformer oil or insulating oil is usually a highly-refined mineral


oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical
insulating properties. It is used in oil-filled transformers, some types

40
of high voltage capacitors, fluorescent lamp ballasts, and some types of
high voltage switches and circuit breakers. Its functions are to insulate,
suppress corona and arcing, and to serve as a coolant.

Explanation:
The oil helps cool the transformer. Because it also provides part of
the electrical insulation between internal live parts, transformer oil must
remain stable at high temperatures for an extended period. To improve
cooling of large power transformers, the oil-filled tank may have
external radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection.
Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of thousands of
KVA) may also have cooling fans, oil pumps, and even oil-to-water heat
exchangers.
Large, high voltage transformers undergo prolonged drying
processes, using electrical self-heating, the application of a vacuum, or
both to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water
vapour before the cooling oil is introduced. This helps
prevent corona formation and subsequent electrical breakdown under
load.
Oil filled transformers with a conservator (an oil tank above the
transformer) tend to be equipped with Buchholz relays. These are safety
devices that detect the build up of gases (such as acetylene) inside the
transformer (a side effect of corona or an electric arc in the windings) and
switch off the transformer. Transformers without conservators are usually
equipped with sudden pressure relays, which perform a similar function
as the Buchholz relay.
The flash point (min) and pour point (max) are 140 C and 6 C
respectively. The dielectric strength of new untreated oil is 12 MV/m
(RMS) and after treatment it should be >24 MV/m (RMS).
Transformer Oil Testing:
Transformer oils are subject to electrical and mechanical stresses
while a transformer is in operation. In addition there are contaminations
caused due to chemical interactions with windings and other solid
insulations, catalyzed by high operating temperature. As a result the
original chemical properties of transformer oil changes gradually,
rendering it ineffective for its intended purpose after many years. Hence
this oil has to be periodically tested to ascertain its basic electrical
properties, and make sure it is suitable for further use or necessary actions
like filtration/regeneration has to be done. These tests can be divided into:

41
1. Dissolved gas analysis
2. Furan analysis
3. PCB analysis
4. General electrical & physical tests:

Colour & Appearance


Breakdown Voltage
Water Content
Acidity (Neutralization Value)
Dielectric Dissipation Factor
Resistivity
Sediments & Sludge
Interfacial Tension
Flash Point
Pour Point
Density
Kinematic Viscosity

The details of conducting these tests is available in standards released by


IEC, ASTM, IS, BS, and testing can be done by either of the methods.
The Furan and DGA tests are specifically not for determining the quality
of transformer oil, but for determining any abnormalities in the internal
windings of the transformer or the paper insulation of the transformer,
which cannot be otherwise detected without a complete overhaul of the
transformer. Suggested intervals for these tests are:

General and physical tests - bi-yearly


Dissolved gas analysis yearly
Furan testing - once every 2 years, subject to the transformer being
in operation for min 5 years.

Various type of cooling

ONAN type cooling:


The generated heat can be dissipated in many ways. In case of
smaller rating of transformers, its tank may be able to dissipate the heat

42
directly to the atmospheric air, while bigger rating require additional
dissipating surface in the form of tube or radiators connected to tank or in
the form of radiator bank. In these cases the heat dissipation is
transformer oil to atmospheric air by natural means. This form of cooling
is known as ONAN (oil natural, air natural) type cooling. Normally this
type of cooling is employed in Distribution transformers (as this is
economical)
ONAF type cooling:
In this type fans blowing on to the cooling surface are employed.
The forced air takes away the heat at faster rate, thus gives better cooling
rate than natural air. This type of cooling is called ONAF (oil natural, air
forced) type of cooling. Generally this type of cooling system is
employed in higher rating transformers like Station transformers.
OFAF type cooling:
Better rate of heat dissipation could be obtained if in additional to
forced air, means to force circulating the oil are also employed. The oil
can be forced with in the closed loop of transformer tank and the cooling
equipment by means of oil pumps. This type of cooling is called OFAF
(oil forced, air forced) type of cooling. As this type of cooling is
employed in high rating transformers like power transformers.

Radiators:
Transformers need to dissipate the heat they generate during
operation to keep efficiency. Such heat dissipation (cooling) in mainly
obtained via external radiators. There are two basic Transformers
radiators designs currently available on the market:

Stamped-plate: such radiators are made of stamped steel and have


a traditional design
Tubular radiators: the ribs of such radiators are made of ERW
(welded) tubes, instead of stamped plate. This design has been
introduced and patented on the market in 1979 by a Partner European
Manufacturer and more than 100.000 units have been so far installed
throughout the world. This technology is well consolidated and
currently used by major transformers manufacturers.

The main advantages of the tubular design over stamped-plate are:

The tubular design has a, proven, STRONGER HEAT


DISSIPATION POWER than stamped plate radiators. All studies
and analysis conducted over the past 30 years, plus the empirical

43
experience, have demonstrated that tubular radiators have a 25%/ 30%
stronger heat dissipation efficiency than stamped plate radiators at
surface parity. This means that a tubular designed radiator requires
30% less surface than a stamped plate radiator to guarantee the
required heat dissipation. So, for instance, the same dissipation of a
1000m2 stamped steel radiators package is guaranteed by a 700 m2
package of tubular radiators.
Given this important advantage, tubular radiators REQUIRE
LESS STEEL TO BE BUILT. As a consequence: tubular radiators
are circa 35% LIGHTER (easier transportation) and generally
CHEAPER than stamped steel radiators.
Tubular radiators REQUIRE -40 / -50 % OIL to function
compared to standard stamped plate radiators. This is a tremendous
cost advantage that should be accounted for when comparing the cost
of a tubular vs stamped plate radiator. Not only the tubular radiator is
generally cheaper, given its lightness, but the transformer requires 40%
/ 50% less oil to function, with an immediate economic advantage both
for the manufacturer and end-user (during the life cycle of the
transformer). Considering a 40 MVA transformer, for instance, while a
tubular designed radiator requires 3.200 kg of oil to function, a
stamped plate radiator requires more than 7.000 kg.

Tubular radiators are MECHANICALLY ROBUST AND


SOLID. Header, Caps and Ribs thicknesses (3mm, 1.5mm, 1.1 mm) have
been calculated to ensure extraordinary solidity especially under working
conditions, i.e. filled radiators. Any additional requirement (examples
ribs thickness > 1.1 mm) may be satisfied.

Fig: (7.1) Stamped-plate Fig: (7.2) Tubular


Protecting Devices

Bushings:

44
A bushing is a hollow insulating liner through which a conductor
may pass. Bushings appear on switchgear, transformers, circuit breakers
and other high voltage equipment.

Description
The bushing is a hollow insulator, allowing a conductor to pass
along its centre and connect at both ends to other equipment. Bushings
are often made of wet-process fired porcelain, and may be coated with a
semi-conducting glaze to assist in equalizing the electrical stress along
the length of the bushing.
The inside of the bushing may contain paper insulation and the bushing is
often filled with oil to provide additional insulation. Bushings for
medium-voltage and low-voltage apparatus may be made of resins
reinforced with paper. The use of polymer bushings for high voltage
applications is becoming more common. The largest high-voltage
bushings made are usually associated with high-voltage direct-
current converters.

Fig: (8.1) Bushing

Surge Arresters

A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power


systems to protect the insulation on the system from the damaging effect

45
of lightning. Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) have been used for power
system protection since the mid 1970s. The typical lightning arrester also
known as surge arrester has a high voltage terminal and a ground
terminal. When a lightning surge or switching surge travels down the
power system to the arrester, the current from the surge is diverted around
the protected insulation in most cases to earth.

Arrester Selection
The objective of arrester application is to select the lowest rated
surge arrester which will provide adequate overall protection of the
equipment insulation and have a satisfactory service life when connected
to the power system. The arrester with the minimum rating is preferred
because it provides the greatest margin of protection for the insulation. A
higher rated arrester increases the ability of the arrester to survive on the
power system, but reduces the protective margin it provides for a specific
insulation level. Both arrester survival and equipment protection must be
considered in arrester selection.
The proper selection and application of lightning arresters in a
system involve decisions in three areas:
1. Selecting the arrester voltage rating. This decision is based on whether
or not the system is grounded and the method of system grounding.
2. Selecting the class of arrester. In general there are three classes of
arresters. In order of protection, capability and cost, the classes are:
Station class Intermediate class Distribution class The station class
arrester has the best protection capability and is the most expensive.
3. Determine where the arrester should be physically located.

Arrester Voltage Rating:


The lower the arrester voltage rating, the lower the discharge
voltage, and the better the protection of the insulation system. The lower
rated arresters are also more economical. The challenge of selecting and
arrester voltage rating is primarily one of determining the maximum
sustained line-to-ground voltage that can occur at a given system location
and then choosing the closest rating that is not exceeded by it. This
maximum sustained voltage to ground is usually considered to be the
maximum voltage on the unfaulted phases during a single line-to-ground
fault. Hence, the appropriate arrester ratings are dependent upon the
manner of system grounding.

Arrester Class
The class of lightning arrester to be applied depends upon the
importance and value of the protected equipment, its impulse insulation
level and the expected discharge currents the arrester must withstand.

46
Station class arresters are designed for protection of equipment that
may be exposed to significant energy due to line switching surges and at
locations where significant fault current is available. They have superior
electrical performance because their energy absorption capabilities are
greater, the discharge voltages (protective levels) are lower and the
pressure relief is greater. The value of the protected equipment and the
importance of uninterrupted service generally warrant the use of station
class arresters throughout their voltage range. Industry standards dictate
the use of both station class and intermediate class arresters for
equipment protection in the 5-to 20-mVA size ranges. Above 20 mVA,
station class arresters are predominately used.
Intermediate class arresters are designed to provide economic and
reliable protection of medium voltage class power equipment.
Intermediate arresters are an excellent choice for the 10protection of dry-
type transformers, for use in switching and sectionalizing equipment and
for the protection of URD cables. Traditional applications include
equipment protection in the range of 1 to 20 mVA for substations and
rotating machines.
Distribution class arresters are frequently used for smaller liquid-
filled and dry-type transformers 1000 kVA and less. These arresters can
also be used, if available in the proper voltage rating, for application at
the terminals of rotating machines below 1000 kVA. The distribution
arrester is often used out on exposed lines that are directly connected to
rotating machines.

Location of Arresters
The ideal location for lightning arresters, from the standpoint of
protection, is directly at the terminals of the equipment to be protected. At
this location, with the arrester grounded directly at the tank, frame or
other metallic structure which supports the insulated parts, the surge
voltage applied to the insulation will be limited to the discharge voltage
of the arrester. Practical system circumstance and sound economics often
dictate that arresters be mounted remotely from the equipment to be
protected. Often, one set of arresters can be applied to protect more than
one piece of equipment. Low BIL apparatus (certain dry-type
transformers and rotating machines) will often require surge protective
devices be connected directly at the terminals of the equipment being
protected.
In many switchgear installations, the only exposure to lightning
will be through a transformer located on its up stream side. When the
transformer has adequate lightning protection on its primary, experience
has shown that the surge transferred through the transformer is usually

47
not of a magnitude that would be harmful to the switchgear. Hence, it is
generally not necessary to provide arresters in the switchgear.
When arresters are located away from the terminals of the
protected equipment, the voltage wave will reflect positively on the
equipment terminals and the voltage magnitude at the terminal point will
always be higher than the discharge voltage of the arrester. This, as
discussed earlier, is due to the fact that the protected equipment usually
has higher surge impedance than the line or cable serving it. If the circuit
is open at the protected equipment (infinite surge impedance), the voltage
will be double the arrester discharge voltage.
The actual surge voltage appearing at the protected equipment
depends, in part, on the incoming wave magnitude at the instant of
arrester discharge. If a positive reflected surge from the protected
equipment arrives back at the arrester before arrester discharge, it will
add to the incoming wave to produce discharge at a lower incoming wave
magnitude. The reflected wave, in this case, results in improved
protection. The closer the arrester is to the protected equipment, the
greater the effect of the reflected surge on arrester discharge and the
better the protection.

Buchholz Relay

A Buchholz relay is a gas and oil operated device installed in the


pipe work between the top of the transformer main tank and the
conservator. A second relay is sometimes used for the tapchanger
selector chamber. The function of the relay is to detect an abnormal
condition within the tank and send an alarm or trip signal. Under normal
conditions the relay is completely full of oil. Operation occurs when
floats are displaced by an accumulation of gas, or a flap is moved by a
surge of oil. Almost all large oil-filled transformers are equipped with a
Buchholz relay, first developed by Max Buchholz in 1921.

Conditions Detected

A Buchholz relay will detect:

Gas produced within the transformer


An oil surge from the tank to the conservator
A complete loss of oil from the conservator (very low oil level)

General Arrangement

48
Front View Rear View (Cover Removed)

B - Upper Float
A - Gas Collection Chamber C - Lower Float
D - Oil Surge Detector

Fig: (9.1) Buchholz relay

Fault conditions within a transformer produce gases such as carbon


monoxide, hydrogen and a range of hydrocarbons. A small fault
produces a small volume of gas that is deliberately trapped in the gas
collection chamber (A) built into the relay. Typically, as the oil is
displaced a float (B) falls and a switch operate - normally to send an
alarm. A large fault produces a large volume of gas which drives a surge
of oil towards the conservator. This surge moves a flap (D) in the relay to
operate a switch and send a trip signal. A severe reduction in the oil level
will also result in a float falling. Where two floats are available these are
normally arranged in two stages, alarm (B) followed by trip (C).

Breather

A transformer breather is an accessory of an oil filled type


transformer which is attached into the oil conservator tank; this serves as

49
the breathing point of the unit, that when the insulating oil of the
transformer gets heated up, it expands and goes back to the conservator
tank and subsequently pushes the dry air out of the conservator tank
through the breather which is filled with silica gel, when the oil cools
down, it retracts and sucks fresh air from the atmosphere through the
breather and from this point, the silica gel dries up the air that goes back
in to the conservator tank.

For a better understanding observe the following Figure:

Fig: (10.1) Breather

Step-By-Step Manufacturing Process of Oil-Cooled


-Transformer

50
1. Coil Winding
2. Core Assembly
3. Core-Coil Assembly
4. Tank-up
5. Transformer Tank
6. Painting & Finishing

Coil Winding

1. High Voltage Coils: H.V. Coils are the components of finished


transformers. They are made on automatic layer setting winding
machines.
A solid cylindrical former of predetermined
diameter and length is being used as hase
over which is made.
Generally round insulated wire of either
copper (Cu) or Aluminium (Al) is used as
basic raw material.
The coils are made in number of layers.
The starting and finishing leads of each coil are terminated
on either side of the coil.
These leads are properly sleeved and locked at number of
points.
2. Low Voltage Coils:
L.V. Coils are also one of the components of transformer.
The procedure of making low voltage coil is generally same
as described earlier.
The shape of the basic raw-material (Al or Cu) is
rectangular.

The Test: The "Turn Test" is carried out on the H.V. Coils as per the
specifications.

Core Assembly

The basic raw-material is COLD ROLLED GRAIN ORIENTED


(CRGO) Silicon Steel
51
It is in the form of thin sheets & cut to size as per design.
Generally three different shapes of core laminations are used in one
assembly.
Notching is performed to increase the magnetic path.
The laminations are put through annealing process.
These laminations are assembled in such a manner that there is no
air gap between the joints of two consecutive sheets.
The entire assembly is done on a frame commonly known as core
channel. These frames being used as a clamping support of the core
assembly.

Core-Coil Assembly

The components produced in the coil winding and core assembly


stages are then taken into core-coil assembly stage.
The core assembly is vertically placed with the foot plate touching
the ground. The top yoke of the core is removed. The limbs of the
core are tightly wrapped with cotton tape and then varnished.
Cylinder made out of insulating press board/ pressphan paper is
wrapped on all the three limbs.
Low Voltage Coil is placed on the insulated core limbs.
Insulating block of specified thickness and number are placed both
at the top and bottom of the L.V.Coil.
Cylinder made out of corrugated paper or plain cylinder with oil
ducts are provided over L.V.Coil.
H.V. Coils are placed over the cylinder.
Gap between each section of H.V. Coils
including top & bottom clearances is
maintained with the help of oil ducts, as per
the design/drawings.
The Top Yoke is refilled. Top core frame
including core bolts and tie rods are fixed in
position.
Primary and secondary windings are connected as per the
requirements. Phase barrier between H.V. phases are placed as per
requirement.
Connections to the tapping switch (if required) are made.
Finally, the component is placed in the oven.

Drying:
The complete assembly of core and winding is dried out
completely and put into temperature controlled oven. This ensures that all

52
the moistures contents if present shall be remove resulting in elimination
of any detrimental component.

Tank-Up

The core-coil assembly and tank supplied by the fabrication dept. are
taken into tank-up stage. The procedure is:
* The core-coil assembly is taken out of the oven and the "Megger test"
is carried out.
* Only if the megger value is as per the specification, the assembly may
be taken for tank-up.
* The tanks, supplied by fabrication dept. are brought to tank-up
department duly painted.
* Fittings like drain valves, HV & LV Bushings, conservator, oil level
indicator and explosion vent are fitted in the tanks.
* The Core-coil assembly is then placed into the tank and properly locked
up.
* Pure filtered transformer oil is filled in the tank to immerse the
assembly only.
* Connections of primary and secondary to the terminal bushings are
made. Operating handle for ratio switch is fitted, wherever required.

Fig: (11.1) Tanking

Transformer Tanks
All tanks are made of high quality steel and can withstand vaccum
as specified by the international standards and the customer. All welds are
tested, ensuring 100% leak proof of seems and mechanical strength.
Transformer with Corrugated Fin-Type radiators can also be supplied.

53
The fins are manufactured of Gold-rolled steel. The fin height and length
are according to customer's specifications
And fins can be plain or embossed. All transformer tanks are given a
smooth finishing by using the "SHOT BLASTING" process.

Fig: (11.2) Tank

Paint Process
Cleaning of Tanks
* The cleaning of tank is done normally by chipping/grinding.
* The outside surface of the tank is short blasted to achieve a very fine
and smooth finish.
Painting of Tanks
* After cleaning the tanks, a coat of hot oil resistance paint is applied on
the internal surface of the tank.
* The outside surface is painted with a coat of Red Oxide primer and
subsequently with one coat of enamel paint as per customer's
requirement.

Fig: (11.3) Painting

Testing Process

Each & every transformer undergoes routine tests, & following


tests are carried out on finished transformers confirming to IS: 1180 & IS:

54
2026 by qualified & experienced engineers with precision grade
instruments.

The tests involved are following:


* Measurement of insulation resistance.
* Measurement of voltage ratio & check of voltage vector relationship.
* Separate source voltage withstand test.
* Induced over-voltage withstand tests
* Measurement of No Load Loss & current.
* Measurement of Impedance voltage/short circuit impedance & Load
Loss.
* Measurement of winding resistance.
* Unbalance current.
* Oil Dielectric test.
* Temperature rise test.
* Air pressure test.
* Vaccum test.
* Oil leakage test.

Final assembly:
All the parts like bushings, terminals, pipes, radiators, breather,
vents, marshalling box, etc are been carefully fitted and checked before
despatch.

55
Fig: (11.4) Final assembly

Finishing & Dispatch


* Fittings and accessories as per customer's specification and drawing are
checked.
* Air Pressure test is subjected to avoid any leakage and seepage on all
transformer.
* Transformers are filled with oil up to the minimum level marking,
Wherever necessary.
Loose accessories like, earthling terminals, bimetallic connectors;
dial type thermometers are also checked for proper fittings.

Fig: (11.4) Transformer after Assembly

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Case study

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